WorldWideScience

Sample records for economizer system energy

  1. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  2. Techno-economic optimisation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla Pellen, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    The traditional approach currently used to assess the economic interest of energy systems is based on a defined flow-sheet. Some studies have shown that the flow-sheets corresponding to the best thermodynamic efficiencies do not necessarily lead to the best production costs. A method called techno-economic optimisation was proposed. This method aims at minimising the production cost of a given energy system, including both investment and operating costs. It was implemented using genetic algorithms. This approach was compared to the heat integration method on two different examples, thus validating its interest. Techno-economic optimisation was then applied to different energy systems dealing with hydrogen as well as electricity production. (author)

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  4. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  5. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  6. Economics of fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renier, J.P.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic analysis of symbiotic energy systems in which U233 (to fuel advanced converters burning U233 fuel) is generated in blankets surrounding fusioning D-T plasma's depends on factors such as the plasma performance parameters, ore costs, and the relative costs of Fusion Breeders (CTR) to Advanced Fission Converters. The analysis also depends on detailed information such as initial, final makeup fuel requirements, fuel isotopics, reprocessing and fabrication costs, reprocessing losses (1%) and delays (2 years), the cost of money, and the effect of the underutilization of the factory thermal installation at the beginning of cycle. In this paper we present the results of calculations of overall fuel cycle and power costs, ore requirements, proliferation resistance and possibilities for grid expansion, based on detailed mass and energy flow diagrams and standard US INFCE cost data and introduction constraints, for realistic symbiotic scenarios involving CTR's (used as drivers) and denatured CANDU's (used as U233 burners). We compare the results with those obtained for other strategies involving heterogeneous LMFBR's which burn Pu to produce U233 for U233-burners such as the advanced CANDU converters

  7. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  8. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  9. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO 2 induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig

  10. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  11. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Seeco Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Lincoln, Nebraska is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  12. Economic MPC for a linear stochastic system of energy units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes comprehensively the work in four recent PhD theses from the Technical University of Denmark related to Economic MPC of future power systems. Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers...... in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms. In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable...... power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program. We provide linear models for a number of energy units in an energy system, formulate an Economic MPC for coordination of such a system. We indicate how advances in computational MPC makes the solutions...

  13. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Lund, Henrik; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2011-01-01

    that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy...... system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The energy systems are analysed and designed with hour-by-hour energy system analyses. The analyses reveal...

  14. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  15. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  16. Environmental and economical aspects of selected energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of environmental and economical aspects of selected renewable energy systems is presented. The aim was to provide a basis for estimating the competitive status in each case, to review the consequences of technological development, to identify attractive markets and to evaluate the effects of various economic conditions. Calculation methods are described and individual solar heating systems are compared to oil-fired boilers, boilers fired with solid fuels are compared to oil-fired boilers and straw-fired cogeneration plants are compared with coal, fuel-oil and straw-fired district heating plants. Results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  17. Economic implications of fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Schulte, S.C.

    1979-04-01

    The principal conclusions that can be made based on the estimated costs reported in this paper are twofold. First, hybrid reactors operating symbiotically with conventional fission reactors are a potentially attractive supply alternative. Estimated hybrid energy system costs are slightly greater than estimated costs of the most attractive alternatives. However, given the technological, economic, and institutional uncertainties associated with future energy supply, differences of such magnitude are of little significance. Second, to be economically viable, hybrid reactors must be both fuel producers and electricity producers. A data point representing each hybrid reactor driver-blanket concept is plotted as a function of net electrical production efficiency and annual fuel production. The plots illustrate that the most economically viable reactor concepts are those that produce both fuel and electricity

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

  19. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  20. Technical-economic analysis of electric energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Florian; Curuia, Marian; Brad, Sebastian; Anghel, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in electric energy consumption and changes that affected last years the electric energy market, as well, entail perturbations in transport and distribution systems due to outrunning of their current physical capacities. Consequently, storing the electric energy in buffer systems appears to be a must owing to its strategic and economical importance. Indeed, it can enhance firmly the capacity of fulfilling the electric energy demands in real time and so, avoiding the blackout events caused by disruptions in power supply . Also, of great importance is the role of energy storing systems as backing ancillaries for promoting variable or uncertain renewable sources (like photovoltaic or wind sources). The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising system of direct storing of electricity by means of magnetic energy deposing in a short-circuited superconducting loop. However difficulties related to the use o superconducting systems and cryogenic temperatures (concerning construction and maintenance) hinder at present the application of SMES systems on a scale larger than some particular applications. Actually, owing to the lack of alternative solutions the rather high costs are accepted in such cases

  1. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  2. Towards low carbon business park energy systems: Classification of techno-economic energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, Jonas; Vandevelde, Lieven; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate destabilisation, human-induced greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be curbed. A major share of these emissions originates from the industry and energy sectors. Hence, a low carbon shift in industrial and business park energy systems is called for. Low carbon business parks minimise energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by maximal exploitation of local renewable energy production, enhanced energy efficiency, and inter-firm heat exchange, combined in a collective energy system. The holistic approach of techno-economic energy models facilitates the design of such systems, while yielding an optimal trade-off between energetic, economic and environmental performances. However, no models custom-tailored for industrial park energy systems are detected in literature. In this paper, existing energy model classifications are scanned for adequate model characteristics and accordingly, a confined number of models are selected and described. Subsequently, a practical typology is proposed, existing of energy system evolution, optimisation, simulation, accounting and integration models, and key model features are compared. Finally, important features for a business park energy model are identified. - Highlights: • A holistic perspective on (low carbon) business park energy systems is introduced. • A new categorisation of techno-economic energy models is proposed. • Model characteristics are described per model category. • Essential model features for business park energy system modelling are identified. • A strategy towards a techno-economic energy model for business parks is proposed

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  4. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  5. Socio-economic overview of wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A social scientist's perspective is presented on the socio-economic impacts of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in Ontario. The main organization for delivering electricity in Ontario is Ontario Hydro. This utility has two WECS, an experimental 3.5 kW generator and a hybrid wind/diesel facility at a remote northern community. Ontario Hydro is reviewing its supply options and anticipates wind power would likely be used in niche applications involving off-grid hybrid systems where the cost of displaced generation is high. On-grid applications would likely be in the form of dispersed non-utility generation. The potential contribution of wind power to Ontario's electricity supply mix could be as little as 1 MW by the year 2000 or as high as 40 MW by the year 2014, depending on costs and technological developments. Socio-economic criteria used by the utility for assessing individual supply options include job creation, regional economic development, local community impacts, social acceptance, and distribution of risks and benefits. Initial observations of potential effects of WECS are discussed, including site selection, manufacturing, construction, and operation. Barriers to implementation of WECS in Ontario include the limited number of good wind sites, the intermittent nature of WECS power, and the currently uneconomic nature of WECS for bulk electricity systems. However, WECS have environmentally attractive features and are socially acceptable. 10 refs., 3 figs

  6. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM System 3, Glendo, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This analysis was based on the technical and economic models in f-chart design procedures with inputs based on the characteristics of the parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings, and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables was also investigated.

  7. Direct and indirect economics of wind energy systems relative to fuel based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, B

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the addition of an energy-storage system of modest capacity, to a wind energy generator, provides a total-wind-energy electricity-generating system as dependable as current alternative means of producing electricity. It is further shown, based on projections of the mass-production costs of wind-energy generators and energy-storage systems, that such combined systems, as well as fuel-saving generators without storage, appear economically competitive to the alternatives, provided the comparison is made over the entire life cycle of the systems.

  8. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2009-01-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  9. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets...

  10. Energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  11. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  12. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Mark; Cutler, Dylan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Stark, Greg; Jenkin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  13. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  14. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Various externalities of energy systems and the integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keishiro

    2002-01-01

    The primacy of a nuclear fusion reactor in a competitive energy market remarkably depends on to what extent the reactor contributes to reduce the externalities of energy. The reduction effects are classified into two effects, which have quite dissimilar characteristics. One is an effect of environmental dimensions. The other is related to energy security. In this study I took up the results of EC's ExternE project studies as a representative example of the former effect. Concerning the latter effect, I clarified the fundamental characteristics of externalities related to energy security and the conceptual framework for the purpose of evaluation. In the socio-economical evaluation of research into and development investments in nuclear fusions reactors, the public will require the development of integrated evaluation systems to support the cost-effect analysis of how well the reduction effects of externalities have been integrated with the effects of technological innovation, learning, spillover, etc. (author)

  15. CH2 Energy Harvesting Systems: Economic Use and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the City of Melbourne's new office development CH2 as a case study of world class energy performance. In particular, the integrated design of conventionally independent systems has led to the potential to deliver significant savings to the Council and to deliver better environmental conditions to building occupants that in turn may contribute to satisfaction, well-being and productivity. It is concluded that this project has the potential to be an iconic example of effective implementation of ESD (environmental sustainable design principles and therefore act as a demonstration project to others. Energy efficiency of more than 50% of current benchmarks for Melbourne is effected. Energy harvesting is defined as arising from squander, waste and nature, which is a new concept introduced in this paper to better describe the design decision process.

  16. Economic evaluation of innovative storage technologies in energy systems with a high share of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziella, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the question of whether the ongoing transformation to a low-carbon energy system in Germany will also create market opportunities for innovative market participants, in particular for storage operators. The economic effects that occur in energy systems with high levels of variable renewable energy (vEE) can be measured by their integration costs. Scientific research into the additional storage and flexibility needs of such an energy system often addresses imbalances in the system balance sheet. The respective methods are, however, based on different assumptions and framework conditions, so that the results can only be compared with one another to a limited extent. The hourly fluctuating wholesale price on the electricity exchange is an important indicator to signal the need for flexibility. Many analyzes use historical or predicted pricing time series to evaluate storage options. However, while the feedback of the operation of an energy storage on the market prices is left out. Therefore, a method is developed in this work to estimate the impact of an increasing market volume of storage and other flexibility options on spot market prices. The influence of storage use on electricity demand and spot market prices in 2020 and 2030 is examined. The scenarios to be defined for the electricity market are model-based and evaluated. To answer the question, techno-economic models, e.g. The MICOES power market model for power plant deployment planning, the DeSiflex model for smoothing residual load through integrated flexibility options and the Arturflex model for estimating arbitrage gains through the use of flexibility options on the spot market. [de

  17. Technical and economic assessment of tethered wind energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, O.; Maekawa, S.

    1984-08-01

    The wind energy existing at high altitude has been investigated as a potential energy resource in the United States. In terms of the average power density, it can be as high as 16 KW/m/sup 2/ at northeastern U.S. sites such as New York, which can be compared to 0.5 KW/m/sup 2/, the maximum ground level value at the U.S. sites. For a lifting generation device, a VTOL concept, new to this type of TWES, which combines the fixed wing with helicopter technology was extensively studied. The cost of electricity (COE) with such a system was determined and found to be competitive to that of fossil fuel in the near future.

  18. Economic regimes for fission--fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this hybrid fusion-fission economic regimes study are to: (1) define the target costs to be met, (2) define the optimum fissile/electrical production ratio for hybrid blankets, (3) discover synergistic configurations, and (4) define the windows of economic hybrid design having desirable cost/benefit ratios. (U.S.)

  19. Economic Model Predictive Control for Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be used to control the energy distribution in a Smart Grid with a high share of stochastic energy production from renewable energy sources like wind. Heat pumps for heating residential buildings can exploit the slow heat dynamics of a building to store heat and ...... and hereby shift the heat pump power consumption to periods with both low electricity prices and a high fraction of green energy in the grid.......Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be used to control the energy distribution in a Smart Grid with a high share of stochastic energy production from renewable energy sources like wind. Heat pumps for heating residential buildings can exploit the slow heat dynamics of a building to store heat...

  20. Economic power schedule and transactive energy through an intelligent centralized energy management system for a DC residential distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Jingpeng; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    and the demand side. The utilization of distributed generation (DG) requires an economic operation, stability, and an environmentally friendly approach in the whole DC system. This paper not only presents an optimization schedule and transactive energy (TE) approach through a centralized energy management system...... is aligned with the command of the unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is used as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, and a cost minimization objective is proposed that is to be achieved based on the real-time electrical price. The results show...... that the proposed framework and methods will help the targeted DC residential system to reduce the total cost and reach stability and efficiency....

  1. Challenges of implementing economic model predictive control strategy for buildings interacting with smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Böning, Georg Martin; Santos, Rui Mirra

    2016-01-01

    ) strategy for energy management in smart buildings, which can act as active users interacting with smart energy systems. The challenges encountered during the implementation of EMPC for active demand side management are investigated in detail in this paper. A pilot testing study shows energy savings......When there is a high penetration of renewables in the energy system, it requires proactive control of large numbers of distributed demand response resources to maintain the system’s reliability and improve its operational economics. This paper presents the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC...

  2. Economics of nuclear energy production systems: reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Proust, E.; Gautrot, J.J.; Tinturier, B.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper relies on the main European economic studies on the comparative costs of electricity generation, published over the last six years, to show that nuclear power meets the challenge and is an economically competitive choice in the European electricity market. Indeed, although these studies were made for different purposes, by different actors and based on different methods, they all converge to show that the total base-load generation cost for new nuclear plants build in Europe is projected to be in the range of 22 to 32 euros/MWh, a total generation cost that may be 20% cheaper than the cost for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units. Moreover, the prospects of internalization of the greenhouse gas emission cost in the total generation cost will boost even further the competitiveness of nuclear against gas-fired plants in Europe. All this is confirmed by the most recent French detailed study (DIDEME 2003), essentially performed from an investor standpoint, which concludes, for base-load generation units starting operation around 2015, that nuclear power, with a levelled generation cost of 28,4 euros/MWh, is more competitive than CCGTs (35 euros/MWh). This study also shows an overnight investment cost for nuclear power, based on the considered scenario (a series of 10 EPR units including a ''demonstrator''), of less than 1300 euros/kWe. The other major challenge, waste management obviously also includes an economic dimension. This issue is addressed in the present paper which provides a synthesis of relevant detailed French and OECD economic studies on the cost assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  3. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Harajli, Hassan A.; Jones, Craig I.; Winnett, Adrian B.

    2012-01-01

    Energy analysis, environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and economic appraisals have been utilised to study the performance of a domestic building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system on a ‘whole systems’ basis. Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in just 4.5 years. LCA revealed that the embodied impacts were offset by the electricity generated to provide a net environmental benefit in most categories. Only carcinogens, ecotoxicity and minerals had a small net lifetime burden. A financial analysis was undertaken from the householder's perspective, alongside cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective. The results of both indicated that the systems are unlikely to pay back their investment over the 25 year lifetime. However, the UK is in an important period (2010/11) of policy transition with a move away from the ‘technology subsidies’ of the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) and towards a ‘market development policy’ of feed-in tariffs. Representing the next stage on an innovation S-curve this is expected to facilitate rapid PV uptake, as experienced in countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the importance of the new government support scheme to the future uptake of BIPV. - Highlights: ► LCA and economic appraisals of a UK domestic building integrated PV system. ► Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in 4.5 years. ► UK moved towards a market development policy of feed-in tariffs. ► Financial analysis shows the importance of the new FiT scheme to the uptake of PV.

  4. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  5. Economical assessment of a wind-hydrogen energy system using WindHyGen registered software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Monica; Ayerbe, Elixabete; Garde, Raquel; Rivas, David M.; Azcarate, Cristina; Blanco, Rosa; Mallor, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of analyzing the economical feasibility of a wind-hydrogen energy storage and transformation system. Energy systems based on certain renewable sources as wind power, have the drawback of random input making them a non-reliable supplier of energy. Regulation of output energy requires the introduction of new equipment with the capacity to store it. We have chosen the hydrogen as an energy storage system due to its versatility. The advantage of these energy storage systems is that the energy can be used (sold) when the demand for energy rises, and needs (prices) therefore are higher. There are two disadvantages: (a) the cost of the new equipment and (b) energy loss due to inefficiencies in the transformation processes. In this research we develop a simulation model to aid in the economic assessment of this type of energy systems, which also integrates an optimization phase to simulate optimal management policies. Finally we analyze a wind-hydrogen farm in order to determine its economical viability compared to current wind farms. (author)

  6. Economic Model Predictive Control for Large-Scale and Distributed Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura

    Sources (RESs) in the smart grids is increasing. These energy sources bring uncertainty to the production due to their fluctuations. Hence,smart grids need suitable control systems that are able to continuously balance power production and consumption.  We apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC......) strategy to optimise the economic performances of the energy systems and to balance the power production and consumption. In the case of large-scale energy systems, the electrical grid connects a high number of power units. Because of this, the related control problem involves a high number of variables......In this thesis, we consider control strategies for large and distributed energy systems that are important for the implementation of smart grid technologies.  An electrical grid has to ensure reliability and avoid long-term interruptions in the power supply. Moreover, the share of Renewable Energy...

  7. Assessing and optimizing the economic and environmental impacts of cogeneration/district energy systems using an energy equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.J.; Rosen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy equilibrium models can be valuable aids in energy planning and decision-making. In such models, supply is represented by a cost-minimizing linear submodel and demand by a smooth vector-valued function of prices. In this paper, we use the energy equilibrium model to study conventional systems and cogeneration-based district energy (DE) systems for providing heating, cooling and electrical services, not only to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of cogeneration-based DE systems, but also to develop optimal configurations while accounting for such factors as economics and environmental impact. The energy equilibrium model is formulated and solved with software called WATEMS, which uses sequential non-linear programming to calculate the intertemporal equilibrium of energy supplies and demands. The methods of analysis and evaluation for the economic and environmental impacts are carefully explored. An illustrative energy equilibrium model of conventional and cogeneration-based DE systems is developed within WATEMS to compare quantitatively the economic and environmental impacts of those systems for various scenarios. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - National Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a national level. The preceding chapter focuses on a global perspective. The modelling studies outlined here show that burden sharing rules...... and national revenue recycling schemes for carbon tax are critical for the long-term viability of economic growth and equitable engagement on combating climate change. Traditional computable general equilibrium models and energy systems models solved in isolation can misrepresent the long run carbon cost...

  9. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumann, G.

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations

  10. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  11. Economic Justification of Concentrating Solar Power in High Renewable Energy Penetrated Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Du, Ershun [Tsinghua University; Zhang, Ning [Tsinghua University; Kang, Chongqing [Tsinghua University; Xia, Qing [Tsinghua University

    2018-04-24

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are able to provide both renewable energy and operational flexibility at the same time due to its thermal energy storage (TES). It is ideal generation to power systems lacking in flexibility to accommodate variable renewable energy (VRE) generation such as wind power and photovoltaics. However, its investment cost currently is too high to justify its benefit in terms of providing renewable energy only. In this paper we evaluate the economic benefit of CSP in high renewable energy penetrated power systems from two aspects: generating renewable energy and providing operational flexibility to help accommodating VRE. In order to keep the same renewable energy penetration level during evaluation, we compare the economic costs between the system with a high share of VRE and another in which some part of the VRE generation is replaced by CSP generation. The generation cost of a power system is analyzed through chronological operation simulation over a whole year. The benefit of CSP is quantified into two parts: (1) energy benefit - the saving investment of substituted VRE generation and (2) flexibility benefit - the reduction in operating cost due to substituting VRE with CSP. The break-even investment cost of CSP is further discussed. The methodology is tested on a modified IEEE RTS-79 system. The economic justifications of CSP are demonstrated in two practical provincial power systems with high penetration of renewable energy in northwestern China, Qinghai and Gansu, where the former province has massive inflexible thermal power plants but later one has high share of flexible hydro power. The results suggest that the CSP is more beneficial in Gansu system than in Qinghai. The levelized benefit of CSP, including both energy benefit and flexibility benefit, is about 0.177-0.191 $/kWh in Qinghai and about 0.238-0.300 $/kWh in Gansu, when replacing 5-20% VRE generation with CSP generation.

  12. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  13. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  14. The Economic Potential of Two Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that investigate the technical and economic aspects of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems. It provides the results of an analysis of two scenarios. The first is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario and the second is an Arizona-desalination scenario. The analysis focuses on the economics of the N-R HESs and how they compare to other options, including configurations without all the subsystems in each N-R HES and alternatives in which natural gas provides the energy.

  15. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, th...... by potential investors....

  16. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    requirements, 5) adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6) producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7) using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results...

  17. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - Global Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a global level. The next chapter of this book focuses on a national perspective. The range of economic impacts is regionally dependent upon...... the stage of economic development, the level of industrialisation, energy intensity of exports, and competition effects due to rates of relative decarbonisation. Developed nation’s decarbonisation targets are estimated to result in a manageable GDP loss in the region of 2 % by 2050. Energy intensive export...... driven developing countries such as China and India, and fossil fuel exporting nations can expect significantly higher GDP loss of up to 5 % GDP per year by mid-century....

  18. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Connolly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how an existing energy system can be transformed into a 100% renewable energy system. The transition is divided into a number of key stages which reflect key radical technological changes on the supply side of the energy system. Ireland is used as a case study,but in reality this reflects many typical energy systems today which use power plants for electricity, individual boilers for heat, and oil for transport. The seven stages analysed are 1 reference, 2 introduction of district heating, 3 installation of small and large-scale heat pumps,4 reducing grid regulation requirements, 5 adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6 producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7 using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results indicate that a 100% renewable energy system can provide the same end-user energy demands as today’s energy system and at the same price. Electricity will be the backbone of the energy system, but the flexibility in today’s electricity sector will be transferred from the supply side of the demand side in the future. Similarly, due to changes in the type of spending required in a 100% renewable energy system, this scenario will result in the creation of 100,000 additional jobs in Ireland compared to an energy system like today’s. These results are significant since they indicate that the transition to a 100% renewable energy system can begin today, without increasing the cost of energy in the short- or long-term, if the costs currently forecasted for 2050 become a reality.

  19. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  20. A Chance-Constrained Economic Dispatch Model in Wind-Thermal-Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhe Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a type of renewable energy, wind energy is integrated into the power system with more and more penetration levels. It is challenging for the power system operators (PSOs to cope with the uncertainty and variation of the wind power and its forecasts. A chance-constrained economic dispatch (ED model for the wind-thermal-energy storage system (WTESS is developed in this paper. An optimization model with the wind power and the energy storage system (ESS is first established with the consideration of both the economic benefits of the system and less wind curtailments. The original wind power generation is processed by the ESS to obtain the final wind power output generation (FWPG. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM distribution is adopted to characterize the probabilistic and cumulative distribution functions with an analytical expression. Then, a chance-constrained ED model integrated by the wind-energy storage system (W-ESS is developed by considering both the overestimation costs and the underestimation costs of the system and solved by the sequential linear programming method. Numerical simulation results using the wind power data in four wind farms are performed on the developed ED model with the IEEE 30-bus system. It is verified that the developed ED model is effective to integrate the uncertain and variable wind power. The GMM distribution could accurately fit the actual distribution of the final wind power output, and the ESS could help effectively decrease the operation costs.

  1. Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of grid connected photovoltaic system integrating battery energy storage system. • A model to manage the energy flows and assess the system profitability is presented. • The model evaluates the effective PV power rate and battery energy system capacity. • An application and multi-scenario analysis based on an Italian context is discussed. • Results show the system technical feasibility and an energy cost save of 52 €/MW h. - Abstract: In the last years, the technological development and the increasing market competitiveness of renewable energy systems, like solar and wind energy power plants, create favorable conditions to the switch of the electricity generation from large centralized facilities to small decentralized energy systems. The distributed electricity generation is a suitable option for a sustainable development thanks to the environmental impact reduction, the load management benefits and the opportunity to provide electricity to remote areas. Despite the current cut off of the national supporting policies to the renewables, the photovoltaic (PV) systems still find profitable conditions for the grid connected users when the produced energy is self-consumed. Due to the intermittent and random nature of the solar source, PV plants require the adoption of an energy storage system to compensate fluctuations and to meet the energy demand during the night hours. This paper presents a technical and economic model for the design of a grid connected PV plant with battery energy storage (BES) system, in which the electricity demand is satisfied through the PV–BES system and the national grid, as the backup source. The aim is to present the PV–BES system design and management strategy and to discuss the analytical model to determine the PV system rated power and the BES system capacity able to minimize the Levelized Cost of the Electricity (LCOE). The proposed model considers the hourly energy demand profile for a reference

  2. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  3. Performance testing and economic analysis of a photovoltaic flywheel energy storage and conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R. D.; Millner, A. R.; Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including details of such key components as magnetic bearings, motor generator, and power conditioning electronics, is described. Performance results of prototype testing are given and indicate that this system is the equal of or superior to battery-inverter systems for the same application. Results of cost and user-worth analysis show that residential systems are economically feasible in stand-alone and in some utility-interactive applications.

  4. Economical investigation of an integrated boiler-solar energy saving system in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Rawabdeh, I.; Emran, S.

    2010-01-01

    Jordan is relatively poor in conventional energy resources and is basically a non-oil producing country, i.e. its energy supply relies to a very large extent on imports. It is therefore unlikely that any future energy scenario for Jordan will not include a significant proportion of its energy to come from renewable sources such as solar energy. The lack of an integrated energy saving system which utilizes the solar energy for domestic hot water as well as for building space heating was the main motivation for the present study. In Jordan, there is no existing system can provide the integration mechanisms of solar energy and fuel combustion with electrical ones. Also adding new and related products increases sales of current boilers products and can be offered at competitive prices. During our investigations, it has been found that the market demand for boiler-solar integration system in terms of the system acceptability, system feasibility, and system values is very high especially after the increased in oil prices during the last 3 years, i.e. 2006-2008. The market trend shows that even though solar collector is not attractive as an energy source for domestic hot water, but the combined system for space heating and domestic hot water is fully accepted. However, the market demand for such a system is not completely identified yet but the awareness and the discussion of the idea shows a good potential. The economical study about the integration system of boiler and solar energy shows that using solar water heaters to heat space and for domestic water is cost-effective. Payback can be as low as 3 years, and utility bills are much lower than they would be using a conventional heating system. The initial draft and design of a prototype for the boiler-solar-electrical integration system has been carried out.

  5. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    's aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1) a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2) an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE...... method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE...

  6. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  7. Scenario Analysis With Economic-Energy Systems Models Coupled to Simple Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Foster, I. T.; Franklin, M.; Zhu, E.; Patel, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here, we compare two scenarios based on Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum Study 22 on global cooperative and non-cooperative climate policies. In the former, efficient transition paths are implemented including technology Research and Development effort, energy conservation programs, and price signals for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the non-cooperative case, some countries try to relax their regulations and be free riders. Total emissions and costs are higher in the non-cooperative scenario. The simulations, including climate impacts, run to the year 2100. We use the Argonne AMIGA-MARS economic-energy systems model, the Texas AM University's Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM), and the University of Illinois's Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), with offline coupling between the FASOM and AMIGA-MARS and an online coupling between AMIGA-MARS and ISAM. This set of models captures the interaction of terrestrial systems, land use, crops and forests, climate change, human activity, and energy systems. Our scenario simulations represent dynamic paths over which all the climate, terrestrial, economic, and energy technology equations are solved simultaneously Special attention is paid to biofuels and how they interact with conventional gasoline/diesel fuel markets. Possible low-carbon penetration paths are based on estimated costs for new technologies, including cellulosic biomass, coal-to-liquids, plug-in electric vehicles, solar and nuclear energy. We explicitly explore key uncertainties that affect mitigation and adaptation scenarios.

  8. The Economic Potential of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Producing Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis are publishing that address the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). This report discusses an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled N-R HES that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low and high temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. The study finds that, to be profitable, the examined high-temperature electrosis and low-temperature electrosis N-R HES configurations that produce hydrogen require higher electricity prices, more electricity price volatility, higher natural gas prices, or higher capacity payments than the reference case values of these parameters considered in this analysis.

  9. Techno-economic optimisation of energy systems; Contribution a l'optimisation technico-economique de systemes energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla Pellen, Ch

    2006-07-15

    The traditional approach currently used to assess the economic interest of energy systems is based on a defined flow-sheet. Some studies have shown that the flow-sheets corresponding to the best thermodynamic efficiencies do not necessarily lead to the best production costs. A method called techno-economic optimisation was proposed. This method aims at minimising the production cost of a given energy system, including both investment and operating costs. It was implemented using genetic algorithms. This approach was compared to the heat integration method on two different examples, thus validating its interest. Techno-economic optimisation was then applied to different energy systems dealing with hydrogen as well as electricity production. (author)

  10. An Economic Analysis of Residential Photovoltaic Systems with and without Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Rodney

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems serve as a source of electricity generation that is separate from the traditional utilities. Investor investment into residential PV systems provides several financial benefits such as federal tax credit incentives for installation, net metering credit from excess generated electricity added back to the grid, and savings in price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) from the PV system generation versus the increasing conventional utility price per kWh. As much benefit as stand-alone PV systems present, the incorporation of energy storage yields even greater benefits. Energy storage (ES) is capable of storing unused PV provided energy from daytime periods of high solar supply but low consumption. This allows the investor to use the stored energy when the cost of conventional utility power is high, while also allowing for excess stored energy to be sold back to the grid. This paper aims to investigate the overall returns for investor's investing in solely PV and ES-based PV systems by using a return of investment (ROI) economic analysis. The analysis is carried out over three scenarios: (1) residence without a PV system or ES, (2) residence with just a PV system, and (3) residence with both a PV system and ES. Due to the variation in solar exposure across the regions of the United States, this paper performs an analysis for eight of the top solar market states separately, accounting for the specific solar generation capabilities of each state. A Microsoft Excel tool is provided for computation of the ROI in scenario 2 and 3. A benefit-cost ration (BCR) is used to depict the annual economic performance of the PV system (scenario 2) and PV + ES system (scenario 3). The tool allows the user to adjust the variables and parameters to satisfy the users' specific investment situation.

  11. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  12. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  13. Different heating systems for single family house: Energy and economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Valentina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock energy consumption accounts for about 38% of final energy consumption in Republic of Serbia. 70% of that energy is consumed by residential sector, mostly for space heating. This research is addressed to the single family house building placed in the Belgrade city. The house has ground and first floor with total heating area of 130 m2 and pellet as space heating source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate energy and economic analysis for different heating systems. Several homeheating were compared: Option 1 (biomass combustion boiler using pellet as a fuel, Option 2 (gas combustion boiler and Option 3 (heat pump. The building performance was evaluated by TRNSYS 17 simulation code. Results show estimated savings using renewable energy sources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008

  14. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling......The continuous increasing negative effects of fossil fuel consumption on society and the environment, opens a major interest into environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain the increasing demand for energy services. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important...

  15. Global analysis of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy hybrid systems on small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechinger, P.; Cader, C.; Bertheau, P.; Huyskens, H.; Seguin, R.; Breyer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, small islands below 100,000 inhabitants represent a large number of diesel based mini-grids. With volatile fossil fuel costs which are most likely to increase in the long-run and competitive renewable energy technologies the introduction of such sustainable power generation system seems a viable and environmental friendly option. Nevertheless the implementation of renewable energies on small islands is quite low based on high transaction costs and missing knowledge according to the market potential. Our work provides a global overview on the small island landscape showing the respective population, economic activity, energy demand, and fuel costs for almost 1800 islands with approximately 20 million inhabitants currently supplied by 15 GW of diesel plants. Based on these parameters a detailed techno-economic assessment of the potential integration of solar PV, wind power, and battery storage into the power supply system was performed for each island. The focus on solar and wind was set due to the lack of data on hydro and geothermal potential for a global island study. It revealed that almost 7.5 GW of photovoltaic and 14 GW of wind power could be economically installed and operated on these islands reducing the GHG-emissions and fuel consumption by approximately 50%. In total numbers more than 20 million tons of GHG emissions can be reduced by avoiding the burning of 7.8 billion liters of diesel per year. Cost savings of around 9 USDct/kWh occur on average by implementing these capacities combined with 5.8 GWh of battery storage. This detailed techno-economic evaluation of renewable energies enables policy makers and investors to facilitate the implementation of clean energy supply systems on small islands. To accelerate the implementation of this enormous potential we give specific policy recommendations such as the introduction of proper regulations. - Highlights: • GIS analysis has identified approximately 1800 small island energy systems with

  16. Economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

  17. Techno-economic studies on hybrid energy based cooling system for milk preservation in isolated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin, M.; Joseph Sekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance studies on biomass and biogas based milk cooling systems in remote areas. • Economic analysis of milk cooling system operated with locally available renewable energy sources. • Payback period for replacing conventional milk cooling systems with renewable energy based cooling system. • Identification of the suitable combination of locally available renewable energy sources for milk cooling. • Hybrid energy based milk cooling system for regions that have rubber and paddy cultivation, in India. - Abstract: In developing countries like India, about 70% of the population is engaged in the production of milk, fruits and vegetables. Due to the lack of proper storage and transit facilities, the agricultural produce, in remote areas loses its value. This spoilage could be prevented at the local village level, by providing cooling units for short term preservation. In this paper, the possibility of a hybrid energy based thermally operated cold storage has been considered to meet the cooling needs of the villages in the southern parts of India, where biomass, biogas and gobar gas are available in abundance. A milk cooling system that uses various combinations of locally available renewable energy sources to operate an aqua ammonia vapour absorption cooling system has been analysed using the Matlab software. The impact of various combinations of renewable energy sources on the Coefficient of Performance (COP), Net Present Value (NPV) and payback period of the total cooling system has been studied. The analysis shows that the COP and payback period of the proposed hybrid renewable energy based milk cooling system are 0.16–0.23 and 4–6 years respectively

  18. Design of a novel geothermal heating and cooling system: Energy and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, G.; Diglio, G.; Sasso, M.; Calise, F.; Dentice d’Accadia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A desiccant-based air handling unit is coupled with a geothermal source. • A TRNSYS model is developed to simulate both winter and summer period. • Sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the design parameters. • Pay back period about 1.2 years and Primary Energy Savings higher than 90% were founded. • Economic and energetic performance increase with to the use of Domestic Hot Water. - Abstract: A dynamic simulation study in TRNSYS environment has been carried out to evaluate energy and economic performance of a novel heating and cooling system based on the coupling between a low or medium-enthalpy geothermal source and an Air Handling Unit, including a Desiccant Wheel. During summer season, a Downhole Heat Exchanger supplies heat to regenerate the desiccant material, while a certain amount of geothermal fluid is continuously extracted by the well in order to maintain high operating temperatures. Simultaneously, the extracted geothermal fluid drives an absorption chiller, producing chilled water to the cooling coil of the Air Handling Unit. Conversely, during the winter season, geothermal energy is used to cover a certain amount of the space heating demand. In both summer and winter operation modes, a geothermal energy is also used to supply Domestic Hot Water. A case study was analyzed, in which an existing low-enthalpy geothermal well (96 °C), located in Ischia (an island close to Naples, Southern Italy), is used to drive the geothermal system. Results showed that the performance of the proposed system is significantly affected by the utilization factor of Domestic Hot Water. In fact, considering a range of variation of such parameter between 5% and 100%, Primary Energy Saving increase from 77% to 95% and Pay-Back Period decreases from 14 years to 1.2 years, respectively. The simulations proved the technical and economic viability of the proposed system. In fact, a comparison with similar systems available

  19. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer’s aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1 a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2 an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE-based distribution system are described. Finally, we show the benefits and costs of different actors within the NCTE-based distribution system.

  20. Technical efficiency of economic systems of EU-15 countries based on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampatsou, Christina; Papadopoulos, Savas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the Technical Efficiency index of EU-15 countries from 1980 to 2008, using cross-country comparison. Technical Efficiency index represents the capacity of an economy to produce a higher level of Gross Domestic Product for a given level of total energy input. The level of the Technical Efficiency index is determined from the energy mix (fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, nuclear energy) of each country and depends on the maximization level of the production of the Gross Domestic Product of the economic system, without waste of energy resources. The current study is applied in the case of the EU15 countries. Its scope is to highlight the differentiations of country classifications before and after the integration of nuclear energy in the energy mix of each country. The main result is that the integration of nuclear energy as an additional input in the energy mixture affects negatively the Technical Efficiency of countries. Also, when an economy achieves a decrease of the energy consumption produced from fossil fuels, and a better exploitation of renewable energy sources, clearly improves its capacity to produce more output with the given levels of inputs. - Highlights: ► Technical efficiency index of EU-15 countries is determined through the DEA method. ► Level of the TE index is determined from the energy mix used in each country. ► TE level depends on the maximization level of GDP without waste of energy resources. ► Capacity of an economy to produce more GDP for a given energy input is determined. ► TE differentiation before and after the integration of nuclear energy is performed

  1. Economic-environmental energy and reserve scheduling of smart distribution systems: A multiobjective mathematical programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Aggregate wind generation and demand uncertainties in a stochastic model. • Stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve in a distribution system. • Demand response providers’ participation in energy and reserve scheduling. - Abstract: In this paper a stochastic multi-objective economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed to schedule energy and reserve in a smart distribution system with high penetration of wind generation. The proposed multi-objective framework, based on augmented ε-constraint method, is used to minimize the total operational costs and emissions and to generate Pareto-optimal solutions for the energy and reserve scheduling problem. Moreover, fuzzy decision making process is employed to extract one of the Pareto-optimal solutions as the best compromise non-dominated solution. The wind power and demand forecast errors are considered in this approach and the reserve can be furnished by the main grid as well as distributed generators and responsive loads. The consumers participate in both energy and reserve markets using various demand response programs. In order to facilitate small and medium loads participation in demand response programs, a Demand Response Provider (DRP) aggregates offers for load reduction. In order to solve the proposed optimization model, the Benders decomposition technique is used to convert the large scale mixed integer non-linear problem into mixed-integer linear programming and non-linear programming problems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on a 41-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period

  2. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, Eraldo; Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

  3. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  4. Techno-economic prospects for CO2 capture from distributed energy systems, , 19(March 2013), 2013, pp. 328-347

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramirez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 emissions from distributed energy systems are expected to become increasingly significant, accounting for about 20% for current global energy-related CO2 emissions in 2030. This article reviews, assesses and compares the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from distributed energy systems

  5. The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kyle Joseph

    Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize. To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation. First, using real-time energy market price data from seven markets across the U.S. and the physical parameters of fourteen ESS technologies, the maximum potential IRR of each technology from price arbitrage was evaluated in each market, along with the optimal ESS system size. Additionally, the reductions in capital cost needed to achieve a 10% IRR were estimated for each ESS. The results indicate that the profit-maximizing size of an ESS is primarily determined by its technological characteristics (round-trip charge/discharge efficiency and self-discharge) and not market price volatility, which instead increases IRR. This analysis demonstrates

  6. Economics of producing hydrogen as transportation fuel using offshore wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Agarwal, Nalin; Swaroop, Rakesh; Shah, Nikhar

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, hydrogen has been recognized as a suitable substitute for present vehicular fuels. This paper covers the economic analysis of one of the most promising hydrogen production methods-using wind energy for producing hydrogen through electrolysis of seawater-with a concentration on the Indian transport sector. The analysis provides insights about several questions such as the advantages of offshore plants over coastal installations, economics of large wind-machine clusters, and comparison of cost of producing hydrogen with competing gasoline. Robustness of results has been checked by developing several scenarios such as fast/slow learning rates for wind systems for determining future trends. Results of this analysis show that use of hydrogen for transportation is not likely to be attractive before 2012, and that too with considerable learning in wind, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage technology

  7. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  8. Energy and Economic Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the economy and the energy is much more complex of what looks. However, they are continued making, in some cases, absolute statements that used to listen in the past as dogmas, among those that are highly correlated in energy consumption and the Gross National Product GNP and that the countries follow the same development pattern more or less, mainly in connection with the energy consumption. Such statements are not completely misses, neither completely correct and they have behind many simplifications. Of a part, of the historical evolution analysis of several countries or groups of countries on long periods, it confirms the fact that the economic growth, induces an increment in general in the total consumption of energy and vice versa: Energy available with more speed and to smaller price it favors the economic development. Other important factors that impact in the growth of the energy consumption, besides the economic development, are, among, the population's increment, the state of technological development and the cultural customs of use

  9. Economics of superconductive energy storage inductor-converter units in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadavalli, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Since the original proposal by Boom and Peterson in 1972, there has been growing interest in superconductive energy storage inductor converter units (IC units) for use in large power systems for peak shaving and load leveling. Different aspects of it are being studied at the University of Wisconsin and elsewhere. An economic study of such IC units shows that large IC units, bigger than about 1000 MWh, are economically competitive with other peaking alternatives, larger units being more economical. External electrical circuit losses in IC units have negligible effect on their storage and power capacities. There are three credits which could be of significant economic value to IC units. These are: (1) transmission credit which varied from about $4 to $60/kW peak power, with a typical value of about $35/kW; (2) pollution credit which varied from about $5 to $160/kW with a typical value of $80/kW; and Spinning Reserve Credit which varied from about $20 to $370/kW with a typical value of $90/kW

  10. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of an autonomous power system integrating hydrogen technology as energy storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzamalis, G. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zoulias, E.I.; Stamatakis, E.; Varkaraki, E. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Lois, E.; Zannikos, F. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Two different options for the autonomous power supply of rural or/and remote buildings are examined in this study. The first one involves a PV - diesel based power system, while the second one integrates RES and hydrogen technologies for the development of a self - sustained power system. The main objective is the replacement of the diesel generator and a comparison between these two options for autonomous power supply. Model simulations of the two power systems before and after the replacement, an optimization of the component sizes and a techno - economic analysis have been performed for the purpose of this study. A sensitivity analysis taking into account future cost scenarios for hydrogen technologies is also presented. The results clearly show that the Cost of Energy Produced (COE) from the PV - hydrogen technologies power system is extremely higher than the PV - diesel power system. However, the adopted PV - hydrogen technologies power system reduces to zero the Green - House Gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis indicates that COE for the latter system can be further reduced by approximately 50% compared to its initial value. This could be achieved by reducing critical COE's parameters, such as PEM electrolyser and fuel cell capital costs. Hence, a possible reduction on the capital costs of hydrogen energy equipment in combination with emissions reduction mentioned above could make hydrogen - based power systems more competitive. (author)

  12. ERWIN2: User's manual for a computer model to calculate the economic efficiency of wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wees, F.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    During the last few years the Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) developed calculation programs to determine the economic efficiency of energy technologies, which programs support several studies for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. All these programs form the so-called BRET programs. One of these programs is ERWIN (Economische Rentabiliteit WINdenergiesystemen or in English: Economic Efficiency of Wind Energy Systems) of which an updated manual (ERWIN2) is presented in this report. An outline is given of the possibilities and limitations to carry out calculations with the model

  13. The Economic Potential of Two Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Tightly coupled nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) are an option that can generate zero-carbon, dispatchable electricity and provide zero-carbon energy for industrial processes at a lower cost than alternatives. N-R HESs are defined as systems that are managed by a single entity and link a nuclear reactor that generates heat, a thermal power cycle for heat to electricity conversion, at least one renewable energy source, and an industrial process that uses thermal and/or electrical energy. This report provides results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. The first is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario that includes four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, wind power plant, and synthetic gasoline production technology. The second is an Arizona-desalination scenario with its four subsystems a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, solar photovoltaics, and a desalination plant. The analysis focuses on the economics of the N-R HESs and how they compare to other options, including configurations without all the subsystems in each N-R HES and alternatives where the energy is provided by natural gas.

  14. Economic study on compressed energy storage cogeneration system in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Youji

    1991-01-01

    Due to the concentration of functions into cities and the spread of room cooling facilities, the energy demand in cities increased rapidly especially in summer season. The improvement of load factor of electric power has become an important subject for electric power companies, and as the technology for positively improving it, there is electric power storage. As for compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, its introduction, has been investigated as the electric power storage technology for the future in electric power business, but since it is also gas turbine technology, it becomes a cogeneration system. If the waste heat of gas turbines and compressors can be utilized effectively, not only the load factor of electric power is improved, but also it contributes to the improvement of overall energy efficiency and the improvement of environmental problems. This research is to study on the feasibility of compressed air energy storage centering around its economical efficiency when it is installed in customer side as the cogeneration system in cities. The features of CAES, the tendency of the development in Japan and foreign countries, the introduction of CAES in new town districts and the economy are described. (K.I.)

  15. Essays in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-10-25

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  16. Essays in energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  17. Day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch of wind integrated power system considering demand response of residential hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yibo; Xu, Jian; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wei, Congying; Wang, Jing; Ke, Deping; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jun; Peng, Xiaotao; Tang, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the utilization of wind power by the demand response of residential hybrid energy system. • An optimal scheduling of home energy management system integrating micro-CHP. • The scattered response capability of consumers is aggregated by demand bidding curve. • A stochastic day-ahead economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power. - Abstract: As the installed capacity of wind power is growing, the stochastic variability of wind power leads to the mismatch of demand and generated power. Employing the regulating capability of demand to improve the utilization of wind power has become a new research direction. Meanwhile, the micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) allows residential consumers to choose whether generating electricity by themselves or purchasing from the utility company, which forms a residential hybrid energy system. However, the impact of the demand response with hybrid energy system contained micro-CHP on the large-scale wind power utilization has not been analyzed quantitatively. This paper proposes an operation optimization model of the residential hybrid energy system based on price response, integrating micro-CHP and smart appliances intelligently. Moreover, a novel load aggregation method is adopted to centralize scattered response capability of residential load. At the power grid level, a day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power is constructed. Furthermore, simulation is conducted respectively on the modified 6-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results show that with the method proposed, the wind power curtailment of the system decreases by 78% in 6-bus system. In the meantime, the energy costs of residential consumers and the operating costs of the power system reduced by 10.7% and 11.7% in 118-bus system, respectively.

  18. Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Özyoğurtçu, Gamze; Mobedi, Moghtada; Özerdem, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period an...

  19. Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis of a solar desalination system with humidification-dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Emrah; Çınar, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Possibility of suppling all energy consumption from solar energy was tested. • Air and water-heated humidification-dehumidification desalination system was proposed. • Energy, exergy, economic and environmental analysis were performed. • Productivity and performance of the desalination system was analyzed. • Various operational parameters were investigated. - Abstract: A novel humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system is designed and tested with actual conditions and solar energy was used to provide both thermal and electrical energy. Energy-exergy analyses of the system are made and economic and enviro-economic properties are investigated using data obtained from experimental studies. In this way, economic and environmental impacts of the HDH solar desalination systems have also been determined. The maximum daily energy efficiency of the system was calculated as 31.54% and the maximum exergy efficiency was found as 1.87%. The maximum fresh water production rate is obtained as 1117.3 g/h. The estimated cost of fresh water produced through the designed HDH system is 0.0981 USD/L and enviro-economic parameter is 2.4041 USD/annum.

  20. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pedersen, Thomas Engberg; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers in Denmark. • The daily operation of a heat and power system is modeled by stochastic programming. • Deterministic models overestimate the value of heat pumps and electric boilers. • Heat pumps and electric boilers can reduce the cost of operating the Danish system. • Falling power prices may boost the future value of heat pumps and electric boilers. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units in the system. Uncertainty in the heat demand and power price is modeled via scenarios representing different plausible paths for their future evolution. A series of case-studies are performed using real-world data for the heat and power systems in the Copenhagen area during four representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed by potential

  1. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Dual-Level-Residence Solar-Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    105-page report is one in a series of economic evaluations of different solar-energy installations. Using study results, an optimal collector area is chosen that minimizes life-cycle costs. From this optimal size thermal and economic performance is evaluated.

  3. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  4. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  5. An overview of the political, technical and economical aspects of gas-fired distributed energy system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiaohui; Wang, Weilong; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The interest in distributed energy system has been increasing in China in recent years due to the environmental and energy policy concerns. The distributed energy system generates power, heating and cooling to residential, commercial and industrial facilities. Due to cascade utilization of energy, it can make good use of energy to improve energy efficiency and to increase energy savings. Furthermore, it consumes less energy and reduces carbon emissions. This paper reviews existing and newly-built gas-fired distributed energy projects in China. The techno-economic assessment of the selected projects has also been discussed and reported. The results show that in Xiamen Jimei DE project, the primary energy ratio of the DES can be as high as 92.9%, and energy-saving rate is 35.5%. Moreover, exergy efficiency reaches 54.3%, and the system can reduce 0.52 million tons of CO 2 annually. -- Highlights: ► The political, technical and economical aspects of gas-fired DES are analyzed. ► The techno-economic assessment of two selected projects is conducted. ► Primary energy ratio can be as high as 92.9% and energy-saving rate is 35.5%. ► Exergy efficiency is 54.3% and the system can reduce a large amount of CO 2 emissions

  6. Joint cost of energy under an optimal economic policy of hybrid power systems subject to uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Economical optimization of hybrid systems is usually performed by means of LCoE (levelized cost of energy) calculation. Previous works deal with the LCoE calculation of the whole hybrid system disregarding an important issue: the stochastic component of the system units must be jointly considered. This paper deals with this issue and proposes a new fast optimal policy that properly calculates the LCoE of a hybrid system and finds the lowest LCoE. This proposed policy also considers the implied competition among power sources when variability of gas and electricity prices are taken into account. Additionally, it presents a comparative between the LCoE of the hybrid system and its individual technologies of generation by means of a fast and robust algorithm based on vector logical computation. Numerical case analyses based on realistic data are presented that valuate the contribution of technologies in a hybrid power system to the joint LCoE. - Highlights: • We perform the LCoE calculation with the stochastic component jointly considered. • We propose a fast an optimal policy that minimizes the LCoE. • We compare the obtained LCoEs by means of a fast and robust algorithm. • We take into account the competition among gas prices and electricity prices

  7. Economics and environmental impacts of nuclear energy in comparison with other energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the 1992 OECD/NEA-IEA study on comparative electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil-fuelled power plants are presented. It is focused on plants that could be commercially available for commissioning in the year 2000 or shortly thereafter. The generation costs for nuclear, relative to coal or natural gas fuelled power plants, are shown. The attractiveness of these three main fuel options for large base load power stations for commissioning around the year 2000 is critically dependent on the discount rate required by the utility or government. Higher discount rates (10%) favour the low investment cost option, gas, whilst lower discount rates (5%) favour the low fuel cost option. The role of nuclear power in avoiding greenhouse gas emissions is illustrated, as well as penetration of nuclear power, displacing fossil fuels for electricity generation and annual change in CO 2 emissions in varies countries from 1975 to 1992 as a function of the nuclear share in electricity generation for 1992. A comparison between quantities of fuel and wastes for nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants is given. Some issues of impacts of particular energy sources on health and the environment are outlined. In the conclusions, nuclear power is considered to be the most likely non-fossil-fuel technology that could be deployed on a large scale for electricity generation, if the objectives of advanced nuclear power development programmes are met and social acceptability of nuclear energy is reached. 9 figs., 2 ann., 16 refs. (I.P.)

  8. Economic power schedule and transactive energy through an intelligent centralized energy management system for a DC residential distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Jingpeng; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    Direct current (DC) residential distribution systems (RDS) consisting of DC living homes will be a significant integral part of future green transmission. Meanwhile, the increasing number of distributed resources and intelligent devices will change the power flow between the main grid...... (CEMS), but also a control approach to implement and ensure DG output voltages to various DC buses in a DC RDS. Based on data collection, prediction and a certain objectives, the expert system in a CEMS can work out the optimization schedule, after this, the voltage droop control for steady voltage...... is aligned with the command of the unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is used as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, and a cost minimization objective is proposed that is to be achieved based on the real-time electrical price. The results show...

  9. Essays in Energy Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erica Catherine

    This dissertation combines research on three topics in applied energy economics. The first two papers investigate whether consumers are informed about and pay attention to energy costs in residential housing. The first paper explores this issue in the rental housing market, while the second paper focuses on housing purchases. The third paper, based on joint work with AJ Bostian and Harrison Fell, uses a laboratory experiment to test the effects of positive versus negative cost shocks on mulit-unit procurement auction performance. The first paper explores whether there are energy cost information asymmetries between landlords and tenants. If tenants are uninformed about energy costs, landlords cannot capitalize energy efficiency investments into higher rents, leading to under-investment. I exploit variation in energy costs in the form of relative heating fuel price changes in the northeastern United States where some apartment units heat with oil and some units heat with natural gas. I develop a search model to describe the matching of landlords and tenants, and derive predictions about the incidence of relative fuel price changes, tenant turnover, and efficiency investments under both symmetric and asymmetric information. My model predicts that, under symmetric full information, these outcomes will not differ depending on whether landlords or tenants pay for energy. In contrast, under asymmetric information, the demand of uninformed tenants for units that heat with oil rather than gas will not shift when oil prices rise relative to gas prices. In a search model, this leads to different market outcomes when landlords, rather than tenants, pay for energy. I find that the capitalization of energy prices into rents, turnover rates, and energy efficiency investments differ between the two payment regimes in ways that are consistent with asymmetric information. The second paper explores whether home buyers are myopic about future energy costs. I exploit variation in

  10. RDF to energy plant for a central Italian region SUW management system: Energetic and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Pavesi, Gregorio

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that a rise in a country's prosperity is parallel to an increase in the amount of waste produced by the population. The specific solid urban waste production off a European citizen is actually about 500 kg per inhabitant per year. In reference to the whole European population, the global solid urban waste production requires an adequate management system, able to satisfy economical, social and environmental needs. Before final disposal (i.e. sanitary landfill), wastes need some kind of recovery, reuse and ad hoc treatments operation, in compliance with European state laws. The aim of these rules is to achieve an environmentally sound waste management system, that allows to reduce raw materials and fossil fuel consumption, dangerous waste production and the amount of disposed materials. Among the technologies available for the different treatments, incineration with energy recovery seems to have many advantages mainly because it reduces waste volume and fossil fuel consumption, and because its sterilization effects are achieved on the inlet substances. The main drawbacks of such plants are represented by the emission off gaseous pollutant, thus requiring important exhaust gasses treatment systems, by producing a non-negligible amount of dangerous substances, and by high capital and operating costs. In this paper the solid urban waste production of a central Italian region and the amount of available residual derived fuel for thermal treatment has been assessed. Then, the possibility of exploiting a fluid bed combustor based power plant, able to treat the residual derive fuel fraction produced through the years, has been analyzed both from an energetic and an economical point of view

  11. Interconnected power systems: a technical and economical optimization for the benefit of energy transitions in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The roles and missions of TSOs go way beyond the implicit meaning of the term 'power transmission'. At the heart of the power system, we are responsible to keep the balance between supply and demand. By ensuring that we have the ability to fulfill this role on a daily basis, we provide our customers with economical, reliable and clean access to power supply. Operating the power system is all about optimization. Firstly, by mutualizing energy sources at the European level, RTE insures 'power' solidarity between regions and enhance renewable energy sources contribution. Secondly, the market mechanisms that we are developing make it possible to use the most competitive energy sources in France and in Europe. This optimal use of resources call for close cooperation with our European counterparts. These mechanisms support security of supply and economic optimization of the system, while also facilitating other ways to consume power. Overall, we promote solutions to help making decisions based on physical and economic parameters, always seeking the most advantageous solution and ensuring grid operability. RTE is constantly seeking ways of remaining a step ahead of changes within the power system. In the energy transition context, French economic competitiveness also relies on optimal efficiency of the power system. Our ambition is to developing a smart transmission system to support tomorrow's economy and energy landscape, in conjunction with our partners. (author)

  12. Simulation of the energy - environment economic system power generation costs in power-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, H.

    1978-09-01

    The costs of power generation are an important point in the electricity industry. The present report tries to supply a model representation for these problems. The costs of power generation for base load, average and peak load power stations are examined on the basis of fossil energy sources, nuclear power and water power. The methods of calculation where dynamic investment calculation processes are used, are given in the shape of formulae. From the point of view of long term prediction, power generation cost sensitivity studies are added to the technical, economic and energy-political uncertainties. The sensitivity of models for calculations is examined by deterministic and stochastic processes. In the base load and average region, power generation based on nuclear power and water power is economically more favourable than that from fossilfired power stations. Even including subsidies, this cost advantage is not in doubt. In the peak load region, pumped storage power stations are more economic than fossilfired power stations. (orig.) [de

  13. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  14. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  15. Techno-Economic Approach to Solar Energy Systems Onboard Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Ahmed A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing the challenge of continuously increasing energy consumption. At the same time, the energy resources are getting scarcer. Despite a sudden significant drop of fuel prices worldwide, research activities that focus on reducing the dependence on fossil fuels as a traditional source of energy still have the preference in the field of shipping industry. The use of clean and renewable energies, such as solar energy for instance, is proposed as a method to improve the ship efficiency. Ships can get the benefits from solar energy due to the fact that most of their upper decks are always exposed to the Sun, especially in sunny water regions. The present paper discusses the effectiveness and challenges of installing solar panels for auxiliary power production on board a ship. As a case study, the research evaluates both economic and environmental benefits resulting from implementing such concept aboard a research vessel.

  16. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  17. Market economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Frederic L.

    2004-01-01

    The new comparative economics has focused on individual institutions, rather than the economic system as a whole. This essay argues that economic systems should be defined in terms of clusters of complementary or covarying institutions. A cluster analysis of OECD countries using data on forty different economic institutions shows that four economic systems characterize these nations. Further, these systems have no significant impact on economic growth or inflation, but they do have an importa...

  18. Technical and economic analysis on grid-connected wind farm based on hybrid energy storage system and distributed generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zhou, Zhongkang; Chen, Xiaochun; Song, Jishuang; Shi, Maolin

    2017-05-01

    system is proposed based on NaS battery and lithium ion battery, that the former is the main large scale energy storage technology world-widely used and developed and the latter is a flexible way to have both power and energy capacities. The hybrid energy storage system, which takes advantage of the two complementary technologies to provide large power and energy capacities, is chosen to do an evaluation of econom ical-environmental based on critical excess electricity production (CEEP), CO2 emission, annual total costs calculated on the specific given condition using Energy PLAN software. The result shows that hybrid storage system has strengths in environmental benefits and also can absorb more discarded wind power than single storage system and is a potential way to push forward the application of wind power and even other types of renewable energy resources.

  19. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Geothermal Heating and Cooling System with a Vapor-Compression Chiller System

    OpenAIRE

    Imal, Muharrem; Yılmaz, Koray; Pınarbaşı, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to energy utilization in Turkey. In this report, we present an energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a geothermal heating and cooling system (GSHP) and a mechanical compression water chiller system (ACHP) to improve the energy utilization efficiency and reduce the primary energy demand for industrial use. Analyses of a mechanical water chiller unit, GSW 180, and geothermal heating and cooling system, EAR 431 SK, were conducted in ...

  20. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  1. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-01

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  2. Energy economics and financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsman, Andre [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Finance; Simpson, John L. [Curtin Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Economics and Finance; Westerman, Wim (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Economics and Business Economics, Econometrics and Finance

    2013-10-01

    Deals with the upcoming theme of energy issues. Links energy issues with economics and financial markets. Combines global focus with specific regional and local examples. Unites theoretical insights with timely data and practical insights. Specialized author team from all over the world. Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. Specific examples of topical energy issues come from around the globe and often concern economics and finance. The importance of energy production, consumption and trade raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. This volume presents research on energy economics and financial markets related to the themes of supply and demand, environmental impact and renewables, energy derivatives trading, and finance and energy. The contributions by experts in their fields take a global perspective, as well as presenting cases from various countries and continents.

  3. The economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, P.

    2004-01-01

    In common with many of the issues surrounding nuclear energy, there is some truth in the popular claim that nuclear energy is 'not economic', but this is far from being a universal truth. This paper puts forward the view that, overall, nuclear energy can be a competitive source of electricity and a realistic economic option for the future. (author)

  4. Nuclear Power, Energy Economics and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Economic development requires reliable, affordable electricity that is provided in sufficient quantities to satisfy the minimum energy requirements at a local, regional or national level. As simple as this recipe for economic development appears, technological, infrastructural, financial and developmental considerations must be analysed and balanced to produce a national energy strategy. Complicating that task is the historic fact that energy at the desired price and in the desired quantities can be neither taken for granted nor guaranteed. Energy economics and energy security determine the options available to nations working to establish a sustainable energy strategy for the future.

  5. Exergy and economic analysis of organic rankine cycle hybrid system utilizing biogas and solar energy in rural area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    circuits. The cogeneration supplied the power to the air-condition in summer condition and hot water, which is heated in the condenser, in winter condition. The system performance under the subcritical pressures has been assessed according to the energy-exergy and economic analysis with the organic working......℃. The exergy efficiency of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system increases from 35.2% to 38.2%. Moreover, an economic analysis of the system is carried out. The results demonstrate that the profits generated from the reduction of biogas fuel and electricity consumption can lead to a significant saving, resulting...

  6. Electric vehicle charging in China's power system : Energy, economic and environmental trade-offs and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ying; Davis, Chris; Lukszo, Zofia; Weijnen, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates different scenarios for electric vehicle (EV) deployment in China and explores the implications thereof with regard to energy portfolio, economics and the environment. Specifically, we investigate how to better deliver the value of EVs by improving designs in the power system

  7. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  8. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  9. Essays in Energy Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    In this dissertation I explore two aspects of the economics of energy. The first focuses on consumer behavior, while the second focuses on market structure and firm behavior. In the first chapter, I demonstrate evidence of loss aversion in the behavior of households on two critical peak pricing experimental tariffs while participating in the California Statewide Pricing Pilot. I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure from which I derive two sets of testable predictions. First, I show that when there is a higher probability that a household is in the loss domain of their value function for the bill period, the more strongly they cut back peak consumption. Second, when prices are such that households are close to the kink in their value function - and would otherwise have expenditure skewed into the loss domain---I show evidence of disproportionate clustering at the kink. In essence this means that the occurrence of critical peak days did not only result in a reduction of peak consumption on that day, but also spilled over to further reduction of peak consumption on regular peak days for several weeks thereafter. This was similarly true when temperatures were high during high priced periods. This form of demand adjustment resulted in households experiencing bill-period expenditures equal to what they would have paid on the standard non-dynamic pricing tariff at a disproportionate rate. This higher number of bill periods with equal expenditure displaced bill periods in which they otherwise would have paid more than if they were on standard pricing. In the second chapter, I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and Energy Star standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price

  10. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  11. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  12. The Economics of Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, S.; Morthorst, P.E.; Awerbuch, S.

    2009-03-01

    This report is the result of an effort by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) to assemble a team of professional economists to assess the costs, benefits and risks associated with wind power generation. In particular, the authors were asked to evaluate the costs and benefits to society of wind energy compared to other forms of electricity production. In the present context of increasing energy import dependency in industrialised countries as well as the volatility of fuel prices and their impact on GDP, the aspects of energy security and energy diversification have to be given particular weight in such an analysis. Chapter 1 examines the basic (riskless) cost components of wind energy, as it leaves the wind farm, including some international comparisons and a distinction between onshore and offshore technologies. Chapter 2 illustrates other costs, mainly risks that are also part of the investment and thus have to be incorporated in the final price at which electricity coming from wind can be sold in the markets. The chapter discusses why the electricity market for renewable energy sources (RES) is regulated and how different support systems and institutional settings affect the final cost (and hence, price) of wind power. Chapter 3 discusses how the integration of wind energy is modifying the characteristics and management of the electrical system including grids, and how such modifications can affect the global price of electricity. Chapter 4 analyses how the external benefits of wind energy, such as its lower environmental impact and the lower social risk it entails can be incorporated into its valuation. Chapter 5 develops a methodology for the correct economic comparison of electricity costs coming from wind and from fuel-intensive coal and gas power generation. Chapter 5 uses as a starting point the methodology currently applied by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and improves it by incorporating some of the elements described in the previous

  13. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for industrial halls: Achieving economic benefit via lowering energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the

  14. Technical and economical assessment on tethered wind-energy systems (TWES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, O.; Maekawa, S.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of the work reported was to establish the potential of tethered wind energy systems for energy conversion in the upper atmosphere. Of the concepts investigated, the Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) lift generation concept had the highest potential as compared to balloon, wind and hybrid concepts.

  15. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  16. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  17. Energy Parodoxes in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the energy situation in the world and in the Post-Soviet area was carried out. The main focus was on the energy problems in Ukraine. The current paper presents existing energy sector paradoxes. Issues of the comfort level and of the natural environment dependence on the energy resources consumption are being discussed. The relationship between the human life quality level and the level of energy consumption is shown. The analysis of the energy resources distribution in the world is provided. The likely review of the energy re-sources market is forecasted. State energy policies and strategies are being compared. The high profitability of the centralized energy supply management in municipalities is being underlined. Issues regarding the scientific poten-tial and the energy management development are considered. The compliance of energy resource prices with the level of thermal protection of buildings and with energy projects investment principles is being analyzed. The importance of the market-based choice of energy resources considering energy company mergers and decision power concentration is presented. The compliance between the energy policy of Ukraine and the obligations resulting from gas contract with Russia is being discussed. The role of energy in the agricultural processing chain is analyzed.

  18. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  19. Economic policy and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaiss, H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the economical conclusions of the 6th Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies which take place at Mojacar (Almeria). Parabolic throughs, Central Receiver Systems, dish stirling and Solar chimneys will commercial utilization by the year 2000. Levalized Energy Cost (Solar) is still higher than conventional (coal). Only the utilization of environmental parameters like ''CO2 avoided'' may contribute to market penetration. Concerning siting, it becomes clear that only those countries below 40 degree latitude, (Madrid, Nepal, Ankara) are acceptable. A desregulation of the electrical market is necessary for solar penetration, mainly in developing countries

  20. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  1. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  2. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...... water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed...

  3. Economic assessment of nuclear energy from systems theory's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliffe, C.

    1976-01-01

    A report is given on how systems theory can be incorporated in nuclear energy and in which manner it can be applied. As opposed to previous considerations in which the development of nuclear energy in the form of cost effects of the energy produced in a nuclear power plant was assessed and the power plant was considered as insular plant, today this is replaced by the investigation of the individual nuclear power plants by a system of several such plants. The economy criterium of such a system is considered as the quotient of 'discounted' expenditure and discounted electro-energy production. The total discounted electricity generation by the nuclear power plant system also includes the energy production of new nuclear power plants to come and allows their special economy assessment. This method eliminates the question of the buying and selling price of plutonium and the interest payment of the expenditure for using Pn fuel. The discount programme, the systems costs, concessions in discounting, the minimization of the consumption, and the plutonium valuation are individually dealt with in detail. The solution to the linear three-interval programme is given in the appendix. (HR/LH) [de

  4. Economic feasibility of a wood biomass energy system under evolving demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In some European regions, particularly in mountainous areas, the demand for energy is evolving due to the decrease of resident population and the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Such changes are rapid enough to significantly impact on the planning process of wood-to-energy chains that are supposed to work for the following 20–25 years. The paper summarizes a study in an Italian pre-alpine district where some municipality shows a declining resident population together with increasing summer tourism. The planning of conversion plants to exploit the local availability of wood is formulated as a mathematical programming problem that maximizes the economic return of the investment, under time-varying parameters that account for the demand evolution. Such a demand is estimated from current trends, while biomass availability and transport is computed from the local cartography, through standard GIS operations. Altogether, the mixed integer optimization problem has 11 possible plant locations of different sizes and technologies taking their feedstock from about 200 parcels. The problem is solved with a commercial software package and shows that the optimal plan changes if one considers the foreseen evolution of the energy demand. As it always happen in this type of biomass-based plants, while the problem formulation is general and may be applied to other cases, the solution obtained is strongly dependent on local values and thus cannot be extrapolated to different contexts.

  5. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  6. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  7. Energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1979-09-01

    In this interview, Dr. Barry Commoner discusses his analysis of energy problems as a function of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, i.e., that energy is necessary in order to perform work. As outlined in his book The Poverty of Power, a good thermodynamic approach matches the amount of energy expended with the task to be done. Electric transport is more energy efficient than private automobiles and illustrates how capital is wasted and social harm done to increase private profit. Inefficient energy use is the result of basing conservation efforts on the First rather than the Second Law. Commoner advocates social changes that give society more control over the means of production and the way resources are used. He feels the relative merits of solar energy and breeder reactors should be debated and a choice made, preferably for solar, to make a gradual transition to renewable resources. (DCK)

  8. Thermodynamic and economic assessment of off-grid portable cooling systems with energy storage for emergency areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hasan; Akyavuz, Umit Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar based refrigeration systems with energy storage are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic assessments are applied. • Cost of the pumped-hydro storage quadruples the hydrogen storage option. • A case study is made for the city of Aleppo in Syria as an emergency region. - Abstract: This study aims to investigate performance and cost aspects of a solar powered portable cooling system to conserve first aid supplies for off-grid areas with energy storage. Due to the intermittent nature of solar energy availability, two energy storage options are considered for a stationary system. Additional to the standalone system without energy storage, hydrogen is selected to be the storage medium by considering electrolysis at day time, and use of a hydrogen fuel cell unit at night time. This system consists of solar photovoltaic cells, a Polymer Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis unit (PEME), hydrogen tank, a PEM fuel cell unit (PEMFC), and a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to condition a container rated with ∼11 kW cooling load. The second system utilizes pumped – hydro storage (PHS) technology using a simple pump – turbine couple by storing water at a higher reservoir during day time and utilizing it to produce hydro power at night. Existence of higher reservoir brings a significant additional cost for the PHS system, making this configuration almost four times more costly than that of the hydrogen storage option, even though the storage efficiency of the PHS system is significantly higher than the hydrogen storage.

  9. A Process for the Implementation of New Renewable Energy Systems in a Building by Considering Environmental and Economic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Joong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of fossil fuels has led to global warming and air pollution. To solve these problems, interest in new renewable energy system (NRE system has increased in recent years. In particular, photovoltaic, solar thermal heating, fuel cell and ground source heating system are actively implemented for achieving the zero energy building. Since the initial investment cost of the NRE system is quite expensive, it is necessary to conduct a feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop the process for the implementation of NRE system in a building for the optimal design. This study was conducted with four steps: (i establishing the basic information for the system installation; (ii selecting key factors affecting system performances; (iii making possible alternatives of the system installation; and (iv selecting optimal system by considering environmental and economic effect. The proposed process could enable the final decision-maker to easily and accurately determine the optimal design of the NRE systems from the economic and environmental efficiency in the early design phase. The process could also be applied to any other NRE system and could be extended to any other country in the global environment.

  10. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  11. An economic perspective on the reliability of lighting systems in building with highly efficient energy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, F.; Lieto Vollaro, A. de; Ferraro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper design of efficient lighting systems. • The reliability and durability of the light sources. • Maintenance of lighting systems. • Quality standards of LED lamps. • Optimum economic choice of light sources. - Abstract: The performance of lighting system must be calculated in order to determine the energy requirements of the building. In the normative [EN 12464-1] are established lighting requirements which have effects on energy needs. The European standard [EN 15193] provides guidance on that evaluation. The easiest way to comply with reduction of energy requirements leads to the replacement of traditional lamps with LED ones, but if we calculate also the reliability parameters, the economic return is not guaranteed. Using bibliographic data, we have compared lighting’s results for a museum (LED lamps versus CFL and halogen lamps). The objective function of the study is to optimize the energy consumption of lighting systems, but at the same time to assess the reliability (MTTF of the lamps) of these systems. Without accurate information about this last parameters, the right choice of the lamps cannot be done successfully

  12. Establishment of Passive Energy Conservation Measure and Economic Evaluation of Fenestration System in Nonresidential Building of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Eun Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ECO2 (building energy efficiency rating program and passive energy conservation measures (ECMs were established as a basic study for targeted methodologies and decision support systems development in Korea to meet national regulations. The primary energy consumption and economic evaluation of nonresidential buildings was performed. Passive ECMs were classified as planning and performance elements. The planning elements are the window-to-wall ratio (WWR and horizontal shading angle. The performance elements are the thermal transmittance (U-value of the walls, roof, and floor and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC of windows. This study focused on the window-to-wall ratio and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient of windows. An economic efficiency database for the constructed alternatives was built; the target building was set and the Passive ECM List for the target building was derived. The energy consumption evaluation and economic evaluation were performed for each of the constructed alternatives, and a methodology for guiding energy efficiency decisions was proposed based on the performance evaluation results, and the optimal Passive ECM List for the target building was derived.

  13. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  14. Silviculture and economic benefits of producing wood energy from conventional forestry systems and measures to mitigate negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, A.; Richardson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Activity ''Forest Energy Production'' focused on the development and evaluation, in the context of conventional forestry systems, silvicultural and forest management practices which optimise productivity for traditional products and wood for energy, while safeguarding the forest ecosystem. A series of meetings, workshops, and review papers involving the three participating countries of Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were planned and completed. An additional workshop in Switzerland was also held. Increasing production of biomass for energy is generally found to be positive, from silvicultural, economic, and environmental perspectives. Eight specific forest management systems were investigated and/or reported: five conventional systems involving multiple products in softwood and mixed wood, and three hardwood systems emphasising production of biomass for energy. Modifications in silvercultural practice to also produce biomass for energy included increased opportunities for thinnings, intermediate cuttings, and stand and site rehabilitation as well as more flexible and efficient harvesting systems. Economic benefits accrued from increased investment in harvesting and burning technology, improvements in stand quality and site utilisation, and substitution for more expensive fuels, especially if all costs are considered. Environmental effects were found to be generally positive, but negative effects of nutrient and organic matter removal on the overall sustainability of specific systems are possible. These need to be addressed. Harvest and management guidelines are being designed and put into practice. Social, institutional, and technical barriers to the increased use of biomass for energy are being addressed by specific strategies and initiatives involving programs and incentives for production, market development, research and education. Net positive effects indicate increased use of forest biomass for energy, in the short and long term. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Energy abundance and economic progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the benefits of energy abundance and on the links between energy supply, economic growth and human welfare in the United States. It is argued that the restoration of energy abundance with dependable sources of supply should be a major national objective. (U.K.)

  16. Energy, exergy and economic assessments of a novel integrated biomass based multigeneration energy system with hydrogen production and LNG regasification cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, M.H.; Mosaffa, A.H.; Farshi, L. Garousi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel integrated biomass based multigeneration energy system is presented and investigated for power, cooling and hydrogen production. The proposed system consists of a combination of biomass integrated gasifier-gas turbine cycle, a Rankine cycle, a cascade organic Rankine cycle, an absorption refrigeration system and a PEM to produce hydrogen. This system uses cold energy of LNG as a thermal sink. Comprehensive thermodynamic and economic analyses as well as an optimization are performed. The effects of operating parameters on thermodynamic performance and total cost rate are investigated for overall system and subsystems. The results show that the fuel mass flow rate is the dominant factor affecting the variation of energy efficiency and total cost rate. An increase in fuel mass flow rate from 4 kg s"−"1 to 10 kg s"−"1 leads to a decrease of 8.5% and an increase of 122.8% overall energy efficiency and total cost rate, respectively. Also, the largest increase in exergy efficiency occurs when gas turbine inlet temperature increases. The results of optimization showed that the highest net power output, mass flow rate of natural gas delivered to city and the flue gas temperature discharged to the environment are obtained for the exergy efficiency optimal design. - Highlights: • A novel multigeneration system is investigated and optimized thermodynamically and economically. • This system is proposed for power, cooling and hydrogen production. • Proposed system uses LNG cold energy thermal sink that can generate power after vaporization. • The effects of operating parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies and total cost rate are investigated. • An optimization is applied based on the energy, exergy and economic viewpoints.

  17. Energy–exergy and economic analyses of a hybrid solar–hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ender; Tari, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uninterrupted energy in an emergency blackout situation. • System modeling of a solar–hydrogen based hybrid renewable energy system. • A comprehensive thermodynamical analysis. • Levelized cost of electricity analysis for a project lifetime of 25 years. - Abstract: A hybrid (Solar–Hydrogen) stand-alone renewable energy system that consists of photovoltaic panels (PV), Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, PEM based electrolyzers and hydrogen storage is investigated by developing a complete model of the system using TRNSYS. The PV panels are mounted on a tiltable platform to improve the performance of the system by monthly adjustments of the tilt angle. The total area of the PV panels is 300 m 2 , the PEM fuel cell capacity is 5 kW, and the hydrogen storage is at 55 bars pressure and with 45 m 3 capacity. The main goal of this study is to verify that the system meets the electrical power demand of the emergency room without experiencing a shortage for a complete year in an emergency blackout situation. For this purpose, after modeling the system, energy and exergy analyses for the hydrogen cycle of the system for a complete year are performed, and the energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 4.06% and 4.25%, respectively. Furthermore, an economic analysis is performed for a project lifetime of 25 years based on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCE), and the LCE is calculated as 0.626 $/kWh.

  18. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  19. Impacts on the Electrical System Economics from Critical Design Factors of Wave Energy Converters and Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Fergus; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It is expected that ultimately, like offshore wind farms, electrical systems will make up to a quarter of the overall Capex of wave farms. This is a significant element of cost and consideration must be taken in the design of both individual wave energy converters (WECs) and arrays of WECs to ensure that these costs can be minimised. In a worst case scenario design decisions could increase the cost of the electrical system by several orders and ultimately make the technology uncompetitive. ...

  20. Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressed air energy storage (CAES system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC and organic Rankine cycle (ORC have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.

  1. Multi-criteria assessment of energy conversion systems by means of thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra Lopez, Humberto Ruben

    2007-12-01

    exergetic and economic costs are established as primary competing factors. An optimization algorithm is implemented using the constraint method. The solution is given as Pareto optimality with arrays for minimum cost and possible arrays for the tradeoff front. These arrays are further analyzed in terms of sustainability, cumulative exergy loss (i.e. irreversibilities and waste exergy) and incremental economic cost, and the results are compared with the goals of current legislated energy policy.

  2. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Podder, Shuvankar; Khan, Raihan Sayeed; Alam Mohon, Shah Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES) to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC) and cost of per unit ene...

  3. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  4. A novel polygeneration system integrating photovoltaic/thermal collectors, solar assisted heat pump, adsorption chiller and electrical energy storage: Dynamic and energy-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating/cooling, domestic hot water and electrical energy are provided by the system. • Two different users are investigated: fitness center and office. • The influence of the battery system on system economic performance is scarce. • Net metering contract is more profitable compared to simplified purchase/resale arrangement one. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic simulation model and a thermo-economic analysis of a novel polygeneration system are presented. The system includes photovoltaic/thermal collectors coupled with a solar-assisted heat pump, an adsorption chiller and an electrical energy storage. The modelled plant supplies electrical energy, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The produced solar thermal energy is used during the winter to supply the heat pump evaporator, providing the required space heating. In summer, solar thermal energy is used to drive an adsorption chiller providing the required space cooling. All year long, solar thermal energy in excess, with respect to the space heating and cooling demand, is used to produce domestic hot water. The produced electrical energy is self-consumed by both user and system auxiliary equipment and/or supplied to the grid. The system model includes a detailed electrical energy model for user storage and exchange with the grid along with a detailed building model. This study is a continuation of previous works recently presented by the authors. In particular, the present paper focuses on the real electrical demands of several types of users and on the analysis of the comfort of building users. Differently from the works previously published by the authors, the present work bases the calculations on measured electrical demands of real users (fitness center and offices). The system performance is analyzed with two different electricity supply contracts: net metering and simplified purchase/resale arrangement. Daily, weekly and yearly results are presented. Finally, a

  5. Energy and economic tables 1950-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This publication, prepared by the Planning and Economic Studies Section of the Division of Nuclear Power, presents summaries of data contained in the IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB). The data for each country are presented in a standardized format and in consistent system units. Aggregated data for the whole world, and for eight world subdivisions, are also presented in the same format

  6. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Geothermal Heating and Cooling System with a Vapor-Compression Chiller System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been given to energy utilization in Turkey. In this report, we present an energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a geothermal heating and cooling system (GSHP and a mechanical compression water chiller system (ACHP to improve the energy utilization efficiency and reduce the primary energy demand for industrial use. Analyses of a mechanical water chiller unit, GSW 180, and geothermal heating and cooling system, EAR 431 SK, were conducted in experimental working areas of the office buildings in a cigarette factory in Mersin, Turkey. The heating and cooling loads of the cigarette factory building were calculated, and actual thermal data were collected and analyzed. To calculate these loads, the cooling load temperature difference method was used. It was concluded that the geothermal heating and cooling system was more useful and productive and provides substantial economic benefits.

  7. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  8. Comparing Economic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    1984-01-01

    Defines the predominate classifications of economic systems: traditional, command, market, capitalism, socialism, and communism. Considers property rights, role of government, economic freedom, incentives, market structure, economic goals and means of achieving those goals for each classification. Identifies 26 print and audio-visual sources for…

  9. Electric vehicle charging in China’s power system: Energy, economic and environmental trade-offs and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Davis, Chris; Lukszo, Zofia; Weijnen, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the energy, economic and environmental implications of deploying EVs for China’s power system by 2030. • EVs outperform gasoline-powered vehicles in terms of average fueling costs. • Controlled EV charging given the expected 2030 capacity portfolio results in more CO_2 emissions than uncontrolled charging. • Controlled charging has absolute advantages in mitigating the peak load and facilitating RES generation. • Controlled (dis)charging will not reduce CO_2 for China without generation decarbonization and CO_2-influenced dispatch. - Abstract: This work investigates different scenarios for electric vehicle (EV) deployment in China and explores the implications thereof with regard to energy portfolio, economics and the environment. Specifically, we investigate how to better deliver the value of EVs by improving designs in the power system and charging strategies, given expected developments by 2030 in both the power system and EV penetration levels. The impact of EV charging is quantified by applying an integrated transportation-power system model on a set of scenarios which represent uncertainties in charging strategies. We find that deploying EVs essentially shifts the use of gasoline to coal-fired power generation in China, thus leading to more coal consumption and CO_2 emissions of the power system. Economically, EVs outperform gasoline-powered vehicles in terms of average fueling costs. However, the impact of EVs in terms of CO_2 emissions at the national level largely depends on the charging strategy. Specifically, controlled charging results in more CO_2 emissions associated with EVs than uncontrolled charging, as it tends to feed EVs with electricity produced by cheap yet low-efficiency coal power plants located in regions where coal prices are low. Still, compared with uncontrolled charging, controlled charging shows absolute advantages in: (1) mitigating the peak load arising from EV charging; (2) facilitating RES

  10. Exergy based methods for economic and risk design optimization of energy systems: Application to a gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, G.; Rocco, M.V.; Colombo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Exergy based analyses are considered by the scientific community appropriate tools for the design and the performance evaluation and improvements of energy systems. Moreover, they are today recognized as proper instruments to assess economic, environmental and social externalities of energy systems. This paper presents the results of a study in which different exergy analysis methods are adopted to determine the optimal design configuration of a gas turbine operating in simple Joule Brayton cycle. Standard exergy and Thermoeconomic analyses are performed to identify the highest thermodynamic efficiency and minimum economic cost configurations of the system, while for the environmental analysis Authors propose an innovative method in which the exergy analysis is combined with a Risk Analysis. With this method the total risk associated to the system is used as objective function in the same way as monetary cost is for standard Thermoeconomic analysis. These three methods aims therefore to determine the optimal design configurations of the system with respect to their specific objective functions, respectively: exergy cost (J/J), monetary (exergoeconomic) cost (€/J) and risk (injured/J) of the product. Results lead to three different optimal design parameters for the system, according to the objective of each analysis procedure. - Highlights: • An original implementation of Thermoeconomic framework is proposed. • Standard Exergy and Thermoeconomic analysis are performed on a case study. • A new model using exergy as allocation criteria for Risk Analysis is performed. • Different optimal configurations are obtained and compared

  11. Economic planning for electric energy systems: a multi objective linearized approach for solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata Medeiros Branco, T. da.

    1986-01-01

    The economic planning problem associated to the expansion and operation of electrical power systems is considered in this study, represented for a vectorial objective function in which the minimization of resources involved and maximization of attended demand constitute goals to be satisfied. Supposing all the variables involved with linear characteristic and considering the conflict existing among the objectives to be achieved, in order to find a solution, a multi objective linearized approach is proposed. This approximation utilizes the compromise programming technique and linear programming methods. Generation and transmission are simultaneously considered into the optimization process in which associated losses and the capacity of each line are included. Illustrated examples are also presented with results discussed. (author)

  12. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Song Guojun; Beresford, Melanie; Ma, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: → We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. → We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. → Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. → Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. → This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  13. Transportation economics and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  14. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  15. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  16. Biohythane system using two steps of POME fermentation process for supplying electrical energi : economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuldian, P.; Hastuti, Z. D.; Murti, S. D. S.; Adiarso

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil in the world has the prospective to generate additional benefits such as electricity by utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of 35,000 ppm POME is a great potential for conversion to hydrogen and methane through a fermentation process. In this study, two stages of fermentation using a microbial consortium have been performed in the 1 m3 BioHythane reactor system to produce biohydrogen and biomethane. After two-stage fermentation process for 24 hours in this system, the microbial consortium succeeds in producing biohydrogen and biomethane of 32 and 60 vol. %, respectively. This gas product after the purification process could be converted to electricity to be 0.02 and 0.75 kWe, respectively. Furthermore, as result of economic calculation analysis, this biohythane system showed up the value of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) of US 26,39540 and Operating Expenses (OPEX) of US 14,712 per year, and resulted total generated electricity cost of US 2.478 / kWh.

  17. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  18. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  19. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system which could be attractive for future electric utility peak-load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off-peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak-load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak-load power plant dependence on petroleum-based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal-fired fluidized bed (FBC) combustor/compressed air energy storage (FBC/CAES) systems was performed and is described. The conclusions drawn from the FBC/CAES study program are encouraging. They indicate that pressurized FBC/CAES power plants should be technologically feasible, provide good performance, and be economically competitive. Specifically, it is concluded that: coal-fired FBC/CAES systems should be technically feasible in the near future and potentially attractive for peak-load power generation; and an open-bed PFBC/CAES configuration would provide the best candidate for early commercialization. It has relatively low risk combined with moderate cost and reasonable round-trip heat rate. It also has the potential for future growth options which tend to reduce costs and lower fuel consumption.

  20. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy from the desert. Very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, K.; Ito, M.; Komoto, K.; Vleuten, P. van der; Faiman, D. (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    This executive summary report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) summarises the objectives and concepts of very large scale photovoltaic power generation (VLS-PV) systems and takes a look at the socio-economic, financial and technical aspects involved as well as the environmental impact of such systems. Potential benefits for desert communities, agricultural development and desalination of water are topics that are looked at. The potential of VLS-PV, its energy payback time and CO{sub 2} emission rates are discussed. Case studies for the Sahara and the Gobi Dessert areas are discussed. A VLS-PV roadmap is proposed and scenarios are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made.

  2. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  3. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  4. Mathematical programming models for the economic design and assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, K. A.

    The use of linear decision rules (LDR) and chance constrained programming (CCP) to optimize the performance of wind energy conversion clusters coupled to storage systems is described. Storage is modelled by LDR and output by CCP. The linear allocation rule and linear release rule prescribe the size and optimize a storage facility with a bypass. Chance constraints are introduced to explicitly treat reliability in terms of an appropriate value from an inverse cumulative distribution function. Details of deterministic programming structure and a sample problem involving a 500 kW and a 1.5 MW WECS are provided, considering an installed cost of $1/kW. Four demand patterns and three levels of reliability are analyzed for optimizing the generator choice and the storage configuration for base load and peak operating conditions. Deficiencies in ability to predict reliability and to account for serial correlations are noted in the model, which is concluded useful for narrowing WECS design options.

  5. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  6. Economic aspects of advanced energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Venkata, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced energy technologies span a wide variety of resources, techniques, and end-user requirements. Economic considerations are major factors that shape their harnessing and utilization. A discussion of the basic factors in the economic arena is presented, with particular emphasis on renewable energy technologies--photovoltaics, solar-thermal, wind-electric conversion, biomass utilization, hydro, and tidal and wave energy systems. The following are essential to determine appropriate energy system topologies: proper resource-need matching with an eye on the quality of energy requirements, integrated use of several resources and technologies, and a comprehensive consideration which includes prospecting, collection, conversion, transportation, distribution, storage and reconversion, end use, and subsequent waste management aspects. A few case studies are included to apprise the reader of the status of some of the key technologies and systems

  7. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ENERGY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  8. Environmental and economic performance of heating systems for energy-efficient dwellings: Case of passive and low-energy single-family houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, L.; Massart, C.; Van Moeseke, G.; De Herde, A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption of the building stock, a major trend is to drastically reduce the space-heating (SH) needs by improving the thermal performance of the envelope. In general, this measure is combined with efficient heating systems to minimize the delivered energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, these better systems are often more expensive so that the extra-investment could be hardly recovered for small-scale energy consumption. The main objective of the article is to show how equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed when small SH needs are considered (i.e. for passive and low-energy houses). The scope is limited to new single-family dwellings. Furthermore, the passive house standard provides means of simplifying the SH by using the ventilation air: the idea is that savings should counterbalance the extra-investment in super-insulation. In theory, a new global economic optimum is generated at the passive house level. The second objective of the work is to study which conditions could lead to this new optimum. Only a detached-house typology is investigated to address this last issue. Regarding methodology, all the investigations are done considering the Belgian context. Energy and environmental performance is evaluated using a method that complies with the EN-15603 and EN-15316 standards. - Highlights: ► Cost-benefit analysis is performed without incentives and is based on the Belgian market. ► Equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed for very low-energy houses. ► The space-heating simplification at the passive house level can hardly produce a new global economic optimum.

  9. Economic analysis of energy system considering the uncertainties of crude oil, natural gas and nuclear utilization employing stochastic dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Keita; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an economic rationality analysis of power generation mix by stochastic dynamic programming considering fuel price uncertainties and supply disruption risks such as import disruption and nuclear power plant shutdown risk. The situation revolving around Japan's energy security adopted the past statistics, it cannot be applied to a quantitative analysis of future uncertainties. Further objective and quantitative evaluation methods are required in order to analyze Japan's energy system and make it more resilient in sight of long time scale. In this paper, the authors firstly develop the cost minimization model considering oil and natural gas price respectively by stochastic dynamic programming. Then, the authors show several premises of model and an example of result with related to crude oil stockpile, liquefied natural gas stockpile and nuclear power plant capacity. (author)

  10. Multi-objective technico-economic optimization of energy conversion systems: hydrogen and electricity cogeneration from Generation IV nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in environmental considerations, such as the control of greenhouse emissions, and with the decrease in the fossil energy resources, hydrogen is currently considered as a promising energy vector. One of the main technological challenges of a future hydrogen economy is its large scale production without fossil fuel emissions. Under this context, nuclear energy is particularly adapted for hydrogen massive production by thermochemical cycles or high temperature electrolysis. One of the selected nuclear systems is the Very High Temperature Reactor (950 C/1200 C), cooled with helium, and dedicated to hydrogen production or to hydrogen electricity cogeneration. The main objective of this investigation, within the framework of a collaboration between CEA, French Atomic Agency (Cadarache) and LGC (Toulouse), consists in defining a technico-economic optimization methodology of electricity-hydrogen cogeneration systems, in order to identify and propose promising development strategies. Among the massive production processes of hydrogen, the thermochemical cycle Iodine-Sulphur has been considered. Taking into account the diversity of the used energies (i.e., heat and electricity) on the one hand and of the produced energies (hydrogen and electricity) on the other hand of the studied cogeneration system, an exergetic approach has been developed due to its ability to consider various energy forms on the same thermodynamical basis. The CYCLOP software tool (CEA) is used for the thermodynamic modelling of these systems. The economic criterion, calculated using the SEMER software tool (CEA), is based on the minimization of the total production site cost over its lifespan i.e., investment, operating costs and nuclear fuel cost. Capital investment involves the development of cost functions adapted to specific technologies and their specific operating conditions. The resulting optimization problems consist in maximizing the energy production, while minimizing the

  11. Energy taxation and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, Adam; Mabro, Robert.

    1994-01-01

    These two linked articles look at the relationship between policies aimed at taxing various energy sources and economic growth in the country, raising such taxes in order to decide how such fiscal policy can best serve the needs of developing nations. It is argued that, while many developing nations seek to protect internal energy markets by taxing imported petroleum products, a policy of domestic energy prices being set at the same level as their international equivalent costs is more consistent with the efficient management of long-term structural adjustment programmes. (UK)

  12. Performance and Economics of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Energy System: Naval Air Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Ed; Olsen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the wind resource, economics and operation of the recently installed wind turbines in conjunction with diesel power for the Naval Air Landing Field (NALF), San Clemente Island (SCI), California Project. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system is to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is also intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen-oxide emissions and other pollutants. The first two NM 225/30 225kW wind turbines were installed and started shake-down operations on February 5, 1998. This report describes the initial operational data gathered from February 1998 through January 1999, as well as the SCI wind resource and initial cost of energy provided by the wind turbines on SCI. In support of this objective, several years of data on the wind resources of San Clemente Island were collected and compared to historical data. The wind resource data were used as input to economic and feasibility studies for a wind-diesel hybrid installation for SCI

  13. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  14. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  15. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  16. Economics, modeling, planning and management of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Khan, A.M.; Furlan, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Workshop attended by 89 participants from 40 countries aimed to provide participants with an overview of global and regional issues and to familiarize them with analytical tools and modeling techniques appropriate for the analysis and planning of national energy systems. Emphasis was placed on energy-economy-interaction, modelling for balancing energy demand and supply, technical-economic evaluation of energy supply alternatives and energy demand management. This volume presents some of the lectures delivered at the Workshop. The material has been organized in five parts under the headings General Review of Current Energy Trends, Energy and Technology Menu, Basic Analytical Approaches, Energy Modeling and Planning, and Energy Management and Policy. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the lectures presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of hydrogen fuel cell and solar photovoltaic hybrid renewable energy system for academic research building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anand; Baredar, Prashant; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A HFC and SPV HRES for stand-alone applications is proposed. • The FC program computes the optimum cost of HRES components. • HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. - Abstract: A hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) and solar photovoltaic (SPV) hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for stand-alone applications is proposed. This system arrangement of a hydrogen tank, battery, and an electrolyzer are used as like the energy storage. The economic viability of using HRES power to supply the electrical load demand of academic research building located at 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitudes, India is examined. The fuzzy logic program computes the optimum value of capital and replacement cost of the components, which is then utilized in HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. The results shows the HFC and battery bank are the most significant modules of the HRES to meet load demand at late night and early morning hours. The AC primary load consuming 20712.63 kWh/year out of total power generation of HRES which is 24570.72 kWh/year. The excess of electricity produced by HRES is 791.7709 kWh/year with the optimized cost of energy, unmet electrical load and capacity shortage of 0%.

  18. Energy reconstruction of Russia economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnyakova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    How to make the energetics economically efficient and ecologically safe - is the main question that worries many people today. The credit-monetary policy is considered. Development of the system for the control and management of the power engineering enterprises is proposed [ru

  19. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  20. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  1. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  2. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  3. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Nam, J. H.; Noh, B. C.; Kim, H. R.

    2008-12-01

    The concerns on the global warming issues in the international community are bringing about a paradigm shift in the national economy including energy technology development. In this connection, the green growth mainly utilizing green technology, which emits low carbon, is being initiated by many advanced countries including Korea. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution to the national economy from nuclear energy attributable to the characteristics of green technology, to which nuclear energy belongs. The study covers the role of nuclear in addressing climate change issues, the proper share of nuclear in the electricity sector, the cost analyses of decommissioning and radioactive waste management, and the analysis on the economic performance of nuclear R and D including cost benefit analysis

  4. Optimizing economic benefit of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems through lowering energy demand of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems on the rooftop. To promote deployment of PV systems, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the electricity rate is available in many countries to subsidize

  5. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard Doin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year 2015 (FY15). The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status on its progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, starting from a simulation strategy, a rigorous mathematical formulation has been achieved in which the economic optimization of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System is presented as a constrained robust (under uncertainty) optimization problem. Some possible algorithms for the solution of the optimization problem are presented. A variation of the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation algorithm has been implemented in RAVEN and preliminary tests have been performed. The development of the software infrastructure to support the simulation of the whole NHES has also moved forward. The coupling between RAVEN and an implementation of the Modelica language (OpenModelica) has been implemented, migrated under several operating systems and tested using an adapted model of a desalination plant. In particular, this exercise was focused on testing the coupling of the different code systems; testing parallel, computationally expensive simulations on the INL cluster; and providing a proof of concept for the possibility of using surrogate models to represent the different NHES subsystems. Another important step was the porting of the RAVEN code under the Windows™ operating system. This accomplishment makes RAVEN compatible with the development environment that is being used for dynamic simulation of NHES components. A very simplified model of a NHES on the electric market has been built in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces even for stochastic constraints. This

  6. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  8. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  9. Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarıca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural gas export levels leads to a small reduction in GDP (0.04%–0.17%. Higher exports also increases U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and electricity prices (1.1%–7.2%. We also evaluate the impacts of natural gas exports in the presence of a Clean Energy Standard (CES for electricity. In this case, the GDP impacts are similar, but the electricity and transport sector impacts are different.

  10. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  11. The economics of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.; Walls, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of research on energy security that has been conducted over the past 20 years are brought together and expanded. Chapter 2 lays out basic conceptual arguments regarding the economic externalities and the military premium, as well as the general problem of identifying a market failure. Chapter 3 provides a brief history of the oil price shocks of the 1970s and reviews the empirical evidence on the energy security externalities laid out in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 builds on the material in Chapter 3 to critique published estimates of the overall premium associated with oil imports or oil consumption. Chapter 5 examines how the oil market has changed in the twenty years since the first oil shock of the 1970s and assesses the effect of these changes on price behavior and market efficiency. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on two sectors in which the energy security debate is being carried out through concrete policy measures: the choice of electricity generation technology and the market for transportation fuels. In Chapter 8, we summarize our assessments of potential energy security externalities and examine their implications for a variety of policy measures at the national and subnational levels. 7 figs., 11 tabs., 200 refs

  12. GHGs (greenhouse gases) emission and economic analysis of a GCRES (grid-connected renewable energy system) in the arid region, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saheb Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for economic evaluation and GHGs (greenhouse gases) emissions calculation from a GCRES (grid-connected renewable energy system). An investigation is made on large-scale operations of 67 MWh/day GCRES. A comparison is performed between a GCRES and a standard grid operation focusing on environmental and economic impacts. Emissions and the Renewable energy generation fraction (RF) of total energy consumption are calculated as the main environmental indicators. Costs including NPC (net present cost), COE (cost of energy) and payback period are calculated as the economic indicators. Using the hourly mean global solar irradiance, temperature and wind speed data relative to In Salah and Adrar locations characterized by an arid and hot climate according to the Koppen–Geiger climate classification, a long-term continuous implementation of hybrid renewable energy systems are simulated using HOMER software and are discussed. As results, it is observed that a GCRES reduce 30% and 35% of GHGs emission, and 81% and 76% of COE during the operation phase respectively for In Salah and Adrar. Investments in GCRES should be considered only by planning to produce parts of the equipment locally, which leads to significantly reduce the costs and, consequently, the emissions. - Highlights: • Grid-connected renewable energy system (GCRES). • Economic evaluation and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions calculation. • In Salah and Adrar are taken as two examples of the famous Algerian arid land. • The climatic data are used to simulate the long-term implementation of the system.

  13. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  14. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaee, S. Rasoul; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  15. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  16. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic and environmental impacts of the energy source for the utility production system in the HDA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, A.; Pibouleau, L.; Azzaro-Pantel, C.; Domenech, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Two energy sources – fuel oil, natural gas – for the utility production system of the HDA process are studied. • In each case the best solution is identified. • The choice is performed according to cost and environmental considerations. - Abstract: The well-known benchmark process for hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) to produce benzene is revisited in a multi-objective approach for identifying environmentally friendly and cost-effective operation solutions. The paper begins with the presentation of the numerical tools used in this work, i.e., a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a Multiple Choice Decision Making procedure. Then, two studies related to the energy source involved in the utility production system (UPS), either fuel oil or natural gas, of the HDA process are carried out. In each case, a multi-objective optimization problem based on the minimization of the total annual cost of the process and of five environmental burdens, that are Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Human Toxicity Potential and Eutrophication Potential, is solved and the best solution is identified by use of Multiple Choice Decision Making procedures. An assessment of the respective contribution of the HDA process and the UPS towards environmental impacts on the one hand, and of the environmental impacts generated by the main equipment items of the HDA process on the other hand is then performed to compare both solutions. This “gate-to-gate” environmental study is then enlarged by implementing a “cradle-to-gate” Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), for accounting of emission inventory and extraction. The use of a natural gas turbine, less economically efficient, turns out to be a more attractive alternative to meet the societal expectations concerning environment preservation and sustainable development

  18. Distributed Energy Generation Systems Based on Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Blending: New Business Models for Economic Incentives, Electricity Market Design and Regulatory Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangon, Joseph

    Expansion of distributed energy resources (DERs) including solar photovoltaics, small- and medium-sized wind farms, gas-fired distributed generation, demand-side management, and energy storage poses significant complications to the design, operation, business model, and regulation of electricity systems. Using statistical regression analysis, this dissertation assesses if increased use of natural gas results in reduced renewable energy capacity, and if natural gas growth is correlated with increased or decreased non-fossil renewable fuels demand. System Generalized Method of Moments (System GMM) estimation of the dynamic relationship was performed on the indicators in the econometric model for the ten states with the fastest growth in solar generation capacity in the U.S. (e.g., California, North Carolina, Arizona, Nevada, New Jersey, Utah, Massachusetts, Georgia, Texas, and New York) to analyze the effect of natural gas on renewable energy diffusion and the ratio of fossil fuels increase for the period 2001-2016 to policy driven solar demand. The study identified ten major drivers of change in electricity systems, including growth in distributed energy generation systems such as intermittent renewable electricity and gas-fired distributed generation; flat to declining electricity demand growth; aging electricity infrastructure and investment gaps; proliferation of affordable information and communications technologies (e.g., advanced meters or interval meters), increasing innovations in data and system optimization; and greater customer engagement. In this ongoing electric power sector transformation, natural gas and fast-flexing renewable resources (mostly solar and wind energy) complement each other in several sectors of the economy. The dissertation concludes that natural gas has a positive impact on solar and wind energy development: a 1% rise in natural gas capacity produces 0.0304% increase in the share of renewable energy in the short-run (monthly) compared

  19. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  20. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with current energy issues, environmental aspects of energy, project feasibility evaluation, and activities of international organizations. Current energy issues including activities related with UNFCCC, sustainable development, and global concern on energy issues were surveyed with focusing on nuclear related activities. Environmental aspects of energy includes various topics such as, inter- industrial analysis of nuclear sector, the role of nuclear power in mitigating GHG emission, carbon capture and sequestration technology, hydrogen production by using nuclear energy, Life Cycle Analysis as a method of evaluating environmental impacts of a technology, and spent fuel management in the case of introducing fast reactor and/or accelerator driven system. Project feasibility evaluation includes nuclear desalination using SMART reactor, and introduction of COMFAR computer model, developed by UNIDO to carry out feasibility analysis in terms of business attitude. Activities of international organizations includes energy planning activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA, introduction of the activities of FNCA, one of the cooperation mechanism among Asian countries. In addition, MESSAGE computer model was also introduced. The model is being developed by IAEA to effectively handle liberalization of electricity market combined with environmental constraints

  1. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model.

  3. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model

  4. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Lee, H. M.; Oh, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    This study consists of various issues as follows; electricity price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, establishment of carbon emission limit in national electricity sector, the role of nuclear power as an future energy supply option, the future prospect of CO2 capture and sequestration and current research status of that area in Korea, and Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer). In the price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, the characteristic of liberalized electricity market in terms of regulation was discussed. The current status and future projection of GHG emission in Korean electricity sector was also investigated. After that, how to set the GHG emission limit in the national electricity sector was discussed. The characteristic of nuclear technology and the research in progress were summarized with the suggestion of the possible new application of nuclear power. The current status and future prospect of the CO2 capture and sequestration research was introduced and current research status of that area in Korea was investigated. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer), using liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed

  5. Energy Economics: A Place for Energy Poverty in the Agenda?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The global energy system faces three major strategic challenges in the coming decades: the growing risk of disruptions to energy supply; the threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use; and persistent energy poverty. The first two challenges have attracted a lot of attention from the energy-economics community, much less so the need to address the problem of energy under-development. On current trends, the number of people in poor countries relying primarily on traditional biomass for their energy needs will continue to rise, while the number lacking access to electricity will barely fall. To change this course, decisive policy action is needed urgently as part of the broader process of human development. Meeting basic human needs, such as food and shelter, must be at the heart of any strategy to alleviate poverty.

  6. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  7. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  8. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  9. A thermo economic analysis of a PV-hydrogen system feeding the energy requests of a residential building in an isolated valley of the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.; Macagno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an economic analysis of a model of a stand alone energy system based only on a renewable source (solar irradiance) integrated with a system for the production of hydrogen. The purpose of this system is to supply the complete electric and part of the heat requests of a small residential user in a remote area (an isolated building in a valley of the Alps in Italy) during a complete year of operation without integration of a traditional energy system based on fossil fuels. The system analysed is composed of a PV array integrated with an electrolyser, with a tank where the hydrogen is stored as compressed gas and with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Such a system has no pollutant emissions and is environmentally friendly. A simulation program has been developed to design the system and to analyse the technical and economic performance during a complete year of operation. The economic analysis is developed using thermo economic analysis. This procedure joins some aspects of exergy analysis with some economic information, such as the fuel market costs and the investment and maintenance costs of the components of the energy plant. Using this methodology, it is possible to obtain some information on the economic behaviour of the plant and to analyse in depth the process of cost formation of all system flows, in particular those of the final products. The thermo economic analysis can be performed to evaluate the different economic behaviour of the system in different operating conditions (e.g. during daylight hours or in evening hours). In this paper, the analysis has been effected considering a representative day for each month of operation and two significant hours (1:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.) in order to consider two opposite situations (with and without solar irradiance) with high energy demands by the user. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been developed to calculate the variation of the cost of the final energy products (and of the

  10. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Renewable Stand-Alone Energy Supply System Using Multi-objective Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dohyun; Han, Seulki; Kim, Jiyong Kim [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to propose a new optimization-based approach for design and analysis of the stand-alone hybrid energy supply system using renewable energy sources (RES). In the energy supply system, we include multiple energy production technologies such as Photovoltaics (PV), Wind turbine, and fossil-fuel-based AC generator along with different types of energy storage and conversion technologies such as battery and inverter. We then select six different regions of Korea to represent various characteristics of different RES potentials and demand profiles. We finally designed and analyzed the optimal RES stand-alone energy supply system in the selected regions using multiobjective optimization (MOOP) technique, which includes two objective functions: the minimum cost and the minimum CO{sub 2} emission. In addition, we discussed the feasibility and expecting benefits of the systems by comparing to conventional systems of Korea. As a result, the region of the highest RES potential showed the possibility to remarkably reduce CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the conventional system. Besides, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the RES-based energy system is identified to be slightly higher than conventional energy system: 0.35 and 0.46 $/kWh, respectively. However, the total life-cycle emission of CO{sub 2} (LCECO{sub 2}) can be reduced up to 470 gCO{sub 2}/kWh from 490 gCO{sub 2}/kWh of the conventional systems.

  11. Project management for economical nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The price of electricity is significantly influenced by the cost of the initial generation asset. The cost of the initial nuclear generation asset is significantly influenced by the design and construction duration. Negative variations in the cost and duration of actual design and construction have historically impacted the early relative economics of nuclear power generation. Successful management of plant design information will mitigate the risks of the design and construction of future nuclear plants. Information management tools that can model the integrated delivery of large complex projects enable the project owners to accurately evaluate project progress, as well as the economic impact of regulatory, political, or market activities not anticipated in the project execution plan. Significant differences exist in the electrical energy markets, project delivery models, and fuel availability between continents and countries. However, each market and project delivery model is challenged by the need to produce economical electrical energy. The information management system presented in this paper provides a means to capture in a single integrated computerized database the design information developed during plant design, procurement, and construction and to allow this information to be updated and retrieved in real time by all project participants. Utilization of the information management system described herein will enable diverse project teams to rapidly and reliably input, share, and retrieve power plant information, thereby supporting project management's goal to make good on its commitment to the economic promise of tomorrow's nuclear electrical power generation by achieving cost-effective construction. (authors)

  12. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Hina; Palanisamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  13. Introduction : Energy economics and financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, John L.; Westerman, Wim; Dorsman, André

    2015-01-01

    Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. It is argued that the importance of energy production, consumption and trade and raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. Specific examples of daily energy issues stem from various

  14. Economical effectiveness of wind energy systems. Calculation model for the determination of the effectiveness under variable starting points. Economische rentabiliteit windenergiesystemen. Rekenmodel voor de rentabiliteitsbepaling onder varierende uitgangspunten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wees, F G; Bakema, G F

    1988-12-01

    A model is described for economic analysis of wind energy systems which calculates the internal rate of return and the costs of the electricity produced for various system configurations and management options. Calculations have been made for the economics of four types of wind turbines (16, 25, 34 and 45 m rotor diameter). Different types of windfarms (isolated wind turbine and 10 or 40 wind turbines in line or cluster) are distinguished. The electricity production, investments- and exploitation costs are estimated for the years 1990 and 2000. The economic calculations present results for two forms of management: by private enterprise or public utilities. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out with respect to differences in wind regime, electricity prices, investments costs and economic lifetime. A data-base on the parameters used is included. 31 figs., 13 tabs., 5 apps.

  15. The IAEA energy and economic data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Russell, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976, the IAEA established a computerized energy and economic data bank not only on nuclear energy but on other forms of energy as well. The purpose of the data bank is to provide in a unified and systematic way energy and related economic data needed for long-term energy planning. A computer program permits the production of a variety of up-to-date tables and graphs

  16. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  17. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  18. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  19. National economic aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, P.

    1981-01-01

    The author discusses the economic place value of energy supply for production, the influence of energy on national economy structure and specialisation, cost/gain effects of alternative energy strategies, the effects of energy policy on the labour market, and the need for clearer aims in energy policy. (H.V.H.)

  20. Technical and economic data biomass-based energy conversion systems for the production of gaseous and/or liquid energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to give an indication of the expected development of the currently mainly fossil fuel based Dutch energy supply system to a future CO 2 -emission 'free' energy supply system, and (2) to present main technological, economic, and environmental characteristics of three promising renewable energy based technologies for the production of gaseous and/or liquid secondary energy carriers and/or electricity and/or heat, viz.: (a) biomass hydrogasification for SNG (synthetic natural gas) production; (b) trigeneration of methanol and CHP (combined heat and power) from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' LPMEOH (liquid phase methanol) process into a 'conventional BIG/CC (Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle) system; and (c) trigeneration of Fischer-Tropsch derived transportation fuels and CHP from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch) into a 'conventional' BIG/CC-system. Biomass conversion systems, for the production of CHP, transportation fuels, and as biofeedstock for the petrochemical industry, will play a substantial role in meeting the future Dutch renewable energy policy goals. In case fossil fuel prices remain low, additional policies are needed to reach these goals. Biomass will also play a significant role in reaching significant CO 2 emission reduction in Western Europe. In which sector the limited amount of biomass available/contractable can be applied best is still unclear, and therefore needs further research. By biomass hydrogasification it is possible to produce SNG with more or less the same composition as Groningen natural gas. In case relatively cheap hydrogen-rich waste gas streams are used in the short-term, the SNG production costs will he in the same order of magnitude as the market price for Dutch natural gas for small consumers (fl 0.6/Nm 3 ). The calculated minimum production costs for the 'green' fuels (methanol: 15 Euroct/l or 9 Euro/GJ, and FT-fuels: 27 Euroct/l or 9 Euro

  1. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriot, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  2. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  3. Simulation of the system, Energy, Environment, and Economy. Economic model of Baden--Wuerttemberg. Part 1. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, G.

    1977-04-01

    The energy consumption of industry and private households in a country is closely linked with the amount and development of the GNP and the available income. Instead of extrapolations, a dynamic econometric model was developed based on the Keynesian theory and the data of 1960 to 1974 relating to national accounts. The economic ties between Baden--Wuertemberg and the FRG are to be insured by a subsequent coupling to an FRG model. The first part of this paper basically deals with the fundamentals of the model. An introduction to the problems given by the project is followed by the theoretical economic conception and methodical bases of the model, as well as a discussion of various possible versions of behavior equations. From a set of possible versions of a behavior equation one version, possibly with an alternative for the model simulation in the second part, is selected.

  4. Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jindou; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Yaodong

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction have become targets for modern society due to the potential energy crisis and the threat of climate change. A distributed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, a wood-syngas combined heat and power generator (CHP) and back-up batteries is designed to power a typical semi-detached rural house in China which aims to meet the energy demand of a house and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Based on the annual load information of the house and the local meteorological data including solar radiation, air temperature, etc., a system model is set up using HOMER software and is used to simulate all practical configurations to carry out technical and economic evaluations. The performance of the whole HRES system and each component under different configurations are evaluated. The optimized configuration of the system is found

  5. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  6. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  7. Energy and economic analysis of an On-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coca-Ortegón, Adriana; Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Coronas, Alberto; Merino, Gabriel; Gontupi, Jorge; Salazar, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of an on-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm located in Osorno (Chile), operated under the Net-Metering scheme. All equipment installed in the farm is driven by electricity and the daily average electric consumption is 235 kWh. The study analyses first the existing installation, second a conventional solar installation (with photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies), and third a photovoltaic installation plus a photovoltaic-thermal hybrid installation. We did a sensibility analysis of the solar contribution factor to the self-consumption (electric and thermal), by varying the mass flow rate in the solar thermal circuit, and the energy storage size. This analysis allowed to optimize the sizing and the operation of the solar systems. The systems are compared in terms of annual energy production per unit area, unit price of energy produced and percentage of energy exported to the grid. (author)

  8. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems; Wirtschaftlichkeit geothermischer Energiegewinnung im Rahmen regenerativer und konventioneller Energiesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, G

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations.

  9. ENERGY USE EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS IN COTTON PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN AN ARID REGION: A CASE STUDY FOR ISFAHAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Zahedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to evaluate the energy consumption and the economic analysis of cotton production in Esfahan province of Iran. For this purpose, data were selected from 47 cotton growers using a face-to-face questionnaire. The results indicate that cotton production consumed a total energy of 52507.8 MJ ha-1. Among sources of input energy, the contribution of energy related to diesel fuel (47% was highest, followed by chemical fertilizers (20% and water for irrigation (12%. The shares of direct and non renewable energy were 68.3% and 77.7%, respectively. The impacts of indirect and non-renewable energy on cotton yield were higher than those of direct and renewable energy. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, energy intensiveness, and net energy were 0.7, 19.2 MJ-1 kg, 0.10 kg MJ-1, 27.2 MJ-1 $ -1, -15625.2 MJ-1ha-1, respectively. Total cost of cotton production was 1927.9 $ ha-1. About 67% of the cost of production was variable costs, while 33% was fixed costs. The benefit to cost ratio was estimated 1.22. It is suggested that efforts to increase energy efficiency of cotton production in the investigated area should primarily focus on proper use of fertilizers and irrigation systems and also on saving diesel fuel by improving machinery operating performance.

  10. Remarks on economic growth and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1979-01-01

    An energy policy according to the principles of decoupling is impossible without an increase in reasonable and profitable power application. It is also impossible without increased nuclear energy. Energy policy according to the principles of decoupling connects the natural growth tendency of a liberally arranged industry with the natural limits of the production factor 'nature'. Energy policy is the very sphere where tomorrow's necessities must be planned today. If in long range, a constant level of energy production struturised different from today's can be assumed, then this is future-bound. For it takes into consideration today tomorrow's necessities. This is the only guarantee we have for our industry to be able to grow tomorrow. On the basis of historical experience, an economic system will believe in the goal of a constant energy supply just as it was believing in abounding in energy up to day. The structure of the growth might change in long term. But accepting the thoughts of decoupling, progress will come. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Three empirical essays in energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Jacquelyn Ryan

    This dissertation explores society's relationship with energy systems. Focusing on two areas of energy economics---electricity reliability and clean energy technology adoption---my objective is to provide insights on energy markets that can contribute towards informing energy policy and improving quality of life. In the first chapter, I examine how firm-level corruption on the demand side of the electricity sector impacts electricity reliability in developing countries. Showing that bribes for electricity connections are closely related to power outages experienced by firms, this chapter demonstrates how consumer-level corrupt behavior negatively impacts electricity service provision. In the second chapter, I study homeowners' stated information searching about solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption in California's residential market. Exploring differences between the types of information sought by consumers adopting solar through third-party ownership (TPO) relative to consumers who purchase solar systems outright (host-ownership (HO)), this chapter sheds light on differences between business model consumer preferences in the residential solar PV market. Lastly, in the third chapter I estimate solar subsidy pass-through to the prices faced by consumers in California's residential solar PV market and ask whether incidence differs for TPO consumers where subsidies are directed to the third party owner of the system (or the "seller") and HO consumers where subsidies go directly to the consumer (or the "buyer"). I find that TPO consumers capture more than 100 percent of every dollar of solar subsidy while HO consumers capture less than 100 percent of every dollar. This is surprising because standard economic theory predicts that the relative benefit of a subsidy does not depend on to whom it is directed.

  12. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  13. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  14. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  15. Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: A case study of Kallar Kahar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Jameel; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    . The comprehensive resource assessment of wind, biomass and solar energy is carried out for grid integration. Homer Pro software is used to model a hybrid microgrid system. Optimization results and sensitivity analysis is carried out to ensure the robustness and cost-effectiveness of the proposed hybrid microgrid......This paper focuses on the techno-economic feasibility of a grid-tied hybrid microgrid system for local inhabitants of Kallar Kahar near Chakwal city of Punjab province in Pakistan and investigates the potential for electricity generation through hybrid wind, photovoltaic and biomass system...... system. The total load has been optimally shared among generated power through wind, photovoltaic and biomass resources and surplus power is supplied to the national grid in case of low local demand of the load. The results of techno-economic feasibility study show that hybrid power system can generate...

  16. The economic costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    At a recent symposium, the economic costs of nuclear power were examined in four lectures which considered; (1) The performance of different types, size and ages of nuclear power plants. (2) The comparison between coal and nuclear power costs based on the principle of net effective cash. (3) The capital requirements of a nuclear programme. (4) The comparative costs, now and in the future, of coal-fired and nuclear plants. It is concluded that uncertainties seem to get greater rather than smaller with time probably due to the high and fluctuating world inflation rates and the great uncertainty about world economic performance introduced by the politicising of world oil supplies. (UK)

  17. Energetic and Economic Assessment of Pipe Network Effects on Unused Energy Source System Performance in Large-Scale Horticulture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, the introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. This study investigated the effects of the distance between the greenhouse and the actual heat source by taking into account the heat transfer taking place inside the pipe network. This study considered CO2 emissions and economic aspects to determine the optimal heat source. Payback period analysis against initial investment cost shows that a heat pump based on a power plant’s waste heat has the shortest payback period of 7.69 years at a distance of 0 km. On the other hand, the payback period of a heat pump based on geothermal heat showed the shortest payback period of 10.17 year at the distance of 5 km, indicating that heat pumps utilizing geothermal heat were the most effective model if the heat transfer inside the pipe network between the greenhouse and the actual heat source is taken into account.

  18. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical...... power.This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years.Based on the aforementioned model and real......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  19. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  20. The role of energy in economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David I

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the mainstream, resource economics, and ecological economics models of growth. A possible synthesis of energy-based and mainstream models is presented. This shows that when energy is scarce it imposes a strong constraint on the growth of the economy; however, when energy is abundant, its effect on economic growth is much reduced. The industrial revolution released the constraints on economic growth by the development of new methods of using coal and the discovery of new fossil fuel resources. Time-series analysis shows that energy and GDP cointegrate, and energy use Granger causes GDP when capital and other production inputs are included in the vector autoregression model. However, various mechanisms can weaken the links between energy and growth. Energy used per unit of economic output has declined in developed and some developing countries, owing to both technological change and a shift from poorer quality fuels, such as coal, to the use of higher quality fuels, especially electricity. Substitution of other inputs for energy and sectoral shifts in economic activity play smaller roles. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. The new economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salian, Ramesh; Prasanna Kumar, N.

    2012-01-01

    With 15% of the world's population and an economic growth rate that increases the aspiration of its people to better quality of life, India has a voracious appetite for energy. Nuclear power is one of the options of providing safe, environmentally benign, reliable and economically competitive energy services. Nuclear power world over provides about 16% of electricity through 440 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 361.582 GW (as of January 2004, IAEA PRIS data). Nuclear energy has traditionally played a small role in meeting India's energy requirements. Nuclear power makes up only 4,120 MW, constituting 2.6%, of the total electricity generation capacity. India is a power hungry nation and needs to switch over from its tremendous dependence on fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy like solar energy, bio energy and nuclear energy. Indian nuclear power plants have progressively attained excellent operation performances. However, the changing economic and geopolitical situation in the energy sector has made it imperative to emphasize the significance of nuclear energy in the future energy landscape of the country. The present paper discuss the importance, demand and supply pattern of nuclear energy and its economics. (author)

  2. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  3. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  4. Energy pricing. Economics and principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkling, Roger L. [Portland Univ., OR (United States). School of Business Administration

    2011-07-01

    This book describes the processes through which rates for energy consumption are derived, ranging from initial analyses of the supply and demand parameters to the final forms and levels of end-use consumer prices. The author argues against aggressive accounting procedures, and suggests criteria for choosing firm's position on pending public policy issues. A handbook on energy formulae for non-professionals is included in the book. The author is adjunct professor at the University of Portland. (orig.)

  5. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  6. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  7. Employment, energy, and economic growth in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J

    1979-09-01

    The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)

  8. Biomass energy utilisation - ecological and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamen Gramatikov

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the world's fourth largest energy source today and it represents about 35% of the primary energy supply in developing countries. Biomass is a versatile source of energy in that it can produce electricity, heat, transport fuel and it can be stored. The problems (technical, economic, etc.) which have to be solved by treatment of biomass are discussed in this work. The average quantities of biomass resources of some European countries are presented and the structure, percentage of products and their calorific values are estimated. Keywords: Biomass Energy Potential, Ecological & Economic Aspects

  9. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  10. The economic impact of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

  11. Parameter analysis and optimization of the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling system under different climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation conditions significantly affect energy & economic performance of SLDCS. • Control parameters in three areas were optimized by Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm. • Solar collector area showed the greatest effect on system performance for humid areas. • Desiccant concentration showed greatest effect on system performance for dry areas. • Requirement of collector area, heating water and desiccant flow rates for humid areas is highest. - Abstract: Operation conditions significantly affect the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling systems. This study optimized the system control parameters for buildings in different climates, i.e., Singapore (hot and humid), Beijing (moderate) and Boulder (hot and dry), with a multi-parameter optimization based on the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm to obtain optimal system performance in terms of relatively maximum electricity saving rate with a minimum cost payback period. The results indicated that the selection of operation parameters is significantly influenced by climatic conditions. The solar collector installation area exhibited the greatest effect on both energy and economic performance in humid areas, and the heating water flow rate was also important. For dry areas, a change in desiccant concentration had the largest effect on system performance. Although the effect of the desiccant flow rate was significant in humid cities, it appeared to have little influence over buildings in dry areas. Furthermore, the requirements of the solar collector installation area in humid areas were much higher. The optimized area was up to 70 m"2 in Singapore compared with 27.5 m"2 in Boulder. Similar results were found for the flow rates of heating water and the desiccant solution. Applying the optimization, humid cities could achieve an electricity saving of more than 40% with a six-year payback period. The optimal performance for hot and dry areas of a 38% electricity

  12. Energy, economic and environmental performance simulation of a hybrid renewable microgeneration system with neural network predictive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueniy Entchev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in various applications has grown significantly over the years. This paper compares an ANN based approach with a conventional on-off control applied to the operation of a ground source heat pump/photovoltaic thermal system serving a single house located in Ottawa (Canada for heating and cooling purposes. The hybrid renewable microgeneration system was investigated using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. A controller for predicting the future room temperature was developed in the MATLAB environment and six ANN control logics were analyzed.The comparison was performed in terms of ability to maintain the desired indoor comfort levels, primary energy consumption, operating costs and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions during a week of the heating period and a week of the cooling period. The results showed that the ANN approach is potentially able to alleviate the intensity of thermal discomfort associated with overheating/overcooling phenomena, but it could cause an increase in unmet comfort hours. The analysis also highlighted that the ANNs based strategies could reduce the primary energy consumption (up to around 36%, the operating costs (up to around 81% as well as the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (up to around 36%. Keywords: Hybrid microgeneration system, Ground source heat pump, Photovoltaic thermal, Artificial neural network, Predictive control, Energy saving

  13. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  14. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  15. Energy modeling and economic optimization of a hybrid wind/photovoltaic system coupled with the grid and associated to an accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergaud, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals of the production of photovoltaic and wind electricity connected to the grid and having a storage. The principal interests of such a system are the clean production on the place of consumption, the mutualization of resources and energy storage, and the security of supply. Models are developed and compared successfully with reality thanks to an experimental device instrumented completion (2 kWp PV, 2 x 750 Wp wind generators, 15 kWh lead-acid battery). We obtain then a model that proves both accurate enough to distinguish energy transfers and fast enough to enable optimizing the sizing and handling of the system's energy transfers. Having energy, economic models and tools of dimensioning and management, we carried out a study of optimization based on simple cases of systems multi-production. To tackle this difficult problem, we then placed ourselves within the framework of a producer-consumer whose conditions weather with the site of production as its own consumption are supposed to be known, therefore deterministic. The problems were then the search for strategies of management of flows of energy and the fundamental characteristics of the elements of the installation optimal allowing the minimization of the energy cost. (author) [fr

  16. Economic system dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Küffner, Cornelia M.

    2004-01-01

    We provide the reader with a qualitative summary of the main ideas from econophysics and finance theory, starting with a thorough criticism of the standard ideas taught in typical economics textbooks. The emphasis is on the Galilean or physicists' approach to market synamics, as opposed to the standard nonempirical postulatory one.

  17. Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis technologies, their possible deployment scenarios, and the economic impacts of this deployment. As a research approaches used to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts of offshore renewable energy projects

  18. Energy Distribution and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the physical constraints on the growth process. In order to run, maintain and build capital energy is required to be distributed to geographically dispersed sites where investments are deemed profitable. We capture this aspect of physical reality by a network theory....../2 and 3/4, depending on the efficiency of the network. Together with an energy conservation equation, capturing instantaneous aggregate demand for electricity, we are able to provide a metabolic-energetic founded law of motion for capital per capita that is mathematically isomorphic to the one emanating...... of electricity distribution. The model leads to a supply relation according to which feasible electricity consumption per capita rises with the size of the economy, as measured by capital per capita. Specifically, the relation is a simple power law with an exponent assigned to capital that is bounded between 1...

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  20. The economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  1. The economics of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  2. Simulation of the system, Energy, Environment, and Economy. Economic model of Baden--Wuerttemberg. Part 2. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, G

    1977-04-01

    The energy consumption of industry and private households in a country is closely linked with the amount and development of the GNP and income available. Instead of extrapolations, a dynamic econometric model was developed based on the Keynesian theory and the data of 1960 to 1974 relating to national accounts. The economic ties between Baden--Wuerttemberg and the FRG are to be ensured by a subsequent coupling of the FRG-model. In the second part of this paper the equations selected in the first part are checked due to revised basic data, and a complete set of equations is combined as a model. The behavior of this model is tested by comparing simulation results with basic data and by means of a regulative theoretical stability analysis. While the simulation data repeat the course of the GNP and the available income sufficiently precise, yields, private capital investments and the unemployment ratio are superimposed with larger variations. The stability analysis proved a model behavior to be oscillatory stable.

  3. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  4. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  5. Energy and economic growth in industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouilidis, J E; Mitropoulos, C S

    1984-07-01

    This paper investigates some aspects of the interrelated paths of economic growth and energy demand, in the case of an industrializing economy, through the use of numerous econometric models. Translog functions have helped establish that income and price elasticities of energy, two critical parameters in the energy-economy interaction, exhibit falling trends with time. The value share of the industrial sector is strongly associated with both energy demand and energy intensity. Any increase in the former will lead to amplified increases in the latter, rendering the continuation of past trends in industrial expansion questionable under conditions of high energy costs. Substitution among capital, labor and energy does take place, though to a limited extent, as indicated by the aggregate measure of energy/non-energy substitution elasticity. All findings appear to suggest that energy policymaking, in an industrializing country like Greece, will be of low effectiveness until certain structural changes in the economy are realized.

  6. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  7. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzwiller, L.

    2005-01-01

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas

  8. Science and society test VI: Energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-01-01

    Simple numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of energy economics issues. The Verhulst equation, which considers the effect of finite resources on petroleum production, is modified to take into account supply and demand economics. Numerical and analytical solutions to these differential equations are presented in terms of supply and demand elasticity functions, various finite resources, and the rate of increase in fuel costs. The indirect cost per barrel of imported oil from OPEC is shown to be about the same as the direct cost. These effects, as well as those of discounted benefits and deregulation, are used in a calculation of payback periods for various energy conserving devices. A phenomenological model for market penetration is developed along with the factors for future energy growth rates. A brief analysis of the economic returns of the ''house doctor'' program to reprofit houses for energy conservation is presented.

  9. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  10. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments

  11. The role of input-output analysis of energy and ecologic systems. In the early development of ecological economics--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A summary is provided of the early history of research on the flow of nonrenewable energy resources through the economy and of the flow of renewable energy resources through a natural ecosystem. The techniques are similar, and many specific applications are provided. A combined economic and ecological technique is also defined. The early history and people of the International Society Ecological Economic are cited.

  12. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  13. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  14. The economics of tidal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Concern over global climate change has led policy makers to accept the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This in turn has led to a large growth in clean renewable generation for electricity production. Much emphasis has been on wind generation as it is among the most advanced forms of renewable generation, however, its variable and relatively unpredictable nature result in increased challenges for electricity system operators. Tidal generation on the other hand is almost perfectly forecastable and as such may be a viable alternative to wind generation. This paper calculates the break-even capital cost for tidal generation on a real electricity system. An electricity market model is used to determine the impact of tidal generation on the operating schedules of the conventional units on the system and on the resulting cycling costs, emissions and fuel savings. It is found that for tidal generation to produce positive net benefits for the case study, the capital costs would have to be less than Euro 510,000 per MW installed which is currently an unrealistically low capital cost. Thus, it is concluded that tidal generation is not a viable option for the case system at the present time.

  15. Economic Aspects of Innovations in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Strielkowski, Wadim; Lisin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is emerging as a potential method for addressing global energy system challenges across many different application areas. However, there are technical and non-technical barriers to the widespread deployment of energy storage devices. With regard to the above, it seems crucial to identify innovation processes, mechanisms and systems (in a broad sense) that can allow energy storage to help meet energy system challenges, and also deliver industrial growth from technology developme...

  16. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  17. IEA HPP Annex 32 - Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses. State-of-the-art report Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-04-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 32, 'Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses' (2006-2008), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 9 participating countries are Switzerland (Operating Agent), Austria, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by Enova SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. Task 1 of the project is a state-of the art analysis of the low-energy building market and heat pump technologies applied in this type of buildings. Heating demands for low-energy houses and passive houses in Norwegian climate are characterized as follows: The ratio of the annual heating demand for hot water heating and the total annual heating demand of the houses typically range from 40 to 85 percent, and the heating season for space heating and heating of ventilation air range from about 5-7 and 4-6 months per year for semi-detached houses and flats, respectively (Oslo climate). In comparison, the heating season for semi-detached houses and flats constructed in accordance with the Norwegian building codes of 1997 is 8 and 9 months, respectively. Development companies for residential properties, co-operative building societies as well as housing manufactures are now showing great interest in low-energy houses and passive houses. According to The Norwegian State Housing Bank, almost 10.000 residences with low-energy or passive house standard are now being planned, constructed or have been completed. The projects include single-family houses, semi-detached houses, row houses, block of flats and apartment buildings. The main focus in these projects has been on the architectural design, building construction and efficient ventilation systems, and less on the heating (and cooling) systems. The heat pump market in this market segment is regarded to be promising due to

  18. Three essays in energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Wook

    Deregulation in electricity and natural gas market in an attempt to alleviate market power of privately owned utilities is widespread throughout the United States. Beginning with Gollop and Roberts (1979), a number of empirical studies have allowed the data to identify industry competition and marginal cost levels by estimating the firms' first order condition within a conjectural variations framework. The first chapter of my dissertation uses direct measures of marginal cost for the California electricity market to measure the extent to which estimated mark-ups and marginal costs are biased. My results suggest that the New Empirical Industrial Organization technique poorly estimates the level of mark-ups and the sensitivity of marginal cost to cost shifters. The second chapter takes advantage of the market structure of electricity and natural gas varies in the United States. The goal of the chapter is to analyze whether combined-billed residential households of electricity and natural gas firms face information costs associated with determining the portion of their monthly energy bill attributed to natural gas consumption and the portion attributed to electricity consumption. However, if households are unable to determine whether an increase in their energy bill is the result of an increase in the price of electricity or an increase in the price of natural gas, they act as if electricity and natural gas were complements. I find that own-price elasticities are smaller in absolute terms in combined-billed markets, while cross-price elasticities are more positive, compared to separate-billed markets; both of these results are consistent with the presence of information costs. In chapter 3, I provide an empirical evidence of the impact of variations in ownership, regulation and market structure on the electric and natural gas markets in the United States. My results suggest that the private firms in electricity markets are associated with higher prices than public

  19. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Bobolovich, V.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Kochenov, A.S.; Koryakin, Yu.I.; Stolyarevskij, A.Ya.; Chernyaev, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system [ru

  20. Combined hydraulic and biomass power - an answer to economic and ecological adaptation pressure on the energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the large scale, there will be an economic pressure in the European Communities on coal and oil from the CO 2 taxes. The economic and ecological advantages of a combination of hydraulic and biomass power in Austria are emphasized. In particular a biomass remote heating pilot project is announced. (Quittner)

  1. Development of the smart photovoltaic system blind and its impact on net-zero energy solar buildings using technical-economic-political analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Ban, Cheolwoo; Oh, Jeongyoon

    2017-01-01

    It is expected that the rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can realize net-zero energy solar buildings (nZESBs), but it is not enough by itself. To realize 100% of nZESBs, the smart photovoltaic system blind (SPSB) was proposed to generate electricity in the PV system and to reduce indoor cooling demands through the shading effect in the blind system. Before its implementation, this study aims to investigate the impact of the proposed SPSB on nZESBs, which is conducted in three ways (i.e., technical, economic, and political analyses). The detailed results can be summarized as follows: (i) technical analysis: when applying the SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s (which represents the SPSB with the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) PV panel and the two-axis tracking system), its energy self-sufficiency rate was determined to be 1.25–2.31 times superior to other alternatives; (ii) economic analysis: in terms of the NPV_2_5 (net present value at year 25), SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be 1.41–2.97 times superior to others; in terms of the SIR_2_5 (savings-to-investment ratio at year 25), 1.14–1.26 times; and in terms of the break-even point, 1.4–3.0 years; and (iii) political analysis: the grid-connected utilization plan including solar renewable energy certificates (GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan) was determined to improve the economic profitability of the proposed SPSB. - Highlights: • The smart photovoltaic system blind was developed as prototype model in four ways. • The SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be superior to other prototype models. • A holistic analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of the SPSB on nZESBs. • When implementing the GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan, the economic profitability was maximized. • Results showed the NPV_2_5 (US$2.37/m"2), SIR_2_5 (2.97 times), and BEP (7.6 years).

  2. Energy and economic development [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Schaeffer, R.

    2006-01-01

    energy use patterns. Section 5.2 assesses energy use in Brazil by analysing energy intensities. A decomposition analysis technique is applied to final energy use figures to help identify the factors affecting final energy use in the Brazilian economy. Such a technique allows the decomposition of energy use changes into three basic effects: activity, structure and intensity. The activity effect results from the impact of overall economic growth on final energy use. The structure effect derives from the impact that the sectoral composition of the economy has on the final energy use of a country. The intensity effect refers to the final energy requirements per unit of activity of each sector considered (sectoral breakdown). Findings are contrasted with historical events and circumstances to provide a better understanding of the impacts of Brazil's economic and social choices on its final energy use patterns. Section 5.3 recommends synergetic strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in Brazil based on what has been learned from the country's previous economic and social choices and from the experiences of other countries. The final section is a summary of the main issues related to Brazil's energy system and its economic development. The chapter presents indicators mainly related to energy intensity. Other important economic indicators that are part of the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) set are addressed in other parts of the report: fuel mix in Chapter 2, reserves to production ratios in Chapter 3, technology efficiencies in Chapter 4, per capita energy use in Chapter 7 and import dependence in Chapter 8

  3. Energy economics; Economie de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-07-01

    The energy demand is strongly conditioned by the consuming equipments. Depending on the uses, some energy sources can be substituted, while for some others the choice is limited or impossible. The energy offer comes mainly from non-renewable resources, and taking into consideration the geographical localization of these resources, economics are geopolitics are indissociable despite the development of markets. Necessary for the economic development, energy cannot be consumed without impact on the environment, which raises some worrying questions, like the one of global warming. (J.S.)

  4. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  5. Centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems considered from the energy and economics points of view; Chauffage central ou decentralise: perspectives energetiques et economiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacher, P.

    2006-07-01

    This article was one of ten papers that were presented at the 13{sup th} Conference of the Research Programme on Ambient Heat, Combined Heat and Power Systems and Cold-generation held at the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland in 2006. The conference was organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In this paper, Peter Hubacher discussed the advantages and disadvantages offered by centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems from the energy and economics points of view. The use of such large heat-pump systems as a source of heating energy for district heating systems is discussed. The report presents the results of studies regarding pressure and heat loss, temperature differentials in the distribution network and in heat exchangers, which, according to the author, all have a direct influence on the heat pump's efficiency. The influences of these factors is examined. Also, the study takes a look at the large variations found in domestic hot-water preparation and the influence of secondary systems on overall heat-pump efficiency figures.

  6. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  7. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  8. Economic Value of Li-ion Energy Storage System in Frequency Regulation Application from Utility Firm’s Perspective in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Hur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy Storage Systems (ESSs have recently been highlighted because of their many benefits such as load-shifting, frequency regulation, price arbitrage, renewables, and so on. Among those benefits, we aim at evaluating their economic value in frequency regulation application. However, unlike previous literature focusing on profits obtained from participating in the ancillary service market, our approach concentrates on the cost reduction from the perspective of a utility firm that has an obligation to pay energy fees to a power exchange. More specifically, we focus on the payments between the power exchange market and the utility firm as a major source of economic benefits. The evaluation is done by cost- benefit analysis (CBA with a dataset of the Korean market while considering operational constraint costs as well as scheduled energy payments, and a simulation algorithm for the evaluation is provided. Our results show the potential for huge profits to be made by cost reduction. We believe that this research can provide a guideline for a utility firm considering investing in ESSs for frequency regulation application as a source of cost reduction.

  9. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  10. Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systems and their Impact on Electricity Markets in a Smart-grid Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Dennis

    Generation from renewable energy sources has been rising worldwide and is set to grow further, as many countries are implementing and enforcing initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emission to curb climate change. However, this change in the generation mix is increasingly challenging to handle for the grid operators, as the residual load becomes more volatile and difficult to predict. In order to ensure the continuous balance between supply and demand and minimize the amount of curtailed energy from renewable resources, a range of flexibility options exists. At the consumer end, the flexibility of the load can be increased by demand-side management. Alternatively, by increasing the interconnection capacity, surplus generation can be exchanged with neighboring grid zones. Furthermore, existing generation resources like cogeneration units can be refitted and operated in a more flexible way. Storage, as another flexibility option, has the advantage of being able to act on both demand and supply sides as well as providing a wide range of system services. Hence, during periods with surplus generation from renewable resources, excess supply can be absorbed by storage systems. Contrary, during times with low contribution from renewable generation, the deficit can be compensated by discharging the storage device. However, while storage is well suited from a technological point of view to fill the gap, it remains unclear how the application of a storage device can be monetized. Furthermore, investors are struggling to evaluate potential projects due to their complexity. As a result, current implementations of new storage installations remain behind expectations. In addition, high uncertainty about future developments causes many investors to delay investment decisions. In this context, this work identifies and defines several business cases regarding the integration of storage in power systems. Depending on the intended usage of the storage device, benefits might accrue

  11. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  12. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: weiweileede@gmail.com [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Song Guojun [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Beresford, Melanie [Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ma, Ben [Environmental Policy and Planning Institute (EPPI), Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: > We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. > We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. > Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. > Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. > This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  13. Evolving energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.

    1991-04-01

    This thesis presents scenarios of future energy systems, a cost-benefit analysis of measures to avoid greenhouse-gas emissions, an analysis of the effect of energy prices on end-use efficiencies and fuel choices, and an evaluation of financial-incentive programs designed to induce investments in efficient energy use. Twelve integrated energy supply/demand scenarios for the Swedish heat-and-power sector are presented to illustrate the potential for improvements in end-use efficiency and increased utilization of renewable energy sources. The results show that greenhouse-gas emissions could be reduced by 35 per cent from 1987 levels by 2010, with a net economic benefit compared to a business-as-usual scenario. A generalized methodology for calculating the net costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions is applied to a variety of fuel choices and energy end-use technologies. A key finding is that a combination of increased end-use efficiencies and use of renewable energy systems is required to achieve maximum cost-effective emissions reductions. End-use efficiencies and inter-fuel competition in Denmark and Sweden are compared during a time period in which real electricity prices were declining in Sweden and increasing in Denmark. Despite these different price environments, efficiencies and choices of heating fuels did not generally develop as expected according to economic theory. The influences of counter-price and non-price factors are important in understanding this outcome. Relying on prices alone injects considerable uncertainty into the energy planning process, and precludes efficiency improvements and fuel choices attainable with other mechanisms. Incentive programs can be used to promote energy-efficient technologies. Utilities in Europe have recently offered financial incentives intended to stimulate the adoption of compact-fluorescent lamps. These programs have been cost-effective in comparison to new electric supply. (au).

  14. An Input–Output Energy and Economical Analysis of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Production Systems in County of Zarand, Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. is one of the most important export crops of Iran which has an important role in non-petroleum exports and has over $800 million benefit per year. However, production of this crop faces many problems in main production centers, especially in energy efficiency and productivity. The pistachio is a native crop of Iran and Syria. The major producers of pistachio are Iran 55%, America 20%, Turkey 10%, Syria 9% and the other countries with 6%. Iran is the major producer of pistachio in the world with more than 60 % of global exports. Kerman Province with more than 270,000 ha under cultivation produces 77 percent of this crop. Moreover, Zarand county with more than 45,000 ha under cultivation plays a major role in the production of pistachio. Energy flow is one of the topics of agro-ecology in the world and energy output to input ratio is calculated in various agro-ecosystems. One of the indicators of agricultural development is energy flow. So, different studies in the world have been done to evaluate the energy efficiency in the agro-ecosystems. Studies on apricot (Armeniaca vulgris Lam. showed that energy efficiency can increase with appropriate management practices with minimum dependence on non-renewable energies. Energy consumption is divided into two parts in agriculture: direct and indirect energy. Direct energy is the fuel, machinery, electricity, energy required for cooling, heating, and lighting. Indirect energy includes the energy used in the production of fertilizers, seed production, machinery, and pesticides. Energy efficiency is an important factor in increasing productivity, especially in agricultural economy of developing countries. Although, many studies have been carried out on energy consumption in the agricultural systems, the analysis of the energy input required to produce pistachio is very low. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the input and output energy

  15. A novel evolutionary algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with energy saving and emission reduction in power system integrated wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gwo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    An optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the economic dispatch problem that includes wind farm using the Chaotic Quantum Genetic Algorithm (CQGA). In addition to the detailed models of economic dispatch introduction and their associated constraints, the wind power effect is also included in this paper. The chaotic quantum genetic algorithm used to solve the economic dispatch process and discussed with real scenarios used for the simulation tests. After comparing the proposed algorithm with several other algorithms commonly used to solve optimization problems, the results show that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution quickly and accurately (i.e. to obtain the minimum cost for power generation in the shortest time). At the end, the impact to the total cost savings for power generation after adding (or not adding) wind power generation is also discussed. The actual implementation results prove that the proposed algorithm is economical, fast and practical. They are quite valuable for further research. -- Research highlights: → Quantum Genetic Algorithm can effectively improve the global search ability. → It can achieve the real objective of the global optimal solutions. → The CPU computation time is less than that other algorithms adopted in this paper.

  16. Day-ahead economic optimisation of energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Groot, de R.J.W.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the day-ahead economic optimisation of energy storage systems within the setting of electricity spot markets. The case study is about a lithium-ion battery system integrated in a low voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic generation in the

  17. Economic analysis of flat plate collectors of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsabuncuoglu, I.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although solar energy potential in Turkey is far more than its total annual energy consumption, because of technical, economic and efficiency problems it cannot be harnessed to its fullest extent. Solar energy collecting systems have an initial cost two to five times higher than alternatives using electricity, LPG, fuel or other solid energy sources. However, their annual repair and maintenance costs are much lower than alternatives due to high energy prices. Solar systems with inflated annual costs have a minimum present value of US$867.19. Solar energy systems can be recommended for the countries that want a dependable and environmentally sound energy source. However, investment in R and D activities is necessary to reduce total cost of the system through improved efficiency and better production technology. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy: technical, economical and ecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-04-01

    This information document aims to present all the different aspects of nuclear energy and the economic, industrial and ecological data from which the French nuclear energy programme was worked out, the techniques and the sites were chosen. Prepared with the collaboration of experts from the public services interested, this document attempts to cover all the questions raised and to provide answers (dependence with respect to oil versus the advantages of nuclear energy, environment and siting problems, consequences for public health and radiation protection, organization of nuclear industry [fr

  19. Economic analysis of wood energy valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Juliana.

    1988-01-01

    Companies linked to the lumber activities began to concern about the valorization of their industrial residues: either by creating new products or by utilizing them for energy generation. At the same time, companies from other sectors began investing in reforestations dedicated to energy generation (mainly eucalyptus), induced by the possibility of obtaining tax incentives and by the need of assuring their own provisions of wood, thus minimizing this raw-material, as well as its sensibility to the variation of its price in the market. However almost nothing have been researched, either about the economical feasibility of energetic valorization of the lumber in the form of industrial residues or as wood supplied by reforestation dedicated to energy generation. This dissertation propose to examine those cases analysing the concerned costs and their economical feasibility. (author). 20 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs

  20. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  1. On the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of wind and solar power technologies is often evaluated in public debates by comparing levelized costs of electricity. This is, however, incorrect, as doing so neglects the economic value of technologies. Similarly, renewable energy support schemes are often designed to incentivize investors to only account for the marginal economic costs (MEC) but not for the marginal economic value (MEV el ) of renewable energy technologies, i.e., the revenue from selling electricity on the wholesale market during the unit's technical lifetime. In this paper, it is shown that the net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC) - defined as the difference between the MEC and the MEV el per kWh - should serve as the reference when discussing the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, renewable energy support schemes should incentivize investments in technologies and regions with the lowest net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC), as otherwise excess costs occur. This is demonstrated using the example of Germany and its technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020. By applying a linear electricity system optimization model, Germany's technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020 are found to cause excess costs of more than 6.6 bn Euro 2010 . These are driven by comparatively high NMEC (low economic attractiveness) of offshore wind and solar power in comparison to onshore wind power in Germany up to 2020.

  2. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  3. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  4. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  5. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  6. The Energetics of Economics (Money as access to Energy)

    OpenAIRE

    Ternyik, Stephen I.

    2013-01-01

    Money is being portrayed as temporal access to energy and a new methodical approach to the energetics of the human economy is introduced.The economic evolution of world system energetics is put into the historical focus of all global monetary civilization, reaching back to Sumerian city states.This long wave energetics of human economic action clearly points to the biophysical boundaries of the globalized monetary production economy which is also based on natural law.The future perspective of...

  7. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  8. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. (author)

  11. Energy expenditure, economic growth, and the minimum EROI of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizaine, Florian; Court, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We estimate energy expenditure for the US and world economies from 1850 to 2012. Periods of high energy expenditure relative to GDP (from 1850 to 1945), or spikes (1973–74 and 1978–79) are associated with low economic growth rates, and periods of low or falling energy expenditure are associated with high and rising economic growth rates (e.g. 1945–1973). Over the period 1960–2010 for which we have continuous year-to-year data for control variables (capital formation, population, and unemployment rate) we estimate that, statistically, in order to enjoy positive growth, the US economy cannot afford to spend more than 11% of its GDP on energy. Given the current energy intensity of the US economy, this translates in a minimum societal EROI of approximately 11:1 (or a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level). Granger tests consistently reveal a one way causality running from the level of energy expenditure (as a fraction of GDP) to economic growth in the US between 1960 and 2010. A coherent economic policy should be founded on improving net energy efficiency. This would yield a “double dividend”: increased societal EROI (through decreased energy intensity of capital investment), and decreased sensitivity to energy price volatility. - Highlights: •We estimate energy expenditures as a fraction of GDP for the US, the world (1850–2012), and the UK (1300–2008). •Statistically speaking, the US economy cannot afford to allocate more than 11% of its GDP to energy expenditures in order to have a positive growth rate. •This corresponds to a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level. •In the same way, US growth is only possible if its primary energy system has at least a minimum EROI of approximately 11:1.

  12. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  13. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  14. Capital-energy complementarity in aggregate energy-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1979-10-01

    The interplay between capital and energy will affect the outcome of energy-policy initiatives. A static model clarifies the interpretation of the conflicting empirical evidence on the nature of this interplay. This resolves an apparent conflict between engineering and economc interpretations and points to an additional ambiguity that can be resolved by distinguishing between policy issues at aggregated and disaggregated levels. Restrictions on aggregate energy use should induce reductions in the demand for capital and exacerbate the economic impacts of the energy policy. 32 references.

  15. Historical and economic aspects of energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    2000-01-01

    The classical macro-economic aggregate production function considered that output as measured by Gross Domestic product (GDP) was the result of the factor inputs: land, labour and capital. The production function was given by: GDP=f(Land, Capital, Labour). We propose: GDP=function (LAND, CAPITAL, LABOUR, ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION), GDP=function(Z, K, R, E, T, I). Measuring effects of these variables on growth of GDP over longer periods of time is difficult statistical and mathematical task. Mathematical relations are not derived but instead historical exposition with a selection of statistical data was given to prove validity of the production function relation. through long historical periods, energy was reduced to energy of animal and human muscles sometimes with a help of mechanical levers and mechanisms. With coal use in 18th century animal and human muscles are no more main energy sources but in substitute to them thermal machines (from steam reciprocating machines to Otto, diesel machines in combination with electric machines) startedto be main movers of industrial age with high energy intensity. Energy as general thermodynamic concept for availability or ability of substance to produce work was introduced. Between primary forms of energy crude oil like fuel with greatest energy or ability to produce mechanical work, specially in transport takes the dominant place in 20th and 21st century. Use of crude oil in gas turbines, internal combustion engines, reaches upper levels of efficiency, but in the same time there is no technology that could substitute it in the transport. Influence of crude oil on prices and all other forms of energy and as political and economic factor is considered. (author)

  16. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  17. Energy alternatives for irrigation pumping: an economic analysis for northern India.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia R

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper presenting an economic analysis of alternative energy sources for irrigation pumping in Northern India - considers economic and technical aspects of photovoltaic pumping systems, solar energy systems, electric power, dual-fuel and diesel engines, Biogas and wind power; discusses economic and social development aspects. Abbreviations, bibliography, glossary and tables.

  18. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  19. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  1. The economics of energy service contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, S. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). Sussex Energy Group, SPRU -Science and Technology Policy Research

    2007-01-15

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test. (author)

  2. The economics of energy service contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve [Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom). SPRU

    2005-07-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transactions cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the 'contestability' of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test.

  3. The economics of energy service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test

  4. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  5. Why Energy is AN Economic Planetary Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difiglio, Carmine

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyzes why high and volatile oil prices cause reduced world-wide economic growth. Disruptions in the petroleum market, due to unexpected economic growth or reduced petroleum supplies, have been shown to cause sharp increases in petroleum prices as a result of the inflexibilities of petroleum supply and demand. An examination of over 40 years of data reveals that oil price shocks are invariably followed by 2-3 years of weak economic growth and weak economic growth is almost always preceded by an oil price shock. While the statistical literature provides evidence that economies have become less vulnerable to a given oil price increase than they were during the 1970s, it also shows that the elasticity of demand for oil has significantly decreased. The increased resiliency of economies to higher oil prices has been partially or fully offset by the increased sensitivity of oil prices to any oil market perturbation. This paper also reviews the current state of oil-supply security noting that previous episodes of supply instability appear to have become chronic conditions. While new unconventional oil production technologies have revitalized North American oil production, it is concluded that these technologies will have only a modest effect on world-wide oil production. The marginal cost of oil production, whether from tight-oil plays, or other unconventional sources, is expected to increase contributing to rising longterm oil prices in an international oil market that will remain vulnerable to disruptions and sharp price increases. Recurring episodes of poor world-wide economic growth are shown to affect hundreds of millions of people though unemployment in the modern economy and, in developing countries, though slower emigration out of agricultural-sector poverty. It is also noted that world-wide greenhouse gas emissions require strong national policies. Clean-energy policies are more likely to be pursued by countries enjoying strong economic growth than

  6. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  7. The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert; Voudouris, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    We show that the application of flexible semi-parametric statistical techniques enables significant improvements in model fitting of macroeconomic models. As applied to the explanation of the past economic growth (since 1900) in US, UK and Japan, the new results demonstrate quite conclusively the non-linear relationships between capital, labour and useful energy with economic growth. They also indicate that output elasticities of capital, labour and useful energy are extremely variable over time. We suggest that these results confirm the economic intuition that growth since the industrial revolution has been driven largely by declining energy costs due to the discovery and exploitation of relatively inexpensive fossil fuel resources. Implications for the 21st century, which are also discussed briefly by exploring the implications of an ACEGES-based scenario of oil production, are as follows: (a) the provision of adequate and affordable quantities of useful energy as a pre-condition for economic growth and (b) the design of energy systems as ‘technology incubators’ for a prosperous 21st century. - Highlights: • Economic growth needs three factors of production. • We propose a semi-parametric generalised production function. • Exploitation of inexpensive fossil fuel resources has profound policy implications

  8. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  9. Geopolitical and Economic Aspects of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power in its present form was created during the Cold War and is its heritage. The main objective of nuclear energy at that time, along with energy, was the creation and accumulation of nuclear materials. To this aim a existing nuclear power plants based on uranium-plutonium cycle. Everything else - the processing of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, storage, recycling themselves nuclear power plant after its end of life, the risks of proliferation of nuclear materials and other environmental issues - minor. It was also believed that the nuclear power plant - the most reliable and safe plant. During the last twenty years all over the world the number of new orders for nuclear aggregates has decreased. That happens for a number of reasons, including public resistance, that the construction of new NPP and the excess of energy utilities in many markets, which is mainly connected with high market competition in energy markets and low economic indicators of the current nuclear utilities. The technology that consists of low capital costs, a possibility for quick construction and guarantied exploitation quality is on the winners side, but currently this technology is absent. However, despite abovementioned downsides, as the experience of state corporation "Rosatom"has shown, many developing countries of the South-east Asia, The middle East, African regions express high interest in the development of nuclear energy in their countries. The decision whether to develop nuclear energy or to continue to develop is, in the end, up to the choice of the tasks that a country faces. The article describes these "minor" issues, as well as geopolitical and economic problems of the further development of nuclear energy.

  10. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  11. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF PYROLYSIS OIL PRODUCTION COSTS AND MATERIAL ENERGY BALANCE ASSOCIATED WITH A TRANSPORTABLE FAST PYROLYSIS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Badger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic analysis was performed for a 100 dry-ton/day (90,719 kg/day fast pyrolysis transportable plant. Renewable Oil International® LLC provided the life cycle cost of operating a 100 dry-ton/day fast pyrolysis system using southern pine wood chips as feedstock. Since data was not available from an actual large-scale plant, the study examined data obtained from an actual 15 dry-ton/day pilot plant and from several smaller plants. These data were used to obtain base figures to aid in the development of models to generate scaled-up costs for a larger 100 dry-ton/day facility. Bio-oil represented 60% of mass of product yield. The cost for the bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was valued at $0.94/gal. Energy cost bio-oil and char was valued at $6.35/MMBTU. Costs associated with purchasing feedstocks can drastically influence the final cost of the bio-oil. The assumed cost of feedstocks was $25/wet ton or $50/dry ton. This paper is part of a larger study investigating the economic and environmental impacts for producing bio-oil / biocide wood preservatives.

  12. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  13. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  14. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  15. The peculiar economics of federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    US federal agency energy managers face different constraints than do comparable private sector managers. They are faced with energy consumption goals mandated via legislation or directed via Presidential Executive Order that encourage if not compel them to invest more in energy efficiency or renewables than would be cost effective from a private sector perspective. To make such investments, they also are provided access to private capital that is additional to their agency budgets. The encouragement to invest beyond what is cost effective may be a source of waste in some instances, and the financing mechanisms appear more expensive than necessary. A rough estimate of the magnitude of the waste is offered, as well as a mechanism to reduce the costs of agency access to capital. - Highlights: •Legislative and regulatory initiatives that constrain federal agency energy investments. •Economic calculus facing a federal agency energy manager. •Magnitude of federal energy investments and of possible waste. •Financing mechanisms and how their costs might be reduced.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of a wind-solar hybrid renewable energy system with rainwater collection feature for urban high-rise application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, W.T.; Naghavi, M.S.; Poh, S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Pan, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    harvesting technologies. → The system overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by introducing the power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV). → The PAGV is used to guide and create venturi effect to increase the wind speed before the wind-stream enters wind turbine. → This design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact, and is safer for populated area. → The PAGV improves the wind turbine's starting behavior and prolongs its operating hour, thus reduces the payback period. -- Abstract: The technical and economic feasibility study of an innovative wind-solar hybrid renewable energy generation system with rainwater collection feature for electrical energy generation is presented in this paper. The power generated would supply part of the energy requirements of the high-rise building where the system is installed. The system integrates and optimizes several green technologies; including urban wind turbine, solar cell module and rain water collector. The design was conceptualized based on the experiences acquired during the development and testing of a suitable wind turbine for Malaysian applications. It is compact and can be built on top of high-rise buildings in order to provide on-site renewable power to the building. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by channeling and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through the power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before it enters the wind turbine at the center portion. The shape or appearance of the PAGV that surrounds the wind turbine can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact (becomes part of the building). The design improves the starting behavior of wind turbines. It is also safer to people around and reduces noise pollution. The techno-economic analysis is carried out by applying the life cycle cost (LCC) method. The LCC method takes into consideration the complete range of costs and makes cash flows time

  17. Effect of heat storage and fuel price on energy management and economics of micro CCHP cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, I. Baniasad [University of Zabol, Zabol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh, M. Oukati [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ameri, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, a typical combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system comprised of boiler, flat solar collectors, absorption chiller and heat storage tank was investigated. The described system was considered to supply the given electricity, cooling and heating demand of a residential building; with heating and cooling needs of 100 and 50 kW, respectively. To find the optimum hybrid configurations with high reliability, low costs, low fuel consumption and emissions, a computer program was provided by authors in FORTRAN language. Different fuel prices were considered in the present work. The results indicated that the optimal operation strategy changes with Boiler and NGG fuel prices while it also changes with increasing the number of solar collectors, heat storage capacity and consequently decreasing total annual emission.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  19. Development of energy economic ventilation system with heat recovery in dwellings; Udvikling af energioekonomisk ventilationsloesning med varmegenvinding til boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivsholm, C.; Olsen, Hans; Groenborg Larsen, C.; Jensen, John Steen; Rammer Nielsen, T.; Kragh, J.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-07-01

    This report describes and documents the development of a counter flow heat exchanger with efficiency of approximately 90% and a highly efficient axial fan both developed for small mechanical ventilation systems for use in single family houses. The report also treats problems concerning condensation and ice formation in efficient counter flow heat exchangers. The influence of condensate and ice is investigated by measurements on an efficient heat exchanger and different strategies for de-icing are tested. A computer program is developed to calculate how condensation and frost influence the heat exchange under stationary conditions. In the project a counter flow heat exchanger of aluminium is developed with a calculated efficiency of approximately 90%. The heat exchanger is hereby legal for ventilation of more than one fire section. CAD drawings of the exchanger are coded to a CNC milling machine and two cylinders (a positive and a negative mould) are produced. The joints of the heat exchanger are glued and placed in a protecting aluminium frame. (BA)

  20. An economical educational seismic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in seismology from the nonprofessional or amateur standpoint. The operation of a seismic system can be satisfying and educational, especially when you have built and operated the system yourself. A long-period indoor-type sensor and recording system that works extremely well has been developed in the James Madison University Physics Deparment. The system can be built quite economically, and any educational institution that cannot commit themselves to a professional installation need not be without first-hand seismic information. The system design approach has been selected by college students working a project or senior thesis, several elementary and secondary science teachers, as well as the more ambitious tinkerer or hobbyist at home 

  1. Economics of multifunctional biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignaciuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 2 focuses on the competition between traditional agricultural production and growing demand for biomass plantations. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the effects of various energy policies, aimed at both reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing the share of bioelectricity, on the production of biomass and agricultural commodities. A partial equilibrium model is developed to illustrate some of the potential impacts of these policies on greenhouse gas emissions, land reallocation and prices of food and electricity. A partial framework is used, because it provides a transparent and consistent structure and enables to concentrate on only the relevant economic sectors (agriculture, biomass, conventional electricity, and bioelectricity). In the model, GHG emissions depend on land use patterns and fossil fuel use. The innovative element of this model is that it integrates two distinct analyses, namely an analysis of substitution mechanisms between energy from biomass and from fossil fuels, and an analysis of the effects of changes in demand for biomass on land use and GHG emissions. Chapter 3 deals with the impact of climate policies on land use and land cover change and possible impacts on reestablishment of semi-natural areas, mainly forestry and willow plantations. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the impact of climate policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of promoting biomass and bioelectricity. In this context, the analysis is performed on how these policies might affect production of agricultural commodities and trade patterns of biomass and bioelectricity. To this purpose, an applied general equilibrium model (AGE) is developed with special attention to biomass and agricultural crops for a small open economy, with an Armington specification for international trade. Chapter 4 focuses on the multiproductivity issues of agriculture, biomass, and forestry sectors resulting in additional production inputs

  2. Energy Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Building Energy Information Systems and Performance Monitoring (EIS-PM) Building Energy evaluate and improve performance monitoring tools for energy savings in commercial buildings. Within the and visualization capabilities to energy and facility managers. As an increasing number of

  3. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  4. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  5. Techno-economic analysis of the viability of residential photovoltaic systems using lithium-ion batteries for energy storage in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Kotub; Gough, Rebecca; Radcliffe, Jonathan; Marco, James; Jennings, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Commercially available PV-battery system is installed in mid-sized UK home. •PV generation and household electricity demand recorded for one year. •More than fifty long-term ageing experiments on commercial batteries undertaken. •Comprehensive battery degradation model based on long-term ageing data validated. •PV-Battery system is shown not be economically viable. -- Abstract: Rooftop photovoltaic systems integrated with lithium-ion battery storage are a promising route for the decarbonisation of the UK’s power sector. From a consumer perspective, the financial benefits of lower utility costs and the potential of a financial return through providing grid services is a strong incentive to invest in PV-battery systems. Although battery storage is generally considered an effective means for reducing the energy mismatch between photovoltaic supply and building demand, it remains unclear when and under which conditions battery storage can be profitably operated within residential photovoltaic systems. This fact is particularly pertinent when battery degradation is considered within the decision framework. In this work, a commercially available coupled photovoltaic lithium-ion battery system is installed within a mid-sized UK family home. Photovoltaic energy generation and household electricity demand is recorded for more than one year. A comprehensive battery degradation model based on long-term ageing data collected from more than fifty long-term degradation experiments on commercial Lithium-ion batteries is developed. The comprehensive model accounts for all established modes of degradation including calendar ageing, capacity throughput, ambient temperature, state of charge, depth of discharge and current rate. The model is validated using cycling data and exhibited an average maximum transient error of 7.4% in capacity loss estimates and 7.3% in resistance rise estimates for over a year of cycling. The battery ageing model is used to

  6. The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vishwajeet

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing

  7. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  8. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  9. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  10. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  11. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  12. Handbook of natural resource and energy economics. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The last of a three-volume series of handbooks focuses on the economics of energy, minerals and exhaustible resources, and the forecasting issues. The relationship between energy, the environment and economic growth is also examined. Chapter headings are: economic theory of depletable resources; the optimal use of exhaustible resources; intertemporal consistency issues in depletable resources; buying energy and non-fuel minerals; mineral resource stocks and information; strategies for modelling exhaustible resource supply; natural resources in an age of substitutability; natural resource cartels; the economics of energy security; natural resource use and the environment; and energy, the environment and economic growth

  13. Economic Issues in Power System Decarbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving the 80% decrease in carbon-dioxide emissions until 2050, which is the primary goal of the European Union's long-term energy policy, assumes, inter alia, that the electricity part of the system will be able to produce at least 96% of electricity from renewable sources. Moreover, the power system in the widest sense of the word should significantly increase its energy efficiency. Such tremendously ambitious goals, which may as well seem almost unattainable from today's perspective, will certainly require hefty capital investments in plants based on clean technologies, thus, the costs of pollution externalities will not be avoidable anymore. They will have to be bore by the society through substantial increase in energy prices relative to other products and services. Today's subvention schemes, which support current development of renewable sources, will have to be completely abandoned until such a distant future as 2050 is. The power system will have to become self-sustainable in an economic sense. This work pertains to economic challenges which face the power system in a forthcoming processes of rapid decarbonization, as well as to some widely-spread blunders about them.(author)

  14. Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

  15. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  16. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Cathy L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Stafford, Edwin R. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at www.cleantech.usu.edu) to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.

  18. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  19. Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

  20. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  1. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  2. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  3. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  4. Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Huang, X.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a small scale trigeneration system for combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP) with an available Stirling engine. Trigeneration systems have a large potential of energy saving and economical efficiency. The decisive values for energetic efficiency evaluation of such systems are the primary energy rate and comparative primary energy saving (Δq), while the economic feasibility analysis of such systems relates the avoided cost, the total annual saving and payback period. The investigation calculates and compares the energy saving and economic efficiency of trigeneration system with Stirling engine against contemporary conventional independent cooling, heating and power, showing that a CCHP system saves fuel resources and has the assurance of economic benefits

  5. Introduction course on the economical evaluation of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    A theoretical course on the financial and economical evaluation of energy projects is presented. The course was organized by the Banque Mondiale in Bujumbura, Burundi, from 11 to 16 November 1991. Subsequently attention is paid to the basics of economic analysis, the financial and the economical analysis of an investment project, and finally the prices of energy products. 4 figs., 13 refs

  6. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  7. Economics of recovering energy from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I. J.

    1977-10-15

    It is estimated that New Zealand produces about 3200 t/day of refuse from the eight main centres. If it is assumed that the composition of this is intermediate between that of the US and the UK, then a calorific value of approximately 11.6 GJ/t is obtained, which indicates a potential of 37 TJ/day of energy is theoretically available from wastes. Some of the possible processes that could be used, and the yield of either energy or fuel that could be obtained from the assumed raw material are illustrated. It must be emphasized that before much further progress can be achieved in this area, a better knowledge of the amounts and composition of our refuse is necessary. This data is considered as an indication of the potential. The remainder of this paper consists of a preliminary economic assessment of processes that are in a reasonable state of development, i.e. to the stage where a demonstration plant would be built, or better. The currency used is the $US, 1975. Capital is considered to be amortized at 6% over 20 years. Labor has been estimated at an average of $7000. Land and site development is not included as this will vary immensely. However, it must be added that the fermentation processes are most likely to require considerably more land. All processes are costed for a 500 t/day plant, and cost estimations are from published or manufacturer's data, following the six tenths rule.

  8. Research on the Sustainable Development of an Economic-Energy-Environment (3E System Based on System Dynamics (SD: A Case Study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an economic-energy-environment (3E system has received increasing attention by the government because it both determines national development and individuals’ health at the macro and micro level. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors based on analysis of the existing literature and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of sustainable development of a 3E system. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of the 3E system. In addition, the paper provides a case study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China by using a scenario analysis method. The models proposed in this paper can facilitate an understanding of the sustainable development pattern of a 3E coordination system and help to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that the long-term development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region’s 3E system is not sustainable, but it can be changed through the adjustment of the energy structure and an increase in investment in environmental protection, which can improve the environmental quality and ensure continuous growth rather than excessive growth of energy consumption and the gross domestic product (GDP.

  9. Effects of stochastic energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Martinsen, Dag; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In view of the currently observed energy prices, recent price scenarios, which have been very moderate until 2004, also tend to favor high future energy prices. Having a large impact on energy-economic scenarios, we incorporate uncertain energy prices into an energy systems model by including a stochastic risk function. Energy systems models are frequently used to aid scenario analysis in energy-related studies. The impact of uncertain energy prices on the supply structures and the interaction with measures in the demand sectors is the focus of the present paper. For the illustration of the methodological approach, scenarios for four EU countries are presented. Including the stochastic risk function, elements of high energy price scenarios can be found in scenarios with a moderate future development of energy prices. In contrast to scenarios with stochastic investment costs for a limited number of technologies, the inclusion of stochastic energy prices directly affects all parts of the energy system. Robust elements of hedging strategies include increasing utilization of domestic energy carriers, the use of CHP and district heat and the application of additional energy-saving measures in the end-use sectors. Region-specific technology portfolios, i.e., different hedging options, can cause growing energy exchange between the regions in comparison with the deterministic case. (author)

  10. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  11. The economics of information systems and software

    CERN Document Server

    Veryard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Economics of Information Systems and Software focuses on the economic aspects of information systems and software, including advertising, evaluation of information systems, and software maintenance. The book first elaborates on value and values, software business, and scientific information as an economic category. Discussions focus on information products and information services, special economic properties of information, culture and convergence, hardware and software products, materiality and consumption, technological progress, and software flexibility. The text then takes a look at a

  12. Business cycle and economic-wide energy intensity: The implications for energy conservation policy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of voluntary and involuntary energy conservation policies, developing countries in Africa continue to struggle to achieve energy efficiency targets. Consequently, energy intensity levels have risen threatening the security of the energy system. This raises the important question: is there an economic state that induces agents to be energy conscious? In this study, we study the case of Algeria's energy intensity from 1971 to 2010. First, the paper argues that there is a certain economic state that economic agents find investing in energy conservation a viable option. Any state different from that would mean not investing in energy conservation. Second, the paper argues that the economy can do better even with an infinitesimal reduction in fuel subsidy, and that the gains in revenue from the policy can compensate for the negative socio-economic and equity impacts associated with such a policy. Third, the paper argues that, so long as, industrial expansion in the country move parallel with investment in technological innovation, long-term sustainable growth and energy conservation targets are jointly feasible. Fourth, the paper shows that income elasticity evolves with the business cycle, and the absorptive capability of the host country affects how FDI (foreign direct inflows) impact energy intensity. - Highlights: • Low income states inhibit fuel substitution and investment in energy conservation. • Income elasticity evolves as we pass through boom and recessionary periods. • The goals of sustainable growth and energy conservation are not mutually exclusive. • Absorptive capability affects the impact of FDI on energy intensity

  13. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  14. Direct regional energy/economic modeling (DREEM) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.; Pleatsikas, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the use of regional and multiregional economic models for estimating the indirect and induced impacts of Federally-mandated energy policies. It includes an examination of alternative types of energy policies that can impact regional economies and the available analytical frameworks for measuring the magnitudes and spatial extents of these impacts. One such analytical system, the National Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES), currently operational in the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), is chosen for more detailed investigation. The report summarizes the models capabilities for addressing various energy policy issues and then demonstrates the applicability of the model in specified contexts by developing appropriate input data for three scenarios. These scenarios concern the multi-state impacts of alternative coal-mining-development decisions, multi-regional impacts of macroeconomic change, and the comprehensive effects of an alternative national energy supply trajectory. On the basis of this experience, the capabilities of NRIES for analyzing energy-policy issues are summarized in a concluding chapter.

  15. Combined micro-cogeneration and electric vehicle system for household application: An energy and economic analysis in a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    -thinking of entire energy infrastructures and types of consumption. The Agenda also suggested, among other things, improving the efficiency of energy systems. In this paper, the interactions between charging an electric car and an innovative cogeneration system for household application (micro-solid oxide fuel cell...... with an integrated heating system) are investigated. The charge of the electric car by the cogenerator produces waste heat that can be used to partially cover the heat demand of the house. In this way it may be possible to increase overall efficiency and decrease total energy costs. Different innovative strategies...... are proposed and analyzed to manage charging an electric car and efficiently using the waste heat available. The aims of this study are to make the system grid-independent, to decrease the thermal stress of SOFCs and to determine the nominal power of an integrated heating system. The results show energy...

  16. Economic Efficiency and Investment Implementation in Energy Saving Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in building thermoinsulation is a subject to appraisal for efficiency from the position of discounted cash flows taken specifically by energy saving. The appraisal of investment as optimal is attended by achieving the shortest term for investment implementation, the lowest investment outlays, the maximum total net value of energy savings, the shortest investment payback period. The complex application of the dynamic methods for appraising economic efficiency of an investment – net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index and discounted payback period, involves drawing of particular values which comparison definitely will show if this kind of investment is practically “attractive”. However, the question for significance weight of each of these indicators above in decision making for implementation a particular real investment still remains unsolved. This requires working out a system of criteria, priorities that can determine which of the indicators for economic efficiency of specific investment project will have the highest significance.

  17. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  18. Planning of the district heating system in copenhagen from an economic perspective comparing energy-savings versus fossil-free supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    geothermal heating plants, may lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build compared to implementing energy savings. Therefore reducing heat demand of existing buildings before investing in supply capacity will save society half the investment, indicating the importance of carrying out......The Danish government has adopted a long-term energy policy of being independent of fossil fuels by 2050, and that the energy supply for buildings should be independent of fossil fuels by 2035. Therefore, urgent action is needed to meet the requirements for the future energy system. One way...... of becoming independent of fossil fuels is to energy upgrade the existing building stock and change the energy supply to renewable energy sources. A sustainable way of providing space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) to buildings in densely populated areas is through the use of district heating (DH...

  19. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  20. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-06-05

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  3. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  4. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  5. Energy and economic growth: Grounding our understanding in physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the complex, wide ranging and unresolved debate within the economics literature on the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use. It explores the difference between neo-classical and ecological economic worldviews and highlights how the ecological economic approach attempts to ground its analysis within the physical limits implied by the laws of thermodynamics. Once these laws are accounted for, the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use seems more limited than neo-classical economics implies. Analysis of empirical evidence also demonstrates that observed improvements in GDP/energy use ratios in the USA are better explained by shifts towards higher quality fuels than by improvements in the energy efficiency of technologies. This implies a need to focus on decarbonising energy supply. Furthermore, where energy-efficiency improvements are attempted, they must be considered within the context of a possible rebound effect, which implies that net economy-wide energy savings from energy-efficiency improvements may not be as large as the energy saved directly from the efficiency improvement itself. Both decarbonising energy supply and improving energy efficiency require the rapid development and deployment of new and existing low-carbon technologies. This review therefore concludes by briefly outlining areas of economic thought that have emerged as a result of engagement between economists and experts from other disciplines. They include ecological, evolutionary and institutional economics, all of which can make policy-relevant contributions to achieving a transition to a low-carbon economy

  6. Energy consumption and economic growth. Assessing the evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondroyiannis, George; Lolos, Sarantis; Papapetrou, Evangelia

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light into the empirical relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, for Greece (1960-1996) employing the vector error-correction model estimation. The vector specification includes energy consumption, real GDP and price developments, the latter taken to represent a measure of economic efficiency. The empirical evidence suggests that there is a long-run relationship between the three variables, supporting the endogeneity of energy consumption and real output. These findings have important policy implications, since the adoption of suitable structural policies aiming at improving economic efficiency can induce energy conservation without impeding economic growth

  7. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use...

  8. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive...... penetration of renewable, fossil-free energy sources such as solar and wind power. To facilitate such intermittent power producers, we must not only control the production of electricity, but also the consumption, in an ecient and exible manner. By enabling the use of thermal energy storage in supermarkets...... of temperature dependent efficiencies in the refrigeration cycle. -Nonlinear economic MPC with uncertain predictions and the implementation of very simple predictors that use entirely historical data of, e.g., electricity prices and outdoor temperatures. Economic MPC for wind turbines, including -Optimal steady...

  9. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  10. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  11. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  12. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  13. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhshad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  14. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihriaelae, H.

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference '95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  15. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  16. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  17. Economic evaluation of innovative storage technologies in energy systems with a high share of renewable energies; Oekonomische Bewertung von innovativen Speichertechnologien in Energiesystemen mit einem hohen Anteil erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondziella, Hendrik

    2017-04-13

    This work addresses the question of whether the ongoing transformation to a low-carbon energy system in Germany will also create market opportunities for innovative market participants, in particular for storage operators. The economic effects that occur in energy systems with high levels of variable renewable energy (vEE) can be measured by their integration costs. Scientific research into the additional storage and flexibility needs of such an energy system often addresses imbalances in the system balance sheet. The respective methods are, however, based on different assumptions and framework conditions, so that the results can only be compared with one another to a limited extent. The hourly fluctuating wholesale price on the electricity exchange is an important indicator to signal the need for flexibility. Many analyzes use historical or predicted pricing time series to evaluate storage options. However, while the feedback of the operation of an energy storage on the market prices is left out. Therefore, a method is developed in this work to estimate the impact of an increasing market volume of storage and other flexibility options on spot market prices. The influence of storage use on electricity demand and spot market prices in 2020 and 2030 is examined. The scenarios to be defined for the electricity market are model-based and evaluated. To answer the question, techno-economic models, e.g. The MICOES power market model for power plant deployment planning, the DeSiflex model for smoothing residual load through integrated flexibility options and the Arturflex model for estimating arbitrage gains through the use of flexibility options on the spot market. [German] Diese Arbeit geht der Frage nach, ob sich durch die stattfindende Transformation zu einem kohlenstoffarmen Energiesystem in Deutschland auch Marktchancen fuer innovative Marktteilnehmer, insbesondere fuer Speicherbetreiber, herausbilden. Die oekonomischen Effekte, die in Energiesystemen mit hohen

  18. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear energy as an instrument of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter is a review of how nuclear power can help achieve energy policy objectives, illustrated with examples based on experience in France. It is preceded by a preliminary consideration of the global economic background for the development of nuclear power today. Headings are: introduction; world-wide economic environment; nuclear energy and inflation; nuclear energy and external constraints; nuclear energy, foreign currency and employment in the French context. (U.K.)

  20. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  1. Technical-economic study of energy efficiency in offshore industrial electrical systems; Estudio tecnico economico de eficiencia energetica en sistemas electricos industriales costa afuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the methodology of analysis and the results obtained are presented in an technical-economic study for the application of power efficiency measures for a marine platform. The methodology is considered in the following steps: 1) Technical evaluation of the installation 2) Technical analyses of the optimization alternatives 3) Economic evaluation of the selected optimization alternatives graphs of the thermal regime of the variation with respect to the generation, variation of the efficiency with respect to the generation, efficiency curve of the motor and the designed curve of the pump are presented. A table of general reference parameters and another one of particular reference is given. Also a table of the economic evaluation when changing the electrical motor by one more efficient is presented. It is concluded that a potential of energy saving exists in their processes, generating an opportunity to perform a technical-economic feasibility study in these facilities. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la metodologia de analisis y los resultados obtenidos en un estudio tecnico-economico para la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica para una plataforma marina. Se plantea la metodologia en los siguientes pasos: 1) Evaluacion tecnica de la instalacion 2) Analisis tecnico de las alternativas de optimizacion 3) Evaluacion economica de las alternativas de optimizacion seleccionadas. Se muestran graficas de la variacion del regimen termico respecto a la generacion, variacion de la eficiencia respecto a la generacion, curva de eficiencia del motor y curva de diseno de la bomba. Se da una tabla de parametros de referencia generales y otra de referencia particulares. Tambien se presenta una tabla de la evaluacion economica al cambiar el motor electrico por uno mas eficiente. Se concluye que existe un potencial de ahorro de energia en sus procesos, generando una oportunidad para realizar estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en dichas instalaciones.

  2. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  3. Zero energy homes – Are they economically viable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Stephen; Davidson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Whilst net zero energy homes are espoused in many policy circles, and many bespoke examples have been constructed to demonstrate their technical feasibility, there is a scarcity of evidence demonstrating such a standard would be economically rational, particularly for large scale housing development where orientation and aspect may not always be optimal. Drawing on energy monitoring evidence and construction economics associated with a nearly zero energy housing estate in Adelaide, Australia, this paper explores the economic feasibility of the net zero energy home policy in warm temperate climates. The results demonstrate that using economic tools and assumptions typically applied for building energy regulatory policy changes, net societal economic benefits significantly outweigh costs. The clear economic outcomes, combined with expected health and productivity benefits from improved levels of thermal comfort, should provide security to policy makers to progress home energy standards towards net zero energy performance. -- Highlights: •The concept of net zero energy homes is examined for economic viability. •Evidence is collected from a near net zero energy housing estate. •Conservative results show that societal benefits outweigh costs. •Significant additional benefits gained from net zero energy homes

  4. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  5. Economics of satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    arrives at a schedule of costs and payments for all the items and the years in which they will be incurred. The second category of costing problems is one of financing or engineering economics. All the costs are first "present valued" to some reference period using rates of return appropriate to the particular situation. One finally arrives at sets of annual costs which can be used as the basis for setting lease costs or revenue requirements and tariffs. The correspondence between methods using discounted rates of return and capital recovery formulae on one hand and those using various depreciation schedules, such as is typical of regulated industries on the other hand, is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to discussing the relationship between critical parameters, such as replacement schedules, design lifetime, satellite power and Earth station antenna size, and the overall costs. It is shown that optima for these parameters may exist and can be calculated. In particular, the optimization of satellite replacement schedules to minimize the present value of total investment over a very long period is presented, along with simplified versions of the theory suitable for system planning. The choice of EIRP is also discussed and a procedure for choosing the value that minimizes the costs is shown.

  6. Political and economic heritage of postcommunist Europe and energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transition countries include a group of countries with similar political, economic and social problems that signify the period after the end of the cold war and the fall of Communism. The paper presents the characteristics of the European Communist countries before and after the fall of the iron curtain, which influenced the transition process toward market economy. The centralist (Russian) economy model had enormous advantages at the beginning, particularly in the energy sector, owing to unlimited consumption of blood, sweat and tears during the construction of major power plants. The bureaucratic system executed ruthless expropriation of land and the existing power system, neglecting the environment and human health and even disregarding the feasibility of new power plants. The market creation and particularly the creation of an energy market, under which we understand selling and buying of all forms of energy, fuels, power plants' equipment and capital for energy sector, asks for a series of tasks from the Eastern European countries. They must accept market rules, standards of highly industrialised western countries and achievements in parliamentary democracy as the canon of behaviour in democracy. Setting up a legal infrastructure for the private sector, devising a taxation system, determining ownership rights, stabilising the macro economy in the sense of managing the government budget so as to avoid an excessive fiscal deficit, and stabilising monetary policy are primary tasks of the transition countries. The paper particularly reviews the tasks specifically related to the energy sector and analyses the problems taking into account national strategic interests. (author)

  7. Energy. Economics - politics - technology. Energie. Wirtschaft - Politik - Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruppa, A; Mielenhausen, E; Kallweit, J H; Schlueter, H; Schenkel, J; Vohwinkel, F; Streckel, S; Brockmann, H W

    1978-01-01

    The themes of the various aspects of the energy sector collected in this volume and discussed by different authors are: Energy policy, energy demand-research and forecasts, energy supplies, new technologies for future energy supply, generation of electrical energy by nuclear power stations, effect on the environment of energy plants, legal problems of site planning, and the authorisation of energy plants.

  8. Variants of social-economic and energy development of Bulgaria up to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    The development variants are formulated as the second stage of a procedure of energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the scenarios description and the analysis of the development variants. This stage consists of interactive studies with the complex model of the economic developments (CMED), the model of the energy demand (MED) and the energy supplies model (ENERGO). The chapter presents a considerable in its depth and scope description of the energy consumption system developments, according to the alternative social economic and technological policies and also to the studies on the energy complex structure variants and the national energy balance. The economic development variants comprise 25 economic branch structures according to 6 basic economic indices. The energy demand development variants embrace the energy consumption system (including final energy demand, final electrical power demand of the industrial, transportation, household and services sectors), the energy supply system (fuel production and energy conversion) demand and the total energy demands of the country. The dynamics of the final energy demand is considered by 14 types of energy carriers. In addition a draft study on the implementation of gas turbine and combined cycle power plants in the electricity and heat production of the country is presented. 16 refs., 28 figs., 25 tab. (R.Ts.)

  9. Tawhidic Based Economic System: A Preliminary Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hilmiyah Hilmiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates contemporary mainstream economic system, does Islamic Economics taking advantage of the shortfall of the system outlined above based on Tawhidical approach? By using descriptive qualitative method this paper proposed the appropriate of Islamic economics theorize that the Islamic system provide the ideal form of a socio-economic order. This paper found that Tawhidic based economics approaches can be focused towards seeing wholes of economics, rather than parts; seeing economics activities as a worship, rather than competition; cultivating the solidarity (charity, rather than individualism and creating the justice, rather than injustice. Thus this paper designed to provide the concept of Islamic economic system with Tawhid as the basis, to fit the philosophy of economic science and reality of human life. The paper also shows the position of Tawhid in the system and theory of economy in creating prosperity and benefit for all mankind comparing to mainstream economic system and their theory.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3481 

  10. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-09-01

    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  11. Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2005-03-01

    Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of

  12. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  13. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  14. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S QUEST FOR ENERGY POLICY: A GEO-ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Codoban

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s external energy policy architecture is very important for further energy security and economic development. European normative power on its neighbours represents the most efficient way of integrating neighbouring energy markets, with the EU’s emerging internal market and, in perspective, through economic interdependence and complementarities, there are chances of creating an European geo-energy space. EU’s tools for shaping the geo-energy space are becoming more effective in an extended European economic area that would allow it to act as the main actor in a multilateral interconnected system of energy producer and transit countries. The result of the paper is materialized in a new paradigm for EU’s external energy policy, which can provide future security of supply through market institutions and an active economic diplomacy in the resource energy countries.

  15. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  16. A Framework for Evaluating Economic Impacts of Rooftop PV Systems with or without Energy Storage on Thai Distribution Utilities and Ratepayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaianong, A.; Bangviwat, A.; Menke, C.

    2017-07-01

    Driven by decreasing PV and energy storage prices, increasing electricity costs and policy supports from Thai government (self-consumption era), rooftop PV and energy storage systems are going to be deployed in the country rapidly that may disrupt existing business models structure of Thai distribution utilities due to revenue erosion and lost earnings opportunities. The retail rates that directly affect ratepayers (non-solar customers) are expected to increase. This paper focuses on a framework for evaluating impacts of PV with and without energy storage systems on Thai distribution utilities and ratepayers by using cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Prior to calculation of cost/benefit components, changes in energy sales need to be addressed. Government policies for the support of PV generation will also help in accelerating the rooftop PV installation. Benefit components include avoided costs due to transmission losses and deferring distribution capacity with appropriate PV penetration level, while cost components consist of losses in revenue, program costs, integration costs and unrecovered fixed costs. It is necessary for Thailand to compare total costs and total benefits of rooftop PV and energy storage systems in order to adopt policy supports and mitigation approaches, such as business model innovation and regulatory reform, effectively.

  17. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of the viability of residential photovoltaic systems using lithium-ion batteries for energy storage in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Kotub; Gough, Rebecca; Radcliffe, Jonathan; Marco, James; Jennings, P. A. (Paul A.)

    2017-01-01

    Rooftop photovoltaic systems integrated with lithium-ion battery storage are a promising route for the decarbonisation of the UK’s power sector. From a consumer perspective, the financial benefits of lower utility costs and the potential of a financial return through providing grid services is a strong incentive to invest in PV-battery systems. Although battery storage is generally considered an effective means for reducing the energy mismatch between photovoltaic supply and building demand, ...

  19. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  20. Economic Dispatch of Electric Energy Storage with Multi-service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a generic optimization model that explores the difficulty met by Electric Energy Storage (EES) systems when economic dispatch for multiple-service provision is requested. Such a model is further used to investigate the economic performance of an EES system which meets the 10...

  1. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1977-01-01

    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  2. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.B.; Rosa, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  3. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  4. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  5. The German energy policy. Future prospects and new economic opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the German energy policy: share of renewable energy sources in the German energy mix by 2050, societal commitments of citizens, towns and regions as pillars of the energy transition, research and innovation: the keys of a successful energy transition in Germany, the coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, a safe, affordable and ecological energy transition, renewable energies guidance towards market economy, grids as central and vital elements of the energy transition, the electricity market and the new framework for renewable energies, new economic models to be exploited for smart grids, a change of paradigm with 'smart markets'

  6. Economic analyses of central solar heating systems with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D; Keinonen, R.S.

    1986-10-01

    Economic optimization of large active community solar heating systems with annual thermal storage is discussed. The economic evaluation is based on a thermal performance simulation model employing one hour time steps and on detailed up-date data. Different system configurations and sub-system sizes have been considered. For Northern European weather conditions (60/sup 0/N) and with at least 400-500 residential units, the life-cycle cost of delivered solar heat was 6.5-7.5 c/kWh for 50% fraction of non-purchased energy. For a solar fraction of 70%, the solar energy price would be 8 c/kWh.

  7. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  8. The methodology of energy policy-making in economical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursina, B.

    1998-08-01

    Scrutiny and careful study in energy is a subject that in human science has been investigated from different point of view. The expansion of this research, because of its importance and effect in different dimensions of human life, has also arrived in the field of political and economic sciences. Economics evaluates the energy phenomenon at the side of elements such as labor, capital and technology in the production functions of firms. The nature of these discussions is mainly from the viewpoint of micro analyses. Nevertheless, the variation and challenges concerning energy and environment during the recent decades and the economists` detailed investigations in its analysis and evaluation have led to the arrival of energy discussions in a special shape in macro planning and large economic models. The paper compares various energy models - EFDM, MEDEE, MIDAS and HERMES. This extent of planning and consequently modelling which lacks a background in the processes of economic researches, deals with analysis of energy and economics reacting effects. Modelling of energy-economy interaction and energy policy in modeling macroeconomics large models are new ideas in energy studies and economics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mory, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

  10. Sustainable energy. Economic growth for the Netherlands with green potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijbesma, F.; Oudeman, M.

    2010-02-01

    Research of the economic potential and options for enhancing renewable energy in the Netherlands. The following research questions were addressed: What is the current and future economic value of renewable energy in the Netherlands?; What are the areas in which the Netherlands has a unique point of departure with respect to knowledge and activities?; How can the economic potential be optimally deployed? Can the opportunities be increased by making it a key area?; What are other ways are there to enhance the economic development?. [nl

  11. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  12. Causality relationship between energy demand and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the causal relationship between electricity demand and economic growth in Nigeria using data for 1970 – 2003. The study uses the Johansen cointegration VAR approach. The ADF and Phillips – Perron test statistics were used to test for stationarity of the data. It was found that the data were ...

  13. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  14. Economics of Energy Conservation: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake, Herath; Padmakanthi, Dhammika

    2008-01-01

    Global energy security relies heavily on exhaustible fossil fuels, whose use contributes significantly to global environmental problems. The recent unprecedented rise in oil prices and the threat of global warming highlight the urgent need for solutions to the energy and environment problem. Shifting to clean renewable energy sources - the long-term solution - has been slow despite efforts of the global community since the 1970s. Demand side management (DSM) is part of the solution to the ene...

  15. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  16. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  17. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  18. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...... system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...

  19. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  20. Economical energy use in road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, A

    1980-01-01

    The energy situation calls for a more rational use of energy. Although the overall share of road transport in energy consumption is only 12%, this sector is looked upon to make a substantial contribution to the saving of energy. The production of more efficient motor vehicles as well as changing patterns in the use of such vehicles will probably lead to a lower overall consumption of fuel by 1985 regardless of an increase in the number of vehicles registered. This can only be achieved if the progress made in vehicle construction is not annihilated by a deterioration in traffic flow owing to insufficient improvement of the road network.

  1. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  2. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable...... in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...

  3. Scenarios of socio-economic and energy development of the country up to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    The scenarios description is given as the first stage of a procedure of an energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the formulation and the analysis of the development variants. The scenarios reflect quantitatively the policies and the international conditions for the socio-economic, energy demand and energy supply developments of the country. Two economic development scenarios ('high' - official macroeconomic views and 'low' - economic restructuring and decrease of energy intensity) hierarchically preside over the two corresponding energy demand scenarios of different technological evolutions ('traditional' and 'energy efficiency' oriented one) in the industry, the transport and the domestic and services sectors. Four energy supply system scenarios follow, corresponding to different approaches in the development of the energy conversion technologies and energy carriers, thus constituting a scenario tree of the studies. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tab., 1 ann. (R.Ts.)

  4. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  5. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  6. Italian energy economics in an integrated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas the comparison of 1973-1990 statistical data representing national dependency on foreign energy supplies reflects the overall successful effort by the major Common Market countries to reduce their dependencies, it also evidences that Italy has in fact increased its dependency on foreign energy supplies by 1% to a worrisome 83% European high. Further analysis of the Italian energy situation reveals that, although in recent years energy strategies have been implemented to diversify the mix of energy sources and suppliers, the only diversification Italy has made is the substitution of a portion of its petroleum imports, used predominantly to meet rapidly rising power demand, with natural gas imports. Thus, the degree of vulnerability of this nation's energy supply base has not been altered significantly. It is now hoped that greater cooperation between Italy and its more energy self-sufficient European neighbours, as called for in the new European free trade marketing strategies, as well as, attempts to create and enforce new European environmental standards, will help and induce Italy to lessen its energy supply vulnerability

  7. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  8. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  9. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O' Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  10. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  11. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  12. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  13. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  14. Economical aspects of renewable energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.

    1999-01-01

    This article is the summary of a presentation at the exhibition 'Habitat and Garden' at Lausanne (Switzerland) about the effects of renewable energy development on economy and employment. Several studies over this subject do exist and some companies have a considerable know-how in this field. One particularly important question is the impact of non-renewable energy taxes. An answer is available from already published studies: taxes with a yearly yield of 800 millions CHF (about 500 millions USD) would create a net number of 60,000 to 84,000 new jobs, provided that they are integrally used for renewable energy support [de

  15. Energy-economical optimization of industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, A.; Saliba, S.; Franke, R.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic optimization of an industrial estate networks all electrical components of a location and combines energy trading, energy management and production processes. This allows to minimize the energy consumption from the supply network and to relieve the power grid and to maximize the profitability of the industrial self-generation. By analyzing the potential is detected and the cost of optimization solution is estimated. The generation-side optimization is supported through demand-side optimization (demand response). Through a real-time optimization the of Use of fuels is managed, controlled and optimized. [de

  16. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  17. Effect of inter-cooling on the performance and economics of a solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system with six stages one-rotor desiccant wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzahzby, Ali M.; Kabeel, A.E.; Bassuoni, M.M.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system. • The model uses a one-rotor six-stage rotary silica gel desiccant wheel. • Theoretical model results are in good agreement with experimental data. • The influences of main operating parameters on optimal rotational speed are discussed. • A life cycle cost analysis of the proposed system has been investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system (SEAHACS) was considered. The desiccant wheels used honeycombed silica gel–haloids composite material. This one-rotor desiccant wheel is divided into six stages, in which two-stage dehumidification process, two-stage pre-cooling process and two-stage regeneration process are realized. Three air streams are involved in the present system. The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. As the key operating and design parameter, the range of process air inlet temperature from 27.5 to 45 °C, range of humidity ratio of the inlet process air from 9 to 21 g/kg, process air inlet velocity from 1.5 to 5.5 m/s have been examined for a range of rotation speed from 6 to 20 rev/h. the optimization of this parameters is conducted based on the moisture removal capacity D, relative moisture removal capacity, dehumidification coefficient of performance, thermal coefficient of performance, and supply air temperature and humidity ratio. At last, the influences of these main parameters on optimal rotational speed are discussed. Eventually, the life cycle cost analysis of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system has been investigated

  18. FORECAST MANAGEMENT FOR THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoº MICU; Cosmin LEFTER

    2011-01-01

    Existing turbulences in the economic environment assume a more responsible involvement from the manager’s behalf in the management process thus determing them to use adequate forms of managemet. In this context, this paper highlights the necessity of implementing management forecasting systems in the economic environment.

  19. Technical progress of nuclear energy: economic and environmental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document deals with three different aspects of the nuclear energy: first the operating and economic performances of nuclear power plants in the world, the French nuclear competitiveness. Then, the technical and economic perspectives about reactors and fuels cycle and the advantages towards atmospheric pollution are discussed to favour a new worldwide nuclear development. (TEC). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Economic and ordinal benefits of Hydrogen Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Zoli, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing economic, environmental and energy investments is particularly suited for hydrogen technologies, because it makes it possible to calculate business returns, negative externalities and, above all, the economic benefits to the citizens: the monetizable positive externalities and the ordinal benefits, i.e. those which cannot be reduced to a simple monetary value. [it

  1. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdev, A.J.; Samo, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  2. Economic perspectives of SMSNRs in the energy market of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Hayashi, Toshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The marginal values of the investment cost were analyzed for each of five types of SMSNRs to penetrate into the energy system optimized by minimizing the total system cost. The results showed the upper values of the investment cost as 1.4, 1.35, and 1.45 times that of a large-scale LWR for a medium-sized LWR, a small-sized LWR, and a LWR for cogeneration, respectively. The economic conditions for SMSNRs to be adopted by electric utilities were analyzed through comparison of the financial performance of a Japan's typical electric utility in the two cases of selecting a large-scale LWR and a small-sized LWR. The results indicated that the upper limit of the construction cost is 1.4 times that of a large-scale LWR. (orig.)

  3. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  4. Technological and Economic Aspects of Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical regions contiguous to the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are prone to natural disasters and poor electric supply especially in rural and hard to reach coastal regions. Utilization of ocean resources for power generation such as tidal, thermal solar and wind for energy need to be incorporated in a broad framework for the region. Development of ocean-based energy systems can be integrated with early warning networks linked by satellite which can give a few hours to days warning to help mitigate the severity of natural disasters on human life. Ocean-based electricity extraction has; however, remained elusive for various reasons. Interest in these systems resumed after the oil crisis of the 1970’s, but was uncoordinated. Extraction of ocean energy from the kinetic energy of waves and ocean currents depends on various mechanical devices with variable efficiencies. Apart from the efficiency, one must match the output phase of the feeder waveforms with that of the electrical grid. Also, the wavelengths of the typical wave are of the order of a few meters, the interception of which requires large devices. The mechanical efficiency of the turbine extraction system is further limited by the flow momentum considerations. Some applications and their implementation are looked at, specifically with reference to the difficulties of implementation in the region, and other factors like economic efficiency (rate of returns in place of mechanical efficiency. Individual wave energy harvesters are thus bound to suffer from inefficiencies and it may be beneficial to use wave farm configurations from the point of view of the randomness of wave motion, the large wavelengths, and the added advantage of averaging fluctuations from large numbers of generators.

  5. Energy price increases and economic development in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong CO

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of higher energy costs (particularly petroleum price increases) on economic development in Malaysia, 1973 to 1983 - outlines trends in gross domestic product, balance of payments, trade and economic growth; considers household income and fuel expenditure of low income rural communitys; deals with choice of technology and employment in certain high power consumption industries; discusses energy policy implications. Graphs, maps, questionnaires, refe...

  6. Macro-economic and energy scenarios for Japan through the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi

    1986-03-01

    As one of studies and systems analyses on the role of VHTR and process heat utilization in future energy systems, long-term macro economic and energy scenarios of Japan until the year 2030 have been generated. This paper presents,; 1) the outline of the long-term macro econometric model and the energy system dynamics model by which these scenarios were generated, 2) back grounds and prospects on future societies of Japan and exogeneous assumptions for calculations, and 3) macro energy and economic scenarios generated. Reflecting the present economic prospects, these scenarios are seemed to be of extremely low-growth type, however, the role of VHTR and its energy systems could be prospected clealy to play a large and important role within these scenario regions. Basic philosophies of scenario generations are also mentioned in this paper. (author)

  7. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Yiannis; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Chletsis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  8. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics