Full Text Available Migration is one of the oldest phenomena that accompanied the development of human society, sometimes causing clashes between peoples, cultures and civilizations. Recent events or from a not too distant past of Europe show that tensions created by migratory movements often have an impact on political and economic relations between countries, cultures and religions. The Romanian reality shows that after 1989 the resident population experienced a decline. According to the National Institute of Statistics, in the period 1989-2012, Romania's population decreased by about 3.1 million, this reduction being due to both migration phenomenon and negative natural increase of population. Some statistic records also show that the extremes are usually among those who decide to emigrate. On the one hand those who are choosing this path are individuals with low income and a low or medium level of education; on the other hand, we can find the phenomenon of brain drain. It is alarming that among those who choose to emigrate are registered young people able to work, this generating the problem of funding on medium and long term the social services. Starting from such aspects, this paper aims to highlight key issues regarding the intention of emigration of highly educated young people. Using quantitative and qualitative methods the authors of this paper aim to identify some possible causes that may determine the highly educated youth to emigrate, evaluate some possible effects due to this phenomenon and to find proposals to limit the negative effects of demographic decline.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of international migration is among the most prominent global demographic processes currently taking place and influencing both the economic and social situation worldwide. An intensive emigration is a matter of serious concern for such a small country as Lithuania. Firstly, emigration further exacerbates the current negative demographic indicators (low birth rate, high mortality rate, stagnant average lifespan, which, on the whole, leads to a decrease in the absolute number of the population. Secondly, emigration of persons of working age, leaving behind the population that lacks the capacity for work, reduces the state budget and social security budget revenues. Thirdly, departure of well-educated and competent citizens from the country results in the shrinking of the country’s intellectual potential and diminishing of possibilities of mastering and development of high technologies, innovations and modernisation of the economy. The authors of the article point out the threat posed by emigration to Lithuania’s socioeconomic development and present a comprehensive analysis of the demographic structure of the population: by sex and age, the population ageing tendency, the causes and consequences of emigration. The goal of the article is to raise the issue of emigration from Lithuania and to manifest its impact on the socio-economic development of the country. The object of the article is the extent, dynamics, structure, causes and economic effects of emigration and the problems arising for the economy in the context of emigration.
Zhou, Yunxian; Roscigno, Cecelia; Sun, Qiuhua
Despite the fact that there are more and more Chinese nurses living and working in Australia, relatively little is known about the decisions to emigrate made by these nurses. To explore factors influencing China-educated nurses to emigrate to Australia. This was a secondary analysis of 46 semi-structured interviews with 28 China-educated nurses working in Australia. Conventional content analysis was used, and the results are presented thematically. The nurses emigrated for a wide variety of reasons: (a) personal factors (to improve English, to see more of the world and cultures, to seek novelty and adventure); (b) work-related factors (better work environment and more career choices); (c) social factors (better living environment and lifestyle); (d) cultural factors (positive perceptions in China of those who emigrate or have overseas experiences), and (e) economic factors (higher salaries and greater purchasing power). Confirming findings from similar studies, China-educated nurses' decisions to migrate are complex and not based solely on economic expectations. Personal and cultural factors play vital roles in nurses' migration decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper considers the economic debate of whether emigration helps or hurts a country. This is a vital issue along the whole Mediterranean littoral from Portugal to Turkey. On one side of the debate emigration is regarded as the export of capital, inappropriate for poor countries. On the other side, it is considered to provide the benefits of getting unemployed or disguised unemployed to work. Here the arguments for and against emigration from developing countries is presented separately in static and dynamic terms. The focus is no intra-European South-North migration. It is shown that when conditions are right, large-scale migration can contribute to rapid growth in the country of immigration, based on greater supplies of labour, and in the country of origin, based on more effective resource allocation. It is argued that within certain limits emigration can be, and has been a positive force for growth in the South.JEL: O15
Full Text Available The United States was the most important destination for emigrants from the Swiss canton of Bern during the period of mass emigration in the late 19th and the early 20th century. The present article looks at the economic factors leading to this mass emigration. Using bivariate correlations, this study demonstrates that quantitative analysis is a powerful tool in historical emigration research. The data underlines the two following theses. First, the better the economy in Bern, the lower the rate of emigration to the United States. Secondly, the better the economy in the United States, the higher the rate of emigration from Bern. Hence, both pull and push factors played an important role determining emigration from Bern to the United States. The most closely related to the rate of emigration were the independent variables emigration to the USA in year t-1, the investments in structural engineering in Bern, railroad construction in the USA and the number of Bernese on welfare. The results clearly show that Bernese emigration was primarily a socio-economic mass movement.
Roč. 23, č. 3 (2011), s. 377-398 ISSN 1463-1377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : emigration * economic development * household survey Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2011
Full Text Available Uruguay es uno de los países sudamericanos con una proporción significativa de su población viviendo en el exterior. Desde los años setenta, el país ha tenido una emigración neta. Aunque esta tendencia se debilitó a principios de los noventa, recobró fuerza con la llegada de una severa crisis económica en 1999. En este artículo se discuten las características de la migración reciente de uruguayos y se pone en evidencia la relación entre crisis económica y emigración. El volumen del flujo poblacional en 2002 es comparable con las olas de migración que tuvieron lugar en los setenta. Los emigrantes con educación universitaria están sobrerrepresentados en comparación con la población general. Existe una correlación entre el acceso a redes de emigrantes uruguayos en los países de destino y la probabilidad de que un hogar haya tenido un miembro que emigró en 2002.
Full Text Available The remittances of international migrants are particularly important for Romania as one of the top European emigration countries and an important remittance recipient country as well. Responding to the need to better understand the determinants of remittances, our paper examines the significance of selected economic, social and demographic factors that impact on the remittance behaviour of Romanian international migrants, as characterized by the propensity to remit and the amount remitted. The present work builds on a new database of 1514 Romanian migrants from 52 destination countries, resulting from our 2010 online survey. One of the main findings is the fact that the remittances are strongly affected by migrant’s income, return intention and presence of the spouse in the destination country.
Premi, M K; Mathur, M D
This report on emigration dynamics in India opens by providing background on short- and long-distance migration to and from India in response to such events as the formation of Pakistan as well as to the policies of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Section 2 discusses India's demographic and sociocultural setting in terms of population growth, urbanization, patterns of internal migration, growth of the labor force, economic growth, poverty alleviation, health, and education. The third section describes the lack of data on international migration. Some data are available on emigrants, but the only information on return migration is that gleaned from surveys in Kerala. Section 4 considers emigration to industrialized countries and notes that it is almost exclusively permanent and largely composed of individuals with professional, technical, or managerial skills. The resulting brain drain is described as is the incidence of illegal migration. India does not create conditions from which citizens must seek asylum, rather the country has absorbed flows of refugees from Pakistan, Tibet, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka. Available data on the characteristics of emigrants and return migrants are reviewed in the next two sections, and section 7 looks at the data on financial flows gathered from macro-level estimates of remittances. Section 8 is devoted to the community, family, and individual factors which influence emigration including the networks that facilitate migration and means of meeting migration costs. The ninth section summarizes the political setting with an emphasis on the adverse reaction of Nepal to population movement from India. The final section of the report projects future population movements. It is noted that if there were no restrictions on migration, millions of Indians would emigrate to the Americas, Africa, and Australia. Whereas poverty, unemployment, and population growth will likely erode living conditions in India, the government has
The transitional process of the FYR of Macedonia since independence in 1991 has been marked by a severe economic crisis, which has led to a significant increase in the levels of unemployment (31.9 percent in 2002) and poverty (22.7 percent in 2001). The turbulent situation in the Balkan region (war in the countries of the Former Yugoslavia) and…
Mahmood, R A
This study of emigration dynamics opens by noting that emigration is one of the most dynamic economic and social elements in Bangladesh. The history of emigration from Bangladesh is sketched, and the level and trend of emigration is described for various destinations (especially the UK, the Middle East and North Africa, and Japan) and in terms of the socioeconomic background of migrants, channels of migration, occupations, the potential level of emigration, and applications for US Visas. The next section of the report presents the economic and demographic setting in terms of the gross national and domestic products, quality of life, the size and distribution of the population, the labor force, literacy, unemployment and underemployment, urbanization, internal migration, poverty, and income distribution. The discussion then centers on the sociopolitical setting and such factors as unmet basic human needs, the demand for expatriate workers, and emigration policy. It is concluded that the desperate economic situation in Bangladesh has combined with the demand for expatriate workers and the development of institutions to facilitate emigration. The result is increasing interest in emigration, which is fueled by mass communication highlighting the differences between the quality of life in Bangladesh and abroad.
The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling
Blomqvist, A G
The author examines the emigration of educated individuals from developing countries and reviews selected approaches to the study of international human capital flows. Attention is then given to two policy issues: the financing of postsecondary education and an international brain drain tax. The following factors are identified as critical in their impact on educated worker migration: "(a) the rigidity or flexibility of the wage in the market for the services of educated labour; (b) the extent of government subsidy (explicit or implicit) of the cost of post-secondary education; (c) the extent of responsiveness of the investment in education to the private return on such investment or its being exogenously controlled by the government; and (d) the type of restrictions (if any) imposed by the receiving industrialized countries on the migration flows from the LDCs." Comments by M. Ali Khan on a previous article by Blomqvist on the subject are also included (pp. 655-6). excerpt
Full Text Available This article analyses the migration of Spanish women to France following the 2008 economic crisis, considering the reactivation of the transnational social fields that have been built up between the two countries over the years. It reveals how the recession has led to a renewal of the gender-based labour niches filled by women emigrating to Paris in the period between 1950 and 1970 (bonnes à tout faire or maid, domestic workers, caretakers and cleaners, stemming from the reactivation of transnational fields built up through social networks woven by the various migratory trends. It provides an insight into the way these transnational fields are linked to global production and reproduction chains in terms of the patriarchal reorganisation of the labour market and workforce. It concludes that the economic crisis has reinforced traditional social reproduction channels rooted in gender-based sources of employment.
Almudena Moreno Mínguez
Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of the economic crisis on the international mobility of young Spaniards from a critical perspective. The difficulties in finding employment resulting from the economic crisis have changed the international mobility of young people. The results presented in this paper point to a relative decline in the young population due to reduced fertility and increased youth mobility. On the one hand, this new trend has generated a relative media distortion. On the other hand, it could have future implications for the sustainability of the Spanish welfare state.
Singh, M L
This study examined emigration from Nepal during 1952-91. Data were obtained from census records decennially. Records indicate that the volume of emigration amounted to about 2.39% of total population in 1952-53, and 3.58% in 1991. The level of emigration rose from 198,120 persons to 658,290. Emigrants are persons who were absent from their home for more than 6 months due to tourism, pilgrimage, business trips, studies, employment, or permanent migration. Most emigrants return home after several months or years. A recent survey finds that 14.1% returned after more than 5 years. The Nepal model of migration is different from conventional or Marxist models. For example, landlessness or near landlessness are not the primary reasons for migration. The recent emigration to Arab countries is driven by the desire for better income. Emigrants pay handsomely to go abroad for work (Rs. 85,000). Nepalese emigrate to Australia and the US for a better income and a better life. The proportion of female emigrants was 6.23% of total emigrants to Arab countries, and 16.2% to India. 31% of emigrants were females who emigrated to North America, and 29% emigrated to European countries. Emigrants to Arab countries were likely to return home. Emigrants to North America and Europe were likely to be permanent migrants. The author prefers Mellassoux's (1981) model that says that Nepal is losing manpower during their most productive years. Remittances do not offset the loss. Government costs are incurred for supporting education abroad, benefits in old age and for youth, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
is necessary if resources from emigration are to become seeds for development. By analysing the case of Romania, one of the largest labour sending countries in Eastern Europe, it argues that its laissez-faire approach is likely not enough to capitalize on emigrants' resources for development. International......This article explores the proposition that the developmental potential of emigration depends on the context of the sending countries. It builds on the insights from the institutional approach to development and adapts them to the migration-development nexus. It argues that government involvement...... Migration...
Emami, Z.; Davis, J.
This paper examines the connections between democracy and education, particularly as it concerns economics. We adopt a pluralist proceduralist view of democracy, and argue that this requires a view of individuals as active decision-makers able to deliberate and reflect on their different ideas and
Schmidt, A E; Klambauer, E
Given the increasing lack of medical doctors in Germany, this study aimed to investigate the professional situation and the push and pull factors of German medical specialists working in Austrian hospitals. This explorative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 14 specialists working in Austria, who completed their education partly or fully in Germany. The material has been interpreted using qualitative content analysis. Better work-life balance, higher quality of life and more favourable working conditions represent major reasons for German specialists to stay in Austria. Moreover, the higher density of medical doctors in Austrian hospitals can have an impact on the distribution of responsibilities among health-care personnel, and on hospital performance. In the light of recent reforms in the German health-care system, the study underlines the importance of qualitative factors for the satisfaction of German medical doctors. These factors should be further analysed in order to avoid a brain drain of high-qualified health care staff in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
unemployed and unskilled has negative demographic consequences, the emigration of highly educated (and already employed experts (brain drain is harmful to an even greater extent, because the socio-economic damage is twofold: first, it lowers developmental potential and quality of life in local communities, and second, investment in the education of those who left becomes futile. Besides these objective circumstances and ”traditional” motives, current emigration may be encouraged by materialism (materialistic values as a latent motive. The aim of this paper was to empirically determine if this is the case. Data for analysis were collected in 2014 by face-to-face survey on a representative sample of adult population of Croatia (N = 1000. Results showed that materialism was relatively low prominent but it had become an evenly distributed (universal value among the population, which means that to a greater extent it varies individually rather than between relevant socio-demographic and status groups. Younger generations are the exception: they are slightly more materialistic and their intentions to emigrate are much more prominent than among older (40 years and over segments of population. Likewise, in the cohorts younger than 40 materialism is a significant and independent predictor of intentions to leave, in comparison with other more or less relevant objective (education level, employment, income, type of dwelling, relatives abroad, marital status, number of children and subjective predictors (satisfaction with one’s own personal standard and general situation in Croatia. Finally, it is concluded (with regard to the relevance of both phenomena in today's Croatian society that relationship between materialism and (intended and actual emigration should be further examined.
"Just after the Second World War, during the period of rapid economic growth, North African emigration, to France in particular, increases considerably. Later on, during the crisis, emigration still increases, but is directed towards other European countries. The crisis moreover reveals that these workforce migrations not only play a major role of regulation of the conditions [of] the job market, but also play a role of structural complementarity of national workforces, at least as far as certain levels of the market are concerned; and this to the extent that a high national unemployment rate can co-exist with a high rate of employment of foreign workers." (EXCERPT)
This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…
The case for education can be made from many perspectives. This paper makes the case for education based on economic outcomes. Surveying the most recent empirical evidence, it shows the crucial role of education for individual and societal prosperity. Education is a leading determinant of economic growth, employment, and earnings in modern…
Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.
The introduction to this description of emigration dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa notes that the region is characterized by intensive migration caused by such factors as population growth, negative economic growth, ethnic conflict, and human rights abuses. The second section of the report discusses the fragmentary and incomplete nature of data on international migration in the region, especially data on conventional migration. Section 3 looks at demographic factors such as high population growth, illiteracy levels, HIV seroprevalence, and urbanization which lead to high unemployment and emigration. The fourth section considers the effects of the rapid expansion of education which is outstripping the absorptive capacity of the economies of many countries. Unemployment is a serious problem which is projected to become worse as increases in employment opportunities continue to lag behind increases in output. Sections five, six, and seven of the report describe relevant economic factors such as per capita income, income distribution, the economic resource base, and economic development; poverty; and the effects of economic adjustment programs, especially on employment opportunities and wages in the public and private sectors. The next section is devoted to sociocultural factors influencing migration both on the micro- and the macro-levels, including the influence of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts as well as the domination of leadership positions by members of minority groups. The political factors discussed in section 9 include women's status, repressive regimes, political instability which leads to underdevelopment, and the policies of the Organization of African Unity which broadened the definition of refugees and set inviolable borders of member states identical to those inherited upon independence. Section 10 outlines ecological factors contributing to migration, including the decline in acreage of arable land, soil deterioration, poor land management, and the
In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.
Full Text Available In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.
Full Text Available The migration phenomenon in Romania is characterized by emigration; the number of Romanian migrants skyrocketed after the Romanian accession to the European Union in 2007. With the economic and financial crisis outlook and with the labour market liberalization across the whole European Union for the Romanian workers starting this year the number of Romanian migrants is expected to increase further. Against this background this paper analyses the effects of emigration on wages in Romania. It is found that emigration has a positive impact on wages in Romania.
First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Review of the Present Status. Expanding no.s and impairment of quality; Faculty shortage; Grim situation at Masters and PhD levels; Regional imbalance; Absence of International flavour ...
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana
The finding that migrants to high-income countries have lower rates of morbidity and mortality than non-migrants, controlling for socioeconomic position, is often attributed to the "healthy migrant" hypothesis, which suggests that only the healthiest individuals choose to migrate. This prospective study investigates the healthy migrant hypothesis in a cohort of British emigrants using pre-migration health indicators. We also investigate how early-life health characteristics relate to age at emigration and whether or not the emigrant returned home. Data are from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative cohort study of people born in England, Scotland or Wales in March 1946. Childhood socio-economic position, health and cognitive ability were compared between 4,378 non-emigrants and 984 emigrants. Of the emigrants, 427 emigrated before age 20 and 557 after that age; 602 emigrants remained abroad and 382 returned home. Emigrants had better childhood health (especially greater height), higher childhood socio-economic position and better childhood cognitive ability at age 8 than non-emigrants. Return emigrants were very similar to emigrants who remained abroad. We found support for the healthy migrant hypothesis in a cohort of British emigrants. Our findings improve an understanding of how health is distributed within and across nations.
O'Donnell, Margaret G.
Although she encountered criticism of her work, Harriet Martineau was the most widely read economics educator of 19th century Great Britain. Martineau wrote for the masses; she was convinced that it was each citizen's civic duty to learn economics. She relied on the body of knowledge which existed in her day: Mill's "Elements of Political…
K.C. Zachariah; B.A. Prakash; S. Irudaya Rajan
This is the fourth in a series of Working Papers published by the CDS on Kerala migration. Unlike the other three, this one is financed by the Kerala Government and the data were collected in UAE. The objectives of this Working Paper are to: document changes in the labour demand for different categories of emigrant workers, enumerate the emigration policies, examine employment and working conditions, wage levels and related problems of the Kerala emigrants, understand the education and traini...
The creation of the Italian Kingdom was characterized by the mass emigration of Italian people, mainly peasants towards European and American destinations. Poverty, unemployment, diseases, like pellagra, malaria and tubercolosis forced millions of Italians to leave the Country. The phenomenon of emigration is usually divided in three periods: the mass emigration from 1976 to 1914, the second one between the two world wars, the third one from 1946 to 1976. In the last quarter of the 20th century the number of repatriations overcome expatriations and the number of immigrants from Albania, Romania, Senegal, Tunisia, China, Philippines grew up becoming more and more important. Italy was a country of emigrants, now is a country of immigrants. It is difficult to compare the work conditions of the Italian emigrants with the new immigrants. At the end of the 19th Century or in the first decades of the 20th Century there were no consideration for human rights, no legislations to protect workers. Immigration from North Africa and from all the low and middle income countries should be studied in all its aspects because it will characterize our future. In the new era of economical globalization, Universities should prepare the new medical doctors to extend their professional culture to a international dimension to be able to cope with the new challenges of our time.
The empirical part of the result shows that there is unidirectional relationship between education and economic growth with causality running from education expenditure to economic growth. The result therefore suggests that policy makers should boost expenditure on education as it will further improve economic growth in ...
This paper describes the four research monographs on emigration that were presented at the December 1995 Regional Workshop in the Arab Region. The workshop was an exchange of views and discussion of policy implications of emigration. Monographs were presented by Dr. Mayar Farrag on emigration in Egypt, Professor Nadji Safir on migration in the Maghreb, Dr. Setenay Shami on emigration dynamics in Jordan, and Dr. Lynn Evans on behalf of Dr. Ivy Papps on migration in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Dr. Farrag identified three periods of migration. During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, migrants were officially encouraged by Egypt to fill education positions. During the 1970s, many migrants left for the oil-producing countries on a temporary basis. Since the mid-1980s, the influences on Egyptian migration have been the economic recession and oil prices in the Gulf states, the completion of infrastructure projects in most Gulf states, and the replacement of foreign labor with nationals. Dr. Farrag recommended improving the migrants' skills in English and technology in order to maintain a dominant flow of temporary migrants to the Gulf region. Professor Safir reported that persons from the Maghreb region (Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) migrated to France before independence and subsequently to West Germany and the Benelux countries. Algeria had the highest migration potential, and Morocco had the highest migration. Morocco had established networks in destination countries, high population growth rates, and high unemployment. Maghreb countries are receiving migrants from the south. Professor Safir recommended regional integration. Dr. Shami separated step migration from stepwise migration, which complicates push-pull theories. Dr. Papps argued that use of foreign labor may not be the best option for development, and that sending countries should be more aware of skill needs in GCC countries.
Lehman, J. D.
There is a considerable interest in seismology from the nonprofessional or amateur standpoint. The operation of a seismic system can be satisfying and educational, especially when you have built and operated the system yourself. A long-period indoor-type sensor and recording system that works extremely well has been developed in the James Madison University Physics Deparment. The system can be built quite economically, and any educational institution that cannot commit themselves to a professional installation need not be without first-hand seismic information. The system design approach has been selected by college students working a project or senior thesis, several elementary and secondary science teachers, as well as the more ambitious tinkerer or hobbyist at home
Gustavo Gatica López
Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed. Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.
Morgan, W. John
This comment was given to an international panel on the economics of education at the invitation of the Beijing Forum, China, on 3 November 2012. It was published in Chinese in Volume 11, 2013, of the "Peking University Education Review". It considers the connections between ethics, economics and policy towards higher education, using a…
Full Text Available In this article we argue that social science education needs to convey more than operational mechanisms of society. Especially in socio-economic education, questions of business ethics, i.e. phenomena of economics and society need to be integrated and reflected, decidedly focusing on the moral content of economics. With the introduction of economic citizenship as the ideal economic actor to be the purpose of economic education, this paper proposes that economic education needs to connect economic expertise and moral judgment and should also allude to the necessity of every market action’s conditional legitimization by society. We propose to discuss different ‘sites’ of morality as a heuristic approach to the different areas of economic responsibility. The individual, organizational and political level of responsibility helps to categorize the different moral issues of economic activity and serves as a great pattern to explain economic relations to scholars and students.
Indah Rahayu Kurniasari
Full Text Available Along the rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, learning media are required to undergo renewal. Innovation of learning media that combines modern technology is needed to improve the effectiveness of learning. The research is a Research and Development (R&D. The product result of this research is mobile educational game of economics. This research aims to determine the feasibility of mobile educational game of economics. Media feasibility was assessed based on the results of media-use response questionnaires that given to experts and students. Expert validation result showed that mobile educational game of economics achieved very good judgment. The assessment questionnaires result from the student also stated that the quality and effectiveness of mobile educational game of economics were very good. So, the research concluded that mobile educational game of economics worthy to be used as a media of economics learning.
Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.
In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…
Rao, C. A.
This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)
Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e
Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…
Full Text Available Student mobility between two European countries in transition, Hungary and Serbia, was considered for the period 2001-2010. The high motivation and number of Hungarian-speaking students emigrating/commuting to Hungary began in 1990, with the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. In 2010, 1,385 Hungarian-speaking students (from Vojvodina, Serbia studied in Hungary and 3,152 in Serbia. Student mobility between Hungary and Serbia is highly concentrated and causes a very low returning rate of educated young elite (approximately 30%. For this reason, the future of the Hungarian minority has begun to be put into question in Serbia, in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, where their percentage within whole population is noticeably decreasing (1991: 16.9%, 2001: 14.3%. The research has been focused on answering the following questions: Are there integration conflicts in the autochthon minority within the state borders of Serbia? What can higher education offer to these students? Does the region offer enough to provide perspectives for young members of the elite? Will early student mobility end with continuous emigration? Empirical background: Interviews with young adult migrants from Serbia to Hungary; Location: Serbia. Objective: To examine the motives and willingness to emigrate among the Hungarian young adults/students from Vojvodina. Interview subjects: 18 university/college students or young adults with a diploma (from Vojvodina. It is important to note that only those young adults were interviewed who have returned to Serbia having finished their educational career or who are likely to come back later. Conclusions in brief: The Yugoslav Wars, worsening economic conditions, and low living standards have significantly influenced the willingness of the youth to migrate. The motives of migration among the Hungarian youth in Vojvodina are gaining professional experience, broadening knowledge, and improving language. Hungary is the first target country of
Javdani Haji, Mohsen
This thesis consists of three empirical essays. The first chapter is focused on the economics of gender, and the other two chapters are focused on the economics of education. A common theme in all these three chapters is studying the outcomes of disadvantaged groups in society, with an eye to policy interventions that could improve these outcomes. The first chapter examines whether women face a glass ceiling in the labour market, which would imply that they are under-represented in high wag...
Hunt, James B., Jr.
Declaring that a "national emergency" exists in American education, the author outlines "Action for Excellence" recommendations developed by the Task Force on Education for Economic Growth, of which he was chairman, and discusses accomplishments in educational reform in the state of North Carolina, where he is governor. (JBM)
Lu, Yao; Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David
Comparative research on international migration has increasingly focused on immigrant integration rather than the process of emigration. By investigating the different streams of Chinese migration to the United States and Europe, as well as the different stages of Chinese migration to the U.S., this study examines the way in which both receiving and sending contexts combine to shape the process of emigration. Using data from a 2002–2003 survey of emigration from China’s Fujian Province, we demonstrate that under restrictive exit and entry policies and high barriers to migration (i.e., clandestine migration from Fuzhou to the U.S.), resources such as migrant social capital, political capital (cadre resources), and human capital all play a crucial role in the emigration process. However, the roles of these resources in the migration process are limited when migration barriers are sufficiently low and when local governments adopt proactive policies promoting emigration (i.e., legal migration from Mingxi to Europe). Comparisons over time suggest that the importance of migrant social capital, political capital, and human capital has strongly persisted for Fuzhou-US emigration, as a result of tightening exit and entry policies. Despite these marked differences between Fuzhou and Mingxi emigration, the results also point to two general processes that are highly consistent across settings and over time—the cumulative causation of migration and the advantage conferred by traditional positional power (cadre status). PMID:26146414
Presents a theory of the relationship between education and the economy that attempts to go beyond those theories that posit either that education is autonomous of the production structure or that stress is a functional correspondence between the nature of education and the workplace. (Editor/CT)
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.
Rahmah Ismaila and Doris Padmini Selvaratnamb
Human capital is vital for the development of a country. Investment in human capital ranges from basic needs expenditure to education and health provision. Economic growth is often used to measure the progress and development of a country. Today other indicators are used to emphasize physical quality of life, for example, education, health and basic needs provision. Using a simultaneous equation model, this paper estimates the relationship between economic growth and human capital variables i...
The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by
The interaction of demographic and economic shifts has led to, and will continue to effect, changes in the postsecondary education system and institutions. Demographic shifts include aging of the population, more women in the paid labor force, and increased numbers of minorities. Economic shifts include the growth of the information sector,…
O'Donnell, Margaret G.
Discussed are the work and the teaching methods of Martineau, one of the most widely read economic educators of the nineteenth century. She wrote 25 tales--"Illustrations of Political Economy"--each illustrating a different economic concept. One of these tales, "Demerara," is examined. (Author/RM)
Filipa Daniela Marques
Full Text Available Constructing family integrity is a normative developmental challenge for older people, which is influenced by the family and social systems. This exploratory study examines the emigration trajectories of former Portuguese emigrants, now in old age, who returned to their home country (Portugal. And aims to contribute to a better understand of the influence of emigration experiences in the construction of family integrity versus disconnection and alienation.
This thesis consists of four studies in the economics of education. All chapters use applied microeconometric techniques to answer questions on education. Chapter two studies determinants of school choice in Amsterdam. Contrasting to a popular argument on school choice, quality indicators are not
The disciplines of economic history and the history of education have drawn closer since the 1960s. This engagement has led to fresh thematic contributions--the role of literacy and education in the Industrial Revolution and industrialization generally, how far its neglect underlay the "decline" of Britain since 1870, the relation of…
Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Rahbany, Aline; Hagopian, Amy
Lebanon is witnessing an increased emigration of physicians. The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of Lebanese policymakers of this emigration, and elicit their proposals for future policies and strategies to deal with this emigration. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with the deans of Lebanon's seven medical schools, the presidents of the two physicians professional associations, and governmental officials. We analyzed the results qualitatively. Participants differed in the assessment of the extent and gravity of emigration. Lebanon has a surplus of physicians, driven largely by the over-production of graduates by a growing number of medical schools. Participants cited advantages and disadvantages of the emigration on the personal, financial, medical education system, healthcare system, and national levels. Proposed strategies included limiting the number of students entering medical schools, creating job opportunities for graduating students, and implementing quality standards. Most participants acknowledged the globalization of the Lebanese physician workforce, including exchanges with the Gulf region, exchanges with developed countries, and the involvement of North American medical education institutions in the region. Many Lebanese policy makers, particularly deans of medical schools, perceive the emigration of the physician workforce as an opportunity in the context of the globalization of the profession.
Background Lebanon is witnessing an increased emigration of physicians. The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of Lebanese policymakers of this emigration, and elicit their proposals for future policies and strategies to deal with this emigration. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with the deans of Lebanon’s seven medical schools, the presidents of the two physicians professional associations, and governmental officials. We analyzed the results qualitatively. Results Participants differed in the assessment of the extent and gravity of emigration. Lebanon has a surplus of physicians, driven largely by the over-production of graduates by a growing number of medical schools. Participants cited advantages and disadvantages of the emigration on the personal, financial, medical education system, healthcare system, and national levels. Proposed strategies included limiting the number of students entering medical schools, creating job opportunities for graduating students, and implementing quality standards. Most participants acknowledged the globalization of the Lebanese physician workforce, including exchanges with the Gulf region, exchanges with developed countries, and the involvement of North American medical education institutions in the region. Conclusion Many Lebanese policy makers, particularly deans of medical schools, perceive the emigration of the physician workforce as an opportunity in the context of the globalization of the profession. PMID:22646478
Akl Elie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lebanon is witnessing an increased emigration of physicians. The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of Lebanese policymakers of this emigration, and elicit their proposals for future policies and strategies to deal with this emigration. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with the deans of Lebanon’s seven medical schools, the presidents of the two physicians professional associations, and governmental officials. We analyzed the results qualitatively. Results Participants differed in the assessment of the extent and gravity of emigration. Lebanon has a surplus of physicians, driven largely by the over-production of graduates by a growing number of medical schools. Participants cited advantages and disadvantages of the emigration on the personal, financial, medical education system, healthcare system, and national levels. Proposed strategies included limiting the number of students entering medical schools, creating job opportunities for graduating students, and implementing quality standards. Most participants acknowledged the globalization of the Lebanese physician workforce, including exchanges with the Gulf region, exchanges with developed countries, and the involvement of North American medical education institutions in the region. Conclusion Many Lebanese policy makers, particularly deans of medical schools, perceive the emigration of the physician workforce as an opportunity in the context of the globalization of the profession.
Shah, N M
This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.
The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...
House, John; Bruns, Joe
Twelve lesson plans on economics of marketing are presented in this performance-based curriculum unit for distributive education. This unit is self-contained and consists of the following components: introduction (provides overview of unit content and describes why mastery of the objectives is important); performance objectives; and unit outline…
Nasra M. Shah
Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a historical overview is made of Pakistani labour emigration to the countries of the Persian Gulf, and to Anglo-Saxon countries in general and to the United Kingdom in particular. In the second part of the paper the new European labourmarkets which Pakistani emigrants have been increasingly discovering is analyzed. In this sense, Spain has become one of the new destinations. The author goes on to point out the specific nature of this new situation and at the same time details some of the future implications for Spain.
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24034906
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.
Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...
Poutvaara, Panu; Munk, Martin D.
Northern European countries lose more than ten percent of their university graduates as a result of emigration. This could undermine welfare states if the high-income earners emigrate to avoid high taxes. Register data shows that those facing a high tax burden are much more likely to emigrate. Ye...
My dissertation focuses on economics of higher education. Specifically, I study how scientists’ social network gives indications on their later career (Chapter 1), the universities’ research performance (Chapter2), and the overall production of research outputs (Chapter3). Building on the current surge of social network analysis, all the papers are built upon networks of co-authors. This thesis contributes to the study of social networks. It documents the prevalence of research collaborations...
expenditures on education, primary school enrolment and economic growth. The tests revealed ..... force possessed a positive and significant impact on economic growth through factor ..... Export and Economic Growth in Namibia: A Granger ...
unaffected in 1880 but 1.5% higher in 1890. Emigration apparently had a positive effect on the standard of living in the rural areas, but possibly even larger rural to urban migration than occurred in the simulation would have happened in the absence of emigration. Rural to urban migration apparently had a significant growth creating effect. The reallocation of labor force to the more dynamic and high wage urban sector with its modern technology and higher rate of productivity change was of great importance to the economic performance of the national economy. More rural to urban migration has a temporary growth creating effect, but in the long run this effect disappears, because it also decreases the wage gap between rural and urban areas and consequently has a boomerang effect on itself.
as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....
This monograph, one in a series on theory and educational issues in Australia, explores links between education and political and economic structures. Two sections provide an analysis of an education-work program and five readings. The Transition Education Program is described as a government response to the 1979 economic crisis. The policy and…
Levin, Henry M.
The quest for educational equity is a moral imperative for a society in which education is a crucial determinant of life chances. Yet whether there is an economic return to the taxpayer for investing in educational justice is often not considered. It is possible that the economic benefits of reducing inadequate education exceed the costs,…
Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.
Home Economics Education Association, Gainesville, VA.
This pamphlet contains the statement of the Coalition of the American Home Economics Association, American Vocational Association, and Home Economics Education Association regarding the scope and definition of vocational home economics education. It is intended to serve as a basis for professional action. Sections of this statement address the…
Ellington, J. Lucien; Tadahisa, Uozumi
Reports a study that compared and contrasted economic education in U.S. and Japanese secondary schools. Examines economics in the curricula; textbooks; characteristics of teachers responsible for economics instruction; and the level of emphasis teachers assign to economic concepts. (Author/BSR)
To date, philosophers of education have shown relatively little interest in analyzing the theoretical basis in which the economics of education is grounded. The main argument of this article is that due to the changing nature of orthodox economic theory's influence on education, a philosophical examination of its underpinnings is required. It is…
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Олена Петрівна Венгер
Full Text Available Aim. Migration is considered as one of the factors that affect the mental health of the population. The accumulation of psychological and social problems provoke personal transformation reaction and exclusion personality, and considering emigration as a factor that provoke manifestation or exacerbation of endogenous mental diseases. Given the paucity and inconsistency of scientific data on the characteristics of psycho-emotional disorders, and personality characteristics of immigrants, and the almost complete lack of information about re-emigrants, the aim of our work was to study the mechanisms of psychosocial adaptation (de-adaptation re-emigrants and immigrants, as well as developing programs of social, psychological, psychotherapeutic and mental health support workers.Methods. We used a standardized method of investigating the person (SMIP for realization of tasks.Result. Results suggest the presence in examined patients of patocharacterological features of hypothymic (disthymic type. Significant differences were found in terms of fixed scales SMIP test most pronounced in the group of psychogenic depression, the least - organic. In general, immigrants are inherent traits of anxiety and emotional breadth, re-emigrants - schizoidness and apathy.Conclusions. Identified patterns should be considered when developing therapeutic, rehabilitative and preventive measures
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.
Venezuelan health professionals to emigrate to other countries. METHODS: Exploratory study that applied a semistructured interview and survey, respectively, to a population consisting of four health professionals and 36 medical students. The interview data were analyzed by deductive and inductive categorization and the survey data by means of univariate and bivariate analysis. RESULTS: It was observed that 13.8% of the students generally intended to emigrate, with differences between the two study groups. It was found that work-related issues had a high motivating effect (16.6%, particularly the possibility of balancing work with personal life, better pay, access to continuing education, working in a better health system, and having the basic resources necessary for professional practice. It was determined that professional reasons had a moderate motivating effect (13.8%, whereas personal and contextual reasons had little influence (less than 3%. Although the interviews of physicians who had obtained their medical degree revealed clashes involving political and economic interests, only 5.5% of the students surveyed considered the political or economic situation a determinant in the emigration of professionals. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the management and professional development of medical personnel be strengthened, reconciling their expectations with the legal framework and needs of the health system. A formal system for tracking the emigration of professionals and broadening the study of the causative factors at the national level should be set up, since better knowledge about the phenomena linked with emigration would help generate and support proposals to guarantee self-sufficiency with respect to human resources for health.
PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
Dec 1, 2013 ... Keywords: Education, Government Investments, Economic growth, Health, Government ..... poor countries, using agricultural output as .... expectancy takes into account mortality, but .... (Akaike Information Criterion) and SBC.
Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem
The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov
Full Text Available The authors consider the economic motivations when individuals choose an educational path. This line of research is relevant from both, the point of view of science — research of economic behavior of an individual, and the point of view of practice — allows to increase efficiency of investments in a human capital. The authors have developed the economic and mathematical model of choice of optimum educational paths by individuals. The model is realized in the software and approved on real data on more than 5,5 thousand students. For the analysis of the importance of rational economic expectations when an educational path has to be chosen, the paths chosen by students is compared and the educational paths optimum from the point of view of economic rationality are calculated. The analysis of the results has showed that mainly, the choice of educational paths happens according to the economic motivations. On the considered selection, 66 % of prospective students have chosen an optimum path from the point of view of economic preferences. The most significant factor providing development of optimum educational paths is an expectation of higher income upon completion of education — 22 % of all educational paths, and a possibility of cost-cutting of educating or state-subsidized education — 12 %. In our opinion, one of the most important practical results of the research of optimum educational path is the need to consider expectations of students and prospective student when developing a state policy of investment in human capital.
An assumption is made in the article that incomplete motivating of employees by neglecting non-material incentives may be important reasons of workforce emigration, in addition to economic factors. An investigation of the situation concerning the fulfilment of Herzberg’s two kinds of factors (hygiene and motivating) in six Lithuanian small and medium business enterprises was conducted in order to test the assumption. The results from 159 employees questionnaires showed that hygiene factors ar...
Bakker, Winny; Van der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This experimental questionnaire study examined individual differences in affective and normative reactions to acculturation strategies. A sample of 265 Dutch emigrants with a dual cultural background read scenarios describing the experiences of an emigrant. Eight (4 x 2) different scenario versions
Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.
Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…
The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…
Vande Zande, Robin
The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…
Rao, R. Ramesh; Jani, Rohana
The economic progress made by many countries is attributed to many factors. Education is often quoted as a major contributing factor. There are many researches done in evaluating and determining the role of education in nations. In this paper, factors of education which have helped in the case of Malaysia are dwelled upon. Education has helped…
Economic Mobility Project, 2012
In March 2011, the Economic Mobility Project updated its 2009 national poll to reassess public perceptions of economic mobility and the American Dream in the wake of the Great Recession. Americans with the least education were the most concerned about their current economic situation and future prospects. This reinforces the 2009 and 2011 polls'…
Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…
Richter, Ewa Maria; Buttery, Ernest Alan
Economic rationalism is a major driver of the education system in many parts of the world. In the scramble to facilitate economic rationalism, the education needs required at national level to keep nations, like Australia, competitive into the twenty-first century have not been fully considered. Such countries have ignored the needs of education…
Hanushek, Eric A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.
How does education affect economic and social outcomes, and how can it inform public policy? Volume 3 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education uses newly available high quality data from around the world to address these and other core questions. With the help of new methodological approaches, contributors cover econometric methods and…
Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III
As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…
Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho
The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…
..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary... Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and [[Page 52497
Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo
Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…
Pleskovic, Boris*Aslund, Anders*Bader, William*C
The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening economics education and providing support for quali...
Rao, Ramesh; Jani, Rohana bt
Realizing the importance of education in developing a country, many governments had begun to pay more attention in improving the education quality in their country. However whether the desired level of education quality is equally distributed is still debated on. On top of that, current literature on which level of education, either basic or…
Donovan, Brian M; Moreno Mateos, David; Osborne, Jonathan F; Bisaccio, Daniel J
Over the last decade macroeconomic studies have established a clear link between student achievement on science and math tests and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth, supporting the widely held belief that science, technology, engineering, and math(STEM) education are important factors in the production of economic prosperity. We critique studies that use science and math tests to predict GDP growth, arguing that estimates of the future economic value of STEM education involve substantial speculation because they ignore the impacts of economic growth on biodiversity and ecosystem functionality, which, in the long-term, limit the potential for future economic growth. Furthermore, we argue that such ecological impacts can be enabled by STEM education. Therefore, we contend that the real economic imperative for the STEM pipeline is not just raising standardized test scores, but also empowering students to assess, preserve, and restore ecosystems in order to reduce ecological degradation and increase economic welfare.
This paper discusses the capability of vocational education in creating jobs to reduce unemployment among the Nigerian youths which will result in sustainable economic development of Nigeria. It also defines Vocational education within the provisions of the National Policy on Education. Philosophy of Vocational ...
After fifty years of almost continuous economic growth in Thailand, it is now possible to reevaluate the developmental process of the education system. Until now, the structural indicators of education development that have been mainly used are the level and pace of the increases in public expenditure on education, the effect of increasing…
Hanushek, Erik A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.
What is the value of an education? Volume 4 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education combines recent data with new methodologies to examine this and related questions from diverse perspectives. School choice and school competition, educator incentives, the college premium, and other considerations help make sense of the investments and…
Full Text Available In the post-war socialist Yugoslavia political and/or economic situation has become unacceptable for part of the population. Since legal emigration from Croatia was not allowed, the number of illegal immigrants increased since the end of World War II. The article deals with this group of migrants using the comparative analysis of original archival materials and available literature in the period from 1945 to 1961 when the state began to gradually open the border. Mostly young people, under 25 years of age, immigrated illegally, mainly for economic reasons, and this was associated with a tradition of emigration, especially in the coastal region. In addition to the poor economic situation, people also emigrated for political reasons, then for adventure, to avoid serving in the Yugoslav People’s Army or to escape from the law for committing criminal offenses. They were fleeing by land or by sea, which was much more successful. Usually the first destinations of the immigrants were Italy, Austria and Germany, from where the majority of them moved to overseas countries. Most people fled the districts of Rijeka, Pula, Zagreb, Zadar, Šibenik and Split that existed at that time so that 74% of all illegal immigrants came from them. The runaways were mostly workers, followed by farmers, vocational school students, public servants, pupils and students, sailors and craftsmen. According to gender, there were many more men than women among the runaways, most of whom were unmarried. The authorities were trying to prevent the escape abroad by methods of controlling the border and prison sentences, but also by the attempts to ensure better living conditions in the affected areas. As these measures had not yielded the desired results, but also due to the beginning of the economic crisis and the appearance of unemployment, the authorities liberalized emigration procedures and opened the borders to immigrants which resulted in a new wave of economic emigration.
In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…
... Recovery Programme (ERP); Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP); ... economics helps with the development, use and management of human and material, resources, for the greater welfare of individuals, families and human society in ...
... Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to cancel meeting. SUMMARY: The meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...
... Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...
... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...
... Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with... announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...
... Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...) announces a meeting of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...
Nobles, Jenna; McKelvey, Christopher
The prevailing model of migration in developing countries conceives of a risk-diversifying household in which members act as a single entity when making migration decisions. Ethnographic studies challenge this model by documenting gender hierarchy in family decisions and arguing that, in many contexts, men and women have differing views on the value of migration. We assess these perspectives using longitudinal survey data from Mexico. We show that Mexican households are heterogeneous in terms of women's decision-making authority and control over resources, and this variation predicts the subsequent emigration of their male partners to the United States. We then use data from a policy experiment to demonstrate that an exogenous increase in a woman's control over household resources decreases the probability that her spouse migrates. Our findings support the presence of important gender differences in how migration is valued. They also suggest that women's role in these decisions is inadvertently underrepresented in studies of migrant families. Staying is also a migration decision, and it is more likely in homes in which women have greater authority. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that Mexican migration is influenced not only by increases in household resources but also by which members of the household control them.
Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete; Afaf H. Rahim; Precious Zikhali
Empirical research has shown that cultural values matter for economic growth and has specifically identified the achievement motivation as an aspect of culture that engenders economic growth. If specific cultural values engender economic growth, how then can societies promote them? This paper attempts to answer this question using the 2005 wave of the World Values Survey data for 43 countries. We test the contention that education significantly impacts the relative importance an individual pl...
Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.
We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…
Highsmith, Robert J.
Reviews current activities of the Joint Council, among them, a researcher training institute, a new K-12 economic education scope and sequence document, a junior high level test of economic knowledge, an instructional package for advanced placement classes, a textbook conference, a project to help teachers of students who work with at-risk…
Rusk, James J.; And Others
To assess the impact of economic conditions on enrollment in higher education, researchers used time series analysis on national data for 1966-78 and on 1972-78 data from all eight regions of the country and the University of Arizona. The findings indicate enrollment has gone up during economic downturns. (Author/RW)
The article discusses the shortcomings of the methodology of neoclassical theory as a basic theory determining the content of contemporary economic theory course at Russian educational institutions namely unrealistic conditions of perfect competition, rationality of economic behavior of business entities, completeness and authenticity of…
The Effects of Good Governance and Education on Economic Stability and Growth in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... that engenders national consciousness, political reconstruction/participation and economic growth/stability, in addition to providing the structure and function of government.
A study examined the relationship between educational investments and economic development in the small community of Canandaigua, New York. A field study approach was used to collect data pertaining to the city's population characteristics, income characteristics, economic conditions, unemployment rates, and housing conditions. These data were…
This paper describes the six research monographs that were presented at the Emigration Dynamic Workshops in South Asia in September 1996. Research reports were presented by Associate Professor Nasra Shah on an overview of emigration dynamics, Dr. Godfrey Gunatilleke on the role of networks and community structures in migration from Sri Lanka, Dr. Raisul Awal Mahmood on illegal migration from Bangladesh to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, and Delhi due to desperate poverty, Dr. Farooq-i-Azam on high and low labor-sending migration districts in Pakistan, Dr. Mahendra K. Premi on the impact of internal Indian migration on international migration, and Dr. P.R. Gopinathan Nair on emigration from Kerala, India, to the Middle East. Representatives of South Asian governments discussed the implications of the research findings. Pakistan's representative urged cooperation and joint strategies among labor-sending countries. He cautioned that income and remittance estimates were unstable and unrealistic for inclusion in economic development plans. The Indian representative noted that, although Indian emigration is low, it is highly visible in the press. He agreed with the suggestion for greater cooperation between sending countries. The Bangladesh representative stated that the country needed to locate new markets for Bangladeshi emigrants, to guarantee the rights of emigrant workers, and to prevent trafficking in illegal migrant workers. Three major topics were discussed in the workshop session on the implementation of programs based on research findings. Workshop participants recommended updated information on migration trends, updated information on labor markets in receiving countries, formal and regular policy dialogue between sending countries, and promotion of continuing research by the International Organization on Migration.
Selva, Clara; Recordà, Aniol
Recent years have witnessed the emigration of young Spanish people searching for labor opportunities. A decade after the beginning of the worldwide economic crisis in 2007, the rapid deterioration of living conditions and lack of opportunities for personal development combined with the breakdown of professional expectations have led thousands of young people to emigrate from Spain, creating the so-called youth exodus. The press has paid recurrent attention to this phenomenon, often using eye-catching headlines such as 'Brain Drain'. Given the regular interest of the media in this phenomenon, the objective of this research is to analyze the media coverage of the drain of Spanish talent capital, or the emigration of young Spanish people seeking a better future, to create a distributive map that defines the characteristics and trends of this coverage. The analyzed corpus comprises 346 articles from eight Spanish and eleven international newspapers. The articles were coded based on descriptive variables (i.e., author, publication year, newspaper and language) and categorical variables (i.e., section, method, approach to the phenomenon, assessment of the phenomenon and overview of the phenomenon). The results indicate a significant increase in press coverage over the past few years and reveal associations between assessment of the phenomenon and year and between assessment of the phenomenon and section. As a result of this research, new investigative lines are unveiled regarding the social construction of the phenomenon in the media and the identity and individual construction of the 'truncated careers' of young Spanish people.
Camilleri, Mark A.; Camilleri, Adriana
Relevant theoretical underpinnings suggest that higher education, continuous professional development and training provide numerous opportunities for societal advancement. This contribution posits that interventions in the realms of education can play a significant role in shaping key performance indicators for laudable social outcomes. It…
Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard
The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…
Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.
In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…
Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…
Willekens, Frans; Zinn, Sabine; Leuchter, Matthias
What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk. Emigration surveys provide a useful data source for estimating emigration rates, provided that the estimation method accounts for sample design. In this study, emigration rates and confidence intervals are estimated from a sample survey of households in the Dakar region in Senegal, which was part of the Migration between Africa and Europe survey. The sample was a stratified two-stage sample with oversampling of households with members abroad or return migrants. A combination of methods of survival analysis (time-to-event data) and replication variance estimation (bootstrapping) yields emigration rates and design-consistent confidence intervals that are representative for the study population.
This paper maintains that the trend toward economic globalisation, along with the resulting expectations and call for the internationalisation of accounting systems,are the basis for the concept of internationalizing Chinese accounting education. In fact, such dramatic changes in the economic and business environment have triggered suggestions for major changes in the accounting profession from the eight economic coordination organisations and international accounting bodies, which further reinforces the notion of internationalisation. Our current accounting pedagogy should reform in order to reflect the internationalisation of accounting education.
In this article I take as my starting point the economist, Jeremy Rifkin's, claims about the rise of what he calls the "collaborative commons". For Rifkin, this is nothing less than the emergence of a new economic paradigm where traditional consumers exploit the possibilities of technology, and position themselves as…
Full Text Available The paper analyses the basic demographic indicators of the Island of Brač and its settlements. Particular focus is on emigration from the island and its effect on demographic development of the island. The paper also presents the results of the survey conducted on the island in 2014. The aim of the survey was to investigate the level of satisfaction related to life on the island, and the respondents’ attitude toward emigration. Since the survey encompassed 151 permanent residents of the Island of Brač, the sample cannot be regarded as representative, so the survey results were not analysed separately, but rather incorporated in the demographic analysis. Throughout most of the 20th century, the Croatian insular area was characterised by intensive depopulation. Peak population on the islands was recorded in 1921, and it was followed by a long period of population decline, which lasted until 1991. However, the peak population on the Island of Brač was recorded in 1900, and it was also followed by a long period of depopulation, which ended in 1981. Official census data indicate that from 1981 until the present day Brač has recorded population increase, but that increase is actually fictitious (it was actually caused by “administrative immigration” – people increasingly registered their residence on the island in order to gain certain benefits regardless of their actual place of living or residence. Analysis of the population trends on the Island of Brač shows that in the period from 1857 to 1900, all the settlements on the island had population increase due to very favourable economic situation on the island brought by the vine-growing expansion. Economic prosperity of the island and high birth rates in the first phase of demographic transition resulted in rapid population growth. However, after the Wine Clause had been signed in 1891, and particularly after 1910, when phylloxera devastated the local vineyards, the insular economy
Radu Lucian BLAGA
Full Text Available Based on the current socio-economic realities of training and professional development, the paper aims to present the concept of competence, in the knowledge-society, that has become a key concept and especially how the competences training, is regarded as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. Competence training is regarded, at the European level, as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. In this context, higher economic and business education, assigned the multiple tasks to them, which can solved using effective and flexible sources like material, human and capital, that could overcome the well-known inertia of higher education systems.The paper presents some current guidelines in education, training and related competences development, training models from the perspective of university economic education, examples of definition, development and assessment of specific economic field competences. Examples were made in the context of the marketing field at the potential meaning of this qualification, which is currently discussed and is still in its early recovery in the economic and business. This field it is still considered by the Romanian business environment like an expense rather than as an investment.
Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian
This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…
National Association of Manufacturers, Washington, DC.
This directory provides a selective listing of information about economic education programs and resource activities of 299 corporations, organizations, universities, and colleges in the United States. This second edition of the directory is intended to stimulate interaction between business firms and schools and to help educators, members of the…
Xiong, Zhiwei; Shao, Cheng
In the process of globalization, each country culture retains an independence from the others besides in reality a fusion of several cultures. Bilingual education as an effective means and intangible resource, which have long been neglected, will play an important part in social and economic development in China. Bilingual education, in this…
Shackleton, J. R.
Presents the lives and careers of Jane Marcet and Harriet Martineau and their contributions to the dissemination and popularization of political economics in early nineteenth-century education. Places their ideas about laissez-faire capitalism in historical context. Stresses the significance of their role as female writers and educators. (CH)
Marius Constantin APOSTOAIE
Full Text Available Currently, economic education plays a vital role in the future health of world economy and enables citizens to efficiently participate in the society in which they live. The economic literacy of citizens is not only the problem of state authorities, but it is also a common challenge and responsibility for many public institutions and non-profit organizations. Key players among these institutions are central banks that invest significant resources in educating the public to achieve economic efficiency, a good conduct of monetary policy and welfare. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the involvement of more-and-more central banks in fostering economic education and literacy, not before clarifying some key concepts and highlighting the importance of the subject in our society.
Full Text Available This paper aims at to present the essence and the role of economic education related to the natural movement of a functioning market economy in the Romanian actuality. We understand education as an important form of social consciousness in the sense of bipolarity, namely as the premise and the effect at a dynamic microeconomic and macroeconomic level. In this dynamic movement, economic education appears more and more visibly as a new factor of production or as a new dimension of human capital. In our approach we consider several theoretical and methodological axes that allow us to reveal the interdependence of education to the economic and social development, from an emulative or frantic perspective. In this way we treat the evolution of complex phenomena of economic education in terms of public policy, highlighting the need to intensify the decision-making efforts of management and execution, consistent pursuing to link the causes with the effects of economic education in the Romanian actuality.
Woodward, William R
This paper uses archival sources and autobiographies to give a fuller account of the lives of three Russian women psychologists, each of whom voluntarily emigrated several years before the Third Reich. As such, their stories contribute to gender history, emigration history, and ethnic history. The characteristics of second-generation women in psychology seem to apply to this sample; they accepted applied or secondary positions in psychology or allied fields and came late to tenure-track positions. Some first-generation characteristics fit them also: choosing career over marriage, accepting the "family claim," and living "fractured lives." Emigrée history reveals that these women found careers in the United States that could not have happened in the smaller, more restricted higher education networks of Europe. Female friendships and family ties to the Old World sustained them. All struggled with professional networking and had varying success, depending heavily upon the patronage of sympathetic male psychologists. Ethnic history shows that none identified strongly with Judaism, yet all benefited from Jewish mentors and networks of patronage. Evidence of gendered or racial discrimination in hiring practices is sparse, though it surely existed.
Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars
Aim: Traditionally and worldwide home economics education has been concerned with taste and flavorings based training associated with students cooking in the school kitchen. In contrast new educational research on food knowledge in the Danish public school shows that taste is used as a didactic...... review on children, learning, food and taste followed by analyses in a value reflective pedagogy perspective as well as quantitative and qualitative research in home economic education. This has been combined with systems theory developed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann providing concepts...... element and "overtakes" more traditional didactic elements like motivation and active participation. The purpose of this proposal is to present a systematic model for qualifying reflections on taste in home economics and food education. The objective is to identify four dimensions of taste that can...
Mantovani, Debora; Martini, Elisa
During the past three decades, Italy has changed from a country of emigration to one of immigration. This has produced significant changes in the country's social, cultural and economic structures and poses major new challenges to the education system. An important indicator of the changing situation is the increasing number of immigrant children…
T. J. Lomakina
Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.
L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen
While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...
Wilson, Blenda J.
New England colleges and universities impact their local and regional economies in many ways. They are often major employers and purchasers. They construct new facilities, attract visitors, provide cultural and intellectual enrichment for the community and boost property values. The knowledge produced by New England's higher education institutions…
Adamu, L. E.
Nigerians have always realized that education is the singular factor that brings about national development. The central goal of university education is to prepare one for productive employment. Such employment can be a paid one or a self-employed one. This paper examines the problem militating against university education, its implications for…
Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.
Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth
The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…
Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros
As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…
..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 23-25, 2012. The public may file...
..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 28-29, 2012. The public may file written...
Sam Abd Al-Qadir Alfoqahaa
Full Text Available Through some extremely difficult experiences, education in general and Higher Education in particular has remained a constant focus of resources in Palestine. Due to the ongoing occupation of Palestine, Palestinian universities could not expect to contribute significantly to economic development in the same way as other institutions around the world. However, the establishment and development of universities in Palestine meant that Palestine was investing in Palestinians, and, for reasons discussed in this paper, the development represented a clear breakthrough to be celebrated throughout Palestinian society. Most of the previous studies on the Economics of Higher Education (HE have not explicitly dealt with the Economics of Higher Education under occupation, especially in Palestine, neglecting much of the broader context and strategic impact of Palestinian Higher Education. This research investigates in depth Palestinian HE socio-economic outcomes for Palestinians, bringing to the light the meaning of HE under occupation that goes beyond mere economic impact to include its impact on Palestinians' human capital, dignity, and national identity reflecting the unique case of Palestine. This research reveals that from very early on it was clear that Palestinian Higher Education could not give the economy a boost, but that universities did give people a pride in Palestine, which, given the conditions of a brutal military occupation that increasingly separated one Palestinian from the next, amounted to quite a significant achievement. It demonstrated the central role Palestinian HE plays in the life of Palestinians as it is goes beyond means of economic growth to means of survival, building human capital, and maintaining people's dignity and national identity.
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008
Investing in a good education for all of America's students benefits both individuals and the nation as a whole. Some advantages are immediate; others pay off over the longer term. The benefits range from personal wealth to lower health care costs to increased tax revenue. The "Facts for Education Advocates" feature in this edition discusses some…
Jacobsen, C; Bronson, R
"Using our mathematical model of a general theory of normative regulation, we have reproduced over 80% of the variance in the cumulative percentages of emigrants [from Israel], as well as the yearly percentages from 1950 to 1981. These results suggest that, except for a limited period following the 'Six-Day War' of 1967, no situation-specific explanations are needed to account for the trends in emigration from Israel, and the phenomenon can be adequately accounted for by the general theory of normative regulation in modern industrialized societies. Some practical conclusions to mitigate the process are drawn from these findings." excerpt
This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…
Full Text Available Background: Between 2000 and 2010, the labor force participation (LFP of European men stayed mostly constant, whereas the participation of women continued to increase. Participation rates of people close to normal retirement ages rose almost universally. At the same time, the education composition shifted toward higher levels of educational attainment and education-specific differentials in economic activity persisted. Objective: The aim of the paper is to understand the extent to which developments of LFP rates between 2000 and 2010 in selected European countries can be explained by age-specific and education-specific changes in participation rates, as compared to changes in populations' structural composition by age and education. Methods: We apply a decomposition methodology that allows us to disentangle changes in age- and education-specific LFP rates from changes in the age and educational structure of the population. Results: Our results show that LFP rates of adult women would have increased even more, had it not been for the downward pressure from the shift in the age composition toward older age groups with relatively lower levels of participation. This downward pressure also depressed male participation. The increase in participation among older people is mainly explained by participation increases among those with nontertiary education and is reinforced by a general shift toward higher levels of educational attainment. Contribution: Beyond changes in the age structure, we quantify the role of compositional changes by educational attainment. Our results indicate that labor supply may not decrease to the extent expected due to population aging, given educational expansion and education-specific patterns of economic activity.
This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.
This handbook for home economics pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) teachers is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter provides detailed descriptions of each PELE program and possible career opportunities related to each program. Chapter 2 expounds upon the importance of the advisory council to the program. The third chapter…
Morse, Jane Fowler
Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…
Meiriza, Mica Siar
This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…
McCarthy, Kirstin; Contardo, Jeanne; Eckert, Leila Morsy
Corporate philanthropies can provide much-needed support to K-12 and postsecondary education efforts. This article analyzes whether select multi-billion dollar corporate philanthropies continue such support and adhere to best-funding practices during an economic downtown. Drawing on interview and document review data, the authors examine the…
Eisenhauer, Joseph G.
The popularity of distance education has increasingly led universities to consider expanding their online offerings. Remarkably few financial models have been presented for online courses, however, and fewer still have investigated the economic consequences of the migration, or cross-over, of students from traditional classes within the…
Hung, Angela A.; Mihaly, Kata; Yoong, Joanne K.
Financial literacy--the ability to use knowledge and skills to manage financial resources effectively for a lifetime of financial well-being--is becoming more and more important as individuals and families become increasingly responsible for their own long-term financial well-being. Financial and economic literacy education programs have been…
The notion of the flipped classroom has been received much attention in the literature as it may increase learning outcomes and learning effectiveness elementary and secondary education as well as university learning. In the author's class on international finance (economics) features a blended flipped classroom and lecture; questionnaires were…
Ugargol, Allen Prabhaker; Bailey, Ajay
The Indian state of Kerala leads the demographic transition and characteristically showcases emigration of predominantly male adult children, leaving behind parents, spouses and children. When men emigrate, gendered contexts burden women, especially spouses and daughters-in-law, with caregiving
Rouse, Cecilia Elena
There are many aspects of the "economics of education" that would make excellent examples for introductory economics students. The author presents two topics that are central to the economics of education and to human capital theory: the economic benefit (or "returns") to schooling and educational attainment as an investment.…
Thus, many estimates of rates of movement are indirect and incomplete, and there is little empirical knowledge of the factors affecting immigration and emigration. I studied intensively a local population of Sinai Baton Blue butterflies in a discrete habitat patch. The study lasted the entire adult flight period, and involved almost ...
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
We examined the emigration intentions of native-born Dutch residents and their subsequent emigration behaviour from 2005 to 2010. Data were collected from two surveys on emigration intentions, one conducted locally and one nationally. A number of novel results stand out. First, intentions were good
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
We examined the emigration intentions of native-born Dutch residents and their subsequent emigration behaviour from 2005 to 2010. Data were collected from two surveys on emigration intentions, one conducted locally and one nationally. A number of novel results stand out. First, intentions were good
Osborn, T N; Newton, J R
The authors examine the problem of legal Mexican emigration to the United States, analyzing its effects on both countries. Characteristics of the Mexican emigrants are examined with respect to level of employment, salary, and employment opportunities. The total number of emigrants in professional and technical capacities is investigated in order to determine the likelihood of a brain drain from Mexico to the United States
Curtin, T R; Nelson, E A
Public spending programmes to reduce poverty, expand primary education and improve the economic status of women are recommended priorities of aid agencies and are now gradually being reflected in third world governments' policies, in response to aid conditions imposed by the World Bank and OECD countries. However outcomes fall short of aspiration. This paper shows that donors' lending policies, especially those restricting public spending on education to the primary level, (1) perpetuate poverty, (2) minimise socio-economic impact of public health programmes and (3) prevent significant improvement in the economic status of women. These effects are the result of fundamental flaws in donors' education policy model. Evidence is presented to show that health status in developing countries will be significantly enhanced by increasing the proportion of the population which has at least post-primary education. Heads of households with just primary education have much the same probability of experiencing poverty and high mortality of their children as those with no education at all. Aid donors' policies, which require governments of developing countries to limit public funding of education to the primary level, have their roots in what is contended here to be an erroneous interpretation of human capital theory. This interpretation focuses only on the declining marginal internal rates of return on public investments in successive levels of schooling and ignores the opposite message of the increasing marginal net present values of those investments. Cars do not travel fastest in their lowest gear despite its fastest acceleration, life's long journey is not most comfortable for those with only primary schooling.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.304A. ACTION... the Cooperative Civic Education and Economic Education Exchange Program. The notice stated that a list...
Guthrie, James W.
Persistant economic uncertainty fueled by continuing conditions such as high federal deficits, nagging unemployment, foreign trade imbalances, and growing overseas borrowings has evoked intensified public faith in education as a means for regaining U.S. economic vitality. (Author/LMO)
Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.
Renata Dana Niţu-Antonie
Full Text Available The study aims to identify the role played by personality characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions and resultant behaviours, in the case of university students with economic education. The analysis was performed on a group of undergraduate and master degree students of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration from the West University of Timişoara. For the investigated population, empirical results indicate that: (i personality characteristics are antecedents of behavioural characteristics depending on situational constraints that allow their expression; (ii behavioural characteristics emerge as significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention; (iii entrepreneurial intention is a primary forecaster of real entrepreneurial activity; (iv the increase of educational level and study programs’ specificity, to which the investigated population belongs, guarantee for entrepreneurial awareness raising and instruction of aspirant entrepreneurs.
Skibsted, Marie Kruse
are addressed using econometric methods applied on Danish micro data. All four chapters are empirical studies and combine data from different sources. The main source of data is an administrative data set obtained from Copenhagen Business School (CBS) that contains detailed educational information on students...... Sørensen from Copenhagen Business School) estimates the wage premium of those with a master’s degree in business economics and management when compared to the wages of those with master’s degrees in other fields in the social sciences. By means of an Instrumental Variable (IV) approach, we identify...... the returns to a business education by addressing the endogenous selection of master’s programs. Using season of birth as an exogenous determinant of master’s degree choice, we find that a master’s degree in business economics and management results in a wage premium of around 12% compared to other master...
Pakistani emigration since the early 1970s has been primarily directed toward the oil-rich Gulf states. Over 2 million Pakistanis, 10% of the adult male workforce, now live outside their home country, 3/4 of them in the Gulf states. The emigration has shortterm advantages for Pakistan, which has a high unemployment rate and few other exports. 2 government bureaus and over 300 recruiting agencies encourage Pakistani emigration to the Gulf, and because of the foreign exchange earnings generated, such emigration has become an important concern of the government. Emigration has a long history in Pakistan as part of the migratory movements of the Indian subcontinent in general. Emigration in the 1960s was prompted by mechanization of agriculture and disturbances of traditional agrarian labor arrangements brought on by the Green Revolution. Concentrations of lands among the successful middle-sized producers led to a rural proletariat and exodus towards the cities, where possibilities of employment were scarce. Regions of declining income around the new capital of Islamabad were the 1st to take advantage of new employment opportunities in the Gulf states. Pakistani migration to the Gulf countries is temporary for individual workers, who stay an average of 3-6 years, but the effect is of chain migration as returning workers are replaced by other family members. Workers are not accompanied by family members and have almost no contact with the local Arab populations. They send most of their earnings to their families in Pakistan. 3/4 are under 30 years old, most are of rural origin, and the majority are from the northern provinces. Although 70% are married, only 4% of migrants, the most highly qualified, are accompanied by their families. About 41% are unskilled workers and 42.6% are semiskilled or skilled manual workers. In 1981, the average annual salary repatriated by a Pakistani working in the Gulf was $3000. The Pakistani government has not defined a migration policy
S. V. Ryazantsev
Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the
We test these hypotheses using a test administrated for 22 students in Management, enrolled in the second year, undergraduate studies. Then we include in our present paper the empirical results in order to show that all three hypotheses were confirmed. The results are presented with a thought description of the empirical analysis. Finally, discussion and conclusions are presented and implications for economic education are discussed.
Kozma, Robert B.
In support of the conclusions and recommendations in the National Education Technology Plan (NETP), this article makes explicit the connections between the economic rationale used in the plan and the educational transformations it recommends. The article reviews macroeconomic research, microeconomic research, labor market and workforce studies,…
Mustapha, Ramlee B.; Greenan, James P.
Responses from 276 of 300 vocational educators and 53 of 120 employers in Malaysia indicated that both groups believed vocational education contributes to economic development and vocational graduates had good technical skills but needed better employability skills. They wanted more government collaboration with the private sector. (Contains 26…
Shields, Martin; Deller, Steven C.
Outlines an educational process designed to help provide communities with economic, social, and political information using community economic impact modeling. Describes the process of community meetings using economic impact, community demographics, and fiscal impact modules and the local preconditions that help make the process successful. (SK)
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M.R Pino Juste
Full Text Available In the context of the importance presently acquired by return immigration in Spain, in this article a descriptive study around the returned emigrants over 65 years old in Galicia is presented.After a brief theoretical introduction on return migration,the research carried out is developed. In the first place, the methodology used in the investigation which allowed an approach to the point of view of the persons concerned is explained: the biographical method through the technique of life stories. In second term, the specific results of the research are presented. After out lining the profile of the returned emigrant, different categories relating to the migratory project in its different phases have been analyzed: fromits beginning —reasons for emigrating—, in their arrival to destiny—labour activity, adaptation, uprooting, etc.—, to the return—reasons for returning, problems of readjustment to the place of origin, etc.—
Мария Игоревна Шкредова
Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40
One of the most important phenomena in the intellectual history of the 20th century was the exodus of the European mind, the emigration of persons, ideas, techniques, and institutions in the vast areas of social, human, and natural sciences, as well as in literature and the visual arts. Among these exiled intellectuals, psychoanalysts formed a special group. This paper examines the major lines of the emigration of psychoanalysts from the countries of issue to the countries of reception. It focuses, in particular on Hungarian analysts and analytic candidates who left their country of birth in two waves, first after the failure of revolutions in 1918/19 for Berlin, and then after 1938, to escape the Nazis. The paper comments on the existential situation of émigré psychoanalysts in light of Hannah Arendt's writings on refugees.
"In 1850 and 1860 the Netherlands ranked eighth among twelve North-Western European nations that contributed to the transatlantic migration. The Dutch emigration pattern reflecting the agrarian crisis of the 1840's resembled the one of Hanover and Westphalia, be it that like in Scandinavia the ecclesiastical situation played a more important part. Besides the motivating forces, conditions such as information, organization, public and official reactions, and transportation are reviewed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.
Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi
Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...
Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.
Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.
سید عدنان اشکوری
Full Text Available ‘Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar Jafar Delshad * Seyyed Adnan Eshkewaree ** Abstract The word ‘eghterab’ in human sciences has different concepts which could be classified into three groups: 1 Westernization and tending to western culture or being alien with eastern authenticity 2 nostalgia and homesickness caused by being away from his/her motherhood land and hometown. Most of this group of poets are emigrants or are in exile and 3 having the sense of nostalgia but being in home country. It means that this group of poets have very high ideals which no one in their homeland can take and bare these ideals. The poet perceives that ideals which are essential for him/her are higher than the society in which he/she lives can grasp. This essay makes an attempt to study the various concepts of ‘eghterab’ by focusing on Ahmad Matar as a prominent poet with regard to the third concept and deal with the third concept of Eghterab from three points of view: political, social and spiritual. This article examines some samples of these three parts in Ahmad Matar's poetry. Key words: nostalgia, poetry, emigration, Ahmad Matar, Iraq * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail: email@example.com ** Assistant Professor, University for Teacher Training, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Matsievsky German Olegovitch
Full Text Available Purpose: To consider the main tendencies and features of political life of the Cossack emigration in the XX century. Methodology: Methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: It is revealed that the Cossack emigration lost the political positions. Separation from sociocultural and geographical space of formation and development of traditional culture; foreign culture environment; refusal of the Cossack ideas of a collectivism and military brotherhood; destruction of the main institute of preservation and transfer of historical and cultural experience – a family; the constant feeling of «temporariness», despair and loss of belief in the future – all this generated the phenomenon called in cross-cultural psychology «cultural shock». Also crisis of ethnic and sociocultural consciousness and self-identification increased. Practical implications: Results of research can be interesting to the experts who are taking up the problems stories of the Cossacks in emigration.
Rotim Malvić, Jasna
Rijeka inscribed herself on the list of great European emigration ports like Hamburg, Bremen, Liverpool in the end of the year 1903 when a ship of the British Cunard Line established a travel line from Rijeka to New York. Up to the year 1914, 317639 passengers - emigrants travelled to America from the port of Rijeka. The large flow of people caused problems for the city, for that reason, already in 1906 did the Hungarian ministry of home affairs started the construction of a grandiose building intended for the emigrants. When it was opened in 1908 it was named Hotel Emigrants and had a capacity of 2500 guests. The name Hotel was given to him because of the highest construction and sanitary standards applied during his construction, but also because of comfort provided for the emigrants, large bright dormitories, living rooms, one big and spacious terrace and a number of smaller ones indicated more to a touristic hotel than to a house for emigrants. Health surveillance of emigrants was performed by Dr. David Friedman, Dr. Arturo Jellouscheg and Dr. Emil Tauffer. They were in charge in front of the Maritime Gubernia in Rijeka, the U.S. consulate in Rijeka and the Adria Maritime Society. Although the city authorities and the Hungarian authorities boasted of the hotel and the rigid medical control over immigrants which was done there, American authorities have still often returned some emigrants, at the expense of the company, after inspection at Ellis Island revealing that before landing some individuals are sick.
Education equality is generally neglected in the literature that investigates education's contribution to economic growth. This paper examines the case of Korea where economic growth, education equality (as measured by years of schooling), and educational quality have all been on the rise for many decades. Using time series data on schooling for…
Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
Statistical inference for capture-recapture studies of open animal populations typically relies on the assumption that all emigration from the studied population is permanent. However, there are many instances in which this assumption is unlikely to be met. We define two general models for the process of temporary emigration, completely random and Markovian. We then consider effects of these two types of temporary emigration on Jolly-Seber (Seber 1982) estimators and on estimators arising from the full-likelihood approach of Kendall et al. (1995) to robust design data. Capture-recapture data arising from Pollock's (1982) robust design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration and for estimating the probability of temporary emigration. We present a likelihood-based approach to dealing with temporary emigration that permits estimation under different models of temporary emigration and yields tests for completely random and Markovian emigration. In addition, we use the relationship between capture probability estimates based on closed and open models under completely random temporary emigration to derive three ad hoc estimators for the probability of temporary emigration, two of which should be especially useful in situations where capture probabilities are heterogeneous among individual animals. Ad hoc and full-likelihood estimators are illustrated for small mammal capture-recapture data sets. We believe that these models and estimators will be useful for testing hypotheses about the process of temporary emigration, for estimating demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration, and for estimating probabilities of temporary emigration. These latter estimates are frequently of ecological interest as indicators of animal movement and, in some sampling situations, as direct estimates of breeding probabilities and proportions.
Laia Narciso Pedro
Full Text Available Media representations of Spanish young adults leading a new emigration wave towards Europe in the last years usually picture by default a homogeneous group that does not match with the real flow. This paper contributes to make visible the diverse composition of Spanish youth who migrate abroad in the context of the economic crisis and their specific strategies based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the area of Barcelona. The analysis focuses on the case study of Mariama, the daughter of a West African family who migrated to Europe, and her community and emancipation mobility. Her trajectory and experiences show how migration capital is built and used to produce the emergence of a ‘new’ mobility project, while she joins that share of young Spaniards who have been forced to build their future in other European countries.
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Kim, Ki Su
This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…
Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Matthews, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi
Achieving a sustainable health workforce involves training and retaining sufficient staff to deliver health services. The Irish health workforce is characterised by a high level of emigration of Irish-trained staff and a heavy reliance on internationally trained staff. This paper presents qualitative findings from a mixed-method study of doctors, nurses and midwives who have recently emigrated from Ireland. Using Facebook, this study elicited 556 (388 completed) responses to an exploratory mixed-method online survey in July 2014. Respondents provided rich responses to two free-text questions, one on health worker return (N = 343) and another on health professional emigration (N = 209) from the source country (Ireland). Respondents emigrated because of difficult working conditions in the Irish health system (long working hours, uncertain career progression), which compared poorly with conditions in the destination country. Respondents' experiences in the destination country vindicated the decision to emigrate and complicated the decision to return. Their return to Ireland was contingent upon significant reform of the Irish health system and an improvement in working conditions, expressed, for example, as: 'It's not about the money, it's about respect . . . we love working in medicine, but we love our families and health more' (RD283). This paper highlights that doctors, nurses and midwives are emigrating from Ireland in search of better working conditions, clear career progression pathways and a better practice environment. The question for the source country is whether it can retain and attract back emigrant doctors, nurses and midwives by matching their expectations.
Full Text Available This research reflects neoliberal economic policies by demonstrating the privatization of education in Turkey. The increase in the number of students of private schools and private schools in Turkey along with the relationship between public education investments and household income of education have been explained by using the document analysis technique from qualitative research methods. As in many countries, public education in Turkey has been removed from the basic human rights and commercialized and transformed into a commodity that has been bought and sold. Neoliberal transformation aims to generate a strong and dependent structure that eliminates political and economic freedoms. The documents published by the Ministry of National Education and the Turkish Statistical Institute were obtained from the relevant institutions and the data were analysed. It has been concluded that education has undergone a rapid privatization in Turkey, while investments in public education have decreased rapidly. Also the funds required to be allocated to public schools have been transferred to private schools, and the e
This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…
Otieno, Ojala Daphen
The Government of Kenya spends 30% of its budget on education. It is commonly assumed that education has an important positive effect on economic growth, but to date the evidence for this assumption has been surprisingly weak. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between the amount of investments in education and economic growth. It was…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.
The instructor-coordinator's handbook is for Home Economics Cooperative Education programs, those which are designed to prepare students for the world of work or for advanced education. The guide lists terms related to home economics cooperative education and covers the following subjects in separate chapters: (1) vocational homemaking education…
Clark, Charles Michael Andres
The financial crisis was partially caused by neoclassical economic theory and theorists. This failure has prompted business educators to rethink the role of neoclassical economics as the foundation of business education. The author connects this question to the more general critique of the scientific model of business education and the old…
By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…
Smith, Cameron M
For four million years humankind has been actively expanding geographically and in doing so has adapted to a wide variety of hostile environments. Now we are looking towards the ultimate adaptation - the colonization of space. Emigrating Beyond Earth illustrates that this is not a technocratic endeavor, but a natural continuation of human evolution; a journey not just for the engineer and rocket scientist, but for everyman. Based on the most current understanding of our universe, human adaptation and evolution, the authors explain why space colonization must be planned as an adaptation to, rather than the conquest of, space. Emigrating Beyond Earth argues that space colonization is an insurance policy for our species, and that it isn't about rockets and robots, it's about humans doing what we've been doing for four million years: finding new places and new ways to live. Applying a unique anthropological approach, the authors outline a framework for continued human space exploration and offer a glimpse of a po...
Stojkovic, Marija; Müller, Jan; Junghanss, Thomas; Weber, Tim Frederik
Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases. The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories. Radiological pertinent knowledge was compiled based on literature search. A small selection of frequently imported infectious diseases covers a considerable fraction of health care problems associated with migration. For cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis imaging is the most relevant diagnostic procedure defining also disease stages. Tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis are important differentials for malignant diseases. Imaging plays a meaningful role in diagnosis, treatment stratification, and follow-up of imported infectious diseases. Radiological skills concerning these diseases are important for providing health care for patients in context of migration. · Imaging plays a meaningful role in multidisciplinary care for imported infectious diseases.. · A small selection covers a considerable fraction of infectious diseases expected in context of migration.. · Stojkovic M, Müller J, Junghanss T et al. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 121 - 133. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available In the article the problem of psychological violence (mobbing in organizations, his psychological characteristics in emigration. Analyzes the types of mobbing, its negative influence on the personality, negative consequences which not only affect physical and psychological health, but also lead to physical diseases, and suicide. The author emphasizes that in conditions of exile (in Israel psychological violence is experienced more acutely and is characterized by a prolonged depressed state. One important reason for this situation is the decline of the former social status of the emigrant, being able to quickly inclusion in the new society, loss of important social ties, the need to adopt different social norms, sometimes contradicting previously established views. Against the background of such negative phenomena in humans appear aggression, desire to dominate at any cost to regain lost status. The problem of mobbing in the modern world is very important and requires a robust approach at the state level. That psychological safety is a condition for ensuring the formation and development of functional comfort, maintaining a high level of personal emotional security and social-psychological skills, optimization of reserve possibilities of the person in activities.
Full Text Available Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'. For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal. Furthermore, we tested (iii its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal.
Amatul R. Chaudhary
Full Text Available The study investigates the role of higher education in economic growth for Pakistan between 1972 and 2005 using the application of Johansen Cointegration and Toda & Yamamoto (1995 Causality approach in Vector Autoregressive (VAR framework. It examines whether higher education affect long run economic growth in Pakistan. The empirical analysis reveals that there is a long run relationship between economic growth and higher education, which suggests that these variables are necessary for each other. The empirical results of causality test indicate that there exists a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to higher education and no other direction of causality found between these variables.
... Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings...
Full Text Available The world has entered the Knowledge Age. Information Technology is gradually turning the world into an Information Highway Network. The development of technology has greatly accelerated the international flow of information, capital and commodities and speeded the growth of economic integration. At the same time, the cycle of technological development and commercialization is becoming shorter and shorter [Zhouying, 1999]. Information technology is bringing rapid and profound changes to higher education, as it has to virtually every process in our society. Productivity often suffers because is difficult and timeconsuming to conduct a team effort. A portal solution base on SharePoint Portal Server can greatly facilitate the process of bringing knowledge teachers together as a team to achieve educational goals by providing a single point to access: automated essential day-to-day email communication, management of contacts, calendars, and instant messages, shared facilities to allow small teams of teachers to contribute to team and project-focused Web site, track tasks and events, shortened web-publishing cycles by linking collaboration and publishing processes.
Vazquez Gonzalez, A
"Spanish sources for the study of emigration are sparse and fragmentary.... Mortgage documents for the payment of ocean transportation enable us to appreciate the spreading action of shipping agents; official listings of draft dodgers reveal that in general the River Plate was a favorite destination, rather than Cuba or Brazil. People from Galicia emigrated from rural origins to urban destinations in America; the analysis of place of birth of emigrants residing in A Coruna at the time of emigration show that there was also, in some cases, a first stage of rural-urban migration within Galicia. The general picture of emigration from Galicia is built [up] through the combination of the existing sources in Spain." (EXCERPT)
Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.
The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…
M. V. Klyov
Full Text Available The authors’ attention is drawn to the phenomenon of marketing and economization, and the expansion of the education market. It is noted that universities and research institutes, hospitals and schools, the military and the church, newspapers and television stations, museums and opera houses – all of them are completely different types of organizations, but as well as several others over the past decades were subjects of economization. It is considered the concept of commodification (converting the product into a commodity in relation to subsistence production, quasigoods, fake goods, real goods and fictitious capital. Overall, it is analyzed the understanding of the market economy of K. Polanyi, the role of information, knowledge and intellect in the postindustrial economy. It is alleged that in such circumstances, knowledge takes the form of the product. As knowledge is collectively produced and hasn’t got any deficiency (from an economic point of view, it is not competitive, it obtains the commodity form, being artificially scarce. The article is observed that the market mindset has a profound impact on the education system: from elementary to high school education goal is to collect as much information as possible for the purposes of the market.
Sikand, M. V.; Mazzatenta, C.; Wong, K.; Socha, A.
This following project demonstrates an interdisciplinary method of teaching Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics. It is shown that an interdisciplinary approach to introduce students to the foundations of sustainability strongly connects education with real world applications, and highlights the growing influence of sustainable practices on the world at large. The authors will present results from the interdisciplinary course "Sustainability, Energy and Green Economy" taught at the Center of Sustainable Energy, Bronx Community College, City University of New York (CSE-BCC-CUNY) by faculty from Physics, Chemistry, Biology. The course curriculum covers the relationship of humans within their environment, the facts of climate change, an analysis of the current global energy portfolio, the burgeoning renewable energy sector, and connections between consumption and quality of life. The students are exposed to empirical data and asked to evaluate trends to ascertain the future energy and resource demands of a growing global population. The students are lead through an estimation of their own carbon footprint. Emphasis is made on the concept of `Life Cycle Analysis' and how such analyses can be used to create market value and a "green product". The interdisciplinary approach to teach students on how the principles of sustainability are building the green economy and how to build a successful career within today's workforce encourages students to apply the critical lens of sustainability to all aspects of their personal lives, as well as local, regional and global economies. The authors will present data collected by students to formulate and articulate a hypothesis specifically related to the sustainability of societal and economic market trends.
Full Text Available The current labor market is characterized by high unemployment rates, temporality, segmentation and precarious conditions. The numerical facet of employment is the focus of all concerns once more, casting aside any efforts regarding quality. In this context, emigration becomes a possible alternative once again, as it was in the past, and job satisfaction studies by social psychologists become a necessary focus of interest. This paper outlines the factors that can determine the two dimensions of job satisfaction, both intrinsic and extrinsic ones, and the psychosocial effects for this population that derive from them. With them we intend to offer some intervention guidelines in order to improve quality of life and well-being in this group.
Abdel Fadil, M
This work analyzes the effects of emigration from Egypt on the distribution of income and the consumption model of the Egyptian economy. The increasing role of remittances as a principal source of household income has disturbed the old division of income among socioeconomic groups. It is difficult to estimate the volume of remittances with any precision because of the variety of ways in which they can be made. Official statistics tend to underestimate their value by ignoring black market transactions, remittances of merchandise, and other forms. An estimate was made of the value of remittances in 1980 taking account of wage levels of 5 different types of workers in the principal employing countries, their average propensities to save, and the employment structure of migrants by socioprofessional groups. The average educational level of emigrants appears to have declined somewhat between 1972-78. Average monthly income for emigrants was estimated to range from 792 Egyptian pounds for technical and professional workers to 252 for unskilled workers and the propensity to save was estimated to range from 40% for technical and scientific workers to 15% for unskilled workers. The total income remitted in 1980 in millions of Egyptian pounds was estimated at 912 for 240,000 technical and scienfific workers, 739 for 360,000 intermediate level workers, 415 for 300,000 artisans and workers, 60 for 60,000 chauffeurs, and 109 for 240,000 unskilled workers. Although remittances have elevated the per capita income of the low income groups, their impact has been diminished by severe inflationary pressures which have led to a decline in living levels and a less complete satisfaction of basic needs. Salary levels of construction workers were 7-9 times higher in Egyptian pounds in 1977 in 3 countries of immigration than in Egypt, while they were 7-10 times higher in 4 countries for university professors. Remittances are used by families receiving them for subsistence or investment
Mattoon, Richard H.
Not all observers agree that higher education and economic growth are obvious or necessary complements to each other. The controversy may be exacerbated because of the difficulty of measuring the exact contribution of colleges and universities to economic growth. Recognizing that a model based on local conditions and higher education's response…
Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis
This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…
This study examines the impact of government investments in education on economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981-2012. Economic growth proxy by growth rate of GDP is the dependent variable while government capital expenditure on social services, recurrent expenditure on education, primary school total pupil ...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Secretary, Research, Education and Economics. [FR Doc. 2011-30027 Filed 11-18-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410...
van Fleet, Justin W.
With the economic downturn starting in December 2007 (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009), K-12 school systems, educational non-profits and institutions of higher education have found themselves questioning the degree to which they can rely on outside philanthropic giving to support their activities. Although some research has examined the…
This study investigated how parental and teacher attitude to girl-child education affect her economic empowerment. The study is built on the premise that attitude can determine how emancipated and economic empowered the girl-child becomes when educated (and, or otherwise). It is also hinged on the assumption that ...
Nambissan, Geetha B.
Debates on the global economic recession have failed to draw adequate attention to the meaning of the crisis for the poor and their education, especially in later developing societies. In this paper, I focus on the education of children of the poor in India--a country that has experienced economic slowdown rather than recession. Available research…
Traces the histories of rural education and rural technology in four countries. Suggests that the economic function of education is the transmission of technologically relevant skills, and that technologically appropriate curricula are a necessary part of economic development policy. 30 references. (SV)
Education is increasingly vocational and structured to serve the ongoing exponential increase in economic growth. Climate change is an outcome of these same economic values and praxes. Attempts to shift these values and our approach to technology are continually absorbed and overcome by the pressing motif of economic growth. In this article, Ruth…
Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida
This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…
Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.; Vries, B. de
This study explored whether and how economic classroom experiments may enhance the economic knowledge and the reasoning ability of 108 secondary school students. Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises by means of which students can learn to think as economists.
Nappi, Andrew T., Ed.
This book describes award-winning teacher-developed projects and courses in economics. The reports are condensed versions of the original projects and are divided into grade levels. Primary Level includes: "Primary Pickle People Packed a Peck of Pickle Economics" (Karen L. Cragg; Katherine J. Van Horn); "Fabulous Economics" (Elizabeth B.…
Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick
This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…
Full Text Available This article considers higher education in the context of global knowledge economy policies as a site for the production of economic subjectivities. Drawing insights from poststructuralist theory and feminist economics, it explores how the incorporation of economic discourse and market metaphors into education policy and practice functions as a disciplinary technique of governmentality. The article argues that while economic discourse displaces, disciplines and disrupts educational discourse, there is a need for greater acknowledgement of the productive potential of the intersection of education and economy as a means through which agency is in part accomplished. Implications for university learning and labour are considered, with a view to contributing to dialogues about new ways of undisciplining economic subjectivities, through which new ways of doing and being might enact alternative educational economies.
In most countries, children attend the common neighbourhood school, especially at the compulsory stage. In India however, in keeping with its highly stratified and hierarchically oriented society, schools and parents in India tend to choose each other based largely on socio-economic criteria. India’s new law on right to education attempts to put an end to this socio economic segregation by mandating the admission and free education of children from economically weaker sections in all private ...
This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative) discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital...
Boris Pleskovic; Anders Åslund; William Bader; Robert Campbell
The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need—and constraint—in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding in market-based economics. This requires strengthening economics education and providing support for quali...
Tichaona Mapolisa; Thembinkosi Tshabalala
The right to education has been enshrined in a number of international treaties and is regarded as a fundamental social, economic and cultural right. Access to education particularly schooling is a mechanism through which all people can integrate into mainstream society and a means through which they can exercise social, economic and cultural rights. According to Christies (1991) education produces knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. It is essential for civic order and citizenship and...
D. Waltenberg , Fábio
D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...
Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martinez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
The Uruguayan population is sensitized toward transplantation. However, it has not been studied how this awareness can change when emigrating to different countries. To analyze the attitude toward cadaveric organ donation and living organ donation between the Uruguayan population residing in Florida (United States) and the Uruguayan population residing in Spain. Adults born in Uruguay and residing in Florida and Spain were screened. The questionnaire "PCID-DTO Ríos" (donation of cadaveric organs) and "PCID-DVR Ríos" (living renal donation) were used. Subjects were randomly selected according to age and gender stratification. Support from Latin-American immigration associations in Spain and Florida was needed. The survey was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained to collaborate in the study. Because the emigrant population to Spain is far larger than the emigrant population to the United States, a 2:1 proportional sampling was performed (n = 132). Sixty-seven percent of residents in Spain were in favor of organ donation at the time of death compared with 50% among residents in Florida (P = .082), and 100% of residents in Spain were in favor of living renal donation compared with 50% of those living in Florida (P donation is more favorable among Uruguayan emigrants to Spain than emigrants to the United States, especially in related kidney donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bryant, William D. A.
Asserts that errors frequently are made in teaching about the second fundamental theorem of welfare economics. Describes how this issue usually is taught in undergraduate economics courses. Discusses how this interpretation contains errors and may hinder students' analysis of public policy regarding welfare systems. (CFR)
Argues that existing secondary education system in Bangladesh, designed during British colonial times, is ill suited to serve current labor-market demands. Discusses three economic distortions resulting from the misalignment of secondary education with the labor market: inappropriate curriculum, excess demand for secondary education, and increased…
Hart, Doug; Livingstone, D. W.
Advocates for education have seized upon the current economic downturn as an opportunity to advance their cause. If governments are poised for an attempt to spend their way out of a deep recession, what better target than underfunded educational institutions, from daycare to universities? Public support for increased spending on education is…
Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.
While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…
investigated amongst small-scale fishing communities in north-east Madagascar. We found that educational level is low in Malagasy fishing ... contribution of education to the economy, society and well-being of humans over the .... of labor education in South Korea from a sociopolitical and economic perspective.
Frantz, Roger S.; McClarty, Katie Larsen
Educational policies and practices are influenced by cultural, political, and economic factors, and this is also true of specialized educational approaches such as gifted education. Factors such as a country's cultural tendency toward egalitarianism or meritocracy, whether the political system is centralized or decentralized, and the degree to…
Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy
This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…
Castello-Climent, Amparo; Hidalgo-Cabrillana, Ana
We develop a theory of human capital investment to study the effects of school quality on student choices of education, and to understand its effect on economic growth. In a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy, primary education is mandatory but there is an opportunity to continue to secondary education and beyond. High-quality education…
The arrival of the Internet has been seen to portend the rise of the virtual university, global competition, and the end of campus education. The emerging economics of electronic commerce (eCommerce) allows for a measured understanding of the implications of the new technologies for higher education and even how educational innovation should be…
Economic inequality--the income gap between the wealthy and the poor--is increasing. Educational inequity has also increased with low-income students less likely to complete college than their wealthier counterparts. As the gap widens between the education "haves" and "have-nots," those with inadequate education are faced with…
Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi
This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…
Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam; Hecker, Kent; Grant, Vincent; Currie, Gillian R
Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is now ubiquitous at all levels of medical training. Given the substantial resources needed for SBME, economic evaluation of simulation-based programmes or curricula is required to demonstrate whether improvement in trainee performance (knowledge, skills and attitudes) and health outcomes justifies the cost of investment. Current literature evaluating SBME fails to provide consistent and interpretable information on the relative costs and benefits of alternatives. Economic evaluation is widely applied in health care, but is relatively scarce in medical education. Therefore, in this paper, using a focus on SBME, we define economic evaluation, describe the key components, and discuss the challenges associated with conducting an economic evaluation of medical education interventions. As a way forward to the rigorous and state of the art application of economic evaluation in medical education, we outline the steps to gather the necessary information to conduct an economic evaluation of simulation-based education programmes and curricula, and describe the main approaches to conducting an economic evaluation. A properly conducted economic evaluation can help stakeholders (i.e., programme directors, policy makers and curriculum designers) to determine the optimal use of resources in selecting the modality or method of assessment in simulation. It also helps inform broader decision making about allocation of scarce resources within an educational programme, as well as between education and clinical care. Economic evaluation in medical education research is still in its infancy, and there is significant potential for state-of-the-art application of these methods in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
McLean, William J.
Scope and Method of Study: This study develops, implements, and evaluates a new economics teaching pedagogy based on the U.S. Army's systems approach to training model. Using the approach, tasks are identified that compose the task domain for the Principles of Microeconomics course. From the 130 identified tasks, 73 are used by Economics of…
Pleskovic, Boris; Aslund, Anders; Bader, William; Campbell, Robert
The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to fully functioning market economies. To take an active role in the transition process, economic policymakers, business leaders, government officials, and others need a thorough grounding i...
This article examines a theory of "weak humanism" that says (1) secondary English classes should focus on personal development and culture and (2) English classes should deliver economic benefits indirectly, i.e. as knock-on effects of studying the personal and the cultural. Economic benefits are defined here as knowledge/skills students…
Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak; Sheridan, Brandon J.
In this article, the authors discuss the results of a study of the perceptions of a national sample of economics faculty members from various institutions regarding the use of social media as a teaching tool in and out of the economics classroom. In the past few years, social media has become globally popular, and its use is ubiquitous among…
Hanushek, Erik A., Ed.; Welch, F., Ed.
The Handbooks in Economics series continues to provide the various branches of economics with handbooks which are definitive reference sources, suitable for use by professional researchers, advanced graduate students, or by those seeking a teaching supplement. With contributions from leading researchers, each Handbook presents an accurate,…
Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an…
No doubt, human resources constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production; human beings are the active agents who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organization for sustainable economic development.
The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South African nurses. ... Many nurses who leave the Republic of South Africa might use recruitment agencies' assistance. These concerns raised by ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Nina O. Voskresenskaya
Full Text Available Comparative economics, a young interdisciplinary science, which proper formation belongs to the twentieth century only, has been recently attracting more attention of the scientific community. This quite predictable interest is based on the very subject of the comparative economics which is socioeconomic systems in the mankind history. Researchers want to know what factors make systems come into being, transform, achieve prosperity, stop to develop; they need to understand how systems are functioning and which of their institutions should be attributed to as being fundamental – difficult or not transformed at all, and which of them are not so stable and therefore can be easily changed. This knowledge is crucially needed to elaborate an appropriate economic policy in order to meet national interests and cope with possible crises. Attention to the science is also based on its methodological possibilities: comparative analysis can provide complete and compact socio-economic panorama of mankind evolution versus traditional historical studies. This possible-to-embrace picture of global human history viewed as a set of different economic systems might be a good ground to conclude which of them possesses such attractive features as capacity for development, flexibility, readiness for self-improvement, ability to achieve and maintain reasonable socio-economic balance under negative internal and external influence, openness to interaction with other peoples and states, i.e. what system can provide the best sufficient infrastructure for growth and development focusing on ensuring a high standard of living for the people. Comparative analysis allows to predict, to some extent, the further evolution of economic systems, and chose the most attractive one as a desirable benchmark for national development. Thus, comparative economics is both of academic and practical value for society. Professor R. M. Nureev in his fundamental work "Comparative Economics
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2010
In early 2009, the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) initiated an effort to assess the status of the Commonwealth's international education programs. A survey was distributed to the public and private institutions, focusing on critical aspects of contemporary international education programs as identified by an ad hoc group of…
Nyangau, Josiah Z.
The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…
Rahman, M M
This article examines the developmental consequences of international labor migration in a Bangladeshi village. The data are from the Hoglakandi, a village 30 km southeast of Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire with both open-ended and closed category questions was used among 50 Singapore returnees, supplemented with additional in-depth interviews. International labor migration has often been seen by many sending countries as a short cut development because of its role in unemployment relief, balance of payments relief, and capital formation of national level. The study argues that the causes and effects of emigration can better be understood only when the process is placed within its local context, since what may prove to be advantageous at the national level may prove to be detrimental to a household or community or vice-versa. It demonstrates how the contribution of labor migration is merely the transformation of labor into a structural component of the international political economy. The Hoglakandi experience reveals that labor migration does not fuel the local economy from an external pipeline of remittances and skill acquisition, rather it drains local resources that retard the development.
Emilio Luis LARA LÓPEZ
Full Text Available With the Spanish Bourbons, there was a gradual introduction of Gallic cultural forms that gave rise to Frenchification, or cultural afrancesamiento, which was supported by most of the enlightened elite. The continual upheavals of the French Revolution and of the War of the Pyrenees were to change Spanish life in several of its facets, due in particular to the French emigrants. These exiles –above all, the clergymen– instilled in the popular classes a counterrevolutionary feeling that the Spanish clergy was to turn into a resentment of the French with religious and xenophobic overtones. Such latent prejudices were to reappear in 1808, in part helping to explain the forceful anti-Napoleonic reaction. The afrancesados supported the new Napoleonic Monarchy for political reasons with the purpose of regenerating the country. French residents in Spain from long before had to endure the anger of their Spanish neighbours at the beginning of the war as well as live under the cloak of suspicion.
Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M
In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.
Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.
Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz
Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.
Clarke, Nicholas; Crowe, Sophie; Humphries, Niamh; Conroy, Ronan; O'Hare, Simon; Kavanagh, Paul; Brugha, Ruairi F
BACKGROUND: The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland. METHODS: Using a partially mixed ...
The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between economic growth, higher education, unemployment and poverty using properties of time series variables while applying the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS method. Our study thus contributes to the existing literature by giving the first integrated approach to examine the four way linkages in the Tunisian background over the period 1990-2013. This paper holds that higher education can impact unemployment and graduate unemployment causes poverty which would affect economic growth. Our empirical results show that there is bi-directional causal relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP and poverty rate (POV and also between Number of graduate students (GRA and School enrollment tertiary education (ENR besides unidirectional causal relationship which running from Number of graduate students to Unemployment with tertiary education (UNP, from Higher education expenditure (EXP to poverty rate and from Unemployment with tertiary education to poverty rate. Our empirical results also verified the existence of positive effect of ENR, GRA and POV on economic growth, while, UNP and EXP have negative determining influence on economic growth with only GRA statistically significant. These empirical insights are of particular interest for the policy makers as they help build sound economic policies to sustain economic development and improve the higher educational quality.
Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the Croatian emigrant press in Chile through five historical periods (before World War I, during World War I, between the two world wars, during World War II, after World War II. Parallels are drawn between political changes in Croatia and changes in the contents and themes of the emigrant press. One emigrant newspaper is analysed for each historical period, via the content analysis method, and front-page articles are taken as the units of analysis. Apart from the messages’ contents, their form is analysed, so as to assess opinions that the messages’ senders transmit to their receivers. Based on the analysis of the newspapers, the author concludes that changes in Croatia had an important influence on the emigrant press, which was especially visible in the period during World War I and World War II. In the period from World War I onwards, headings and themes in the emigrant press were used to propagate Yugoslavism and a sense of belonging to the Yugoslav nation and state. The identity of the emigrants changed under the influence of political changes in Croatia. Up to World War I they were mainly anti-Austrian oriented, and in the next four periods they accepted the state and the government of both the first and the second Yugoslavia, identifying themselves with Yugoslavia, and raising their descendents in a Yugoslav spirit.
parents withdraw their daughters from school for some economic reasons or because of local ..... Jos: Arrow Head Educational Books. (Nigeria) Plc. Agbese, D. ... 2010 Literacy Harvard University Cambridge, Massa Chusetts. United State of ...
Herrmann, Robert O.
Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)
Møllegaard Pedersen, Stine; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren’s educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...... the academic track in upper secondary education over the vocational track or no education. These results suggest that, at least in the Scandinavian context, the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren’s educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources....
Full Text Available Developments in technology and communication in the 21st century have led to increased expectations from individuals. One of these expectation areas is literacy. As a requirement of the information age, it can be said that the economic literacy is one of the most important areas of literacy. Economic literacy can be defined in terms of ability to revise the alternatives for interpreting economic problems and finding solutions to these problems, to define the cost and profits, to investigate the effects of changes in economic conditions and in public policies, to gather and organize economy-related data and to balance the profits and costs. One of the tools that affect the life can be said economic literacy but it is a neglected area in most higher education programs. In this study, Computer Education and Instructional Technology program courses were examined within the framework of economic literacy indicators
Sultan, Faisal; Tehseen, Syed; Arif, Imtiaz
The study examines the role of human capital in the economic growth of Pakistan by using primary, secondary and higher education enrolments as proxies for human capital in three different specifications. The idea behind these models is to find out the most relevant level of education in terms of its contribution in economic growth. The order of integration of the variables is checked through Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron test. In order to find out the evidences of the long run r...
Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.
In this article, the authors summarize their 15 years of research on graduate education in economics in the United States. They examine all stages of the process, from the undergraduate origins of eventual economics PhDs to their attrition and time-to-degree outcomes. For PhD completers, the authors examine job market outcomes, research…
Shaidullina, Rimma M.; Amirov, Artur F.; Muhametshin, Vyacheslav S.; Tyncherov, Kamil T.
The relevance of this study is related to the fact that the necessity of compliance between the professional education system and progressive tendencies of world economy development demanded the formation of a new generation of economically socialized engineering and technical specialists, who own a sufficient level of economic competences, that…
An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)
This paper examines the possible impact of MERCOSUR on Paraguay's economic and educational systems. MERCOSUR is a trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, under which terms all import tariffs among the countries will be eliminated by 1994. The countries will enter into a common economic market. The worst-case scenario…
Holubka M. M.
Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical components of the development of national financial and economic as well as cooperative education in the Western territories of Ukraine in the second half of the XIX-the beginning of the XX century and its role in economic management in the region were covered. The methodology and the general essence of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education, and its significant influence on the community were analyzed. Importance and significance of financial and economic as well as cooperative education for realizing the opportunities for the self-understanding of a human as an economically active member of the nation was identified. The development of the financial and economic as well as cooperative education of the population that has proved a key role in these processes and various institutions of self-education partnerships was analyzed. The broad functionality of such associations and the transformation of the main goal of its activities from educational proper to educational, financial and economic was revealed. The basic achievements of associations and associates in terms of the support for the establishment of various organizations for the business purposes, cooperatives, educational institutions, professional courses, publishing, organization of specialized events, financial institutions and their importance to financial, economic and cooperative education were described.
Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara
Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.
The effects of college education on incomes during the past century, changes in the labor market, and the accuracy of future projections are examined. Other areas discussed are why college graduates earn more money than high school graduates, how much more money, and whether the amount earned exceeds the amount spent on their education. (BM)
Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz
Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…
A questionnaire was used to gather information on six SES measures: Availability of TV and radio at home; type of dwelling; educational level of the father; number of people sharing a bedroom; cooking mode used; and household income. EA was measured using the Educational Achievement Tests. In this sample, with a ...
Goggin, James E; Goggin, Eileen Brockman; Hill, Mary
Interest in the fate of the German psychoanalysts who had to flee Hitler's Germany and find refuge in a new nation, such as the United States, has increased. The "émigré research" shows that several themes recur: (1) the theme of "loss" of one's culture, homeland, language, and family; and (2) the ambivalent welcome these émigrés received in their new country. We describe the political-social-cultural context that existed in the United States during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Documentary evidence found in the FBI files of three émigré psychoanalysts, Clara Happel, Martin Grotjahn, and Otto Fenichel, are then presented in combination with other source material. This provides a provisional impression of how each of these three individuals experienced their emigration. As such, it gives us elements of a history. The FBI documents suggest that the American atmosphere of political insecurity and fear-based ethnocentric nationalism may have reinforced their old fears of National Socialism, and contributed to their inclination to inhibit or seal off parts of themselves and their personal histories in order to adapt to their new home and become Americanized. They abandoned the rich social, cultural, political tradition that was part of European psychoanalysis. Finally, we look at these elements of a history in order to ask a larger question about the appropriate balance between a liberal democratic government's right to protect itself from internal and external threats on the one hand, or crossover into the blatant invasion of civil rights and due process on the other.
Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E
A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.
O'Roark, J. Brian
The author of this article expands the background theory of voting to incorporate the undergraduate majors of members of Congress. Examining nine votes on trade across the 109th and 110th Congresses reveals that economics majors are the only category of college major to vote in favor of free trade in a predictable way. Controls for a variety of…
Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J
To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...
Roč. 42, č. 2 (2000), s. 37-50 ISSN 0888-7233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3409103&site=ehost-live
Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…
von Moos, Brian
Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…
Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... technological training, food productivity and creativity, thus, the problems of security, unemployment, ... manipulated and transformed into products therefore creating self employed citizens.
Ileana (BADULESCU ANASTASE
Full Text Available The paper addresses issues related to education management operation that determines the principles and requires an interdisciplinary approach, studying events that occur in the decision to organize a determined pedagogical activity and the management of educational programs. Managerial leadership involves emphasis on ideas, on a systematic approach, on change, innovation strategy, proposing a method of analyzing the functioning of sustainable educational management and positive effects. In this context, the article provides the principles, functions, methods and rules that a school must comply in order to ensure a sustainable future.The teaching staff represents an inexhaustible managerial resource valued at its social ladder of the system and education program.In the content of the paper are highlighted prominent school organization management functions as steps preceding decision making of their training where are presented applied studies on financial issues facing directors of schools who seek solutions to them.
Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.
This paper discusses several concepts and techniques from the areas of systems theory and economic analysis that can be used as tools in an effort to improve the productivity of the educational enterprise. Several studies investigating productivity in education are reviewed, and the analytical problems in conducting cost-effectiveness studies are…
Duarte, Oscar Daniel
This article aims to explain the ultimate organisation of the Argentinian educational system during the 1870s as a result of the 1873 world economic crisis, which led, among other measures, to budget cuts. These had serious consequences in both curriculum design and the general structure of the different educational levels. Such a system fostered…
Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel
This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…
While most organizations react to economic downturns by downsizing and cutting training and educational "costs," a few others thrive under adversity by engaging in innovative practices supported by extensive and creative uses of educational technology. This article examines how diverse organizations benefit from the cycles of "creative…
Vaina, Maria; Katidioti, Evaggelia; Ktitikos, Antonis
The main objective of the current paper is to establish the deficiencies of teaching Economics in the Greek educational system. It also proposes critical education as a way of partially overcoming these issues and the way it can contribute to the protection of the everyday man and woman against the rising and current existential threats of the…
Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…
This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of educational outcomes and the impact of those outcomes on other socioeconomic phenomena. It investigates the relationship between education and economic growth and development in emerging countries. The paper addresses school policies that are most cost-effective in producing students with…
In the last decade, consensus around equality and efficiency in New Zealand adult education shifted to a focus on autonomy and accountability, economic rationalism, and vocational skills. Adult educators seeking change should emphasize participative democracy, connectedness, and valuing and advancing groups with diverse identities and interests.…
Dunn, Mel; Nilan, Pam
Since the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, "internationalization" of higher education has been a popular theme as the country takes its place as a regional leader in education and research in sub-Saharan Africa. However, competing discourses of internationalization have produced economic and moral dilemmas rather than the…
Nwosu, Constance C.
This article argues that Christian educational institutions in Africa can play a major role in improving economic self-reliance within the continent, if those who establish Christian universities there take time to plan the programs and activities in those institutions. Specifically, it argues that with proper planning of quality education--the…
Haynes, Deborah C.; Chinadle, Nicole
The Family Economics and Financial Education Project (FEFE) began in 2001 at Montana State University with an annual grant from Take Charge America, Inc., a credit counseling and debt management company headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona. FEFE's mission is to provide educators with curriculum materials and training to be effective teachers of…
Toglia, Thomas V.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…
Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga
This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…
Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education. Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.
Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.
Pedersen, Stine Møllegaard; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural...... and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose...... the academic track in upper secondary education over all other tracks. These results suggest, at least in the Scandinavian context, that the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren's educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources....
M. V. Klyov
Full Text Available The author examines the concept of «McUniversity», introduced in 1995 by British sociologists M.Parker and J.Jary. However, attention is drawn to the concept of McDonaldization, masovization that lead to the emergence of phenomena of economization in education. It is noted that the principle of McDonaldization is used by the most businesses organizations, and the McDonald’s is the epitome of efficiency, predictability and automation; gradually moving to the University, it manifests itself in rationalization, excessive consumption, the use of advertising, which creates the illusion of consumer cooperation, which focused on human behavior, freedom and impartiality. The article states that the educational sector reformers often confuse economization of education and its commercialization. The processes of economization of education are one of the most important factors of economic development and cause change. After all, education is increasingly starting to be not as education for education and obtain «pure knowledge», namely as a powerful fact of development that allows countries to enter new innovative technological frontier. In general, education is seen as a major factor of social and economic progress and stability of the social system. So the concept of «McUniversity», introduced in 1995, is becoming increasingly important today, setting the stage for the development of the economization of education in our society, because the modern era characterized rankings of universities and faculties at the international and national levels, strengthening the competitive spirit among faculties and tutors, establishing schools and faculties that operate as businesses due to the fact that they perform managerial principles.
Full Text Available According to theory, educational goods and services have an important impact on a child’s human capital. Although the majority of educational services in Poland are delivered within a public education system, various educational costs are borne by parents. This paper looks at the socio-economic determinants of private spending on education, including fees, private tutoring and courses, educational goods and materials, and the internet. The analysis was performed using the Polish Household Budget Survey for 2009 and 2010. Results from a logit regression suggest that disposable household income per capita and parental level of education, especially mother’s level of education have the greatest impact on spending on educational goods and services. This was true for all analysed categories of expenditure. Regional disparities and community size were an important factor especially with regards to spending on private tutoring and additional courses.
Full Text Available We employ EU-SILC micro data for Latvia to study how returns to education changed during the economic crisis of 2008–2009 and afterwards. We found that returns to education increased significantly during the crisis and decreased slightly during the subsequent economic recovery. The counter-cyclical effect was evident in nearly all population groups. After the crisis, education became more associated than before with a longer working week and a higher employment probability. Furthermore, we show that returns to education in Latvia are generally higher in the capital city and its suburbs than outside the capital city region, as well as for citizens of Latvia than for resident non-citizens and citizens of other countries, but lower for males and young people. Wage differential models reveal a relatively large wage premium for higher education and a rather small one for secondary education. Estimates obtained with instrumental variable (IV models significantly exceed the OLS estimates.
The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was built in Newport News, Virginia, between 1987 and 1995 and is a new basic research laboratory christened the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Jefferson Lab's science and technology mission has major economic and educational benefits: basic research discoveries, improvement and application of key technologies associated with the accelerator and the experiments, extensive subcontracting with industry, and diverse employment and educational opportunities. The $600 million invested by federal, state, local and international partners to build Jefferson Lab has had substantial economic and educational benefits locally, as well as significant benefits distributed among industries and universities throughout the United States
Alla A. Kizima
Full Text Available The article gives a methodological analysis of MGIMO-University own education standards and programmes. The relevance of the article is explained by the necessity to define the goals and contents of professional language training of IR economics students at MGIMO-University after a transfer to own education standards. The researcher used competence-based and cultural studies approaches with reference to the didactic principles of accessibility, systematic, consistency, necessity and sufficiency. The author used a set of methods including the method of theoretical analysis, the method of synthesis and systematization, summative method. The article addresses the difference in the training of IR economists and economists in other spheres of economics, underlines the importance of professional language training of IR economics students, analyses the specifics of professional language training of IR economists from the standpoint of competence-based approach by comparing the competences presented in the Federal State Education Standards of Higher Education and MGIMO own education standards. The author gives a definition of goal and contents of professional language training of IR economics students as well as didactic principles of contents choice that define the effectiveness of training. In conclusion the author points out that the contents of professional language training of IR economics students based on MGIMO own education standards are approached as the system of professional knowledge, skills and competence leading to successful intercultural communication.
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)
Full Text Available Education as an important social activity represents the basic capital of contemporary society and, as such, today is considered to be a major factor in the economic and social development of any country. The development of education during the transition period in our country has marked significant and visible changes. The importance of education in the economic and social development of each country is one of the topics around the world discussed in various aspects. Investing in education is quite remarkable, because it is an investment in knowledge, technology, science - "brain drain", a future investment and is one of the decisive factors for today's socio-economic development with current changes and current global development. Due to education, in some countries are made great scientific discoveries and technicallytechnological revolutions, which have been crucial to humanity in general. In fact, education is knowledge and knowledge is the driving force behind the overall development of a society. World-renowned economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall in the 18th and 19th centuries were concerned with investment in education, posing the question: How do investments in education reflect in national wealth? And in increasing the possibility for greater profits of people as individuals! Although, even worldrenowned economists have dealt with this issue, which based on empirical data provided explanations on the importance of mediation and economic growth. Considering that even developing and newest technological innovations derive from the process of educated individuals, it is very important to consider the impact of higher education on economic development.
George Rivers; Jonathan Foo; Dragan Ilic; Peter Nicklen; Scott Reeves; Kieran Walsh; Stephen Maloney
Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were ...
The paper analyses the usage of the Internet by university students in Visegrad Countries (4V Countries) who study economic fields in their formal and informal financial education and captures the areas of untapped potential of Internet in educational processes. Higher education and training, technological readiness, and the financial market development are in the group of pillars, that are key for efficiency driven economies. These three pillars have become an inspiration to the research on ...
Johannes L van der Walt
Full Text Available This paper sets the tone for the 2017 BCES Conference in that it confronts the educators and educationists assembled at the opening ceremony with some of the manifestations of the current business and economics driven orientation to life in general and to education in particular. It demonstrates how and to what extent the neoliberal life-view or orientation has so far colonized the minds of educators and educationists and affected their occupational environment. The paper concludes with a brief critical discussion of neoliberal tenets and their effects on education based on professional pedagogical insight into the human being, societal relationships and education.
Härkönen, Juho; Lindberg, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Scheinin, Noora M
To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. South-western Finland. A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n = 3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; P = 0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI = 2.1-9.0; P < 0.001) for combined general and vocational secondary education, 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-6.1; P = 0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P < 0.001) for vocational secondary education and 14.4 (95% CI = 6.3-33.0; P < 0.001) for compulsory schooling. The total AF of education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1; P = 0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.8; P < 0.001), but did not attenuate its socio-economic disparities. In Finland, socio-economic disparities in
Universities UK, 2011
This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…
Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.
Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…
Full Text Available Indonesia will be welcoming the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 as a multilateral agreement to create integrated regions such as: (a a single market and production base, (b a highly competitive economic region, (c a region of equitable economic development, and (d a region fully integrated into the global economy. These characteristics are interrelated and mutually reinforcing in a sense that overall development would not be complete without total completion of the previous sector. This article discusses the participation of Indonesia as part of ASEAN as a single market and production base, through free flow of services which targets higher education in law. The author researched that Indonesian higher education system still faces issues, especially in legal education. Compared to other states that manages higher education in a relatively guided term, Indonesian legal education is still regulated generally by the government, operated by state and private educational entity, and further trained by profession organization. Indonesian legal education standard has not been supported by proper accreditation bureaucracy from BAN-PT or fair treatment from the government between state and private university. As a result, the quality of Indonesian law graduate still varies. Indonesian legal education is special in nature since it is considered profession and regulated by code of ethic. According to the author, legal education should be integrated with profession organization so that upon graduation, law graduates can directly conduct internship according to their desired profession and compete against ASEAN law graduates.
Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.
Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…
The author examines the determinants of success in introductory microeconomics, in the context of a Middle Eastern society but within an American educational setting. The data set is rich and covers over 3,500 students in one regional campus, allowing control for a wide range of student and class characteristics, one of which, nationality, is…
Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010
This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…
McMillion, Martin B.
Vocational agriculture is education for work. By meeting the needs of the economy and the job market, it can meet the needs of the individual. Although human resource development is important, vocational agriculture should focus on job-relevant competencies and cost effectiveness. (SK)
Osipian, Ararat L.
This paper addresses the issue of "dissertations for sale" in Russia. The tasks of this anthropological study include establishing the problem of corruption in doctoral education, identification of the dissertations suppliers, study of the specific services they offer, analysis of their prices on different services, and generalizations…
Irina Konstantinovna Bitkina
Full Text Available Importance of the presented study consists in need of the introduction innovation educational technology when teaching in high educational institutions. Objectivity specified need you-is the Russian system of the higher education called by turning on standards within the framework of Bolognaagreement. Existing in persisting time scientific studies and practical developments in incomplete measure touch in-ask, concerning using educational innovation technology in the field of teaching social-humanitarian sciences, including coursesfinancial-economic profile. Considering aforesaid, purpose persisting studies is a development of the methodical approach to estimation of efficiency of the using educational innovation and proving of the directions on improvement of their use in high school thrifty persons of the profile when learning student discipline to specialization. In the course of undertaking the study were used methods of the collection and processing statistical and sociological information, summeries and groups got data, quantitative estimation to efficiency applicable technology. The Results of the study touch the methodical questions of the estimation to efficiency educational innovation in high school financial-economic profile and practical aspects of their use when teaching of discipline to specialization beside student.Purpose: development methodical approach educational innovation estimation and proving ways of improving using educational innovation in the economical universities.Methodology: statistical summary, statistical grouping, sociological questioning, effectivity estimation, comparative analyses.Results:1 ways of effectivity estimation educational innovation using were revealed;2 the practical recommendation for improving using educational innovation were proved.Practical implications: educational activity in the socio-economical higher institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-37
Daniela Mihaela NEAMȚU
Full Text Available In the current transformation of nations where all economic, social, political and civic pillars, experienced a new dynamic in trying to adapt to present conditions, contribution of higher education is becoming more evident in Romanian society. Universities have often been perceived as the key institutions in the processes of social change and development. The most explicit role universities have been assigned consisted of highly skilled labor productivity and conducting research processes to meet perceived economic needs of society. Higher education not only contributes to the formation of skilled workers, but also creates a workforce eager to acquire new knowledge that contributes to growth and social and economic development. Higher education creates new attitudes, makes vision changes necessary for the socialization of individuals, for modernization and transformation of societies. The need to draw attention to the importance of the human element brings to the fore the need for human resource development from the perspective of learning and lifelong self-improvement. Establishing the relationship between higher education and economic growth was based on an analysis of the link between them for a longer period of time, over 40 years, in the period 1971-2013 for the countries UK, Poland, Sweden, Korea South and Romania, using participation rates in tertiary education (School Enrollment Ratio, tertiary -% gross as an indicator for assessing the changes in higher education and the Gross Domestic Product per capita (expressed in dollars per capita as an indicator of economic growth. Choosing the five countries included in the research is justified by the investments made in education correlated with economic growth related to these countries.
Berta Dian Theodora
Full Text Available This research aims to know the student’s lifestyle whether it is influenced by education that has been accepted in family or their financial literacy. Samples were 334 out of 2040 students of Indraprasta PGRI University, Jakarta. Technique of data analysis used path analysis. Findings show that 60.78% of students are in the middle category for economic education in family, 47% of students are in the high category for financial literacy and 58% of students have a high lifestyle. Economic education influences the lifestyle by 6.4% and financial literacy affects on lifestyle by 3.7%. The influence of family education through financial literacy toward lifestyle is 1.9%. Therefore, it can be concluded that financial literacy does not increase the influence of education Economy in family to lifestyle. Then, the results of the research will be used as one of the reference in the application of entrepreneurship lectures.
Mulyawan Safwandy Nugraha
Full Text Available This article explores the challenge faced by Indonesia in ASEAN Economic Community (AEC era. It is also revealed the Private Islamic Religion Institution (PTKIS strategic to play its role and function in generating human resource. The method used is qualitative in the form of literature study. The result shows that PTKIS are required to adapt and see the AEC as an opportunity to change. A private status should be used as an institutional capital to create and innovate freely, by maximally utilizing the available resources. The management of a reputable institution is seen to be a significant factor for reinforcement. Aspects of visionary leadership, qualified lecturers, a curriculum that is responsive to a change, and an adequate infrastructure become a strengthening point toward the management accountability of universities in creating graduates who are competitive, skillful and qualified.
The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weigang, Helene C
The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2017
Loh, Lawrence C; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame
The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector's influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide.
Pressler, Jana L; Kenner, Carole A
Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant deanships, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.
Vasvári, Louise O.
In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...
Full Text Available The issue of mixed educational financing is rarely evoked in the literature, although the financial contribution of parents in the public educational system can be significant. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the mixed system and public and private ‘extreme’ systems in terms of economic growth and social disparity. For developing countries and for heterogeneous individuals, the mixed system is widely preferred. For homogeneous agents the public and private systems cannot lead to better economic performance than the mixed system. The public system always reduces social inequality, in contrast to the mixed and private systems, which generate the same level of inequality.
Reina-Paz, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Oromendía, Ainhoa; Sevilla-Sevilla, Claudia
Spain is currently experiencing a difficult economic situation, and in recent years a significant change has been observed in the behavior of the demand for educational programs as a result of this situation. Recent studies reveal a change in student demand that does not have the same effect on all academic institutions. Bearing this behavior in…
Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…
Khan, Habib Nawaz; Razali, Radzuan B.; Shafei, Afza Bt.
The objectives of this paper is two-fold: First, to empirically investigate the effects of an enlarged number of healthy and well-educated people on economic growth in Malaysia within the Endogeneous Growth Model framework. Second, to examine the causal links between education, health and economic growth using annual time series data from 1981 to 2014 for Malaysia. Data series were checked for the time series properties by using ADF and KPSS tests. Long run co-integration relationship was investigated with the help of vector autoregressive (VAR) method. For short and long run dynamic relationship investigation vector error correction model (VECM) was applied. Causality analysis was performed through Engle-Granger technique. The study results showed long run co-integration relation and positively significant effects of education and health on economic growth in Malaysia. The reported results also confirmed a feedback hypothesis between the variables in the case of Malaysia. The study results have policy relevance of the importance of human capital (health and education) to the growth process of the Malaysia. Thus, it is suggested that policy makers focus on education and health sectors for sustainable economic growth in Malaysia.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States. 99.2 Section 99.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... CHILDREN § 99.2 Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United...
Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall
Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities...... of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic...... product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years...
Full Text Available Economy and civil society has gone through an unprecedented financial crisis determined by an acute shortage of financial education among the large community of individuals and legal persons. Thus, the low level of economic and financial knowledge from society contributed to the amplification of economic crisis. In 2008, in the midst of financial crisis in the European Union was created Expert Group on Financial Education (EGFE, aimed at supporting a new financial education order. Breaking the vicious circle of banks debt and sovereign one, improvement of supervision European banking system, solving the financial problems of some banks through the mechanism of bank resolution, without recourse to public resources, strengthening the trust of potential customers in the financial market, in the first process of finalizing the Union European banking, can be achieved and by a new order of financial education
松田, 典子; マツダ, ノリコ; Noriko, Matsuda
Recently, the system of employment has changed; it is said that career education is important. In this paper, I explore and clearly describe career education on `Home economics' textbooks. My findings suggest (1) the characteristics and cases of `housework' and `occupational work'were found in many textbooks. (2) `the diversity of employment' and `how to work' is frequently described in recent years. (3) one textbook specifically pick up `what vocational skills are needed'. (4) `life time' or...
Full Text Available Five cases of colony emigration induced by removal of nest envelope and combs and a single one by manipulation are described. The disturbance was followed by defensive patterns, buzz running, and adult dispersion. An odor trail created by abdomen dragging, probably depositing venom or Dufour's gland secretions, connected the original nest to the newly selected nesting place and guided the emigration. The substrate of the selected nesting place is intensely sprayed with venom prior to emigration, and this chemical cue marked the emigration end point. The colony moves to the new site in a diffuse cloud with no temporary clusters formed along the odor trail. At the original nest, scouts performed rapid gaster dragging and intense mouth contacts stimulating inactive individuals to depart. Males were unable to follow the swarm. Individual scouts switched between different behavioral tasks before and after colony emigration. Pulp collected from the old nest was reused at the new nest site.
Daniel B. Klein; Zeljka Buturovic
One year ago, we reported the results of a 2008 Zogby survey that purported to gauge economic enlightenment (Buturovic and Klein 2010). Our main result was that college education bore little relationship to economic enlightenment. We also found that that self-identified Progressives and Liberals did much worse than Conservatives and Libertarians, and this finding generated a lot of controversy. Those results were based on eight questions used to gauge economic enlightenment. Most of those eig...
Stafford, Gary L; Nourzad, Farrokh; Lobb, William K; Beall, Jason R
The rising costs associated with obtaining a dental education have caused some to question the financial benefit of pursuing a dental degree. There is a concern that recent graduates may have difficulty finding professional opportunities that provide the income necessary to service their accumulated educational debt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in educational costs to aid in making an accurate appraisal of the financial benefit of a dental education. Adjusted into constant dollar terms, data from a variety of sources were collected for economic variables such as tuition, fees, student indebtedness, and dentists' earnings. These variables were then analyzed to determine the true costs and benefits of obtaining a dental education. The results showed that, over the course of the last decade, educational costs increased faster than the real net income of practicing dentists, which led to a decline in the return on investment in dental education. However, regardless of an applicant's choice of public or private dental school, there continues to be a positive economic return on students' commitment of both financial resources and time to receive a dental education.
Hassan, Rubina; Mirza, M. Shahzad
This paper attempts to substantiate the Education-Growth relationship with a view to evaluate Pakistan’s Education Policy over the last two decades. With a view to the inadequacy of the generally used measures of education, we first estimate the no enrollment ratios, the average schooling years, the standard deviation of education and educational gini for Pakistan and its four provinces across gender domains as measures of the level and spread of schooling for 1973-1998. Then using these meas...
Edwards, Jeremy S. S.
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that in...
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and Catch-Up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable BHW use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that inf...
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger
An emerging economic literature over the past decade has made use of international tests of educational achievement to analyze the determinants and impacts of cognitive skills. The cross-country comparative approach provides a number of unique advantages over national studies: It can exploit institutional variation that does not exist within…
Lowe, Phyllis; And Others
This module, one of ten competency based modules developed for vocational home economics teachers, is based on a job cluster in the catering industry. It is designed for use with a variety of levels of learners (secondary, postsecondary, adult) in both school and non-school educational settings. Focusing on two levels of employment, food caterer…
Vocational education and training (VET) has in recent years enjoyed a revival for two major reasons. Firstly, it is regarded as a suitable means of promoting economic growth. Secondly, it is seen as a potentially powerful tool for fostering social inclusion. In this review, these assumed effects are critically examined on the basis of the vastly…
Edgerton, Jason D.; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W.
This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)". Results, consistent with previous findings,…
The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…
Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…
Shin, Jung Cheol
The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…
Ohiwerei, Franklin Ohiole; Nwosu, Basil Ogomeziem
The researchers tried to ascertain the role of vocational and technical education in the Nigeria economic development using historical survey in analyzing the views of various academic authors in an attempt to inform researchers' on current issues on the field. The research reveals that there was a defect in the curriculum of vocational and…
Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.
In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.
Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip
This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…
Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Fangbin; Li, Binbin
In many Chinese universities and colleges, female students outperform male students in social science subjects. This paper presents a case study, which examines gender difference in economic education in a Chinese university. We look at a sample of students from the Chinese university and find that holding constant observed student…
To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)
Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan
This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…
Kister, Joanna; Montgomery, Wanda
This teaching guide provides materials on how to implement a global education curriculum into the home economics program. The stated objective is to motivate students to become more caring and responsible citizens of the global village. Contents include a list of student objectives, steps to take in implementing the global view curriculum, and…
Mikitka, Kathleen Faith; Van Camp, Mary Lou
A study was done of higher education curricula with substantial enrollment by women (such as fashion merchandising and home economics) to examine the context and substance of the curricula, to identify infrastructures that have supported these programs, and to probe issues that face administrators, faculty and students engaged in such programs.…
Full Text Available This discussion paper aims to highlight the existing scenario of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET for the economic growth in Pakistan. It specifically analysis the status of vocational training, related policies and practices with reference to the 18th Amendment, which abolishes the concurrent list and grants more provincial autonomy in the matters of education. Article 25A of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (iv states that the provinces should set priorities for access and quality education based on the provincial needs and develop action plans for its actualization. A developing country like Pakistan needs to devise a systematic, well thought and sophisticated policy for TVET; therefore, this paper proposes a policy following the simple framework of input, process and output. The inputs are predominantly focused on highlighting and matching demand and supply of the TVET. The process thoroughly discusses both the formal and informal education arrangements. Finally, the outputs are deliberated in the form of economic effects such as the manpower structures, technological development, manpower quality and economic behavior leading to the ultimate goal of economic growth and development of the country.
The rationale for students preparation in job creation through entrepreneurship education was examined. Problems of unemployment among Nigerian university graduates and challenges to entrepreneurship in the face of global economic crisis were also highlighted. The persistent problem of unemployment among University graduates and its attendant…
Henderson, Joseph A.; Hursh, David W.
Neoliberal ideologies and policies have transformed how we think about the economy, education, and the environment. Economics is presented as objective and quantifiable, best left to distant experts who develop algorithms regarding different monetary relations in our stead. This same kind of thinking--technical, numerical, decontextualized, and…
Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.
The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…
Ariel Gámez Iglesias
Full Text Available As part of the process of updating the Cuban economic model, our country has decided to articulate a serie of transformations directed, among other issues, to the strengthening of the cooperative sector, therefore forming human capital with knowledge and skills for this achievement is a challenge that has today higher education, therefore contributing to the learning of the contents related to cooperatives and its transformations in Cuba from the Agricultural Economics subject in the Degree in Education. Economy that is developed in the Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences of the University of Pinar del Río is a priority to respond to this challenge. In this sense, the main objective of the research is to develop a support material to contribute to the economic culture from the issues of cooperative education in the third year students of this career. The experience was applied in the educational practice with satisfactory results, in addition it was submitted to the criterion of the specialists and they consider it is viable.
Brand, Jennie E.; Yu Xie,
In this article, we consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, scholars commonly presume that positive selection is at work, that is, individuals who are most likely to select into college also benefit most from college. Net of observed…
Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…
This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…
Hartog, J.; Zorlu, A.
We use data on refugees admitted to The Netherlands that include registration of education in their homeland by immigration officers. Such data are seldom available. We investigate the quality and reliability of the registrations and then use them to assess effects on refugees’ economic position
Bushnell, David S.
The United States Department of Education and the American Vocational Association have undertaken a study to define the role of vocational training in job development. The literature and conversations with people involved in job development programs have shown that regional economic growth, including increases in employment, depends on five key…
De Jorge-Moreno, Justo; Castillo, Leopoldo Laborda; Triguero, Maria Sanz
Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the effect of participation in business and economics education programs on the student's entrepreneurial intention in terms of perceptions of the desirability and personal feasibility of starting a business. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used to measure the student's entrepreneurial intention is…
This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…
A. K. M. Iftekhar KHALID
Full Text Available Creating same opportunity in term of social and economic context for the learners of distance education as the students from conventional education is a challenging task since professional education through distance method is a new genre in Bangladesh. This genre of professional education starts successfully with the establishment of the Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. The university creates immense opportunities to study anytime and anywhere. This paper explains what social and economic changes happened to the students who completed a professional programme like B.Ag.Ed, MBA, CEMBA and CEMPA at the Bangladesh Open University. As BOU is the first and pioneer organization, which provides education in distance mode, a study has been necessary for BOU to know what contribution it provides to the nation in social and economic aspects. This paper should be able to elevate the morale of the organizations like BOU in involving more effort for expanding the organization and also to understand how successful these organization in imparting the knowledge and skill and how effectively the students are able to use those knowledge and skill in their professional life which in turn affects the learners’ income and social esteem. The university has been established with aims to raise the standard of education and to give the people educational opportunities by democratizing education and to create a class of competent people by raising the standard of education of the people generally. The paper also shows how the professional programmes of BOU supports to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh.
Fitzpatrick, John J.
This paper questions if engineering educators are producing engineers that are accelerating humanity along an unsustainable path. Even though technology and engineering are important drivers in trying to move humanity towards an environmentally sustainable paradigm, the paper suggests that maybe the most important levers and challenges lie in the economic and social domains. Short case studies of energy efficiency, the experience of the industrialist Ray Anderson and the authors own reflection of teaching chemical engineering students are used to highlight this. Engineering/technological innovation may not be enough and is often counteracted by the rebound effect and the current dominant neoclassical economic paradigm. The paper discusses what engineering educators can do to produce sustainability informed engineers who are better able to engage with the economic and social dimensions of sustainability. Some suggestions for engaging engineering students with the economic and social dimensions of environmental sustainability are provided. Engineers must somehow find ways, not just to influence technological levers (which are very important) but also to influence economic and social levers so that changes in economic and social behaviours can complement and facilitate technological change in moving humanity to an environmentally sustainable paradigm.
textabstractPublished in 1989, Emigre magazine’s eleventh issue, Ambition/Fear: Graphic Designers and the Macintosh Computer, contains vivid artifacts of a discipline’s first encounter with digital tools. From the aesthetics of bitmaps to the expressive interventions made possible by new access to
Verkuijten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie; Leerstoel Verkuijten; Migration, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Relation
Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie
Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer evaluations. Overall, assimilation was valued…
In two of the busiest migration corridors of the twentieth century, namely Mexico-US and Turkey-Germany, migrants can today be dual citizens. However, the acceptance of dual citizenship did not occur automatically; instead, it followed a period of legal statuses short of full citizenship. This paper conceptualises such statuses as quasi-citizenship, a transitional equilibrium between the absence of plural citizenship and the existence of transnational migration. Focusing on sending states, the emergence of emigrant quasi-citizenship is thus explained, first, in terms of whether the reciprocal regimes of emigration and immigration states diverge on the acceptance of plural citizenship. Second, the stance towards plural citizenship is explained in terms of the experience with emigration. It is then shown that, in the case of Mexico, the legacy of undesired emigration weakened the incentives to adapt the territorial conception of citizenship to expatriates, hence creating quasi-citizens, and in the case of Turkey, the higher political relevance of expatriates, who could have the host country citizenship, reinforced the external dimension of the ethno-cultural conception of citizenship.
enervated remnant in a land occupied by foreigners” (O'Brien 1953, quoted in Delaney .... to avoid remembering the country's long, often traumatic emigration history ... ethic. (Turco 2005:11). Whilst many Irish songs and poems lamented leaving their beloved land, Italian ... offended and insulted/or die in a mine. The Italian ...
Ahmad, Diana L.
The diaries, letters, and guidebooks written by the emigrants who crossed North America on the overland trails during the mid-nineteenth century reveal a new awareness of the animals that journeyed with them. Often written as advice to those who might follow them, the travelers worried about their animals in ways beyond what theologians and…
Mills, Edward J; Kanters, Steve; Hagopian, Amy; Bansback, Nick; Nachega, Jean; Alberton, Mark; Au-Yeung, Christopher G; Mtambo, Andy; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Luboga, Samuel; Hogg, Robert S; Ford, Nathan
To estimate the lost investment of domestically educated doctors migrating from sub-Saharan African countries to Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Human capital cost analysis using publicly accessible data. Sub-Saharan African countries. Nine sub-Saharan African countries with an HIV prevalence of 5% or greater or with more than one million people with HIV/AIDS and with at least one medical school (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), and data available on the number of doctors practising in destination countries. The financial cost of educating a doctor (through primary, secondary, and medical school), assuming that migration occurred after graduation, using current country specific interest rates for savings converted to US dollars; cost according to the number of source country doctors currently working in the destination countries; and savings to destination countries of receiving trained doctors. In the nine source countries the estimated government subsidised cost of a doctor's education ranged from $21,000 (£13,000; €15,000) in Uganda to $58,700 in South Africa. The overall estimated loss of returns from investment for all doctors currently working in the destination countries was $2.17bn (95% confidence interval 2.13bn to 2.21bn), with costs for each country ranging from $2.16m (1.55m to 2.78m) for Malawi to $1.41bn (1.38bn to 1.44bn) for South Africa. The ratio of the estimated compounded lost investment over gross domestic product showed that Zimbabwe and South Africa had the largest losses. The benefit to destination countries of recruiting trained doctors was largest for the United Kingdom ($2.7bn) and United States ($846m). Among sub-Saharan African countries most affected by HIV/AIDS, lost investment from the emigration of doctors is considerable. Destination countries should consider investing in measurable training for source countries and strengthening of their
Some proposals based on a survey of medical students. I. MICHELOW, E. ... white male medical stl!dents at the University of the Wit- watersrand to .... Economic recession. 7. 7,7. 13 .... African war resisters in Europe and the USA.IS. We were ...
The author examines the history of Lebanese migration to western Africa. Aspects considered include changes in countries of origin and destination, Africanization policies, wars in Lebanon, independence movements, economic status of migrants, temporary and return migration, and the brain drain. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)
Full Text Available The basic foundation of policy making had undergone profound shifts over the past two decades as the policy makers are inclined to rely heavily on the exercise of power in their pursuit of development and prosperity. Government interventionism was subject to a strong intellectual and political backlash, and a new ideological movement seeking to redefine the role of government rose to take its place. This new political–economic liberalism insisted on the removal of governments’ grip over the economy and the introduction of open competition into economic life. Thus, the market emerged as the central actor governing economic activity during the 1990s, and the ethos of neoliberalism progressively entrenched itself into law and public institutions in India. This change in “policy paradigms” implies a substantial reorganization of domestic political economies for an efficient governance of political and economic institutions in a longer run. This article attempts to look at the changes in “policy paradigms” that happened after 1990 in the domain of educational governance in India. Along with the policy changes, there happened a watershed in constitutional rights, making right to education a fundamental right of every citizen. This article further inquires how far the state has endeavored to fulfill its objective of providing quality education for all children within these economic and political changes. Indian states’ financial obligation toward elementary education and the policy directions during the period after 1990 were thoroughly analyzed to find out the commitment of state in providing universal elementary education of good quality in India.
Full Text Available This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital accumulation are based on the Uzawa-Lucas model, while the utility function and gender division of labor, leisure time and study time are based on the model by Zhang. The model takes account of learning by education in modeling human capital accumulation. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the national economy. We also conduct a comparative dynamic analysis in regard to changes in discrimination in the education sector, women’s propensity to stay at home, women’s propensity to receive education, women’s knowledge utilization efficiency, and the propensity to save.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the prevailing practice of studying the economies at different levels in schools of Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. The main attention is paid to the development of methods of studying modern conceptual device that describes the nature, composition, structure and parameters of economic systems in educational institutions. In modern textbooks that are currently used in general education institutions there are some basic concepts and indicators, which allow to fully understand the world economy, economy of states and regions. There are such categories as “economic system”, “model of the economy”, “structure of the economy”, “the branch of the economy”, “sphere of economy”, “sector of economy”. The analysis of school textbooks on geography and other subjects indicates the need for detailed assimilation of information concerning systems, their types, composition, structure and functions. The study of economic and social geography should be paid main attention to the economic system. This article presents the author’s version of the “economic system” concept’s interpretation with all its constituent elements, reveals the functions of economic systems, the types of economic products and services produced by them, examines the levels from global to local ones with specific examples. Various types of economic structures are shown: 1 sectoral, reflecting the relationship between industries; 2 interbranch, reflecting the relationship between interindustry complexes; 3 territorial, reflecting the share of individual regions in national indicators or the share of countries in global indicators, as well as the spatial location of production and non-production facilities; 4 tiered, reflecting the relationship between the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy; 5 two-sphere, reflecting the relationship between the production and non-production spheres; 6 organizational and legal, reflecting the
industry. As Michael Porter points out in The Competitive Advantage of Nations: " Education and training constitute perhaps the single greatest long term...American education /training helping or hindering our competitiveness in an increasingly international marketplace? From the initial alarms of the 1983 "A...levels. Although not typically approaching the 22 percent student level of U.S. higher education , international private education does enjoy greater
Full Text Available On the present stage of the development of educational environment, it is necessary to use the scientific tools for understanding the market patterns of the interaction of demand and supply of educational services, which will allow not only to navigate the consumer preferences but also to form them. It is in these circumstances that it is extremely important to study changes in the volume of demand for educational services in order to adapt them to the system of higher education. The aim of the article is to substantiate the theoretical positions and develop practical recommendations for the definition of the competitive marketing strategy of higher education organizations in the market of educational services with the help of modern approaches and methods of economic-mathematical modeling. The practical significance of the obtained results is the introduction of methodological provisions for forecasting the demand and supply of educational services for higher educational establishments. The complexity and interdependence of managerial problems in the system of higher education require new ideas and approaches, which necessitates the search for new definite solutions, namely: the research paper offers the method of optimal distribution of budgetary places of the university by means of practical application of the theory of system constraints and the theory of fuzzy sets. Along with that, the calculation of the optimal number of students of the corresponding specialty with the help of cluster analysis has been carried out. In addition, an important place for improvement and development is taken by the economics and mathematical methods and methods of linear programming, they are effective means of identifying the most influential factors in achieving the goals of a higher educational establishment and justifying the marketing strategy of its development in modern conditions. To predict the quantitative values of social and economic indicators
M. V. Strigul
Full Text Available The majority of respondents in fact doesn’t understand the concept of «economism», doesn’t consider the need for University to take part in the entrepreneurial activity and doesn’t recognize the need for the existence of the elements of the business structures in the higher education institutions. The University lost its primary purpose and becomes a huge supermarket, which offers various types of knowledge. Rational action is the desire to buy the most qualitative product – a diploma from a prestigious University, which can be successfully converted to the official and economic status. All this leads to the emergence of the Ukrainian form of commercialization, which differs from the Western one. Its significant difference lies in the bias, focus on profit, consumerism as a type of a consumer behavior. It has been mentioned in the article that in the educational system the principles of consumerism moved to the introduction of fees for various additional services (training, courses, testing classes, tests, etc.. The study of economism and the commercialization in the Ukrainian educational system is characterized by a peculiar relevance as it raises the issue of the dynamics and development of the modernization and transformation of the modern higher education. Commercialization is caused by a number of obstacles. The prioritative and harmonious development of the education system can be done only by the expense of state budget financing. In such circumstances, the University becomes a business entity for the provision of educational services. The attention in the article has been drawn to the nature and characteristics of the commercialization and economism. It has been noted that the state education policy as an integral part of social policy is one of the tools of state influence on the formation of social structures and is aimed at solving problems of societal level. This makes sociological examination of transformation processes in
Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang
Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…
Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den
The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…
Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu
This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…
Svitacová, Eva; Mravcová, Anna
The new phenomenon of global development education (GDE) has gradually penetrated the curricula in Slovakia. For the purpose of more comprehensively preparing future economic actors, who will operate in the new global economic and social environment, we have decided to incorporate this topic into the curriculum at the Faculty of Economics and…
Haynes, Natalie; Egan, David
Abstract\\ud This paper explores the role of economics in hospitality education and industry practice, with a particular focus on revenue management, and puts forward an argument for a return to the inclusion of economic theory in UK hospitality education, not seen since the 1990s. Given the increasing amounts of pricing data available to both managers and customers and the consequent market complexities now seen, developing economic literacy is demonstrated to be a crucial skill required for ...
Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.
Komarova Olha A.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation of essence of the educational potential on the basis of allocation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics by means of the dialectical combination of the education fund (as a quantifying of the educational potential and the incorporeal elements of the educational potential, identified on the basis of its consideration in the informational, economic, and personal aspects. It has been substantiated that the educational potential of an individual is much more broad term compared to the education fund, because it combines both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. It has been determined that the individual educational potential represents a totality of knowledge, skills, habits of an individual, which were acquired in the process of the cognitive and educational activities, practical experience, which define its humanitarian characteristics, the value-motivational and creative capacities, social intelligence, and cause a direct impact on the labor productivity, finding its expression in the level of income. Prospects for further research in this direction will be development of the scientific-methodical foundations for evaluation of the educational potential, identifying the current trends and laws of its development
Full Text Available Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth.Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women's empowerment (MDG 3.
Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O
Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).
L. V. Doiar
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revolutionary struggle of the Ukrainian people in order to build their own state. The exile stage of the liberation struggle has been investigated by the author. This stage happened after the defeat of the revolution. Its members, while in exile emigration, were trying to comprehend what happened, to rethink it, to assess achievements and to conceptualize the future of the Ukrainian liberation process. During the investigation, the materials of the Central State Archive of higher authorities and government of Ukraine, sources from private funds of М. Shapoval, M. Balash, М. Timchenko; the fund of Prague group of the Ukrainian Socialist Revolutionary Party; funds of the Committee on commemoration of M. Shapoval; Funds of Ukrainian Social Institute (Ukrainian Sociological Institute, Ukrainian Free University, Ukrainian Economic Academy, established by Ukrainian emigrants on the territory of First Czechoslovak Republic, have been used. The above-mentioned sources are mainly narrative. Due to their disorder and dispersion, they still are little known. Moreover, the factual weakness of the narrative is its personal attitude, documentary non-proven, and, hence, its possible uncertain nature. However, the author does not exclude the fact that small attention to the exciting content of the post-revolutionary exile epistolary is explained by the dual unacceptability of its content: the Soviet historiography was unable to study it because of its ideological censorship restrictions and prohibitions, and modern historiography does not want to focus on defamatory assessments and interpretations on the liberation struggle of 1917-1921, especially heard from emigrants. Thanks to some openness of the participants of the revolution, which were very sincere in their stories due to the pain of defeat and grief of their exile status, and although biased at the same time, we can get some knowledge about atypical verbal history, that
Padrão Patricia D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of Portuguese adults (20977 women and 18663 men. Participants were distributed in four categories according to years of education (≤4, 5–9, 10–12, and >12 and income (≤314 euros, 315–547 euros, 548–815 euros, and >815 euros. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the magnitude of the association between food groups and education/income, adjusting for confounders. Results In both genders, the odds favouring milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption, increased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years; the odds favouring wine, and spirits consumption decreased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years. In males, the odds favouring starchy foods and meat consumption decreased significantly with income, while for milk, the odds increased with higher income (those having >815 euros compared to those with ≤314 euros. Conclusions The low and high income groups are or tend to be similar in regard to several food groups consumption, and access to education/information appears to be the key element to a better food pattern as indicated by higher frequency of milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption.
made it easier for Russian emigrants to assimilate to Estonian conditions (for example, Russian schools existed from an earlier period, along with the requisite complement of teachers; Russian-language journalism existed, etc.. However, in reality, most of the promoters of local Russian culture emerged from among the emigrants, new settlers in Estonia. The purpose of this article is briefly to describe the social and demographic structure of the Russian emigration (military personnel will be treated separately and the question of their legalization, which was solved in 1921 by the renowned Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen. At his initiative, the Intergovernmental Conference of the representatives of 34 nations that met in Geneva adopted the designation refugee, which for the time being only referred to stateless people of Russian origin. The legitimation of these people as refugees was contingent on the acceptance of a statute confirming the use of a heretofore nonexistent International identity document, the so-called Nansen Certificate. This certificate enabled Russian emigrants to claim refugee status in several nations, which included the attribution of rights and freedoms equal to those of citizens of these nations. Approximately 450 000 Nansen Certificates were issued over a period of several years. The article contains brief descriptions of centres of exile, the circumstances and chronology of their foundation, the perceived role of emigrants in the preservation of their own culture and a culture foreign to them. The intergenerational conflict that occurred in cultural, in particular literary life is discussed. Among other topics considered are issues concerning publication, journalistic activity, and educational activities; a brief consideration is given to the positions of different nations on the support and preservation of Russian-language education. A very important influence on Russian emigration was Vladimir Lenin’s so-called „gift“— the
Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse
Curt Teichert (Königsberg 1905—Arlington, Virginia 1996) provides in his life story examples of the many hardships and difficulties encountered by emigrants who were fortunate to escape Hitleŕs regime. He was a great paleontologist and stratigrapher whose fieldwork on four continents involved nearly every fossil group; his interests were focussed mainly on the Paleozoic and the Triassic. His results and critical remarks on many general topics filled numerous publications. Remarkably, he accomplished all this under partly very unfavorable working conditions. He donated his scientific correspondence from his times in Germany, Denmark and Australia to the Geological Archive in Freiburg. The following article makes use of these documents. Teichert’s professional career started in Germany in the scientifically exciting nineteen-twenties; he worked at the universities in Königsberg, Munich and Freiburg/Breisgau. In Freiburg, however, he had serious disagreements with the Director of the Geological Institute there—this in spite of his investigations having produced some excellent results. The times around 1930 were a period of a global economic crisis, and, like many others, he could only survive financially by getting fellowships from different institutions and payments for publications. In 1933, his situation in Germany became even more critical: this was because he had married a “Non-Aryan”. However, he was able to work in Copenhagen from the end of 1933; this was largely a result of his having participated in 1931 1932 in an expedition to Greenland led by the Dane Lauge Koch. Unfortunately, he could not get a permanent position in Copenhagen because the relations between him and the influential Koch became very unpleasant. Noting Hitleŕs war preparation, Teichert tried to escape from Europe. He wrote many touching letters to correspondents around the globe, receiving mostly disappointing answers. Finally, in 1937, he succeeded in getting the post of a
Steel, Jennifer L; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Harding, Collette E; Theorell, Töres
Over 50 million people have been displaced, some as a result of conflict, which exposure can lead to psychiatric sequelae. The aims of this study were to provide estimates of pre-emigration trauma, post-migration stress, and psychological sequelae of immigrants and refugees from predominantly Sub-Saharan Africa who immigrated to Sweden. We also examined the predictors of the psychiatric sequelae as well as acculturation within the host country. A total of 420 refugees and immigrants were enrolled using stratified quota sampling. A battery of questionnaires including the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Post-Migration Living Difficulties Scale, the Cultural Lifestyle Questionnaire; and the Hopkins Checklist were administered. Descriptive statistics, Chi square analyses, Pearson correlations, analysis of variance, and logistic and linear regression were performed to test the aims of the study. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported at least one traumatic experience prior to emigration. Forty-seven percent of refugees reported clinically significant PTSD and 20 % reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Males reported a significantly greater number of traumatic events [F(1, 198) = 14.5, p discrimination, and healthcare subscales. Females reported a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms when compared to males [F(1, 419) = 3.9, p = 0.05]. Those with a shorter duration in Sweden reported higher rates of PTSD [F(63, 419) = 1.7, p gender, education, religion, PTSD and post-migration stress. Sixty-nine percent of the variance associated with PTSD included education, number of traumatic events, depressive symptoms and post-migration stress. Forty-seven percent of the variance for acculturation was accounted for by a model that included age, education, duration in Sweden, anxiety, depression, and post-migration stress. These predictors were also significant for employment status with the exception of depressive symptoms. Multidimensional
Full Text Available Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher education. The reasons behind this large-scale expansion of higher education include the growth of local and expatriate population, the planned transition from oil industry to a knowledge-based economy as well as the growing role of women in the workforce. All of these factors need to be addressed in order to assure a stable social and economic development, and education is the backbone of both. This paper examines the recent initiatives undertaken in Bahrain to monitor and ensure the quality of education of cross-border educational institutions as well as that of local education providers.
Anna V. Gubareva
Full Text Available The development of world integration processes, related to the movement of labor, determines objectively the need for reforming the Russian system of education. In this connection, ensuring the quality of education, that meets the needs of the modernity, is a major strategic challenge of state education policy. That is why universities pay special attention to the formation of faculty members, development of international cooperation of universities and joint participation in the implementation of innovative educational programs, including by involvement foreign lecturers to work in Russian universities and also foreign students. Implementation of innovative education programs in the Russian Federation has contributed significantly to the development of international cooperation of universities and laid the foundation for long-term collaboration with foreign counterparts in educational and research areas. Internationalization of educational systems in developed countries has become an objective need. As a result, cultural contacts have significantly increased between countries. The information exchange started regarding accomplishments in the field of education. To determine the readiness of a scholar for development of an international research project and for the activity in the international scientific consortium is an extremely important issue about the economic feasibility of participation of each candidate. This paper argues government regulations regarding labor of foreign lecturers and payment of their services by a university.
A. O. AYENI
Full Text Available This study provides relevant economic ideas that can assist Nigeria and other Africancountries in making innovative policies at privatizing university education. A review of the education market scene on the continent provides an imperfect market with adverse consequences occasioned by inadequate information and unbridled competition.Advocating a joint role for sharing the costs and benefits of university education between government and private sectors, the study suggests a four-policy option for adoption by Nigeria and other African countries. These are, in ascending order of importance: regulated private, subsidized private, competitive private, and complementary private systems of iversity educationUsing the Backcock University in Nigeria as an example, this paper demonstrates thepositive managerial influence of a competitive and complementary system of private university. Nevertheless, to forestall market failure, this study rounds off by pointing out the reformatory, regulatory and redemptive roles of government in the management ofprivate universities in Nigeria and other African countries.
A main focus of this research paper is to investigate on the explanation of the ‘digital inequality’ or ‘digital divide’ by economic level and education standard of about 150 countries worldwide. Inequality regarding GDP per capita, literacy and the so-called UN Education Index seem to be important factors affecting ICT usage, in particular Internet penetration, mobile phone usage and also mobile Internet services. Empirical methods and (multivariate) regression analysis with linear and non-linear functions are useful methods to measure some crucial factors of a country or culture towards becoming information and knowledge based society. Overall, the study concludes that the convergence regarding ICT usage proceeds worldwide faster than the convergence in terms of economic wealth and education in general. The results based on a large data analysis show that the digital divide is declining over more than a decade between 2000 and 2013, since more people worldwide use mobile phones and the Internet. But a high digital inequality explained to a significant extent by the functional relation between technology penetration rates, education level and average income still exists. Furthermore it supports the actions of countries at UN/G20/OECD level for providing ICT access to all people for a more balanced world in context of sustainable development by postulating that policymakers need to promote comprehensive education worldwide by means of using ICT.
Höijer, Karin; Hjälmeskog, Karin; Fjellström, Christina
This article explores foods talked about and chosen in the education of Swedish Home Economics as a relationship between structural processes and agency. Three data sets from observations and focus group interviews with teachers and students were analyzed for food classifications. These were related to a culinary triangle of contradictions, showing factors of identity, convenience and responsibility. Results show that foods talked about and chosen by teachers and students were reflections of dominant cultural values. Results also indicate that teachers had more agency than students, but that the choices they made were framed by educational visions and cultural values.
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.
Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva
To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth in Poland and four types of taxes and human capital investment. We primarily rely on an exogenous growth model that merges the Mankiw-Romer-Weil model, augmented with learning-by-doing and spillover-effects, with selected elements from the literature on optimal taxation. We demonstrate that in the period 2000-2011, economic growth in Poland was primarily due to a rapid increase in the human capital stock (at a rate of 5% per annum and only secondarily due to the accumulation of productive capital (2.7% annually. Simulations of tax cuts suggest that income taxes and consumption taxes restrict economic growth equally heavily. Simultaneously reducing all tax rates by 5 percentage points (pp in Poland should increase annual GDP growth by approximately 0.4 pp. Increasing spending on education by 1 pp of GDP would increase the growth rate by approximately 0.3 pp.
Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee
Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...
Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This review paper presents the biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) and its partner institutions. In the first parts the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering Education Program is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches most of them carried out in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of BUTE.
This study builds a monetary growth model with inflation policy and education. The model is a synthesis of the Uzawa-Lucas two-sector growth model and traditional monetary model with the money-in-utility (MIU) approach. We show how money, physical capital and human capital interact over time under exogenous inflation policy in a free market economy. The dynamics of the economy is described by three differential equations. We show that the monetary economic system has a saddle equilibrium poin...
Leopold, Liliya; Leopold, Thomas
This study investigated the effects of divorce on educational gaps in mothers' economic resources. The results shed new light on two opposing theoretical positions that have informed research on social inequality in the consequences of divorce. Recent extensions of the 'diverging destinies' perspective posit that divorce is more consequential among the disadvantaged than among the privileged. The notion of 'divorce as an equalizer' posits the reverse. Based on data from the German SOEP, we es...
Swenson, David A.
This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa. The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa's three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state's 15 community colleges. Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities' web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa...
Hanushek and Wößmann that, “the cognitive skills of a population– rather than mere school attainment – are powerfully related to individual earnings...14, 2011. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/24/44696802.pdf. 36 Eric A Hanushek and Ludger Wößmann. "The Role of Education Quality in Economic...August 2007. Accessed October 13, 2011. http://www.loc.gov/law/help/child-rights/pdfs/childrensrights-mexico.pdf. Hanushek , Eric A., and Ludger
Full Text Available This article explores and emphasizes the importance of education and innovation activity for competitiveness, and qualitative economic growth, using the case study of the Republic of Moldova. Specifically in context of globalization, when developing nations experience pressures of economic and societal imbalances, the importance of basic cornerstones of the economy cannot be overestimated. Starting with education, an economy builds the platform to nurture and hopefully retain talent. Entrepreneurs create new business streams, new products and services, and new areas for investment. Investments, in their turn, can be used as another powerful mechanism to obtain quality in economic growth. Besides necessary investments in infrastructure and healthcare, investments into science, technology and various R&D activities that lead up to the increased share of high-technology in the GDP structure of countries like Moldova are necessary, as well as possible due to high potential of Moldova’s skilled population making up for the lack of other resources available to the developed economies. In this context, economic competitiveness and qualitative growth by importing, adapting, implementing and developing new technologies, can be reached by the industrializing economies sooner than expected.
Wright, Jerry W., Jr.
The importance of international trade and investment to the achievement of economic diversification objectives has increased need for professionals skilled in trade policy development and negotiation, a field known as commercial diplomacy. A severe shortage of these professionals limits developing countries' abilities to take full advantage of…
Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J
Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.
Jha, Shashiranjan; Kumar, Sumit
This article analyzes the socio-economic determinants of student mobility in India and evaluates the factors that hinder and promote higher educational mobility. It is argued that despite the mass expansion of higher education in India in recent times, student mobility is directed towards developed educational regions. India is a unique case…
Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis
Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…
Chibuogwu, Nnaka V.
In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there is gender disparity in education access especially at the higher education level. Research reports on this subject link this phenomenon to the prevailing socio-cultural and economic values and practices in Nigeria. Efforts are on ground to widen access to tertiary education for all including…
István Kornél Vida
Full Text Available The process of migration includes the movement between relatively distant geographical locations as well as often facing considerable cultural differences between the sending and receiving countries. At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century, millions of emigrants from East Central Europe and Southern Europe sought their personal dreams in America, but had painfully little information at their disposal about the country, and were consequently in for a considerable “culture shock.” This paper examines the possible sources of information for soon-to-become transatlantic migrants from Europe in general, and from Hungary in particular. It analyzes the various types of “booster literature,” along with the people who had an interest in its publication, and offers a case study of handbooks and guidebooks written specifically for Hungarian emigrants to America during the first two decades of the twentieth century.
Cambois, Emmanuelle; Solé-Auró, Aïda; Robine, Jean-Marie
The objective of this article is to study to what extent European variations in differentials in disability by education level are associated to variation in poverty. Using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for 26 countries, we measure the prevalence of activity limitation (AL) and the rate of economic hardship (EH) by level of education. We measure the increased AL prevalence (disadvantage) of the low-educated relative to the middle-educated and the reduced AL prevalence (advantage) of the high-educated groups, controlling or not for EH. The rate of EH and the extent of the AL-advantage/disadvantage vary substantially across Europe. EH contributes to the AL-advantage/disadvantage but to different extent depending on its level across educational groups. Associations between poverty, education, and disability are complex. In general, large EH goes along with increased disability differentials. Actions to reduce poverty are needed in Europe to reduce the levels and differentials in disability. © The Author(s) 2016.
Granita; Bahar, A.
This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found
Granita, E-mail: email@example.com [Dept. Mathematical Education, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293 Indonesia and Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, A. [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor Malaysia and UTM Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)
This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.
McAleese, Sara; Clyne, Barbara; Matthews, Anne; Brugha, Ruairí; Humphries, Niamh
Health professionals, particularly doctors, nurses and midwives, are in high demand worldwide. Therefore, it is important to assess the future plans and likelihood of return of emigrating health professionals. Nevertheless, health professionals are, by definition, a difficult population to track/survey. This exploratory study reports on the migration intentions of a sample of doctors, nurses and midwives who had emigrated from Ireland, a high-income country which has experienced particularly high outward and inward migration of health professionals since the year 2000. Health professionals who had emigrated from Ireland were identified via snowball sampling through Facebook and invited to complete a short online survey composed of closed and open response questions. A total of 388 health professionals (307 doctors, 73 nurses and 8 midwives) who had previously worked in Ireland completed the survey. While over half had originally intended to spend less than 5 years in their destination country at the time of emigration, these intentions changed over time, with the desire to remain abroad on a permanent basis increasing from 10 to 34 % of doctor respondents. Only a quarter of doctors and a half of nurses and midwives intended to return to practice in Ireland in the future. The longer health professionals remain abroad, the less likely they are to return to their home countries. Countries should focus on the implementation of retention strategies if the 'carousel' of brain drain is to be interrupted. This would allow source countries to benefit from their investments in training health professionals, rather than relying on international recruitment to meet health system staffing needs. Improved data collection systems are also needed to track the migratory patterns and changing intentions of health professionals. Meanwhile, social networking platforms offer alternative methods of filling this information gap.
Miller, Paul; Shotte, Gertrude
When the global economic recession hit the world some 18 months ago, very few could predict the impact this would have on government spending on higher education. Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom face spending cuts. Notwithstanding, they are expected to deliver quality education with fewer resources. This article discusses…
Lupeja, Thabita Lameck; Gubo, Qi
This paper examines the influence of secondary education in promoting; health awareness, gender awareness and civic awareness. The study sought to assess whether the education policy which considers secondary education as the key instrument in bringing social and economic transformation has been reflected in graduates' livelihood strategies once…
Full Text Available In recent years, the migration movement, which tends to be oriented towards Great Britain, reached its climax at the moment when Poland became a fully-fledged member of the European Union. Years following Poland’s accession have witnessed an enormous outbreak of Polish exodus – leaving their own country they were trying to find a new place abroad. Among the plurality of motives, we could point to such as: hope for a better life and improving personal material situation, a more interesting life in a multinational society and becoming a “world man”, necessity and curiosity. Results were also much more complicated than anyone could ever imagine. The causes and effects of the Polish exodus constituted an inescapable subject of analysis and research. The Polish migration movement can be considered in many aspects. This unique phenomenon has its economic, political, social and psychosocial dimensions – each of them is worth profound analysis. Within each of the previously mentioned dimensions a researcher would find singularly important and specific phenomena regarding the migration movement – phenomena which are at the very core of the lives of migrants’ succeeding generations. Undoubtedly, one of the dimensions of the New Polish Emigration analysis could be referred to public diplomacy strategy. This thesis will be the main framework of this paper
Ghate, Ekata; Kulkarni, G. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Adhi, K. P.
Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.
István Kornél Vida
Full Text Available The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century was witness to an unprecedented wave of emigration from East Central Europe, with an estimated 1-1.5 million people leaving for the United States from the territory of Hungary. Such loss of population, mostly young males in their prime, shocked the nation and served as a subject for discussion in various forms and on multiple levels of discourse, from the newspaper reports through literary depictions, to scholarly publications and conferences. In this paper I examine significant monographs as well as conference volumes and proceedings, analyzing the major opinions and debates surrounding the causes and consequences of the Great Transatlantic Emigration. I discuss the most significant publications that appeared before the coming of the First World War, which put an end to mass emigration from Europe. These works in a sense represented the best that Hungarian migration studies had to offer for more than half a century, which makes them particulary worthy of scholarly attention.
Greater equality in the distribution of incomes, both nationally and internationally, and more intervention to achieve this, both by national governments and international agencies, are identified as the key ideas in the proposed NIEO. Both ideas have provoked a reaction of new conservatism, aided by the current international recession. At least in part, the power of this reaction is the result of a failure in the educational professions and institutions to respond to the requirements of an NIEO in both domestic and global terms. Although the independent effects of education on social change and income distribution have indeed been over-estimated, it remains true, nevertheless, that education does have social and economic effects. Within states, education might be reorganized so as to dissolve the current dichotomy between a `learning' childhood/adolescence and a `non-learning' adulthood. Rather, learning geared to economic activity, change and restructuring might assist both developing and industrialized states to increase incomes and adjust to the requirements of the NIEO. On the international plane, the growth of development studies and of institutions concerned with the domestic effects of international relations and commerce should facilitate a more informed understanding of the balance between self-reliance and interdependence.
Maria Irina DROMERESCHI
Full Text Available Whatever his/her professional development would be, a young person needs a natural transition from being qualified to being competent. Here we find the dimensions of a multi-faceted investment in three areas: knowledge, „savoir-faire” or skill, and „savoir-etre” or compliance with one’s own position. All current economic issues are debated in terms of : value, integrity, character, knowledge, vision, responsibility, self-control, social integration, team work, community, competence, social responsibility, quality of life, fulfilment, leadership, duty, purpose, dignity, meaning. Scale technology needs people who have the future in their blood. That is why the basic aim of education should be to enhance the ability to adapt. When applied, the principle of diversity would result in a single system of techniques which work in three crucial areas : study, human relatioships and option. The ability to live involves different ways of sending information and behaviour simultanously and it will be the modern educator’s tool in making judgements. This paper assumes that economic education in general and entrepreneurship in paricular, help young people to perceive, to identify and to understand the factors that, influence their life quality directly or indirectly, to contribute to the development of the economy, and to a better management of society. Moreover, entrepreneurship education instils respect for value, work and innovation. One way of putting this kind of education into practice is by school partnerships.
Increasing levels of education has been especially important in the quest for reducing poverty and have accordingly been a high priority for both international organizations and local governments. However, some doubt have been cast on extent to which these increases in the level of education...... will lead to economic growth. One of the most concerning factors is that academic skills remain low despite increases in the access to education. In Africa, 15-20% do not have full competencies in reading or basic math when they leave primary school. Shedding light on how to improve learning is a central......-constrained context as northern Uganda variations in teacher quality do explain a significant part of the variation in learning. This suggests that shifting the worst performing teachers to the level of the best performing could have a large impact on learning. The last Chapter points to the complexity of public...
Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen
What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Three Essays in Economics Education: An Overview of the Research and Two Studies on the Effectiveness of Alternative Teaching Methods and the Influence of Ethics in the Classroom on Economics Knowledge and Political Philosophy
Malek, Ninos Pierre
Economics education has been a topic of research interest to many economists. In addition, the philosophical and ethical content of economics and its role in economics education has been an issue of discussion. Chapter 1 of my dissertation addresses what topics should be ignored in a principles of microeconomics class, what the goal of the…
A study examined the changes created in Mexican education resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement and the hundreds of foreign (mostly U.S.) manufacturing operations, or maquiladoras, benefitting from the agreement. Interview data from 100 Mexicans and 25 schools indicate that the maquiladoras provide jobs for people who had none,…
Cole, David R., Ed.
This book comes at a time of increasing anxiety about the repercussions of financial instability and the probability of widespread market volatility. The educators and researchers whose work is collected here have considered these factors deeply when constructing their responses to prevailing financial conditions. These views guide the reader…
Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.
Grassly, Nicholas C; Desai, Kamal; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Sikazwe, Alfred; Malambo, Irene; Siamatowe, Clement; Bundy, Don
To estimate and project the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of education in Zambia. An analysis of the financial implications of HIV/AIDS for the Ministry of Education (MoE) and donors funding education in Zambia. A mathematical model was used to project the number of primary school teachers and their HIV status under current plans for teacher training and recruitment. Cost data were compiled from the MoE, the Teacher Education Department, teacher training colleges and the donor consortium BESSIP (Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme). Multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of primary education imply costs to the MoE and BESSIP estimated at US$1.3-3.1 million in 1999, and projected at $10.6-41.3 million over the period 1999-2010. These costs include salaries paid to teachers absent as a result of HIV-associated illness (71%), additional training of teachers to cope with AIDS-related attrition (22%) and funeral costs contractually met by the MoE (7%). They do not include the additional costs of an active care and prevention response by the MoE, or the burden of ensuring enrolment of AIDS orphans. The annual cost of HIV/AIDS is a relatively small fraction of the overall MoE budget (2.5% in 1999) but has substantial implications for resource allocation to some functions. Expenditure on teacher training will need to increase by 26% if Education for All targets are to be met in the face of AIDS. HIV/AIDS has significant implications for resource allocation in the education sector in Zambia.
Rok Simon, Mateja; Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan
The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children's healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Low educational attainment influences parents' behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.
Mistreanu (Carstea Laura Maria
Full Text Available We shall open this paper with reference to the book “Understanding the Process of Economic Change” by D.C. North being considered ofreference in the issues which are subject to research („there are some fundamental characteristics of successful economic development which arecommon for all the economies but at the same time there is no universal pattern to reach these results”-North. How can poorness be explained inmost of the states of the world where the sources for economic growth are known? The human failure and the institutional framework have a specialcontribution in finding solutions in order to obtain economic growth and implicitly the growth of economic development. The article makesreferences to the institutional framework and its importance for the economic development of a country, to the educational organizations and to theircontribution to the economic development. Viewed from a reactive factor of development, the education has become proactive. This is because theperspective of education has been accentuating more and more, called in to prepare the people for types of societies which have not existed yet. Thegap within the field of education has a fundamental character in maintaining and emphasizing the gaps between the social – economic developmentof different countries.
Levitt, Steven D.; List, John A.; Neckermann, Susanne; Sadoff, Sally
A long line of research on behavioral economics has established the importance of factors that are typically absent from the standard economic framework: reference dependent preferences, hyperbolic preferences, and the value placed on non-financial rewards. To date, these insights have had little impact on the way the educational system operates.…
Elbakidze, L; Jin, Y H
Using transnational terrorism data from 1980 to 2000, this study empirically examines the relationships between frequency of participation in transnational terrorism acts and economic development and education improvement. We find an inverse U-shaped association between the frequency of various nationals acting as perpetrators in transnational terrorism acts and per capita income in their respective home countries. As per capita incomes increase from relatively low levels, frequencies of participation in transnational terrorism increase. However, at sufficiently higher levels of per capita income, further increase in per capita income is negatively associated with the rate of participation in transnational terrorism. Education improvement from elementary to secondary is positively correlated with frequency of participation in transnational terrorism events, whereas further improvement from secondary to tertiary level is negatively correlated with participation in transnational terrorism. We also find that citizens of countries with greater openness to international trade, lower degree of income inequality, greater economic freedom, larger proportion of population with tertiary education, and less religious prevalence participate in transnational terrorism events less frequently. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Dovi-sodemekou, F B
Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role.
This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...
Marphatia, Akanksha A; Devakumar, Delan; Wells, Jonathan C K; Saville, Naomi; Reid, Alice; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David
Factors acting before children are born or reach school-going age may explain why some do not complete primary education. Many relevant factors relate to maternal phenotype, but few studies have tested for independent associations of maternal factors relative to those characterizing the family in general. Using data from a longitudinal study of 838 children in Dhanusha, Nepal, we used logistic regression models to test whether indices of maternal somatic and educational capital, or family economic capital, were independently associated with children having had ≤2 versus 3+ years of schooling at a mean age of 8.5 years. We also tested whether maternal age, children's early growth, and urban/rural location mediated such associations. Children had a higher risk of completing less schooling if their mothers were short, thin, anemic, and uneducated. Independently, lower family material assets and land acreage also increased children's odds of less schooling. There was an indication of gender differences, with the risk of poor educational attainment in girls associated with low maternal somatic and educational capital, whereas in boys the relevant factors were low maternal education and family land ownership. Our analysis demonstrates that, independent of broader indices of family capital such as land or material assets, children's educational attainment is associated with factors embodied in maternal phenotype. Both somatic and educational maternal capital appeared important. A composite index of maternal capital could provide a new measurable proxy, prior to school entry, for identifying children at risk of completing fewer years of schooling. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:687-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Devakumar, Delan; Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Saville, Naomi; Reid, Alice; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David
Objectives Factors acting before children are born or reach school‐going age may explain why some do not complete primary education. Many relevant factors relate to maternal phenotype, but few studies have tested for independent associations of maternal factors relative to those characterizing the family in general. Methods Using data from a longitudinal study of 838 children in Dhanusha, Nepal, we used logistic regression models to test whether indices of maternal somatic and educational capital, or family economic capital, were independently associated with children having had ≤2 versus 3+ years of schooling at a mean age of 8.5 years. We also tested whether maternal age, children's early growth, and urban/rural location mediated such associations. Results Children had a higher risk of completing less schooling if their mothers were short, thin, anemic, and uneducated. Independently, lower family material assets and land acreage also increased children's odds of less schooling. There was an indication of gender differences, with the risk of poor educational attainment in girls associated with low maternal somatic and educational capital, whereas in boys the relevant factors were low maternal education and family land ownership. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that, independent of broader indices of family capital such as land or material assets, children's educational attainment is associated with factors embodied in maternal phenotype. Both somatic and educational maternal capital appeared important. A composite index of maternal capital could provide a new measurable proxy, prior to school entry, for identifying children at risk of completing fewer years of schooling. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:687–698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27135632
A two part experimental introductory college economics course is described. Data on the combination macroeconomics and microeconomics course have been collected over eight consecutive terms and are presented in nine chapters. Chapter I describes course goals as stimulation of student interest, teaching a few basic economic principles, helping…
Hogenbirk, John C; Robinson, David R; Hill, Mary Ellen; Pong, Raymond W; Minore, Bruce; Adams, Ken; Strasser, Roger P; Lipinski, Joe
The economic contribution of medical schools to major urban centres can be substantial, but there is little information on the contribution to the economy of participating communities made by schools that provide education and training away from major cities and academic health science centres. We sought to assess the economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) to northern Ontario communities participating in NOSM's distributed medical education programs. We developed a local economic model and used actual expenditures from 2007/08 to assess the economic contribution of NOSM to communities in northern Ontario. We also estimated the economic contribution of medical students or residents participating in different programs in communities away from the university campuses. To explore broader economic effects, we conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in education, health care and politics in northern Ontario. The total economic contribution to northern Ontario was $67.1 million based on $36.3 million in spending by NOSM and $1.0 million spent by students. Economic contributions were greatest in the university campus cities of Thunder Bay ($26.7 million) and Sudbury ($30.4 million), and $0.8-$1.2 million accrued to the next 3 largest population centres. Communities might realize an economic contribution of $7300-$103 900 per pair of medical learners per placement. Several of the 59 interviewees remarked that the dollar amount could be small to moderate but had broader economic implications. Distributed medical education at the NOSM resulted in a substantial economic contribution to participating communities.
Khan, Saad A; Omar, Hanan; Babar, Muneer Gohar; Toh, Chooi G
Health economics, a special branch of science applying economic principles to the health delivery system, is a relatively young subdiscipline. The literature is scanty about teaching health economics in the medical and dental fields. Delivery methods of this topic vary from one university to another, with lectures, seminars, and independent learning reported as teaching/learning tools used for the topic. Ideally, debates should foster the development of logical reasoning and communication skills. Health economics in dentistry is taught under the community oral health module that constitutes part of an outcome-based dental curriculum in a private dental school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For this study, the students were divided into two groups: active participants (active debaters) and supporting participants (nonactive debaters). The debate style chosen for this activity was parliamentary style. Active and nonactive debaters' perceptions were evaluated before and after the activity through a structured questionnaire using a five-point rating scale addressing the topic and perceptions about debate as an educational tool. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used as a measure of internal consistency for the questionnaire items. Among a total of eighty-two third-year dental students of two successive cohorts (thirty-eight students and forty-four students), seventy-three completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 89 percent. Students' responses to the questionnaire were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. Results revealed that the students felt that their interest in debate, knowledge of the topic, and reinforcement of the previous knowledge had improved following participation in the debate. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that debate was a useful tool in teaching health economics to dental students.
Gamuchirai Tsitsi Ndamba
Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of educators on the barriers to the implementation of the Zimbabwean language-in-education policy, which recommends use of Indigenous languages up to the end of the primary school level. Postcolonial theory informed this case study. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 rural primary school teachers, 3 school heads, and 2 school's inspectors who were purposefully selected from Masvingo district. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method for thematic coding. The findings revealed that participants strongly believed that the English language offers socio-economic opportunities, a factor which may negatively influence teachers in the implementation of the mother tongue-based policy. Recommendations that inform policy-makers are made.
Full Text Available Comme dans d’autres régions du Mexique, les paysans du haut pays mixtèque (Etat d’Oaxaca ne vivent pratiquement plus de l’agriculture, sinon des revenus de leurs parents émigrés aux États-Unis. Dans la région, le phénomène de la migration a énormément augmenté au cours des dix dernières années. Comme la majorité des jeunes adultes émigrent, de nombreux foyers ne sont plus composés que de la mère et des enfants ou des grands-parents et des petits-enfants. Avec des ressources monétaires plus importantes, l’équipement des cuisines se modernise, impliquant des bouleversements techniques dans les préparations culinaires ; la consommation de viande et d’aliments industriels augmente tandis que celle de légumes spontanés diminue. Simultanément, divers programmes de développement, impulsés par le gouvernement, provoquent des changements profonds au niveau de l’économie familiale, de l’organisation sociale et du rôle des femmes. Actuellement le statut économique des familles ne dépend plus de l’étendue de leurs terres, mais du nombre de leurs membres qui travaillent « au Nord ». Néanmoins, le riche patrimoine culinaire de cette population est préservé, en particulier à l’occasion des repas festifs.Emigration, Social Mutations And Food Changes In The Mixtec Highlands (Oaxaca, MexicoLike in many regions of Mexico, farmers of the Mixtec Highlands, for the most part, no longer make a living from agriculture, but rather rely on money sent home by migrant family members. People from this region have been migrating for several decades, but this phenomenon, now mainly to the United States, has tremendously increased in the past ten years. Since most young adults have migrated, many households are composed of mothers and children or grandparents and grandchildren. As more monetary resources are available, the kitchen equipment is more modern, resulting in technical changes in culinary preparations. Meat and
Sergei Viktorovich Kroshilin
Full Text Available In the modern conditions the socio-economic paradigm is changing, on the one hand, due to the transition to knowledge economy and, on the other hand, due to the need to develop innovation that determine competitiveness and the development level of national economies in the world. It is obvious that the progressive upgrade and the improvement of production processes (change in technological modes can not be implemented without the increase in the level of human capital in the society and the enhancement of potential and qualification of the workforce. These changes largely depend on the education system. In almost all world countries there is an active process of modernization and change in the system of training. New forms and approaches appear, for example lifelong education (concept “Lifelong education”, informal forms of learning, self-education, etc. Without the development of these approaches it is not possible to become a competitive state in changing social, political and economic environment. This is particularly true for countries, which experience changes in the technological mode and have the necessity to transfer to new technologies. Russia is among such countries nowadays. In our opinion, the modern reforms do not give the opportunity to fulfill the main task of education – to ensure and create conditions for self-determination and self-moralization of an individual in the society, achieve the desired level of knowledge for development of innovation in the regions. In the framework of the conducted research we get the classification of all Russian regions by indicators, such as “innovation” and “investment attractiveness”, with the levels of education being taken into account. This approach, on the one hand, shows the heterogeneity of socio-economic development of the country’s regions and, on the other hands, ‒ allows us to reveal the fact that the same federal district can include both regions-locomotives and
Zan, Hua; Lambea, Maria; McDowell, Joyce; Scharff, Robert L
The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions. In particular, the focus here is on how reported behavioral change is translated into economic benefits. Current gaps in the literature make it impossible to know with certainty how many people are protected by the education (what are the spillover effects?), the length of time education remains effective, and the level of risk reduction from change in behavior. Based on EFNEP survey data, food safety education led 37.4% of participants to improve their food safety behaviors. Under reasonable default assumptions, benefits from this improvement significantly outweigh costs, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of between 6.2 and 10.0. Incorporation of a sensitivity analysis using alternative estimates yields a greater range of estimates (0.2 to 56.3), which highlights the importance of future research aimed at filling these research gaps. Nevertheless, most reasonable assumptions lead to estimates of benefits that justify their costs.
Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.
This study examines to what extent there is a trend towards increasing labour market flexibility among Dutch school-leavers between 1992 and 2007, particularly among less educated ones. In addition, the article aims to explain this trend and increasing educational differences by economic
Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.
This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…
Baoyan, Yang; Minggang, Wan
This paper uses survey data from educational tracking upon graduation from middle schools in Q County, Gansu Province, and explores the mechanism in which the level of father's education and economic capital affect academic performance. The study finds that the academic performance of male students is significantly higher than that of female…
This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…
Ingubu, Moses Shiasha
This paper captures the impact of the Global Economic Crisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…
Farra Munna Harun
Full Text Available As early as 1980, the Malaysianfederal government’s spending on education, was the highest in East Asia andhigher than the OECD average of 3.4% of GDP. This demonstrates that theMalaysian Government has big expenses from educational sector and respectivelyis amenability for Malaysian economic budget. In other side Waqf in Malaysia isone of large financial source that has not been fully explored. By using qualitative methodology through content analysis this paper attempt to explore the issues andeconomic role of Waqf in Malaysia, especially in Higher Education Institution(HEI and attempt to study how Waqf fund empowering the education. Thisstudy found that taking the que from the institutions of Waqf, the explorationand development of waqf fund can be exalarate through the formation of formalorganizations at state and federal level and rearrange the Malaysian educationalbudget and policy to support the better quality of HEI.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2514
The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.
Katherine M O'Donnell
Full Text Available Detectability of individual animals is highly variable and nearly always < 1; imperfect detection must be accounted for to reliably estimate population sizes and trends. Hierarchical models can simultaneously estimate abundance and effective detection probability, but there are several different mechanisms that cause variation in detectability. Neglecting temporary emigration can lead to biased population estimates because availability and conditional detection probability are confounded. In this study, we extend previous hierarchical binomial mixture models to account for multiple sources of variation in detectability. The state process of the hierarchical model describes ecological mechanisms that generate spatial and temporal patterns in abundance, while the observation model accounts for the imperfect nature of counting individuals due to temporary emigration and false absences. We illustrate our model's potential advantages, including the allowance of temporary emigration between sampling periods, with a case study of southern red-backed salamanders Plethodon serratus. We fit our model and a standard binomial mixture model to counts of terrestrial salamanders surveyed at 40 sites during 3-5 surveys each spring and fall 2010-2012. Our models generated similar parameter estimates to standard binomial mixture models. Aspect was the best predictor of salamander abundance in our case study; abundance increased as aspect became more northeasterly. Increased time-since-rainfall strongly decreased salamander surface activity (i.e. availability for sampling, while higher amounts of woody cover objects and rocks increased conditional detection probability (i.e. probability of capture, given an animal is exposed to sampling. By explicitly accounting for both components of detectability, we increased congruence between our statistical modeling and our ecological understanding of the system. We stress the importance of choosing survey locations and
Full Text Available summary: The work shows that in the modern domestic liberal historiography of Russian emigration, there is a tendency to conceal and hide political problems raised by Russian monarchists. And, on the contrary, in the works of representatives of the patriotic direction, a wide range of views of Russian monarchists, centered around the Masonic problem and the struggle against Bolshevism, are being explored. The system of estimations by Russian right-wing representatives of the «philosophical steamer» as «apologists of Freemasonry» and the bearers of the ideas of «Masonic democracy» and also as «reformers of Orthodoxy» was reconstructed. The specifics of the struggle of Russian patriotic circles of white emigration with the Russian Masonic lodges restored abroad are shown. The anti-Masonic activities of the Russian Church abroad are considered. As the highest achievement of anti-Masonic publicism is considered the religious and political philosophy of the history of Russian monarchists. The author believe that the main historiographic criterion for distinguishing the political activity of Russian emigration should be recognized as its pro-Masonic or anti-Masonic orientation. As a result of the research, the author come to the conclusion that the anti-Masonic activities of the Russian right largely objectively reflected the main contradiction of the Russian history of «post-October abroad» as the struggle of Russian patriotic monarchists and the Orthodox Church abroad with the Russophobic forces of the West, whose concentrated expression was Freemasonry.
Daniil Gennadyevich Sandler
Full Text Available The article examines the motivations for Master’s students’ choice of individual trajectories. In the course of their studies, the students’ trajectories have educational, scientific and professional aspects. Educational, scientific and professional students’ trajectories determine a system of interaction between master’s students and other people in the context of educational process (teachers, other students and beyond it (employers, research workers from Russian and foreign universities. The authors emphasize the importance of studying the master’s students’ individual trajectories from both scientific (identifying the peculiarities of students’ trajectories formation and development and practical points of view (investments to master’s students to enhance the professional competence in the regional labour market. The authors have analysed the master’s students’ individual trajectories on the basis of monitoring data obtained from the survey carried out in February and December 2014. The master’s students’ assessments allowed to identify what educational experience they were able to get during the education and whether their experience met their expectations. The master’s students’ economic expectations are examined during the implementation of educational and professional trajectories. The analysis of the results has shown that the biggest gap between the expectations and the experience of the master’s students was found according to the criteria related to the student’s scientific trajectory and opportunities to participate in the internationalisation processes. The results of the research may be used to improve the master’s programmes taking into account the revealed master’s students’ expectations, as well as to ensure highly qualified professionals in the labour market and for the effective investments to the human capital by the government authorities
Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina
Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…
Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick
Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…
Velden, Rolf K.W. van der; Wolbers, Maarten H.J.
This article explores the total (measured and unmeasured) impact of education on some of the main socio-economic outcomes (that is, employment opportunities, job security and wages) among school-leavers who finished upper secondary or tertiary education in the Netherlands. The empirical analysis
For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.
Central European countries, and Romania and Bulgaria, while immigrants from the Baltic countries seem to rely much less on networks. Income gaps have a positive effect on migration flows, particularly from the Southeastern countries, while employment opportunities in destination countries are main...... an important role in international migration from those countries. The disaggregated results show that there are large differences between the CEE countries with respect to emigration patterns. The lagged stock of immigrants, which may reflect networks has a strong and positive effect for immigrants from...
Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier
for the statistical analysis. Our results are, first, that controlling for the three types of capital we explain a considerable part of the social class effect on educational attainment, and, second, that cultural and social capital are the key predictors of educational attainment.......This paper analyzes how much of the effect of social class on children’s choice of secondary education in Denmark can be decomposed into the influence of parental economic, cultural, and social capital. Following mobility regime theory, we propose that in the Scandinavian mobility regime to which...... Denmark belongs, the effect of social class on educational attainment should be explained primarily by non-economic forms of capital. We use an extremely rich Danish longitudinal survey to construct empirical measures of economic, cultural, and social capital and an extended random effect framework...
Martha Elena Nava-Tablada
Full Text Available Mexico has a tradition of migration to the United States. Nevertheless, Veracruz had not experienced a significant exodus of its population up until the nineteen nineties, when emigration from Veracruz began to increase rapidly, especially in the rural sector, thus affecting the regionâ€™s agroecosystems. Correspondingly, the main objective of this investigation was to analyze how international emigration has affected the agroecosystems of two rural communities in the state of Veracruz. Special attention was paid to factors such as family income, decision making, labor organization, agricultural diversity, technological management and the purpose of production. Information was gathered by direct observation and from interviews with key informants. A survey was conducted in 60 homes and six case studies were employed. Although there are differences between communities, regarding the type of migration (legal or illegal, generally, the following patterns were identified: 1 Agricultural activity is primarily subsidized by remittances sent by emigrants; 2 The departure of the head of the family leads to a change concerning who makesÂ the decisions;Â woman normally occupy subordinate roles; 3 Migration results in an increase in the number of hired farm workers and a greater work load for those who remain in the community; 4 The departure of the work force tends to diminish agricultural diversity; 5 Remittances have a positive impact on technological management by the family production unit; 6 Illegal emigration favors subsistence farming, whereas legal emigration favors commercial production.
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the ...
consternation and vulnerability. Propitious and admissible approaches can ensure eco-balance and sustainable socio-economic development in a vulnerable country like Bangladesh with a proper accentuation on education in emergency. This paper will be highly helpful for policy makers both in private and public sectors to ensure sound education opportunity in the highly disaster prone i.e., coastal areas. However, this piece of effort might also cut attention of the human rights workers.
Claire L Risley
Full Text Available We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia, the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA, contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART to the scenario of universal access.A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1 The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2 In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3 The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4 If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied.The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.
Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar
Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.
O'Donnell, Katherine M; Thompson, Frank R; Semlitsch, Raymond D
Detectability of individual animals is highly variable and nearly always binomial mixture models to account for multiple sources of variation in detectability. The state process of the hierarchical model describes ecological mechanisms that generate spatial and temporal patterns in abundance, while the observation model accounts for the imperfect nature of counting individuals due to temporary emigration and false absences. We illustrate our model's potential advantages, including the allowance of temporary emigration between sampling periods, with a case study of southern red-backed salamanders Plethodon serratus. We fit our model and a standard binomial mixture model to counts of terrestrial salamanders surveyed at 40 sites during 3-5 surveys each spring and fall 2010-2012. Our models generated similar parameter estimates to standard binomial mixture models. Aspect was the best predictor of salamander abundance in our case study; abundance increased as aspect became more northeasterly. Increased time-since-rainfall strongly decreased salamander surface activity (i.e. availability for sampling), while higher amounts of woody cover objects and rocks increased conditional detection probability (i.e. probability of capture, given an animal is exposed to sampling). By explicitly accounting for both components of detectability, we increased congruence between our statistical modeling and our ecological understanding of the system. We stress the importance of choosing survey locations and protocols that maximize species availability and conditional detection probability to increase population parameter estimate reliability.
Deymonaz, John [Fish Lake Green Power Co. (United States); Hulen, Jeffrey B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geosciences Inst.; Nash, Gregory D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geosciences Inst.; Schriener, Alex [Earth Systems Southwest (United States)
The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.
Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Popescu, Viorel D.; Brodie, Bekka S.; Hunter, Malcom L.
Juvenile amphibians are capable of long-distance upland movements, yet cues used for orientation during upland movements are poorly understood. We used newly metamorphosed Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate: (1) the existence of innate (i.e., inherited) directionality, and (2) the use of olfactory cues, specifically forested wetland and natal pond cues during emigration. In a circular arena experiment, animals with assumed innate directionality did not orient in the expected direction (suggested by previous studies) when deprived of visual and olfactory cues. This suggests that juvenile Wood Frogs most likely rely on proximate cues for orientation. Animals reared in semi-natural conditions (1500 l cattle tanks) showed a strong avoidance of forested wetland cues in two different experimental settings, although they had not been previously exposed to such cues. This finding is contrary to known habitat use by adult Wood Frogs during summer. Juvenile Wood Frogs were indifferent to the chemical signature of natal pond (cattle tank) water. Our findings suggest that management strategies for forest amphibians should consider key habitat features that potentially influence the orientation of juveniles during emigration movements, as well as adult behavior.
Tankwanchi, Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam; Özden, Çağlar; Vermund, Sten H.
Background The large-scale emigration of physicians from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to high-income nations is a serious development concern. Our objective was to determine current emigration trends of SSA physicians found in the physician workforce of the United States. Methods and Findings We analyzed physician data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Workforce Statistics along with graduation and residency data from the 2011 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (AMA-PM) on physicians trained or born in SSA countries who currently practice in the US. We estimated emigration proportions, year of US entry, years of practice before emigration, and length of time in the US. According to the 2011 AMA-PM, 10,819 physicians were born or trained in 28 SSA countries. Sixty-eight percent (n = 7,370) were SSA-trained, 20% (n = 2,126) were US-trained, and 12% (n = 1,323) were trained outside both SSA and the US. We estimated active physicians (age ≤70 years) to represent 96% (n = 10,377) of the total. Migration trends among SSA-trained physicians increased from 2002 to 2011 for all but one principal source country; the exception was South Africa whose physician migration to the US decreased by 8% (−156). The increase in last-decade migration was >50% in Nigeria (+1,113) and Ghana (+243), >100% in Ethiopia (+274), and >200% (+244) in Sudan. Liberia was the most affected by migration to the US with 77% (n = 175) of its estimated physicians in the 2011 AMA-PM. On average, SSA-trained physicians have been in the US for 18 years. They practiced for 6.5 years before US entry, and nearly half emigrated during the implementation years (1984–1999) of the structural adjustment programs. Conclusion Physician emigration from SSA to the US is increasing for most SSA source countries. Unless far-reaching policies are implemented by the US and SSA countries, the current emigration trends will persist, and the US will remain a leading
This document contains information for home economics occupations in Illinois in seven sections. The first part provides lists of employability skills for the following: food preparation and service worker, fashion designer, dietetic technician, and service coordinator/consumer assistant/concierge. The second section contains task analyses for the…
Singh, Kuldip; Kumar, M. Narendra; Mishra, Satyasis
India has main concerns on environment and escalation of fuel prices with respect to diminution of fossil fuel reserves and the major focus on renewable Energy sources for power generation to fulfill the present and future energy demand. Installation of PV power plants in the Educational Institutions has grown up drastically throughout India. More PV power plant are integrated with load and grid through net metering. Therefore, this paper is an analysis of the 75kWp PV plant at chosen buses, considering the need of minimum demand from the grid. The case study is carried out for different generation level throughout the day and year w.r.t load and climate changes, load sharing on grid. The economic dispatch model developed for PV plant integrated with Grid.
Putilov, A. V.; Bugaenko, M. V.; Timokhin, D. V.
In the article approaches to the modernization of the national education system with the use of IT-technologies are offered, the review of the problems and obstacles of such modernization is held and concrete steps on the adaptation of the educational process to the labor market requirements are stated. On the basis of the previously proposed model of "economic cross" strategic directions of informatization of the educational process are defined, the analysis of conditions and intensity of the use of IT-technologies at the time of this writing is conducted, the recommendations on the improvement of known modernization tools and the development of new ones for Russian education are developed.
In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.
Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo
Full Text Available Based on the information published by the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL, the authors have followed the growth of the region’s educational systems, mainly during the last decades of the 20th century. The patterns of distribution of educational opportunities among the various economic levels and sexes have also been examined. On the other hand, they have analyzed some impact indicators related to the expansion of educational opportunities within the working fields where graduates of those school systems are, and indicators of the probability of those individuals earning higher wages than those considered as the minimum in many countries to outdo poverty. Finally, some obstacles which have hindered the equal distribution of education have been identified, and some political features necessary to overcome them have been sketched.
Full Text Available The restructuring of the economy and transition to a market economy have had different impacts on the economic position of regions. The level of impact that changed economic and socio-political circumstances caused in the individual regions depended on various factors: the economic structure of the regions, their ability to reroute onto foreign markets, development potentials, development strategies, and their strategic decisions. Development problems are distinctive predominantly in areas suffering from structural backwardness and economic weakness with predominantly rural orientation, areas facing demographic problems, low income per inhabitant and high unemployment rate. The peripheral nature of the underdeveloped areas caused the emptying of the countryside and concentrating of the population in urban centers. Unfavorable demographic picture, emigration of the young, poor educational structure and shortage of adequate staff, and absence of strategic decisions had led to an increasing setback of the underdeveloped regions compared to the developed ones. The results of empirical analyses of division NUTS 3 regions in Slovenia into groups, taking into account the selected development indicators, lead to the conclusion that economic development has not been conducted in the context of modern understanding of balanced regional development and in accordance with the principle of integrity of implementing regional policy in the entire state territory. The existing regional developmental differences confirm the thesis that market mechanism on its own will not reduce economic inequality and substantiate the need for efficient conduct of regional policy.
Full Text Available The restructuring of the economy and transition to a market economy have had different impacts on the economic position of regions. The level of impact that changed economic and socio-political circumstances caused in the individual regions depended on various factors: the economic structure of the regions, their ability to reroute onto foreign markets, development potentials, development strategies, and their strategic decisions. Development problems are distinctive predominantly in areas suffering from structural backwardness and economic weakness with predominantly rural orientation, areas facing demographic problems, low income per inhabitant and high unemployment rate. The peripheral nature of the underdeveloped areas caused the emptying of the countryside and concentrating of the population in urban centers. Unfavorable demographic picture, emigration of the young, poor educational structure and shortage of adequate staff, and absence of strategic decisions had led to an increasing setback of the underdeveloped regions compared to the developed ones. The results of empirical analyses of division NUTS 3 regions in Slovenia into groups, taking into account the selected development indicators, lead to the conclusion that economic development has not been conducted in the context of modern understanding of balanced regional development and in accordance with the principle of integrity of implementing regional policy in the entire state territory. The existing regional developmental differences confirm the thesis that market mechanism on its own will not reduce economic inequality and substantiate the need for efficient conduct of regional policy.
Langtimm, Catherine A.
Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.
Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, Alexandros
Higher education institutions play an important role in sustainability, in their own management and operation, in research and education, and in the undergraduate and graduate degrees they deliver. Often ignored, economic sustainability and future perspectives of students are important indicators
Heering, L; van der Erf, R; van Wissen, L
About 1.5 million people of Moroccan origin live as legal migrants in the countries of the European Union. For several decades, emigration has affected various provinces of Morocco. In some regions, the process started more than 40 years ago; in others the migration experience is much more recent.
This article highlights a source that can contribute to the history of migration and mental health: the case records of Eastern European emigrants who tried to enter America at the beginning of the twentieth century, but were refused entrance because of their alleged insanity. Some of these