WorldWideScience

Sample records for econmic impact analysis

  1. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  2. Linkages Between Human Capital and the Environment: Implications for Sustainable Econmic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis reveals that US states with a more highly educated population have better environmental conditions, after controlling for income and industrial composition. The strategy of raising human capital stocks to maintain or improve environmental quality is proposed as a complement, if not an alternative, to direct government intervention which consists of command and control, market incentives and moral suasion. Under this approach, general education becomes the control variabl...

  3. Econmic Growth and Productive Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gürak

    2003-01-01

    The relations between the riches of nations and the riches of Productive Knowledge (Technology) gains increasing acknowledgment among economists. Classical economists had assumed that the key to progress was the accumulation of homogenous capital goods. But, as P. Romer, among others, claims we cannot grow rich by accumulating more of the same capital goods. So the Classical growth theory falls short of expectations. Capitalism’s inherent feature is “destructive creation”, said Marx. Decades ...

  4. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  6. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  7. Value-impact analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.; Dracup, J.A.; Erdmann, R.C.; Hughes, E.; vonHerrmann, J.

    1979-11-01

    This document represents a first step in the process of developing comprehensive value-impact methodology for the nuclear industry. It describes the development of the methodology and includes a discussion of the uses of cost-benefit or value-impact by other industries. This background is provided as a guide to the development of the methodology for the specific problems confronted by the nuclear industry. The use of benefit-cost analysis, or value-impact analysis, within the nuclear power industry has grown in recent years and is relied upon by both the regulatory community and the regulated industry. This report summarizes the state of the art of value-impact analysis as it affects these users. Relevant past experience in such fields as water resource development, transportation, environmental concerns, and health and medicine is reviewed. A critique of the applicability of existing value-impact analysis methods to nuclear safety decision problems is presented

  8. Impact analysis of a water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhung, Myung Jo; Jo, Jong Chull; Jeong, Sang Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic response characteristics of a structure impacted by a high speed projectile. The impact of a 300 kg projectile on a water storage tank is simulated by the general purpose computer codes ANSYS and LS-DYNA. Several methods to simulate the impact are considered and their results are compared. Based upon this, an alternative impact analysis method that equivalent to an explicit dynamic analysis is proposed. The effect of fluid on the responses of the tank is also addressed

  9. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculation. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: a thirty foot axial drop on either end, a thirty foot oblique angel drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on one of the lifting trunnions and the bottom end. Prevention of damage hinges on the strength of the various components that comprises the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask are used to assess the potential damage level

  10. Elastic analysis of beam support impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.A.; Verma, V.K.; Youtsos, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gaps present in the seismic supports of nuclear piping systems has been studied with the use of such large general purpose analysis codes as ANSYS. Exact analytical solutions to two simple beam impact problems are obtained to serve as benchmarks for the evaluation of the ability of such codes to model impact between beam elements and their supports. Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and modal analysis are used to obtain analytical solutions for the motion of simply supported and fixed ended beams after impact with a spring support at midspan. The solutions are valid up to the time the beam loses contact with the spring support. Numerical results are obtained which show that convergence for both contact force and bending moment at the point of impact is slower as spring stiffness is increased. Finite element solutions obtained with ANSYS are compared to analytical results and good agreement is obtained

  11. Impact Analysis for Risks in Informatics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baicu, Floarea; Baches, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of impact analysis on informatics system security accidents, qualitative and quantitative methods, starting with risk and informational system security definitions. It is presented the relationship between the risks of exploiting vulnerabilities of security system, security level of these informatics systems, probability of exploiting the weak points subject to financial losses of a company, respectively impact of a security accident on the company. Herewit...

  12. Update of Part 61 impacts analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is expanding the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of costs and impacts of disposal of waste that exceeds Class C concentrations. The project includes updating the computer codes that comprise the methodology, reviewing and updating data assumptions on waste streams and disposal technologies, and calculation of costs for small as well as large disposal facilities. This paper outlines work done to date on this project

  13. Update of Part 61 impacts analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.; US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555)

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is expanding the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 regulation to allow improved consideration of costs and impacts of disposal of waste that exceeds Class C concentrations. The project includes updating the computer codes that comprise the methodology, reviewing and updating data assumptions on waste streams and disposal technologies, and calculation of costs for small as well as large disposal facilities. This paper outlines work done to date on this project

  14. Impact parameter analysis and soft QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.A.S.; Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper, based on the hypothesis of light-cone dipole representation for gluon Bremsstrahlung, Kopeliovich et al. developed a dynamical model for the elastic hadronic amplitude. The model has been applied to pp and p (bar) p scattering and the effects of unitarity and peripheral interactions have been investigated in the impact parameter representation. In this communication, making use of a model independent extraction of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter space (early developed), we represent a comparative study between the predictions from the dynamical model and the impact parameter analysis. (author)

  15. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  16. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, Jorma; Doumbalski, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  17. Impact analysis on a massively parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharia, T.; Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in evaluating and enhancing the design of beverage cans, industrial, and transportation containers for improved performance. Numerical models are used to evaluate the impact requirements of containers used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for transporting radioactive materials. Many of these models are highly compute-intensive. An analysis may require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, massively parallel computers have become important tools. Massively parallel computational research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its application to the impact analysis of shipping containers is briefly described in this paper

  18. Reliability analysis of pipe whip impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzbutas, R.; Dundulis, G.; Kulak, R.F.; Marchertas, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis of a group distribution header (GDH) guillotine break and the damage resulting from the failed GDH impacting against a neighbouring wall was carried out for the Ignalita RBMK-1500 reactor. The NEPTUNE software system was used for the deterministic transient analysis of a GDH guillotine break. Many deterministic analyses were performed using different values of the random variables that were specified by ProFES software. All the deterministic results were transferred to the ProFES system, which then performed probabilistic analyses of piping failure and wall damage. The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method was used to study the sensitivity of the response variables and the effect of uncertainties of material properties and geometry parameters to the probability of limit states. The First Order Reliability Method (FORM) was used to study the probability of failure of the impacted-wall and the support-wall. The Response Surface (RS/MCS) method was used in order to express failure probability as function and to investigate the dependence between impact load and failure probability. The results of the probability analyses for a whipping GDH impacting onto an adjacent wall show that: (i) there is a 0.982 probability that after a GDH guillotine break contact between GDH and wall will occur; (ii) there is a probability of 0.013 that the ultimate tensile strength of concrete at the impact location will be reached, and a through-crack may open; (iii) there is a probability of 0.0126 that the ultimate compressive strength of concrete at the GDH support location will be reached, and the concrete may fail; (iv) at the impact location in the adjacent wall, there is a probability of 0.327 that the ultimate tensile strength of the rebars in the first layer will be reached and the rebars will fail; (v) at the GDH support location, there is a probability of 0.11 that the ultimate stress of the rebars in the first layer will be reached and the rebars will fail

  19. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  20. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  1. Medical impact analysis for the space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B D; Gardner, R M; Ostler, D V; Schulz, J M; Logan, J S

    1990-02-01

    Since the Space Station Health Maintenance Facility can house only a relatively limited quantity of supplies and equipment, the decisions about what should be included must be based on documented research. In this study, Space Station medical care priorities were determined by a medical impact analysis of two analog populations, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy personnel. Diseases and injuries in the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were ranked, using a Medical Impact Score (MIS) combining modified incidence rate and a function of disease outcome. The validity of the analysis method was tested by measuring rank order correlation between the two analog populations. Despite virtually identical age and sex distributions, Army and Navy incidence rates differed significantly for half of the ICD-9-CM categories, p less than 0.05. Disability rates differed for 76%, p less than 0.05. Nevertheless, Army and Navy MIS rank orders for categories and sections were not significantly different, p less than 0.001. In critical ways, the Space Station will be a safer environment than Earth. Cardiac events, musculoskeletal injuries, affective psychoses, and renal calculi were among the highest scoring categories.

  2. Analysis of the impact of safeguards criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Reardon, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to assist in developing and demonstrating a model for assessing the impact of setting criteria for the application of IAEA safeguards. This report presents the results of PNL's work on the task. The report is in three parts. The first explains the technical approach and methodology. The second contains an example application of the methodology. The third presents the conclusions of the study. PNL used the model and computer programs developed as part of Task C.5 (Estimation of Inspection Efforts) of the Program of Technical Assistance. The example application of the methodology involves low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. The effects of variations in seven parameters are considered: false alarm probability, goal probability of detection, detection goal quantity, the plant operator's measurement capability, the inspector's variables measurement capability, the inspector's attributes measurement capability, and annual plant throughput. Among the key results and conclusions of the analysis are the following: the variables with the greatest impact on the probability of detection are the inspector's measurement capability, the goal quantity, and the throughput; the variables with the greatest impact on inspection costs are the throughput, the goal quantity, and the goal probability of detection; there are important interactions between variables. That is, the effects of a given variable often depends on the level or value of some other variable. With the methodology used in this study, these interactions can be quantitatively analyzed; reasonably good approximate prediction equations can be developed using the methodology described here

  3. Free drop impact analysis of shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The WHAMS-2D and WHAMS-3D codes were used to analyze the dynamic response of the RAS/TREAT shielded shipping cask subjected to transient leadings for the purpose of assessing potential damage to the various components that comprise the the cask. The paper describes how these codes can be used to provide and intermediate level of detail between full three-dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations which are cost effective for design purposes. Three free drops were adressed: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end; (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the cask corner; and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the lifting trunnion and the bottom end. Results are presented for two models of the side and oblique angle drops; one model includes only the mass of the lapped sleeves of depleted uranium (DU) while the other includes the mass and stiffness of the DU. The results of the end drop analyses are given for models with and without imperfections in the cask. Comparison of the analysis to hand calculations and simplified analyses are given. (orig.)

  4. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  5. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  6. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  7. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Product Development Team, Gyeongsan si (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests.

  8. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests

  9. Financial Development, Econmic Growth and R&D Cyclical Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Ka Wai Terence; Lau, Chi Keung Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds up an endogenous growth model à la Aghion and Howitt (1992) and Boucekkine et al (2005). We assume that R&D firms use only investment good as input, instead of final good as hypothesized in the above two models. We show that investment price will be a negative function of aggregate quality index; and thus decline over time. In this model, subsidy on R&D has growth-enhancing effect. Moreover, this model predicts unambiguously that R&D is procyclical.

  10. Bangladesh: National Political Econmic Strategies in Perilous Times

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is potentially capable of rapid, self-reliant and equitable development under the present AL leadership. But the combination of strategic openness and self-reliance requires firm, skillful and committed leadership at all levels. Our current situation is perilous precisely because the tentative moves towards a self-reliant and pro-people political and economic system have made powerful anti-liberation and anti-people elements in our country desperate. In addition to confronting the...

  11. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  12. Extended analysis on impact of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses a number of economic, social and knowledge impacts of the applications of nuclear technology in Malaysia as well as benchmarking with Japan and the Republic of Korea. Under economic impacts, index of gross value of products and services, index of gross value of exports, index of gross value of training expenditures, and index of total number of human resource trained are developed. In addition, the contribution of the application of nuclear technology to both Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and GDP per capita are also highlighted. The impact of the application of nuclear technology to Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is also covered in this chapter. Much of the discussions on economic impacts are based on findings in private companies. That is because many of their operations can be expressed in monetary terms by virtue of them operating in commercial environment. Public agencies, however, play crucial role in enabling the private companies attain the level of development reported in this study. Towards that end, public agencies invested in Research and development activities, human capital development, as well as in the setting-up, operation and maintenance of both technical and administrative infrastructures. The impact of such activities is discussed in the later part of this chapter. (author)

  13. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale

  14. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  15. Minimization of local impact of energy systems through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, Gabriele; Colombo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The model proposed aims at minimizing local impact of energy systems. • The model is meant to minimize the impact starting from system thermodynamics. • The formulation combines exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis. • The approach of the model is dual to Thermoeconomics. - Abstract: For the acceptability of energy systems, environmental impacts are becoming more and more important. One primary way for reducing impacts related to processes is by improving efficiency of plants. A key instrument currently used to verify such improvements is exergy analysis, extended to include also the environmental externalities generated by systems. Through exergy-based analyses, it is possible indeed to evaluate the overall amount of resources consumed along all the phases of the life cycle of a system, from construction to dismantling. However, resource consumption is a dimension of the impact of a system at global level, while it may not be considered a measure of its local impact. In the paper a complementary approach named Combined Risk and Exergy Analysis (CRExA) to assess impacts from major accidents in energy systems is proposed, based on the combination of classical exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Impacts considered are focused on effects on human health. The approach leads to the identification of solutions to minimize damages of major accidents by acting on the energy system design

  16. Environmental impact statement analysis: dose methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Standardized sections and methodologies are being developed for use in environmental impact statements (EIS) for activities to be conducted on the Hanford Reservation. Five areas for standardization have been identified: routine operations dose methodologies, accident dose methodology, Hanford Site description, health effects methodology, and socioeconomic environment for Hanford waste management activities

  17. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are

  18. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  19. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  20. Analysis of impacting phenomena in a helically wound heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiston, G.S.; Jordan, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    During commissioning tests on a helically wound heat exchanger at Heysham Nuclear Power Station, evidence of impacting was observed on accelerometer responses. Impacting greatly enhances wear and methods have been developed to determine whether the operating lifetime of plant may be limited by tube failures. A theoretical frequency response function based on Timoshenko beam theory has been derived which relates an impact force to the acceleration field which propagates away from the impact site and is detected by remote accelerometers. The accuracy of this function has been verified experimentally and its suitability for the analysis of boiler responses has been demonstrated following investigations into the nature of impacting. Examples of the analysis of impact forces are given and methods of estimating wear are discussed. (author)

  1. SIMS analysis of extended impact features on LDEF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Simon, C.; Stadermann, F. J.; Swan, P.; Walker, R.; Zinner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the first Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis of projectile material deposited in extended impact features on Ge wafers from the trailing edge. Although most capture cells lost their plastic film covers, they contain extended impact features that apparently were produced by high velocity impacts when the plastic foils were still intact. Detailed optical scanning of all bare capture cells from the trailing edge revealed more than 100 impacts. Fifty-eight were selected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection as prime candidates for SIMS analysis. Preliminary SIMS measurements were made on 15 impacts. More than half showed substantial enhancements of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe in the impact region, indicating micrometeorites as the projectiles.

  2. Change impact analysis for software product lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihen Maâzoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A software product line (SPL represents a family of products in a given application domain. Each SPL is constructed to provide for the derivation of new products by covering a wide range of features in its domain. Nevertheless, over time, some domain features may become obsolete with the apparition of new features while others may become refined. Accordingly, the SPL must be maintained to account for the domain evolution. Such evolution requires a means for managing the impact of changes on the SPL models, including the feature model and design. This paper presents an automated method that analyzes feature model evolution, traces their impact on the SPL design, and offers a set of recommendations to ensure the consistency of both models. The proposed method defines a set of new metrics adapted to SPL evolution to identify the effort needed to maintain the SPL models consistently and with a quality as good as the original models. The method and its tool are illustrated through an example of an SPL in the Text Editing domain. In addition, they are experimentally evaluated in terms of both the quality of the maintained SPL models and the precision of the impact change management.

  3. Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles. V S Prasad∗ and C J .... In this study, impact of hybrid ..... of water between vapour, clouds and ice (Damrath et al. 2000). ... flooding – June 2013; Weather and Climate Extremes 4. 22–34.

  4. Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis Of Selected Stocks From The Nigerian Capital Market. ... Journal of Research in National Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  5. Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrakos, S. G; Tran, N. E

    2007-01-01

    A general methodology is presented for in situ detection of cavitation impact phenomena on structures based on inverse analysis of luminescent emissions resulting from the collapsing of bubbles onto surfaces...

  6. Sobol’ sensitivity analysis for stressor impacts on honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation and nonlinear sensitivity analysis techniques to describe the dynamics of a bee exposure model, VarroaPop. Daily simulations are performed of hive population trajectories, taking into account queen strength, foraging success, mite impacts, weather...

  7. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  8. The economic impact of pilgrimage: An economic impact analysis of pilgrimage expenditures in Galicia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graave, Elisabeth J.E.; Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we calculate the economic impact of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in the NUTS 2 region Galicia (Spain) in 2010. This economic impact is relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders dealing with religious tourism in Galicia. The analysis is based on the Input-Output model.

  9. Diagnostic imaging analysis of the impacted mesiodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jeong Jun; Choi, Bo Ram; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The research was performed to predict the three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors and the proximity with the anatomic structures by comparing their panoramic images with the CT images. Among the patients visiting Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 2003 to July 2007, those with mesiodens were selected (154 mesiodens of 120 patients). The numbers, shapes, orientation and positional relationship of mesiodens with maxillary central incisors were investigated in the panoramic images. The proximity with the anatomical structures and complications were investigated in the CT images as well. The sex ratio (M : F) was 2.28 : 1 and the mean number of mesiodens per one patient was 1.28. Conical shape was 84.4% and inverted orientation was 51.9%. There were more cases of anatomical structures encroachment, especially on the nasal floor and nasopalatine duct, when the mesiodens was not superimposed with the central incisor. There were, however, many cases of the nasopalatine duct encroachment when the mesiodens was superimpoised with the apical 1/3 of central incisor (52.6%). Delayed eruption (55.6%), crown rotation (66.7%) and crown resorption (100%) were observed when the mesiodens was superimposed with the crown of the central incisor. It is possible to predict three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors in the panoramic images, but more details should be confirmed by the CT images when necessary.

  10. Impact analysis of a hydrogen isotopes container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Jeong, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The container used for the radioactive materials, containing hydrogen isotopes is evaluated in a view of hypothetical accident. The computational analysis is a cost effective tool to minimize testing and streamline the regulatory procedures, and supports experimental programs to qualify the container for the safe transport of radioactive materials. The numerical analysis of 9m free-drop onto a flat unyielding, horizontal surface has been performed using the explicit finite element computer program ABAQUS. Especially free-drop simulations for 30 .deg. C tilted condition are precisely estimated

  11. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  12. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available

  13. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-15

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  14. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  15. A Machine Learning Based Intrusion Impact Analysis Scheme for Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds represent a major paradigm shift, inspiring the contemporary approach to computing. They present fascinating opportunities to address dynamic user requirements with the provision of on demand expandable computing infrastructures. However, Clouds introduce novel security challenges which need to be addressed to facilitate widespread adoption. This paper is focused on one such challenge - intrusion impact analysis. In particular, we highlight the significance of intrusion impact analysis for the overall security of Clouds. Additionally, we present a machine learning based scheme to address this challenge in accordance with the specific requirements of Clouds for intrusion impact analysis. We also present rigorous evaluation performed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method to address this challenge for Clouds. The evaluation results demonstrate high degree of effectiveness to correctly determine the impact of an intrusion along with significant reduction with respect to the intrusion response time.

  16. The Impact of Action Learning on Analysis of Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Technology and millennials have created a shift in the world and how it operates. This impact has been experienced in the field of occupational therapy education. As a result of this paradigm shift, an analysis of effective teaching methodologies was carried out to assess the most effective way to engage the millennials in an analysis of…

  17. Failure analysis of prestressed concrete beam under impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Sonoda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis of prestressed concrete (PC) beam under impact loading. At first, the failure analysis of PC beam section is performed by using the discrete section element method in order to obtain the dynamic bending moment-curvature relation. Secondary, the failure analysis of PC beam is performed by using the rigid panel-spring model. Finally, the numerical calculation is executed and is compared with the experimental results. It is found that this approach can simulate well the experiments at the local and overall failure of the PC beam as well as the impact load and the displacement-time relations. (author)

  18. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Boo, K. D.; Park, S. B.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  19. A nonlinear 3D containment analysis for airplane impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.; Magiera, G.; Matthees, W.; Weber, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, it is pertinent safety philosophy to design nuclear facilities against airplane impact, despite its very unlikely probability of occurrence. For safety reasons, the following conditions have to be met: 1) In the close impact area of the projectile, the structure can be stressed up to its ultimate load capacity, so that impact energy is dissipated partly. Hereby, it must be strictly clarified that local structural failure within the impact zone is avoided. 2) Residual impact energy is transferred to the 'non-disturbed' containment structure and to the interior structure. The subject of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads shows still clear gaps between the findings of experimental and analytical analyses. To clarify this highly nonlinear phenomena comprehensive tests have recently been performed in Germany. It is the aim of this paper to carry out a three-dimensional analysis of a nuclear facility. To perform the calculations, the finite element ADINA code is applied. In order to obtain optimum results, a very fine mesh leading to several thousand DOF is used. To model the impact area of the concrete structure realistically, its linear and mostly nonlinear material behaviour as well as its failure criteria must be taken into account. Herewith the structural response is reduced due to increased energy dissipation. This reduction rate is valued by variation of the assumed size of impact zone, the load impact location and the assumed load-time function. (orig./RW)

  20. Pathway analysis concepts for radiological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    The concepts underlying exposure pathways analysis are outlined with reference to the features of the two broad types of radionuclide transport models now in use - dynamic and steady-state - and the methods for constructing and developing them. By way of illustration, representative radiation doses are estimated for the four main exposure pathways likely to be involved in the land application of effluent water from Retention Pond 2 of Ranger Uranium Mines. These include: external irradiation by 226 Ra and natural uranium (Un at) in soil, ingestion of 226 Ra and Un at in food, inhalation of 222 Rn daughter products from 226 Rn in soil, and inhalation of 226 Ra and Un at in airborne dust resuspended from soil. Consideration has been given to local residents pursuing a traditional lifestyle on conclusion of the land application program. Because of the possible importance of the contribution from resuspended dust, currently available data are explored in refining the methodology for the pathway and developing a more appropriate model for it. 37 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs

  1. A Principal Component Analysis of 39 Scientific Impact Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The impact of scientific publications has traditionally been expressed in terms of citation counts. However, scientific activity has moved online over the past decade. To better capture scientific impact in the digital era, a variety of new impact measures has been proposed on the basis of social network analysis and usage log data. Here we investigate how these new measures relate to each other, and how accurately and completely they express scientific impact. Methodology We performed a principal component analysis of the rankings produced by 39 existing and proposed measures of scholarly impact that were calculated on the basis of both citation and usage log data. Conclusions Our results indicate that the notion of scientific impact is a multi-dimensional construct that can not be adequately measured by any single indicator, although some measures are more suitable than others. The commonly used citation Impact Factor is not positioned at the core of this construct, but at its periphery, and should thus be used with caution. PMID:19562078

  2. A principal component analysis of 39 scientific impact measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Bollen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of scientific publications has traditionally been expressed in terms of citation counts. However, scientific activity has moved online over the past decade. To better capture scientific impact in the digital era, a variety of new impact measures has been proposed on the basis of social network analysis and usage log data. Here we investigate how these new measures relate to each other, and how accurately and completely they express scientific impact. METHODOLOGY: We performed a principal component analysis of the rankings produced by 39 existing and proposed measures of scholarly impact that were calculated on the basis of both citation and usage log data. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the notion of scientific impact is a multi-dimensional construct that can not be adequately measured by any single indicator, although some measures are more suitable than others. The commonly used citation Impact Factor is not positioned at the core of this construct, but at its periphery, and should thus be used with caution.

  3. On the methods and examples of aircraft impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Aircraft impact analysis can be performed today within feasible run times using PCs and available advanced commercial finite element software tools. Adequate element and material model technologies exist. Explicit time integration enables analysis of very large deformation Missile/Target impacts. Meshless/particle based methods may be beneficial for large deformation concrete “punching shear” analysis – potentially solves the “element erosion” problem associated with FE, but are not generally implemented yet in major commercial software. Verification of the complicated modeling technologies continues to be a challenge. Not much work has been done yet on ACI shock loading – redundant and physically separated safety trains key to success. Analysis approach and detail should be “balanced” - commensurate with the significant uncertainties - do not “over-do” details of some parts of the model (e.g., the plane) and the analysis

  4. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general safety analysis, the reliability against structural damage due to an aircraft crash on a nuclear powered ship is evaluated. This structural analysis is an aid in safety design. It is assumed that a Phantom military jet-fighter hits a nuclear powered ship. The total reaction force due to such an aircraft impact on a rigid barrier is specified in the guidelines of the Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission (German Safety Advisory Committee) for pressurized water reactors. This paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structure. (Auth.)

  5. An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojoyi, MM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania Mercy M. Ojoyi School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa... of feedback results from analysis of variance tests conducted. Major indicators of climate variability and change include: increased dry spells (39.7 per cent), drying of rivers (34.7 per cent), a reduction in water flows (14.6 per cent) and poor economy...

  6. Extending Impact Analysis in Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    of this phenomenon, and falls short of investigating the impacts that these dimensions have on each other. Drawing on a revised framework for classifying existing social media research foci in the categories of management, context, user behavior, user characteristics, platform properties, and effects, we present......The use of social media by governments is a complex phenomenon that touches upon multiple dimensions, and that involves a wide array of relationships between these dimensions. Existing empirical research on government social media, however, is still mostly focusing on describing isolated aspects...... five empirical cases to illustrate impacts between dimensions of government social media. The empirical findings from the cases extend impact analysis beyond the existing foci, and enable us to propose a research agenda for future research on impacts in government social media....

  7. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  8. Change Impact Analysis of Crosscutting in Software Architectural Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Software architectures should be amenable to changes in user requirements and implementation technology. The analysis of the impact of these changes can be based on traceability of architectural design elements. Design elements have dependencies with other software artifacts but also evolve in time.

  9. Strategic Choice Analysis by Expert Panels for Migration Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    International migration is a source of policy and research interest in many countries. This paper provides a review of experiences and findings from migration impact assessment worldwide. Various findings are briefly summarised in the context of a systematic migration SWOT analysis for five distinct

  10. Spatial analysis of digital technologies and impact on socio - cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of digital technologies and ascertain whether digital technologies have significant impact on socio - cultural values or not. Moran's index and Getis and Ord's statistic were used for cluster and hotspots analysis. The unique locations of digital technologies ...

  11. Knowledge-based analysis of functional impacts of mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knowledge-based analysis of functional impacts of mutations in microRNA seed regions. Supplementary figure 1. Summary of predicted miRNA targets from ... All naturally occurred SNPs in seed regions of human miRNAs. The information of the columns is given in the second sheet. Hihly expressed miRNAs are ...

  12. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied...

  13. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  14. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structuure. The local penetration occurs at points where the engines or other rigid objects hit the structure. It is assumed that the aircraft engine is a rigid body projectile and the side wall of the ship is the target. The applied steel penetration formulae for projectiles were empirically derived for military applications, where both the projectile and the target are unlike those of an impact of an aircraft engine. For this reason it is expedient to calculate the upper and the lower limit values of the penetration depths. The results show that the highest penetration depth is less than the sum of all wall thicknesses of the collision barrier. The solution of the dynamic analysis is obtained by using the finite element method. The results are the eigenmodes, the eigenfrequencies, the displacements of the nodes, and the stresses in the applied plane stress elements. It is shown that the maximum stress which only appears in one element is on the same level as the yield stress of the St. 42 steel. The structural analysis shows that the collision barrier is a sufficient safeguard against the perforation of the engine and against the cracking of the structure as a result of the dynamic response to an aircraft impact. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misajon Rose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings.

  16. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) impact of MS. Although previous studies have found support for the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 using traditional methods of scale evaluation, the scale has not been subjected to a detailed Rasch analysis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the internal validity of the scale, and its response format, item fit, targeting, internal consistency and dimensionality. Methods Ninety-two persons with definite MS residing in the community were recruited from a tertiary hospital database. Patients completed the MSIS-29 as part of a larger study. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29. Results Rasch analysis showed overall support for the psychometric properties of the two MSIS-29 subscales, however it was necessary to reduce the response format of the MSIS-29-PHYS to a 3-point response scale. Both subscales were unidimensional, had good internal consistency, and were free from item bias for sex and age. Dimensionality testing indicated it was not appropriate to combine the two subscales to form a total MSIS score. Conclusion In this first study to use Rasch analysis to fully assess the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29 support was found for the two subscales but not for the use of the total scale. Further use of Rasch analysis on the MSIS-29 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm these findings. PMID:19545445

  17. Analysis of energy flow during playground surface impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Wilson, Suzanne J; Chalmers, David J; Wilson, Barry D; Eager, David; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces, and the potential of this approach to provide insights into such impacts and predict injury risk examined. Acceleration data collected on-site from typical playground surfaces and previously obtained data from children performing an exercise involving freefalling with a fully extended arm provided input. The model identified differences in energy flow properties between playground surfaces and two potentially harmful surface characteristics: more energy was absorbed by (work done on) the wrist during both impact and rebound on rubber surfaces than on bark, and rubber surfaces started to rebound (return energy to the wrist) while the upper limb was still moving downward. Energy flow analysis thus provides information on playground surface characteristics and the impact process, and has the potential to identify fracture risks, inform the development of safer impact-attenuating surfaces, and contribute to development of new energy-based arm fracture injury criteria and tests for use in conjunction with current methods.

  18. Value/impact analysis for evaluating alternative mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Catton, I.; Castle, J.N.; Dooley, J.L.; Hammond, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are developed for assessing the cost effectiveness of proposed systems and strategies for mitigating the consequences of severe nuclear accidents. Such mitigation systems consist mostly of devices for improving the ability of a reactor containment to survive such an accident and retain all radioactive materials. Value/impact analysis is applied to the system with and without mitigation, using the population dose averted by mitigation as the value of benefit, and the dollar cost of the containment improvements as the impact. Other considerations affecting such analyses include ways of monetizing public health risk, economic discounting, and the effect of interdiction policy and other post-accident recovery costs

  19. Analysis of the degradation mechanisms in an impacted ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denoual, C.; Cottenot, C. E.; Hild, F.

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the degradation mechanisms in a natural sintered SiC (SSiC) ceramic during impact, three edge-on impact configurations are considered. First, the ceramic is confined by aluminum to allow a post-mortem analysis. In the second configuration, a polished surface of the ceramic is observed each micro-second by a high-speed camera to follow the damage generation and evolution. The third configuration uses a high-speed Moire photography system to measure dynamic 2-D strain fields. Sequences of fringe patterns are analyzed

  20. Impact parameter determination in experimental analysis using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, F.; David, C.; Freslier, M.; Aichelin, J.; Haddad, F.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.

    1997-01-01

    A neural network is used to determine the impact parameter in 40 Ca + 40 Ca reactions. The effect of the detection efficiency as well as the model dependence of the training procedure have been studied carefully. An overall improvement of the impact parameter determination of 25 % is obtained using this technique. The analysis of Amphora 40 Ca+ 40 Ca data at 35 MeV per nucleon using a neural network shows two well separated classes of events among the selected 'complete' events. (authors)

  1. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  2. [Guidelines for budget impact analysis of health technologies in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Da-Silva, Andre Luis; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Santos, Vânia Cristina Canuto; Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; d'Oliveira, Alexandre Lemgruber Portugal; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2012-07-01

    Budget impact analysis (BIA) provides operational financial forecasts to implement new technologies in healthcare systems. There were no previous specific recommendations to conduct such analyses in Brazil. This paper reviews BIA methods for health technologies and proposes BIA guidelines for the public and private Brazilian healthcare system. The following recommendations were made: adopt the budget administrator's perspective; use a timeframe of 1 to 5 years; compare reference and alternative scenarios; consider the technology's rate of incorporation; estimate the target population by either an epidemiological approach or measured demand; consider restrictions on technologies' indication or factors that increase the demand for them; consider direct and averted costs; do not adjust for inflation or discounts; preferably, integrate information on a spreadsheet; calculate the incremental budget impact between scenarios; and summarize information in a budget impact report.

  3. Analysis of the environmental impact generated by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Roxana Elena; Dumitrescu, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of environmental impact represents one of the most formalized examples of interdisciplinary approach. After more then a century from the introduction of the concept of environmental impact assessment, this undertaking still represents an amalgamation of mini-studies based on pre-determined approaches rather than a genuine integrated document. This work presents the most important and adequate techniques of analysis of environmental impact generated by nuclear activities starting from identification of the events causing negative effects upon environment (by using checking list, the matrices and the cause-effect diagram) and radiation dose determination up to the decision making process. To preserve environment integrity the human factor should be re-evaluated as well as its active participation in formation and settling of an real environmental culture

  4. Modal analysis of pre and post impacted nano composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velmurugan

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is carried out on pre and post impacted nano composite laminates. The laminates are prepared using 3, 5 and 8 layers of 610gsm glass woven roving mats(WRM with epoxy resin and montmorillonite(MMT clay content is varied from 1% to 5%. Impulse hammer technique is used to find natural frequency and damping factor of laminates. Medium velocity impact tests are conducted by using a gas gun. The vibration responses of natural frequency and damping factor are obtained and are studied for laminates with all edges clamped boundary conditions. Results show considerable improvement in natural frequency and damping factor due to nano clay addition. It is also seen that the nano clay controls the delamination due to impact loading.

  5. Cyber threat impact assessment and analysis for space vehicle architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper covers research into an assessment of potential impacts and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential impacts of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the impact assessment. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw impact data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw impact data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.

  6. Impact response analysis of cask for spent fuel by dimensional analysis and mode superposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, W. T.; Lee, Y. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Due to the potentiality of accidents, the transportation safety of radioactive material has become extremely important in these days. The most important means of accomplishing the safety in transportation for radioactive material is the integrity of cask. The cask for spent fuel consists of a cask body and two impact limiters generally. The impact limiters are attached at the upper and the lower of the cask body. The cask comprises general requirements and test requirements for normal transport conditions and hypothetical accident conditions in accordance with IAEA regulations. Among the test requirements for hypothetical accident conditions, the 9 m drop test of dropping the cask from 9 m height to unyielding surface to get maximum damage becomes very important requirement because it can affect the structural soundness of the cask. So far the impact response analysis for 9 m drop test has been obtained by finite element method with complex computational procedure. In this study, the empirical equations of the impact forces for 9 m drop test are formulated by dimensional analysis. And then using the empirical equations the characteristics of material used for impact limiters are analysed. Also the dynamic impact response of the cask body is analysed using the mode superposition method and the analysis method is proposed. The results are also validated by comparing with previous experimental results and finite element analysis results. The present method is simpler than finite element method and can be used to predict the impact response of the cask

  7. Impact testing and analysis for structural code benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with industry and other national laboratories, has been benchmarking computer codes (''Structural Code Benchmarking for the Analysis of Impact Response of Nuclear Material Shipping Cask,'' R.E. Glass, Sandia National Laboratories, 1985; ''Sample Problem Manual for Benchmarking of Cask Analysis Codes,'' R.E. Glass, Sandia National Laboratories, 1988; ''Standard Thermal Problem Set for the Evaluation of Heat Transfer Codes Used in the Assessment of Transportation Packages, R.E. Glass, et al., Sandia National Laboratories, 1988) used to predict the structural, thermal, criticality, and shielding behavior of radioactive materials packages. The first step in the benchmarking of the codes was to develop standard problem sets and to compare the results from several codes and users. This step for structural analysis codes has been completed as described in ''Structural Code Benchmarking for the Analysis of Impact Response of Nuclear Material Shipping Casks,'' R.E. Glass, Sandia National Laboratories, 1985. The problem set is shown in Fig. 1. This problem set exercised the ability of the codes to predict the response to end (axisymmetric) and side (plane strain) impacts with both elastic and elastic/plastic materials. The results from these problems showed that there is good agreement in predicting elastic response. Significant differences occurred in predicting strains for the elastic/plastic models. An example of the variation in predicting plastic behavior is given, which shows the hoop strain as a function of time at the impacting end of Model B. These differences in predicting plastic strains demonstrated a need for benchmark data for a cask-like problem. 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  9. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-01-01

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Severe accident analysis code Sampson for impact project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi, Ujita; Takashi, Ikeda; Masanori, Naitoh

    2001-01-01

    Four years of the IMPACT project Phase 1 (1994-1997) had been completed with financial sponsorship from the Japanese government's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. At the end of the phase, demonstration simulations by combinations of up to 11 analysis modules developed for severe accident analysis in the SAMPSON Code were performed and physical models in the code were verified. The SAMPSON prototype was validated by TMI-2 and Phebus-FP test analyses. Many of empirical correlation and conventional models have been replaced by mechanistic models during Phase 2 (1998-2000). New models for Accident Management evaluation have been also developed. (author)

  11. Computer codes for the analysis of flask impact problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, A.J.

    1984-09-01

    This review identifies typical features of the design of transportation flasks and considers some of the analytical tools required for the analysis of impact events. Because of the complexity of the physical problem, it is unlikely that a single code will adequately deal with all the aspects of the impact incident. Candidate codes are identified on the basis of current understanding of their strengths and limitations. It is concluded that the HONDO-II, DYNA3D AND ABAQUS codes which ar already mounted on UKAEA computers will be suitable tools for use in the analysis of experiments conducted in the proposed AEEW programme and of general flask impact problems. Initial attention should be directed at the DYNA3D and ABAQUS codes with HONDO-II being reserved for situations where the three-dimensional elements of DYNA3D may provide uneconomic simulations in planar or axisymmetric geometries. Attention is drawn to the importance of access to suitable mesh generators to create the nodal coordinate and element topology data required by these structural analysis codes. (author)

  12. Servicing communication satellites in geostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul K.; Price, Kent M.

    1990-01-01

    The econmic benefits of a LEO space station are quantified by identifying alternative operating scenarios utilizing the space station's transportation facilities and assembly and repair facilities. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of the impact of on-orbit assembly and servicing on a typical communications satellite is analyzed. The results of this study show that on-orbit servicing can increase the internal rate of return by as much as 30 percent.

  13. Economic Impacts Analysis of Shale Gas Investment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shangfeng; Zhang, Baosheng; Wang, Xuecheng

    2018-01-01

    Chinese government has announced an ambitious shale gas extraction plan, which requires significant investment. This has the potential to draw investment from other areas and may affect the whole China’s economy. There is few study to date has quantified these shale gas investment’s effects on Chinese economy. The aim of this paper is to quantify the economic effect and figures out whether shale gas investment in China is a good choice or not. Input-output analysis has been utilized in this study to estimate the economic impacts in four different Chinese regions. Our findings show that shale gas investment will result in approximately 868, 427, 115 and 42 Billion RMB economic impacts in Sichuan, Chongqing, Inner Mongolia and Guizhou, respectively. The total economic impact is only around 1453 Billion RMB, which is not significant compared to the economic impact of coalbed methane investment. Considering the potential risks of environmental issues, we suggest that it may be a better strategy for the government, at least in the current situation, to slow down shale gas development investment.

  14. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  15. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yanfen; Huang Zehao; Ma Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    The entire life cycle of biodiesel produced by microalgal biomasses was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impact loading of the system. The life cycle considers microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, oil extraction, anaerobic digestion, oil transportation, esterification, biodiesel transportation and biodiesel combustion. The investigation results show that the fossil energy requirement for the biodiesel production is 0.74 MJ/MJ biodiesel, indicating that 1 MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 0.74 MJ of fossil energy. Accordingly, biodiesel production is feasible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgal biodiesel is 3.69 PET 2010 (Person Equivalents, Targeted, in 2010) and the GWP is 0.16 kg CO 2-eq /MJ biodiesel. The effects of photochemical ozone formation were greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The fossil energy requirement and GWP in this operation were found to be particularly sensitive to oil content, drying rate and esterification rate. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the cultivation of microalgae has the potential to produce an environmentally sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Do energy analysis and environmental impacts of algal biodiesel in China. ► GWP and energy consumption are sensitive to lipid content and drying rate. ► Fossil energy consumption for algal biodiesel is 0.74 MJ/MJ. ► Microalgae are an environmentally sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  16. Impact testing and analysis for structural code benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with industry and other national laboratories, has been benchmarking computer codes used to predict the structural, thermal, criticality, and shielding behavior of radioactive materials packages. The first step in the benchmarking of the codes was to develop standard problem sets and to compare the results from several codes and users. This step for structural analysis codes has been completed as described in Structural Code Benchmarking for the Analysis of Impact Response of Nuclear Material Shipping Casks, R.E. Glass, Sandia National Laboratories, 1985. The problem set is shown in Fig. 1. This problem set exercised the ability of the codes to predict the response to end (axisymmetric) and side (plane strain) impacts with both elastic and elastic/plastic materials. The results from these problems showed that there is good agreement in predicting elastic response. Significant differences occurred in predicting strains for the elastic/plastic models. An example of the variation in predicting plastic behavior is given, which shows the hoop strain as a function of time at the impacting end of Model B. These differences in predicting plastic strains demonstrated a need for benchmark data for a cask-like problem

  17. Post mitigation impact risk analysis for asteroid deflection demonstration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.

  18. Impact analysis of automotive structures with distributed smart material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelamedu, Saravanan M.; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    New class of automobiles has structural skins that are quite different from their current designs. Particularly, new families of composite skins are developed with new injection molding processes. These skins while support the concept of lighter vehicles of the future, are also susceptible to damage upon impact. It is important that their design should be based on a better understanding on the type of impact loads and the resulting strains and damage. It is possible that these skins can be integrally designed with active materials to counter damages. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of a new class of automotive skins, using piezoceramic as a smart material. The main objective is to consider the complex system with, the skin to be modeled as a layered plate structure involving a lightweight material with foam and active materials imbedded on them. To begin with a cantilever beam structure is subjected to a load through piezoceramic and the resulting strain at the active material site is predicted accounting for the material properties, piezoceramic thickness, adhesive thickness including the effect of adhesives. A finite element analysis is carried out to compare experimental work. Further work in this direction would provide an analytical tool that will provide the basis for algorithms to predict and counter impacts on the future class of automobiles.

  19. Threat evaluation for impact assessment in situation analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean; Paradis, Stephane; Allouche, Mohamad

    2002-07-01

    Situation analysis is defined as a process, the examination of a situation, its elements, and their relations, to provide and maintain a product, i.e., a state of situation awareness, for the decision maker. Data fusion is a key enabler to meeting the demanding requirements of military situation analysis support systems. According to the data fusion model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories' Data Fusion Group, impact assessment estimates the effects on situations of planned or estimated/predicted actions by the participants, including interactions between action plans of multiple players. In this framework, the appraisal of actual or potential threats is a necessary capability for impact assessment. This paper reviews and discusses in details the fundamental concepts of threat analysis. In particular, threat analysis generally attempts to compute some threat value, for the individual tracks, that estimates the degree of severity with which engagement events will potentially occur. Presenting relevant tracks to the decision maker in some threat list, sorted from the most threatening to the least, is clearly in-line with the cognitive demands associated with threat evaluation. A key parameter in many threat value evaluation techniques is the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Along this line of thought, threatening tracks are often prioritized based upon which ones will reach their CPA first. Hence, the Time-to-CPA (TCPA), i.e., the time it will take for a track to reach its CPA, is also a key factor. Unfortunately, a typical assumption for the computation of the CPA/TCPA parameters is that the track velocity will remain constant. When a track is maneuvering, the CPA/TCPA values will change accordingly. These changes will in turn impact the threat value computations and, ultimately, the resulting threat list. This is clearly undesirable from a command decision-making perspective. In this regard, the paper briefly discusses threat value stabilization

  20. Transportation impact analysis gets a failing grade when it comes to climate change and smart growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Transportation impact analysis performed to comply with environmental impact laws (i.e., the : California Environmental Quality Act or the National Environmental Policy Act) often focuses : on only one perspective about potential impacts. That perspe...

  1. The impact of cyberstalking: the lived experience - a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Emma; Linford, Sarah; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Maple, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Cyberstalking (CS) can have major psychosocial impacts on individuals. Victims report a number of serious consequences of victimization such as increased suicidal ideation, fear, anger, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Research is largely limited to quantitative outcome research. This study examines the diversity of experiences reported by people who define themselves as having been cyberstalked. Thematic analysis was used to explore 100 CS victim narratives, gathered by means of an online survey questionnaire designed to capture structured text responses. Five emergent themes were evident in the data: control and intimidation; determined offender; development of harassment; negative consequences; and lack of support. Findings identify similarities and differences to traditional stalking, along with the necessity of support for victims and illustration of the negative impacts this form of harassment produces.

  2. Budget impact analysis of medicines: updated systematic review and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiros, Daniel Resende; Álvares, Juliana; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Godman, Brian B; Acurcio, Francisco A; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation determines whether published studies to date meet the key characteristics identified for budget impact analyses (BIA) for medicines, accomplished through a systematic review and assessment against identified key characteristics. Studies from 2001-2015 on 'budget impact analysis' with 'drug' interventions were assessed, selected based on their titles/abstracts and full texts, and their characteristics checked according to key criteria. Out of 1,984 studies, 92 were subsequently identified for review. Of these, 95% were published in Europe and the USA. 2012 saw the largest number of publications (16%) with a decline thereafter. 48% met up to 7 out of the 9 key characteristics. Only 22% stated no conflict of interest. The results indicate low adherence to the key characteristics that should be considered for BIAs and strong conflict of interest. This is an issue since BIAs can be of fundamental importance in managing the entry of new medicines including reimbursement decisions.

  3. Analysis Of The 2009 July Impact Debris In Jupiter'S Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; García-Melendo, E.; Gómez, J. M.; Rojas, J. F.; Orton, G. S.; Wesley, A.; IOPW International Outer Planet Watch Team

    2009-09-01

    We report the analysis of images obtained by the contributors to the International Outer Planet Watch (IOPW) of the debris left in the atmosphere of Jupiter by the object that impacted the planet between 18 and 19 July 2009. The discovery images by Anthony Wesley in July 19.625 and the first two days of its tracking, shows a dark debris spot (continuum wavelength) located at planetocentric latitude -55.1 deg and 304.5 deg System III longitude. The imaging survey indicates that the spot was not present in July 18.375, so the impact occurred during a window between both dates. The main spot had a size of about 4,500 km and to its Northwest a thin debris halo of similar size was initially observed. Methane band images at a wavelength of 890 nm shows the spot to be bright indicating that the debris aerosols are highly placed in the atmosphere relative to surrounding clouds. At the central latitude of the impact, the Jovian flow has nearly zero speed but anticyclonic vorticity bounded by jets at -51.5 deg (directed westward with velocity -10 m/s) and at -57.5 deg (directed eastward with velocity 25 m/s). The morphology in the continuum and the spot brightness in the methane band strongly suggest that the feature was caused by a cometary or asteroidal impact, similar in behaviour to the SL9 impacts of 1994. This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  4. Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using solidworks software ... high safety and at the same time can be built according to market demands. ... Keywords: finite element analysis; impact test; Solidworks; automation, car hood.

  5. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  6. The Impact of Uncertainty on Investment. A Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, Henri L.F. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we perform a meta-analysis on empirical estimates of the impact between investment and uncertainty. Since the outcomes of primary studies are largely incomparable with respect to the magnitude of the effect, our analysis focuses on the direction and statistical significance of the relationship. The standard approach in this situation is to estimate an ordered probit model on a categorical estimate, defined in terms of the direction of the effect. The estimates are transformed into marginal effects, in order to represent the changes in the probability of finding a negative significant, insignificant, and positive significant estimate. Although a meta-analysis generally does not allow for inferences on the correctness of model specifications in primary studies, our results give clear directions for model building in empirical investment research. For example, not including factor prices in investment models may seriously affect the model outcomes. Furthermore, we find that Q models produce more negative significant estimates than other models do, ceteris paribus. The outcome of a study is also affected by the type of data used in a primary study. Although it is clear that meta-analysis cannot always give decisive insights into the explanations for the variation in empirical outcomes, our meta-analysis shows that we can explain to a large extent why empirical estimates of the investment uncertainty relationship differ.

  7. A study on the environmental impacts analysis with life cycle analysis of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. S.; Moon, K. H.; Youn, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    This Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) work was accomplished based on the ISO-14040 framework goal and scope definition, including life cycle inventory analysis, and life cycle impact assessment. For the selection of impact categories, resource use, global affairs, local affairs, and nuclear specific affair were considered. It was unexpected that environmental burdens are generally heavier in an electricity generation process than in upper stream and fabrication processes, except ODP and ETPs. It has been normally thought that environmental burden in upper steam would be heavier than those in other processes. This misconception could have originated from the ambiguous thought for end-of-pipe emissions and life cycle inventories

  8. Impact Responses and Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Electric Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The shock and vibration of electric wheelchairs undergoing road irregularities is inevitable. The road excitation causes the uneven magnetic gap of the motor, and the harmful vibration decreases the recovery rate of rehabilitation patients. To effectively suppress the shock and vibration, this paper introduces the DA (dynamic absorber to the electric wheelchair. Firstly, a vibration model of the human-wheelchair system with the DA was created. The models of the road excitation for wheelchairs going up a step and going down a step were proposed, respectively. To reasonably evaluate the impact level of the human-wheelchair system undergoing the step–road transition, evaluation indexes were given. Moreover, the created vibration model and the road–step model were validated via tests. Then, to reveal the vibration suppression performance of the DA, the impact responses and the amplitude frequency characteristics were numerically simulated and compared. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the impact responses to the tire static radius r and the characteristic parameters was carried out. The results show that the DA can effectively suppress the shock and vibration of the human-wheelchair system. Moreover, for the electric wheelchair going up a step and going down a step, there are some differences in the vibration behaviors.

  9. Buckling behavior analysis of spacer grid by lateral impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    2000-05-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, Which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. Therefore, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, free fall type shock tests on the several kinds of the specimens of the spacer grids were also carried out in order to compare the results among the candidate grids. A free fall carriage on the specimen accomplishes the test. In addition to this, a finite element method for predicting the critical impact strength of the spacer grids is described. FE method on the buckling behavior of the spacer grids are performed for a various array of sizes of the grids considering that the spacer grid is an assembled structure with thin-walled plates and imposing proper boundary conditions by nonlinear dynamic impact analysis using ABAQUS/explicit code. The simulated results results also similarly predicted the local buckling phenomena and were found to give good correspondence with the shock test results

  10. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  11. Analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.; Scharpf, F.; Schwarz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concerning the evaluation of the effects of aircraft impact loading on the reactor building and the contained equipment special interest belongs to both the characteristic of loading conditions and the consideration of the nonlinear behaviour of the local impacted area as well as the overall behaviour of the structure. To cover this extensive scope of problems the fully 3-dimensional code DYSMAS/L was prepared for the analysis of highly dynamic continuum mechanics problems. For this totally Lagrangian description, derived and tested in the field of the simulation of impact phenomena and penetration of armoured structures, an extension was made for the reasonable modelling of the material behaviour of reinforced concrete. Conforming the available experimental data a nonlinear stress-strain curve is given and a continuous triaxial failure-surface is composed which allows cracking of concrete in the tensile region and its crushing in the compressive mode. For the separately modeled reinforcement an elastic-plastic stress-strain relationship with kinematic hardening is used. (orig./RW)

  12. A budget impact analysis of natalizumab use in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2011-10-20

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of disability in young Irish adults. Natalizumab reduces disability progression in those patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who are suitable for it. First line disease modifying therapies are given in the community and are paid for by the hi-tech drug scheme. Natalizumab is given in hospital and is paid for from the hospital\\'s budget. Access to natalizumab has been problematic in some Irish hospitals. A budget impact analysis was performed to look at the overall cost to the Health Service Executive of giving natalizumab. METHODS: A budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Health Service Executive comparing the use of natalizumab with first line disease modifying therapies for 2009-2011. RESULTS: The study showed that currently, the use of natalizumab is likely to be cost saving to the Health Service Executive overall, because some of the costs for natalizumab are borne by private insurers, whereas, all of the costs of disease modifying therapies are borne by the Health Service Executive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of natalizumab is cost saving, current funding arrangements in the Health Service Executive do not allow for the transfer of money saved from drugs paid for in the hi-tech scheme, to hospitals who are supplying alternative treatments.

  13. Sobol' sensitivity analysis for stressor impacts on honeybee ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation and nonlinear sensitivity analysis techniques to describe the dynamics of a bee exposure model, VarroaPop. Daily simulations are performed of hive population trajectories, taking into account queen strength, foraging success, mite impacts, weather, colony resources, population structure, and other important variables. This allows us to test the effects of defined pesticide exposure scenarios versus controlled simulations that lack pesticide exposure. The daily resolution of the model also allows us to conditionally identify sensitivity metrics. We use the variancebased global decomposition sensitivity analysis method, Sobol’, to assess firstand secondorder parameter sensitivities within VarroaPop, allowing us to determine how variance in the output is attributed to each of the input variables across different exposure scenarios. Simulations with VarroaPop indicate queen strength, forager life span and pesticide toxicity parameters are consistent, critical inputs for colony dynamics. Further analysis also reveals that the relative importance of these parameters fluctuates throughout the simulation period according to the status of other inputs. Our preliminary results show that model variability is conditional and can be attributed to different parameters depending on different timescales. By using sensitivity analysis to assess model output and variability, calibrations of simulation models can be better informed to yield more

  14. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  15. Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

    To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi

  16. The psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy: A narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Sarah S; Marlow, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four months) with four participants (aged 23-38years) who varied in seizure type and control (16 interviews in total). A narrative analysis was used to analyze their exercise experiences. Results showed that exercise creates a positive effect on psychological and physical well-being. However, prevention from exercise as a result of medical advice or recurrent seizures can create negative effects such as social isolation, anxiety, lack of confidence, frustration, and anger. Adaptations of decreasing exercise intensity level and partaking in different physical activities are techniques used to lessen the negative impact and maintain an exercise routine. Time was shown to be an important factor in this adaptation as well as portrayed the cyclical responses of negative and positive emotions in regard to their exercise life. These findings provide valuable insight into the psychosocial benefits of and barriers to exercising with epilepsy and draw attention to the individual differences in how a person with epilepsy copes with uncontrolled seizures and their impact on his/her exercise routine. This knowledge can lead to future research in exploring how a person with epilepsy can overcome these barriers to exercise and encourage more people with epilepsy to enjoy the benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Employee impact and attitude analysis for GHS implementation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Su, Teh-Sheng; Ouyang, Yun; Tseng, Jo-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The employee impact and attitude analysis for GHS implementation in Taiwan was investigated in this study. An impact assessment on the new regulations or changes in regulations for government, potential costs, benefits, and the global trade in chemicals to industries and hazard communication program for workers was studied by the methods of the questionnaire design and Delphi expert method. A survey was conducted using questionnaires and taking 200 experts from government's expert database and 500 selected respondents from case company. Results from present study revealed that the barrier associated with GHS implementation is existed; it is feasible to overcome. Both experts and employees think that business entities are insufficient to test and classify chemicals on their own, and the technical guidance from the government is needed. Data analyzed by the logistic regression revealed that more hours an employee spends on education and trainings of new GHS systems; the employee thinks implementation of GHS will improve hazard awareness for transporters. The weak labeling ability affects deployment of the new GHS system.

  18. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  19. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  20. An impact analysis of the fault impedance on voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an impact analysis of the fault impedance, in terms of its module and angle, on voltage sags caused by faults. Symmetrical and asymmetrical faults are simulated, at transmission and distribution lines, by using a frequency-domain fault simulation software called ANAFAS. Voltage sags are monitored at buses where sensitive end-users are connected. In order to overcome some intrinsic limitations of this software concerning its automatic execution for several cases, a computational tool was developed in Java programming language. This solution allows the automatic simulation of cases including the effect of the fault position, the fault type, and the proper fault impedance. The main conclusion is that the module and angle of the fault impedance can have a significant influence on voltage sag depending on the fault characteristics. (author)

  1. Small-scale wind power design, analysis, and environmental impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, John P

    2014-01-01

    In today's world, clean and robust energy sources are being sought to provide power to residences, commercial operations, and manufacturing enterprises. Among the most appealing energy sources is wind power-with its high reliability and low environmental impact. Wind power's rapid penetration into markets throughout the world has taken many forms, and this book discusses the types of wind power, as well as the appropriate decisions that need to be made regarding wind power design, testing, installation, and analysis. Inside, the authors detail the design of various small-wind systems including horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) and vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The design of wind turbines takes advantage of many avenues of investigation, all of which are included in the book. Analytical methods that have been developed over the past few decades are major methods used for design. Alternatively, experimentation (typically using scaled models in wind tunnels) and numerical simulation (using modern comp...

  2. The DT-19 container design, impact testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.; Goins, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Containers used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the transport of radioactive material components, including components and special assemblies, are required to meet certain impact and thermal requirements that are demonstrated by performance or compliance testing, analytical procedures or a combination of both. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 49, Section 173.7(d) stipulates that, 'Packages (containers) made by or under direction of the US DOE may be used for the transportation of radioactive materials when evaluated, approved, and certified by the DOE against packaging standards equivalent to those specified in 10 CFR Part 71. This paper describes the details of the design, analysis and testing efforts undertaken to improve the overall structural and thermal integrity of the DC-19 shipping container

  3. Contribution of a fuzzy expert system to regulatory impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio da Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA has been consolidating in Brazilian regulatory agencies throughout the last decades. The RIA methodology aims to examine the regulatory process, measure the costs and benefits generated, as well as other effects of social, political or economic nature caused by a new or an existing regulation. By analysing each regulatory option, the expert or regulator faces a myriad of variables, usually of qualitative nature, that are difficult to measure and with a high degree of uncertainty. This research complements the existing literature, given the scarcity of decision support models in RIA that – regardless of the problem treated – incorporate the tacit knowledge of the regulation expert. This paper proposes an exploratory approach using a Fuzzy Expert System, which therefore helps to enrich the decision process in the final stage of comparison of the regulatory options.

  4. Air quality impact analysis in support of the new production reactor environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this air quality impact analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this work was to provide Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the required estimates of ground-level concentrations of five criteria air pollutants at the Hanford Site boundary from each of the stationary sources associated with the new production reactor (NPR) and its supporting facilities. The DOE proposes to provide new production capacity for the primary production of tritium and secondary production of plutonium to support the US nuclear weapons program. Three alternative reactor technologies are being considered by DOE: the light-water reactor, the low-temperature, heavy-water reactor, and the modular high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor. In this study, PNL provided estimates of the impacts of the proposed action on the ground-level concentration of the criteria air pollutants for each of the alternative technologies. The criteria pollutants were sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, and particulates with a diameter of less than 10 microns. Ground-level concentrations were estimated for the peak construction phase activities expected to occur in 1997 and for the operational phase activities beginning in the year 2000. Ground-level concentrations of the primary air pollutants were estimated to be well below any of the applicable national or state ambient air quality standards. 12 refs., 19 tabs

  5. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  6. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need for...

  7. Free vibration analysis of linear particle chain impact damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Mohamed; Ghani, Saud

    2013-11-01

    Impact dampers have gained much research interest over the past decades that resulted in several analytical and experimental studies being conducted in that area. The main emphasis of such research was on developing and enhancing these popular passive control devices with an objective of decreasing the three parameters of contact forces, accelerations, and noise levels. To that end, the authors of this paper have developed a novel impact damper, called the Linear Particle Chain (LPC) impact damper, which mainly consists of a linear chain of spherical balls of varying sizes. The LPC impact damper was designed utilizing the kinetic energy of the primary system through placing, in the chain arrangement, a small-sized ball between each two large-sized balls. The concept of the LPC impact damper revolves around causing the small-sized ball to collide multiple times with the larger ones upon exciting the primary system. This action is believed to lead to the dissipation of part of the kinetic energy at each collision with the large balls. This paper focuses on the outcome of studying the free vibration of a single degree freedom system that is equipped with the LPC impact damper. The proposed LPC impact damper is validated by means of comparing the responses of a single unit conventional impact damper with those resulting from the LPC impact damper. The results indicated that the latter is considerably more efficient than the former impact damper. In order to further investigate the LPC impact damper effective number of balls and efficient geometry when used in a specific available space in the primary system, a parametric study was conducted and its result is also explained herein. Single unit impact damper [14-16]. Multiunit impact damper [17,18]. Bean bag impact damper [19,20]. Particle/granular impact damper [21,23,22]. Resilient impact damper [24]. Buffered impact damper [25-27]. Multiunit impact damper consists of multiple masses instead of a single mass. This

  8. EFTPOS Impacts on Branch Banking: an extra organisational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shailer

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions and experiences of bank branch managers and merchant who have installed EFTPOS are surveyed to investigate the impact of EFTPOS on branch banking activities using internal and extra-organisational perspectives. Impacts are identified by reference to banking activities and interpreted as efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness impacts. It appears that bank managers may have difficulty in isolating the impacts of EFTPOS on banking activities from concurrent changes in banking practices and might overestimate some beneficial impacts. Results indicate a much richer view can be obtained using an organisational perspective of a system's impacts.

  9. Distance Based Root Cause Analysis and Change Impact Analysis of Performance Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance regression testing is applied to uncover both performance and functional problems of software releases. A performance problem revealed by performance testing can be high response time, low throughput, or even being out of service. Mature performance testing process helps systematically detect software performance problems. However, it is difficult to identify the root cause and evaluate the potential change impact. In this paper, we present an approach leveraging server side logs for identifying root causes of performance problems. Firstly, server side logs are used to recover call tree of each business transaction. We define a novel distance based metric computed from call trees for root cause analysis and apply inverted index from methods to business transactions for change impact analysis. Empirical studies show that our approach can effectively and efficiently help developers diagnose root cause of performance problems.

  10. 78 FR 56869 - Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement... of Energy (DOE) has completed the Supplement Analysis (SA) of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian Nuclear Energy Research and Development and Isotope Production...

  11. Nonlinear analysis of a reactor building for airplane impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, T.; Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

  12. On the impact of relatedness on SNP association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Tönjes, Anke; Scholz, Markus

    2017-12-06

    When testing for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) associations in related individuals, observations are not independent. Simple linear regression assuming independent normally distributed residuals results in an increased type I error and the power of the test is also affected in a more complicate manner. Inflation of type I error is often successfully corrected by genomic control. However, this reduces the power of the test when relatedness is of concern. In the present paper, we derive explicit formulae to investigate how heritability and strength of relatedness contribute to variance inflation of the effect estimate of the linear model. Further, we study the consequences of variance inflation on hypothesis testing and compare the results with those of genomic control correction. We apply the developed theory to the publicly available HapMap trio data (N=129), the Sorbs (a self-contained population with N=977 characterised by a cryptic relatedness structure) and synthetic family studies with different sample sizes (ranging from N=129 to N=999) and different degrees of relatedness. We derive explicit and easily to apply approximation formulae to estimate the impact of relatedness on the variance of the effect estimate of the linear regression model. Variance inflation increases with increasing heritability. Relatedness structure also impacts the degree of variance inflation as shown for example family structures. Variance inflation is smallest for HapMap trios, followed by a synthetic family study corresponding to the trio data but with larger sample size than HapMap. Next strongest inflation is observed for the Sorbs, and finally, for a synthetic family study with a more extreme relatedness structure but with similar sample size as the Sorbs. Type I error increases rapidly with increasing inflation. However, for smaller significance levels, power increases with increasing inflation while the opposite holds for larger significance levels. When genomic control

  13. Impact of Instructional Decisions on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Chemistry through Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apugliese, Andrew; Lewis, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analysis can provide a robust description of the impact of educational reforms and also offer an opportunity to explore the conditions where such reforms are more or less effective. This article describes a meta-analysis on the impact of cooperative learning on students' chemistry understanding. Modifiers in the meta-analysis are purposefully…

  14. Analysis of Global Urban Temperature Trends and Urbanization Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. I.; Ryu, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    Due to urbanization, urban areas are shrinking green spaces and increasing concrete, asphalt pavement. So urban climates are different from non-urban areas. In addition, long-term macroscopic studies of urban climate change are becoming more important as global urbanization affects global warming. To do this, it is necessary to analyze the effect of urbanization on the temporal change in urban temperature with the same temperature data and standards for urban areas around the world. In this study, time series analysis was performed with the maximum, minimum, mean and standard values of surface temperature during the from 1980 to 2010 and analyzed the effect of urbanization through linear regression analysis with variables (population, night light, NDVI, urban area). As a result, the minimum value of the surface temperature of the urban area reflects an increase by a rate of 0.28K decade-1 over the past 31 years, the maximum value reflects an increase by a rate of 0.372K decade-1, the mean value reflects an increase by a rate of 0.208 decade-1, and the standard deviation reflects a decrease by rate of 0.023K decade-1. And the change of surface temperature in urban areas is affected by urbanization related to land cover such as decrease of greenery and increase of pavement area, but socioeconomic variables are less influential than NDVI in this study. This study are expected to provide an approach to future research and policy-planning for urban temperature change and urbanization impacts.

  15. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  16. Impact analysis and community development needs at the salt site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.; Boryczka, M.; Hines, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) has developed a socioeconomic program for a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt. The program is comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation, and impact monitoring. The first element, impact assessment, is the focus of ONWI's current activities. Socioeconomic data has been collected for seven salt sites in Texas, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana. Demographic, economic, community service, governmental and social structure information has been assembled into data base reports for each site area. These socioeconomic reports will be the basis for analyzing community-related impacts. Socioeconomic effects are currently being evaluated for the environmental assessment document required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The approach to evaluating socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment impact includes developing the data base necessary for evaluation; assessing impacts of baseline population projected by the states; assessing project-related impacts through the use of an inmigration model and responding to socioeconomic issues raised in public meetings and hearings. The siting, construction, and operation of nuclear repositories will involve an extended period of time and an increased workforce, which can result in some impacts similar to those of other large development projects. The communities affected by a repository site will face increased demands for housing, community services (transportation, sewer and water, schools, etc.) and land, as well as a desire to maintain the community's ''character''. The management of this expansion and other related community impacts should be structured to meet community needs and goals. The management process should include the formation of an impact management comment, a public participation program, and a technical assistance program

  17. Rasch analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramp, Melina; Khan, Fary; Misajon, Rose Anne; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological disease that causes impairments, including spasticity, pain, fatigue, and bladder dysfunction, which negatively impact on quality of life. The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) is a disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, developed using the patient's perspective on disease impact. It consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) im...

  18. Brain tissue analysis of impacts to American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Andrew; Kendall, Marshall; Cournoyer, Janie; Karton, Clara; Oeur, R Anna; Dawson, Lauren; Hoshizaki, T Blaine

    2018-02-01

    Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors. The resulting dynamic response was used as input for the Wayne State Brain Injury Model to determine the risk of concussive injury by utilizing maximum principal strain as the predictive variable. The results demonstrated that impacts that occur primarily to the side of the head resulted in higher magnitudes of strain in the grey and white matter, as well as the brain stem. Finally, commonly worn American football helmets were used in this research and significant risk of injury was incurred for all impacts. These results suggest that improvements in American football helmets are warranted, in particular for impacts to the side of the helmet.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  1. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored into the study

  2. Budget impact analysis of 8 hormonal contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Simone; Kerrigan, Matthew; Sood, Vipan

    2013-07-01

    To develop a model comparing costs of 8 hormonal contraceptives and determine whether acquisition costs for implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were offset by decreased pregnancy-related costs over a 3-year time horizon from a managed care perspective. A model was developed to assess the budget impact of branded or generic oral contraceptives (OCs), quarterly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone, etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, etonogestrel implant, levonorgestrel IUD, norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol transdermal contraceptive, and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel extended-cycle OC. Major variables included drug costs, typical use failure rates, discontinuation rates, and pregnancy costs. The base case assessed costs for 1000 women initiating each of the hormonal contraceptives. The etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD resulted in the fewest pregnancies, 63 and 85, respectively, and the least cost, $1.75 million and $2.0 million, respectively. In comparison, generic OC users accounted for a total of 243 pregnancies and $3.4 million in costs. At the end of year 1, costs for the etonogestrel implant ($800,471) and levonorgestrel IUD ($949,721) were already lower than those for generic OCs ($1,146,890). Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of pregnancies, not product acquisition cost, was the primary cost driver. Higher initial acquisition costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD were offset within 1 year by lower contraceptive failure rates and consequent pregnancy costs. Thus, after accounting for typical use failure rates of contraceptive products, the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD emerged as the least expensive hormonal contraceptives.

  3. A critical analysis of the impact assessment of environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Narendra; Bhatia, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Tritium, a radionuclide of hydrogen has longer life and gets more rapidly dispersed, but before becoming globally distributed, it represents a significant radiobiological risk to the local population exposed. It is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen and hydrogen. The tritons in the upper atmosphere are oxidized to tritiated water (HTO) and mix with the hydrosphere generally through the movement of air masses and precipitation. Terrestrially, tritium may be formed by the action of lithium on neutrons. There is apprehension that the recent controversy concerning the health and environmental impact of tritium may end up as worldwide contaminants in the final analysis. From many varied reports from different laboratories, it appears that projected levels for fusion reactors may also produce deleterious and detectable effects. The degree of concern over tritium problem is evidenced by a rapid increase in publications on the health implications of environmental tritium. The present issues of controversy will be intensified as the fusion reactor technology approaches the door step of public and the possible health detriment from its radioactive emissions arouse concern. The current project has been planned keeping some such points in view. It reviews the work on the behavior of tritium in its various forms in the environment with an emphasis on the release from various sources, its world inventories at present level sand its transfer into the various compartments of ecosystems. Besides this, its metabolism in biosystem and the possible implications of low doses of tritium in present and future generations have also been discussed. (author)

  4. Wildlife inventory and analysis of some energy development impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Impacts resulting from a nuclear fracturing experiment (Project Rio Blanco) are described. Matrices used in the presentation of environmental impact and inventory data are discussed and a procedure that can be used in conducting environmental inventory and impact studies is given. Results of the Rio Blanco Study indicated that measurable environmental impacts resulted from conventional physical activities and ground motion. Impacts of ground motion were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravines and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Animals suffering deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs, and burrows. No mortality resulting from ground motion was observed in large mammals. Following detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Two interaction matrices are described and used to present environmental inventory data in a simple graphic display. One illustrates trophic relationships for 28 different species of mammals while the other presents biological events relative to seasons and is used to develop timing strategy for the execution of projects. The third matrix describes documented environmental impacts and was used to portray results of the Rio Blanco study. This matrix includes categories of impacts, distances from the source term, frequency and magnitude ratings, as well as a category for basis of rating

  5. Analysis of ecological environment impact of coal exploitation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliu; Luo, Hong; Lv, Lianhong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Baoshi

    2018-02-01

    Based on the theory of life cycle assessment, the ecological and environmental impacts of coal mining, processing, utilization and transportation will be analyzed, with analysing the status of china’s coal exploitation and utilization as the basis, it will find out the ecological and environmental impact in the development and utilization of coal, mainly consist of ecological impact including land damage, water resource destructionand biodiversity loss, etc., while the environmental impact include air, water, solid waste pollutions. Finally with a summary of the ecological and environmental problems, to propose solutionsand countermeasures to promote the rational development and consumption of coal, as well as to reduce the impact of coal production and consumption on the ecological environment, finally to achieve the coordinated development of energy and the environment.

  6. Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, M.; Goria, A.; Spantidaki, E.; Mombrini, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Saferooms Subjected to Tornado Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.

    2017-10-01

    A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes - where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.

  8. An Impact Analysis of Farmer Field School in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Cai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Farmer Field School (FFS intervention among small-scale tomato farmers in Beijing. Using data collected by face-to face-interview from 358 households on 426 planting plots in 2009, we evaluate the yield effect and find evidence of positive impact. We then examine the determining factors of farmers’ FFS attendance using the zero-inflated Poisson model. We find evidence of the positive impact of the FFS program on male participants but no impact on female participants. We find that some factors, such as being the household head, wealth level and land size affect both FFS participation decisions and attendance decisions, whereas other factors may affect only one decision but not the other. The results suggest that FFS is a useful way to increase production of farmers in Beijing and that the approach is especially effective for male and wealthy producers with smaller farm sizes and higher literacy.

  9. Impact of environmental justice analysis on transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    This report presents the findings of a study sponsored by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT): Impact of Environmental Justice (EJ) on Transportation Planning. The objectives of the study were to determine the state of the practice of EJ ...

  10. Analysis of the Status and Impacts of NCTR Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the University of South Florida (USF) assessed the implementation status and identified the outcomes and impacts of the results of 30 Florida Department of Transportation -sponsored NCTR research pro...

  11. Conventional fuel tank blunt impact tests : test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. A series of impact tests are planned to : measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dynamic : loading conditi...

  12. Analysis of linear head accelerations from collegiate football impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolinson, P Gunnar; Manoogian, Sarah; McNeely, David; Goforth, Mike; Greenwald, Richard; Duma, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Sports-related concussions result in 300,000 brain injuries in the United States each year. We conducted a study utilizing an in-helmet system that measures and records linear head accelerations to analyze head impacts in collegiate football. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System is an in-helmet system with six spring-mounted accelerometers and an antenna that transmits data via radio frequency to a sideline receiver and laptop computer system. A total of 11,604 head impacts were recorded from the Virginia Tech football team throughout the 2003 and 2004 football seasons during 22 games and 62 practices from a total of 52 players. Although the incidence of injury data are limited, this study presents an extremely large data set from human head impacts that provides valuable insight into the lower limits of head acceleration that cause mild traumatic brain injuries.

  13. GEOELECTRICAL STRATIGRAPHY AND ANALYSIS OF A HYDROCARBON IMPACTED AQUIFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon impacted sites predicts anomalously high conductivities coincident with aged contaminated zones. These high conductivities are attributed to an enhancement of mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox p...

  14. Technical assistance report : I-73 economic impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the probable economic impact of the future Interstate 73 along each of twelve alternative corridors that were proposed for the new highway. The contents of this report were originally distributed in four parts during February and ...

  15. IMPACT STRENGTH AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF WELDED DAMASCUS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Mintách

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental research of damascus steel from point of view of the structural analyze, impact strength and failure analyzes. The damascus steel was produced by method of forged welding from STN 41 4260 spring steel and STN 41 9312 tool steel. The damascus steel consisted of both 84 and 168 layers. The impact strength was experimentally determined for original steels and damascus steels after heat treatment in dependence on temperature in the range from -60 to 160 °C. It has been found that the impact strength of experimental steels decreased with decreasing temperature behind with correlated change of damage mode. In the case of experimental tests performed at high temperature ductile fracture was revealed and with decreasing temperature proportion of cleavage facets increased. Only the STN 41 9312 steel did not show considerable difference in values of the impact strength with changing temperature.

  16. Causality Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having established the fact that foreign direct investment has positive impact on growth domestic product ...... on Sharing Global Prosperity, September. 2003, Helsinki, Finland. ... Evidence from East Asia and Latin. America, Contemp. Econ.

  17. Analysis of the Cyber Crimes' Impacts on Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Belgoziyeva, Ulpan

    2017-01-01

    Global networks enable businesses to operate beyond the geographical boundaries and to make their processes more efficient. However, with digitalization, there also comes threats for businesses and sometimes companies are underestimating the risks associated with cyber-attacks. As the topic is relatively new, there are not many studies that took a deep look at the impact of cyber-attacks on the businesses and analyze those impacts from different angles. The key objective of the thesis was to ...

  18. Analysis of full scale impact into an abutment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullard, K.; Dowler, H.J.; Soanes, T.P.T.

    1985-01-01

    A 60mph impact into a tunnel abutment, of a flask on a railway flatrol with following vehicles, is shown to be a much less severe event for the flask than a 9 metre drop test to IAEA regulations. This involves the use of mathematical models of the full scale event of the same type as were employed in studying the behaviour of quarter scale models. The latter were subject to actual impact testing as part of the validation process. (author)

  19. Modelling Options for Policy Impact Analysis on African Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghaiki Asaah NDAMBI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the priorities for agricultural research in Eastern and CentralAfrica concluded that milk is the most important commodity for research anddevelopment in the region, based on its potential contribution to the agriculturalGDP. It has been presumed that, the right policies, marketing systems and technicalsupport must be sought for dairy development in Africa. In order to determine theright development pattern, appropriate analytical tools must be applied. The TIPICAL(Technology Impact Policy Impact model was used to analyse the impact ofdifferent policies on two typical dairy farming systems in Uganda, which accountfor more than 70% of milk produced in the country. Seven influential policy areaswere also identified: provision of veterinary services, consumption promotion,marketing promotion, input provision, credit access improvement, milk qualityimprovement and genetic improvement. In general, the policy impacts are very littleon farms with local cows but can be magnified up to threefold, if the farms havegraded cows. Policies which improve farmers’ accessibility to markets have thegreatest impacts. The results obtained from this model were compared to thoseusing the EXTRAPOLATE model. This comparison shows that both models couldcomplement each other in analysing policy impacts on African dairy farms.However, differences in results from the models indicate that more focus should bemade on farmers’ willingness to adopt new technology.

  20. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Properties of Piezoelectric Structure under Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of the dynamic properties is established for a piezoelectric structure under impact load, without considering noise and perturbations in this paper. Based on the general theory of piezo-elasticity and impact mechanics, the theoretical solutions of the mechanical and electrical fields of the smart structure are obtained with the standing and traveling wave methods, respectively. The comparisons between the two methods have shown that the standing wave method is better for studying long-time response after an impact load. In addition, good agreements are found between the theoretical and the numerical results. To simulate the impact load, both triangle and step pulse loads are used and comparisons are given. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters is discussed so as to provide some advices for practical use. It can be seen that the proposed analytical model would benefit, to some extent, the design and application (especially the airport runway of the related smart devices by taking into account their impact load performance.

  2. Finite-difference analysis of shells impacting rigid barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotin, S.D.; Witmer, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must be protected from the adverse effects of missile impacts. A significant category of missile impact involves deformable structures (pressure vessel components, whipping pipes) striking relatively rigid targets (concrete walls, bumpers) which act as protective devices. The response and interaction of these structures is needed to assess the adequacy of these barriers for protecting vital safety related equipment. The present investigation represents an initial attempt to develop an efficient numerical procedure for predicting the deformations and impact force time-histories of shells which impact upon a rigid target. The general large-deflection equations of motion of the shell are expressed in finite-difference form in space and integrated in time through application of the central-difference temporal operator. The effect of material nonlinearities is treated by a mechanical sublayer material model which handles the strain-hardening, Bauschinger, and strain-rate effects. The general adequacy of this shell treatment has been validated by comparing predictions with the results of various experiments in which structures have been subjected to well-defined transient forcing functions (typically high-explosive impulse loading). The 'new' ingredient addressed in the present study involves an accounting for impact interaction and response of both the target structure and the attacking body. (Auth.)

  3. Safety analysis of casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao, L.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the inherent safety of casks under extreme impact conditions has been of increasing interest since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. One of the most critical scenarios for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid-seal system. This can be caused, for example, by a direct aircraft crash (or just its engine) as well as by an impact due to the collapse of a building, e.g. a nuclear facility storage hall. In this context BAM is developing methods to calculate the deformation of cask components and-with respect to leak-tightness-relative displacements between the metallic seals and their counterparts. This paper presents reflections on modelling of cask structures for finite-element analyses and discusses calculated results of stresses and deformations. Another important aspect is the behaviour of a cask under a lateral impact by aircraft or fragments of a building. Examples of the kinetic reaction (cask acceleration due to the fragments, subsequent contact with neighbouring structures like the ground, buildings or casks) are shown and discussed in correlation to cask stresses which are to be expected. (author)

  4. FEM analysis of impact of external objects to pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracie, Robert; Konuk, Ibrahim [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]. E-mail: ikonuk@NRCan.gc.ca; Fredj, Abdelfettah [BMT Fleet Technology Limited, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most common hazards to pipelines is impact of external objects. Earth moving machinery, farm equipment or bullets can dent or fail land pipelines. External objects such as anchors, fishing gear, ice can damage offshore pipelines. This paper develops an FEM model to simulate the impact process and presents investigations using the FEM model to determine the influence of the geometry and velocity of the impacting object and also will study the influence of the pipe diameter, wall thickness, and concrete thickness along with internal pressure. The FEM model is developed by using LS-DYNA explicit FEM software utilizing shell and solid elements. The model allows damage and removal of the concrete and corrosion coating elements during impact. Parametric studies will be presented relating the dent size to pipe diameter, wall thickness and concrete thickness, internal pipe pressure, and impacting object geometry. The primary objective of this paper is to develop and present the FEM model. The model can be applied to both offshore and land pipeline problems. Some examples are used to illustrate how the model can be applied to real life problems. A future paper will present more detailed parametric studies. (author)

  5. Safety analysis of casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao Linan; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the inherent safety of casks also under extreme impact conditions has been of increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. One of the most critical scenarios for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid seal system. This can be caused e.g. by direct aircraft crash or its engine as well as by an impact due to the collapse of a building e.g. a nuclear facility storage hall. In this context BAM is developing methods to calculate the deformation of cask components and - with respect to leak tightness - relative displacements between the metallic seals and their counterparts. This paper presents reflections on modelling of cask structures for Finite Element analyses and discusses calculated results of stresses and deformations. Another important aspect is the behaviour of a cask under a lateral impact by aircraft and fragments of a building. Examples of the kinetic reaction (cask acceleration due to the fragments, subsequent contact with neighbouring structures like ground, buildings or casks) are shown and discussed in correlation to cask stresses which are to be expected

  6. Complex analysis of electromagnetic machines for vibro-impact technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyman, L. A.; Neyman, V. Yu

    2017-10-01

    For the implementation of high-energy impulse technologies of mechanical shock methods of secondary rock destruction, electromagnetic machines of vibro-impact action are of particular interest. Linear synchronous electromagnetic impact machine designs as a part of progress trend are considered where the head reciprocal motion is synchronized with 50 Hz power source pulses frequency applied to a winding or a system of windings. On the basis of identified differences of the head forced mechanical oscillation processes, merits and demerits of the work cycles of single or two-winding synchronous machine design variants are analyzed. Synchronous electromagnetic machines of a new design and principles of their control in a work cycle are presented. The specific half-wave interleaving of voltages applied to the windings allows reducing current amplitude and the influence of the impact drive on the power grid. To improve forced oscillation mode stability and precision, the new engineering solutions improving machines performances and exploitation conditions are proposed.

  7. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  8. Impact and fracture analysis of fish scales from Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Malásquez, M; Troncoso, O P

    2015-06-01

    Fish scales from the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas have been characterised to study their impact and fracture behaviour at three different environmental conditions. Scales were cut in two different directions to analyse the influence of the orientation of collagen layers. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for each sample and SEM images were taken after each test in order to analyse the failure mechanisms. The results showed that scales tested at cryogenic temperatures display fragile behaviour, while scales tested at room temperature did not fracture. Different failure mechanisms have been identified, analysed and compared with the failure modes that occur in bone. The impact energy obtained for fish scales was two to three times higher than the values reported for bone in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical analysis of pipe impact on reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, N.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the results of numerical analyses carried out by using the computer code DYNA3D to analyse pipe impacts on a reinforced concrete slab, a floor beam and a column. Modelling techniques employed to represent various features of typical reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the details of a soil and crushable foam type of material model used to represent concrete material behaviour are described. The results show that a reasonable prediction of global behaviour of reinforced concrete structures under impact loading can be obtained by this numerical method. (author)

  10. Statistical analysis and planning of multihundred-watt impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Waterman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Modular multihundred-watt (MHW) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are used as a power source for spacecraft. Due to possible environmental contamination by radioactive materials, numerous tests are required to determine and verify the safety of the RTG. There are results available from 27 fueled MHW impact tests regarding hoop failure, fingerprint failure, and fuel failure. Data from the 27 tests are statistically analyzed for relationships that exist between the test design variables and the failure types. Next, these relationships are used to develop a statistical procedure for planning and conducting either future MHW impact tests or similar tests on other RTG fuel sources. Finally, some conclusions are given

  11. Analysis of the impact of alternative enterprise interventions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interventions of the REP have impacted rural livelihoods and poverty. The ... African Review of Economics and Finance | ISSN 2042-1478 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 ... with failures of governments' urban-biased public policies and ill-designed ... practices, focusing on agricultural production activities alone cannot engender.

  12. Discontinuous transformations and averaging for vibro-impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Fidlin, A.

    2004-01-01

    , and a particle on a vibrating plane. Vibro-impact systems are characterized by repeated collisions. Applications include devices to crush, grind, forge, drill, punch, tamp, pile, cut, and surface treat a variety of objects, and vibrating machinery or structures with slips and stops. Compared to the classical...

  13. Impact of medical microbiology : A clinical and financial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    To be able to provide cost-effective healthcare, it is important to evaluate the impact of interventions. This thesis looked at interventions performed by the Department of Medical Microbiology at the University Medical Center Groningen. This department plays an important role in infection

  14. Dynamic analysis of reactor containment subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaotian; He Shuyan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic character of reactor containment subjected to aircraft impact loading is analyzed with MSC.DYTRAN program. The displacement of concrete and velocity curve of airplane is obtained. The results of the different material model are compared with empirical formula. It is concluded that reasonable result can be obtained using cap model for concrete

  15. Fluid outflows from Venus impact craters - Analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, Paul D.; Wood, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Many impact craters on Venus have unusual outflow features originating in or under the continuous ejecta blankets and continuing downhill into the surrounding terrain. These features clearly resulted from flow of low-viscosity fluids, but the identity of those fluids is not clear. In particular, it should not be assumed a priori that the fluid is an impact melt. A number of candidate processes by which impact events might generate the observed features are considered, and predictions are made concerning the rheological character of flows produce by each mechanism. A sample of outflows was analyzed using Magellan images and a model of unconstrained Bingham plastic flow on inclined planes, leading to estimates of viscosity and yield strength for the flow materials. It is argued that at least two different mechanisms have produced outflows on Venus: an erosive, channel-forming process and a depositional process. The erosive fluid is probably an impact melt, but the depositional fluid may consist of fluidized solid debris, vaporized material, and/or melt.

  16. Impact factor analysis: combining prediction with parameter ranking to reveal the impact of behavior on health outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doryab, Afsaneh; Frost, Mads; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of healthcare systems allow people to monitor behavior and provide feedback on health and wellness. Most applications, however, only offer feedback on behavior in form of visualization and data summaries. This paper presents a different approach—called impact factor analysis—...... in monitoring and control of mental illness, and we argue that the impact factor analysis can be useful in the design of other health and wellness systems....... ten bipolar patients, in which we were able to estimate mood values with an average mean absolute error of 0.5. This was used to rank the behavior parameters whose variations indicate changes in the mental state. The rankings acquired from our algorithms correspond to the patients’ rankings......, identifying physical activity and sleep as the highest impact parameters. These results revealed the feasibility of identifying behavioral impact factors. This data analysis motivated us to design an impact factor inference engine as part of the MONARCA system. To our knowledge, this is a novel approach...

  17. BUDGET IMPACT ANALYSIS OF BELIMUMAB IN TREATING SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Iaria; Pippo, Lara; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the costs of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the budget impact due to the introduction of belimumab in the Italian setting. Adaptation to the Italian setting of a budget impact model with a time horizon of 4 years (year 0 without belimumab, years 1-3 with belimumab) to compare treatment, administration, and clinical monitoring costs of standard therapy and of the alternative scenario in which belimumab is administered in addition to the standard therapy to the subgroup of patients selected according to the label approved by the European Medicines Agency. The model takes also into account the costs of flares. Over 3 years, belimumab is able to prevent cumulatively 1,111 severe flares and 3,631 nonsevere flares with a total saving for the Italian National Health System (NHS) of approximately €6.2 million. Budget impact ranges from €4.4 million in the first year to €20.3 million in the third year. The decrease in the number of flare partially counterbalances the costs of the new technology (impact attenuation of approximately 16 percent). These data elucidate the importance to control and monitor the disease progression and to prevent exacerbations, which are the major causes of the increase in costs paid by the NHS and by the society. The financial impact could be replicate on a regional basis, to inform local decision makers. Further developments are possible as the model does not consider the additional clinical and economic benefits of reduced damage accrual and slowed disease progression.

  18. Cost Analysis of Water Transport for Climate Change Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaleniec, V.; Buytaert, W.

    2012-04-01

    It is expected that climate change will have a strong impact on water resources worldwide. Many studies exist that couple the output of global climate models with hydrological models to assess the impact of climate change on physical water availability. However, the water resources topology of many regions and especially that of cities can be very complex. Changes in physical water availability do therefore not translate easily into impacts on water resources for cities. This is especially the case for cities with a complex water supply topology, for instance because of geographical barriers, strong gradients in precipitation patterns, or competing water uses. In this study we explore the use of cost maps to enable the inclusion of water supply topologies in climate change impact studies. We use the city of Lima as a case study. Lima is the second largest desert city in the world. Although Peru as a whole has no water shortage, extreme gradients exist. Most of the economic activities including the city of Lima are located in the coastal desert. This region is geographically disconnected from the wet Amazon basin because of the Andes mountain range. Hence, water supply is precarious, provided by a complex combination of high mountain ecosystems including wetlands and glaciers, as well as groundwater aquifers depending on recharge from the mountains. We investigate the feasibility and costs of different water abstraction scenarios and the impact of climate change using cost functions for different resources. The option of building inter basins tunnels across the Andes is compared to the costs of desalinating seawater from the Pacific Ocean under different climate change scenarios and population growth scenarios. This approach yields recommendations for the most cost-effective options for the future.

  19. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  20. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2011 - part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - estimating impacts and valuing damages on a sectoral basis.

  1. The Impact of Technology on Hawaii's Automotive Mechanics: An Analysis with Recommendations. Technological Impact Study Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    Because of the increasing use of microelectronic componentry in automobiles, vocational educators must reexamine existing automotive mechanics curricula to ensure that they can continue to provide relevant job training. After examining recent trends in the impact of computers and electronics on automotive design and engineering, existing auto…

  2. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  3. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec 2 to 22,928 rad/sec 2 (mean 4041 rad/sec 2 , median 2773 rad/sec 2 , and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec 2 ). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  4. Impact analysis of spent nuclear fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.; Dennis, A.W.; Yoshimura, R.H.

    1978-07-01

    A presentation made at the CUBE (Computer Use By Engineers) Symposium, October 1976, in Albuquerque, New Mexico is summarized. A full-scale testing program involving impact tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems is described. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Environmental Control Technology Division of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The analytical and scale modeling techniques being employed to predict the response of the full-scale system in the very severe impact tests are described. The analytical techniques include lumped parameter modeling of the vehicle and cask system and finite modeling of isolated shipping casks. Some preliminary results from the mathematical analyses and scale model tests demonstrate close agreement between these two techniques. Scale models of the systems are also described and some results presented

  5. Dynamic Impact Analysis and Test of Concrete Overpack Segment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ki Young; Jeon, Je Eon; Seo, Ki Seog [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Concrete cask is an option for spent nuclear fuel interim storage which is used mainly in US. The concrete overpack of the cask provides radiation shielding as well as physical protection for inner canister against external mechanical shock. When the overpack undergoes a severe missile impact which might be caused by tornado or aircraft crash, it should sustain minimal level of structural integrity so that the radiation shielding and the retrievability of canister are maintained. Empirical formulas have been developed for the evaluation of concrete damage but those formulas can be used only for local damage evaluation and not for global damage evaluation. In this research, a series of numerical simulations and tests have been performed to evaluate the damage of two types of concrete overpack segment models under high speed missile impact. It is shown that appropriate modeling of material failure is crucial in this kind of analyses and finding the correct failure parameters may not be straightforward

  6. Mechanistic Insights into Human Brain Impact Dynamics through Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksari, Kaveh; Kurt, Mehmet; Babaee, Hessam; Kleiven, Svein; Camarillo, David

    2018-03-01

    Although concussion is one of the greatest health challenges today, our physical understanding of the cause of injury is limited. In this Letter, we simulated football head impacts in a finite element model and extracted the most dominant modal behavior of the brain's deformation. We showed that the brain's deformation is most sensitive in low frequency regimes close to 30 Hz, and discovered that for most subconcussive head impacts, the dynamics of brain deformation is dominated by a single global mode. In this Letter, we show the existence of localized modes and multimodal behavior in the brain as a hyperviscoelastic medium. This dynamical phenomenon leads to strain concentration patterns, particularly in deep brain regions, which is consistent with reported concussion pathology.

  7. Cargo response to railcar impact and tiedown load analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study that investigated the loads produced during coupling of railcars carrying heavy shipping containers is described. The structural model of the impact event is represented by a lumped parameter technique. Each discrete mass lump possesses longitudinal, vertical, and rotational degrees of freedom. The resulting computer simulation provides for nonlinear railcar coupler stiffness and linear damping forces in the coupler and container tiedowns. Results include response to parametric variations in container weight, impact speed, and tiedown stiffness. Container dynamic response and tiedown loads are found to depend heavily on these parameters. Also, railcar bending and subsequent vertical motion are shown to be important contributors to these responses. When experimentally substantiated, the model can serve as a useful tool in the design and evaluation of shipping container tiedown structures

  8. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  10. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. The psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy: a narrative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Sarah; Marlow, C.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc.Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four ...

  12. Impact analysis of e-tourism in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Bhutan is in economic terms highly dependent of tourism. E-tourism is in this report assessed as a mean to maintain the current positive development in tourism and as a driver for extending tourism to new markets. Effective use of information, communication, distribution and transactions through the new media, such as the Internet, can lead to an increased level of economic activity in the tourism sector in Bhutan. Also, the indirect economic impacts on transportation, accommodation and the r...

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Hammer Mechanism "Twin Hammer" of Impact Wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečný, M.; Slavík, J.

    This paper describes function of the hammer mechanism "Twin hammer" the impact wrench, calculation of dynamic forces exerted on the mechanism and determining the contact pressures between the parts of the mechanism. The modelling of parts was performed in system Pro ENGINEER—standard. The simulation and finding dynamic forces was performed in advanced module Pro ENGINEER—mechanism design and finding contacts pressures in modul Pro ENGENEER—mechanica.

  14. Methods for Analysis and Simulation of Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    carbide. All experiments were conducted in reverse mode [7], with long- rod hypervelocity impact and penetration into confined cylindrical ceramic...comprehensive treatment that encompasses curvilinear coordinates, see [17], with general kinematics addressed in more detail in [49]. Governing equations of...deformation and mechanically reversible changes in damage (e.g., elastic crack closure on load release), J accounts for plastic slip from dislocations

  15. Social impacts of casino gaming in Macao: A qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    King Penny Wan, Yim; Li, Xin Crystal; Kong, Weng Hang

    2011-01-01

    The casino gaming sector has witnessed rapid growth worldwide in the past three decades. As the casino industry has been developing rapidly, it is important to understand the pros and cons of casino development and seek ways to minimize the potential negative impacts. This study investigates the social consequences of casino gaming in Macao since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, using a qualitative research method. The results reveal that the expansion of casino gaming did brin...

  16. Quantitative analysis of impact measurements using dynamic load cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J. Maranzano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is used to estimate material properties from a short duration transient impact force measured by dropping spheres onto rectangular coupons fixed to a dynamic load cell. The contact stress between the dynamic load cell surface and the projectile are modeled using Hertzian contact mechanics. Due to the short impact time relative to the load cell dynamics, an additional Kelvin–Voigt element is included in the model to account for the finite response time of the piezoelectric crystal. Calculations with and without the Kelvin–Voigt element are compared to experimental data collected from combinations of polymeric spheres and polymeric and metallic surfaces. The results illustrate that the inclusion of the Kelvin–Voigt element qualitatively captures the post impact resonance and non-linear behavior of the load cell signal and quantitatively improves the estimation of the Young's elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. Mathematically, the additional KV element couples one additional differential equation to the Hertzian spring-dashpot equation. The model can be numerically integrated in seconds using standard numerical techniques allowing for its use as a rapid technique for the estimation of material properties. Keywords: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Dynamic load cell

  17. Combinations of options: Methodology for impact analysis. Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The orientations favored by Hydro-Quebec in terms of electricity supply and demand are based on a few key selection criteria. These criteria, as described in its development plan, pertain to economic benefit for the utility and its customers, compatibility with sustainable development, minimization of costs to customers, preservation of the utility's financial health, generation of economic spinoffs, and ease of adaptation. Impacts are calculated to illustrate the selection criteria. The main methods, assumptions, and components used in evaluating the various impacts are described. The discounted overall cost for Hydro-Quebec and all of its customers, means of meeting electricity requirements, and the economic benefit for Hydro-Quebec of the various market development options are discussed. The indicators chosen for environmental impact assessment are set forth and the method used to calculate long-term supply costs is presented, along with the methods for calculating economic spinoffs. Finally, the concepts of energy mix and energy self-sufficiency are outlined. 1 tab

  18. Multiscale Analysis of Head Impacts in Contact Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, Mark; Sett, Subham; Franck, Jennifer; McNamara, Kyle; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Crisco, Joseph; Blume, Janet; Franck, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the world's major causes of death and disability. To aid companies in designing safer and improved protective gear and to aid the medical community in producing improved quantitative TBI diagnosis and assessment tools, a multiscale finite element model of the human brain, head and neck is being developed. Recorded impact data from football and hockey helmets instrumented with accelerometers are compared to simulated impact data in the laboratory. Using data from these carefully constructed laboratory experiments, we can quantify impact location, magnitude, and linear and angular accelerations of the head. The resultant forces and accelerations are applied to a fully meshed head-form created from MRI data by Simpleware. With appropriate material properties for each region of the head-form, the Abaqus finite element model can determine the stresses, strains, and deformations in the brain. Simultaneously, an in-vitro cellular TBI criterion is being developed to be incorporated into Abaqus models for the brain. The cell-based injury criterion functions the same way that damage criteria for metals and other materials are used to predict failure in structural materials.

  19. Understanding extreme sea levels for coastal impact and adaptation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Hinkel, J.; Dangendorf, S.; Slangen, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal impact and adaptation assessments require detailed knowledge on extreme sea levels, because increasing damage due to extreme events, such as storm surges and tropical cyclones, is one of the major consequences of sea level rise and climate change. In fact, the IPCC has highlighted in its AR4 report that "societal impacts of sea level change primarily occur via the extreme levels rather than as a direct consequence of mean sea level changes". Over the last few decades, substantial research efforts have been directed towards improved understanding of past and future mean sea level; different scenarios were developed with process-based or semi-empirical models and used for coastal impact assessments at various spatial scales to guide coastal management and adaptation efforts. The uncertainties in future sea level rise are typically accounted for by analyzing the impacts associated with a range of scenarios leading to a vertical displacement of the distribution of extreme sea-levels. And indeed most regional and global studies find little or no evidence for changes in storminess with climate change, although there is still low confidence in the results. However, and much more importantly, there is still a limited understanding of present-day extreme sea-levels which is largely ignored in most impact and adaptation analyses. The two key uncertainties stem from: (1) numerical models that are used to generate long time series of extreme sea-levels. The bias of these models varies spatially and can reach values much larger than the expected sea level rise; but it can be accounted for in most regions making use of in-situ measurements; (2) Statistical models used for determining present-day extreme sea-level exceedance probabilities. There is no universally accepted approach to obtain such values for flood risk assessments and while substantial research has explored inter-model uncertainties for mean sea level, we explore here, for the first time, inter

  20. Impact analysis of TOTEM data at the LHC: black disk limit exceeded

    CERN Document Server

    Alkin, A; Kovalenko, O; Troshin, S M

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the profile of the impact--parameter dependent elastic scattering amplitude. Extraction of impact-parameter dependence from the dataset with inclusion of the experimental data on elastic scattering at the LHC energies helps to reveal the asymptotics of hadron interactions. Analysis of the data clearly indicates that the impact-parameter elastic scattering amplitude exceed the black disk limit at the LHC energy 7TeV and the inelastic overlap function reaches its maximum value at $b>0$

  1. Ensemble catchment hydrological modelling for climate change impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Thomas; Ntegeka, Victor; Willems, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    It is vital to investigate how the hydrological model structure affects the climate change impact given that future changes not in the range for which the models were calibrated or validated are likely. Thus an ensemble modelling approach which involves a diversity of models with different structures such as spatial resolutions and process descriptions is crucial. The ensemble modelling approach was applied to a set of models: from the lumped conceptual models NAM, PDM and VHM, an intermediate detailed and distributed model WetSpa, to the highly detailed and fully distributed model MIKE-SHE. Explicit focus was given to the high and low flow extremes. All models were calibrated for sub flows and quick flows derived from rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (ETo) time series. In general, all models were able to produce reliable estimates of the flow regimes under the current climate for extreme peak and low flows. An intercomparison of the low and high flow changes under changed climatic conditions was made using climate scenarios tailored for extremes. Tailoring was important for two reasons. First, since the use of many scenarios was not feasible it was necessary to construct few scenarios that would reasonably represent the range of extreme impacts. Second, scenarios would be more informative as changes in high and low flows would be easily traced to changes of ETo and rainfall; the tailored scenarios are constructed using seasonal changes that are defined using different levels of magnitude (high, mean and low) for rainfall and ETo. After simulation of these climate scenarios in the five hydrological models, close agreement was found among the models. The different models predicted similar range of peak flow changes. For the low flows, however, the differences in the projected impact range by different hydrological models was larger, particularly for the drier scenarios. This suggests that the hydrological model structure is critical in low flow predictions

  2. Consistent economic cross-sectoral climate change impact scenario analysis: Method and application to Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Steininger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change triggers manifold impacts at the national to local level, which in turn have various economy-wide implications (e.g. on welfare, employment, or tax revenues. In its response, society needs to prioritize which of these impacts to address and what share of resources to spend on each respective adaptation. A prerequisite to achieving that end is an economic impact analysis that is consistent across sectors and acknowledges intersectoral and economy-wide feedback effects. Traditional Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs are usually operating at a level too aggregated for this end, while bottom-up impact models most often are not fully comprehensive, focusing on only a subset of climate sensitive sectors and/or a subset of climate change impact chains. Thus, we develop here an approach which applies climate and socioeconomic scenario analysis, harmonized economic costing, and sector explicit bandwidth analysis in a coupled framework of eleven (biophysical impact assessment models and a uniform multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model. In applying this approach to the alpine country of Austria, we find that macroeconomic feedbacks can magnify sectoral climate damages up to fourfold, or that by mid-century costs of climate change clearly outweigh benefits, with net costs rising two- to fourfold above current damage cost levels. The resulting specific impact information – differentiated by climate and economic drivers – can support sector-specific adaptation as well as adaptive capacity building. Keywords: climate impact, local impact, economic evaluation, adaptation

  3. Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an Emerging Economy: Evidence from Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... Findings reveal that debt service payment has negative and insignificant impact on Nigeria's economic growth while external debt stock has positive and significant effect on Nigeria's ...

  4. Intervention analysis of power plant impact on fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Intervention analysis was applied to 10 yr (years 1973-1982) of field fish abundance data at the D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, southeastern Lake Michigan. Three log-transformed catch series, comprising monthly observations, were examined for each combination of two species (alewife, Alosa pseudoharenga, or yellow perch, Perca flavescens) and gear (trawl or gill net): catch at the plant discharged transect, catch at the reference transect, and the ratio of plant catch to reference catch. Time series separated by age groups were examined. Based on intervention analysis, no change in the abundance of fish populations could be attributed to plant operation. Additionally, a modification of the intervention analysis technique was applied to investigate trends in abundance at both the plant discharge and reference transects. Significant declines were detected for abundance of alewife adults at both of the transects. Results of the trend analysis support the contention that the alewives have undergone a lakewide decrease in abundance during the 1970s

  5. Analysis of the power system impacts and value of wind power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the power system impacts and value of wind power. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... The methodology is illustrated for Tamil Nadu (a state in India). Scenarios for ...

  6. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are

  7. Topics in the Analysis of Shear-Wave Propagation in Oblique-Plate Impact Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheidler, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This report addresses several topics in the theoretical analysis of shock waves, acceleration waves, and centered simple waves, with emphasis on the propagation of shear waves generated in oblique-plate impact tests...

  8. Experimental analysis of specification language impact on NPP software diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Sik; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    When redundancy and diversity is applied in NPP digital computer system, diversification of system software may be a critical point for the entire system dependability. As the means of enhancing software diversity, specification language diversity is suggested in this study. We set up a simple hypothesis for the specification language impact on common errors, and an experiment based on NPP protection system application was performed. Experiment result showed that this hypothesis could be justified and specification language diversity is effective in overcoming software common mode failure problem

  9. Value-impact analysis of regulations for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.; Judd, B.; Huntsman, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes a quantitative tool developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid the NRC in establishing Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) regulations for safeguarding Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Illustrative Value-Impact results of demonstrating the methodology at a facility handling SNM to evaluate alternative safeguards rules is given. The methodology developed also offers a useful framework for facility designers to choose safeguards measures that meet the NRC's criteria in a cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the methodology requires very modest computing capability and is straightforward to apply

  10. [An analysis of Spanish biomedical journals by the impact factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, J E; Casanovas, L; Guardiola, E; Bosch, F

    1992-06-13

    One of the most frequently used parameters for evaluating scientific publications is that of impact factor (IF) published in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports (SCI-JCR) which evaluates the number of citations a journal receives on behalf of other journals. The present study analyzed the Spanish biomedical journals included in the SCI-JCR by the IF. The IF were obtained from the SCI-JCR (1980-89). The journals were evaluated by the IF and the weighted impact factor (WIF) calculated according to WIF = (IF/MIF) x 100 in which MIF = maximum IF of the considered area. Nine Spanish biomedical journals were included in the SCI-JCR, four being basic sciences (Histology and Histopathology, Inmunología, Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Revista Española de Fisiología) and five clinical journals (Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Medicina Clínica, Nefrología, Revista Española de las Enfermedades del Aparato Digestivo, Revista Clínica Española). Their IF were much lower than the most important journals in each area with the mean (+/- standard deviation) being 0.21 +/- 0.22 (range 0.016-0.627). The mean WIF was 2.88 +/- 4.07 (0.16-12.82). The journals of basic sciences had higher IF and WIF than the clinical journals (p less than 0.05). Only the four journals of basic sciences were included in the SCI. Four journals, those of basic sciences, are preferentially or exclusively published in English and other five are published in Spanish. The differences in IF among these groups were not significant (p = 0.06) while those of WIF were significant (p less than 0.05). The number of Spanish biomedical journals in the SCI-JCR has risen from 1 in 1980 to 9 in 1989 with IF which have evolved variably. In mind of impact factor, the contribution of Spanish journals is low, with that of biomedical sciences being higher than that of clinical journals. Language and inclusion in the Science Citation Index may explain, at least in part

  11. Liquid impact erosion mechanism and theoretical impact stress analysis in TiN-coated steam turbine blade materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Kim, W.W.; Rhee, C.K.; Lee, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Coating of TiN film was done by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating to improve the liquid impact erosion resistance of steam turbine blade materials, 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B, for nuclear power plant application. TiN-coated blade materials were initially deformed with depressions due to plastic deformation of the ductile substrate. The increase in the curvature in the depressions induced stress concentration with increasing number of impacts, followed by circumferential fracture of the TiN coating due to the circular propagation of cracks. The liquid impact erosion resistance of the blade materials was greatly improved by TiN coating done with the optimum ion plating condition. Damage decreased with increasing TiN coating thickness. According to the theoretical analysis of stresses generated by liquid impact, TiN coating alleviated the impact stress of 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B due to stress attenuation and stress wave reactions such as reflection and transmission at the coating-substrate interface

  12. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  13. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.2: Simulation analysis of scale model impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Mizuno; Norihide Koshika; Hiroshi Morikawa; Kentaro Wakimoto; Ryusuke Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure is one in which the rebars of conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structures are replaced with external steel plates attached to inner concrete with headed studs. SC structures are considered to be more effective than RC structures against aircraft impact, so their application to outer walls and roofs of risk-sensitive structures such as nuclear-related structures is expected to mitigate damage to critical components. The objective of this study was to investigate the fracture behavior and perforation thickness of SC panels against aircraft impact through impact tests and simulation analyses. Objectives of this paper are to analytically investigate the protection performance of SC panels against aircraft model impact through simulation analyses of 1/7.5 scale aircraft model impact tests presented in Part 1 of this study using a discrete element method (DEM), and to examine the applicability and validity of the DEM. Simulation analyses by a finite element method (FEM) were also performed to evaluate its applicability. The fracture process and damage to the SC test panels as well as the aircraft models are closely simulated by the discrete element analyses. The various impact responses and failure mechanisms, such as deceleration curves of projectile, velocity of debris from rear face and deformation mode of SC panels, are also simulated closely by the DEM analyses. The results of analyses confirm the shock-proof performance of SC panels against aircraft impact, and the applicability and validity of DEM for evaluating the complex phenomena of an aircraft impact against an SC panel. The finite element analysis closely simulates the deformation of the SC test panel and strains of rear steel plate where the global bending deformation mode is dominant. (authors)

  14. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho

    2013-01-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe

  15. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe.

  16. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  17. Impact-Contact Analysis of Prismatic Graphite Blocks Using Abaqus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Ho; Kim, Gyeong Ho; Choi, Woo Seok

    2010-12-01

    Graphite blocks are the important core components of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. As these blocks are simply stacked in array, collisions among neighboring components may occur during earthquakes or accidents. The final objective of the research project is to develop a reliable seismic model of the stacked graphite blocks from which their behavior can be predicted and, thus, they are designed to have sufficient strength to maintain their structural integrity during the anticipated occurrences. The work summarized in this report is a first step toward the big picture and is dedicated to build a realistic impact-contact dynamics model of the graphite block using a commercial FEM package, Abaqus. The developed model will be further used to assist building a reliable lumped dynamics model of these stacked graphite components

  18. Dissecting cross-impact on stock markets: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, M.; Mastromatteo, I.; Eisler, Z.; Bouchaud, J.-P.

    2017-02-01

    The vast majority of market impact studies assess each product individually, and the interactions between the different order flows are disregarded. This strong approximation may lead to an underestimation of trading costs and possible contagion effects. Transactions in fact mediate a significant part of the correlation between different instruments. In turn, liquidity shares the sectorial structure of market correlations, which can be encoded as a set of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We introduce a multivariate linear propagator model that successfully describes such a structure, and accounts for a significant fraction of the covariance of stock returns. We dissect the various dynamical mechanisms that contribute to the joint dynamics of assets. We also define two simplified models with substantially less parameters in order to reduce overfitting, and show that they have superior out-of-sample performance.

  19. An analysis of budgetary goals impacting organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheok MUI YEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a conceptual review of how budgetary goals impact organizational performance. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the direct and indirect relationship between the organization’s decision-making process and operational performances. Setting the budget particularly influences subordinates’ budget goal levels and motivations (i.e., budget goal acceptance and budget goal commitment, which ultimately enhances the organization’s performance. To test these relationships, data were collected using the three perspectives approach: budgetary goal, budgetary participation and budgetary evaluation. The study provided evidence that perception of fairness mediates the relation between the levels of budget participation and goal commitment, whereas goal commitment mediates the relation between fairness perceptions and performance. At the end of the article, there are some implications for SMEs industries and some suggestions for future studies.

  20. The Impact of Consumer Phase Models in Microbial Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2011-01-01

    In quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), the consumer phase model (CPM) describes the part of the food chain between purchase of the food product at retail and exposure. Construction of a CPM is complicated by the large variation in consumer food handling practices and a limited...... availability of data. Therefore, several subjective (simplifying) assumptions have to be made when a CPM is constructed, but with a single CPM their impact on the QMRA results is unclear. We therefore compared the performance of eight published CPMs for Campylobacter in broiler meat in an example of a QMRA......, where all the CPMs were analyzed using one single input distribution of concentrations at retail, and the same dose-response relationship. It was found that, between CPMs, there may be a considerable difference in the estimated probability of illness per serving. However, the estimated relative risk...

  1. Budget impact analysis of trastuzumab in early breast cancer: a hospital district perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purmonen, Timo T; Auvinen, Päivi K; Martikainen, Janne A

    2010-04-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab is widely used in HER2-positive (HER2+) early breast cancer, and despite its cost-effectiveness, it causes substantial costs for health care. The purpose of the study was to develop a tool for estimating the budget impact of new cancer treatments. With this tool, we were able to estimate the budget impact of adjuvant trastuzumab, as well as the probability of staying within a given budget constraint. The created model-based evaluation tool was used to explore the budget impact of trastuzumab in early breast cancer in a single Finnish hospital district with 250,000 inhabitants. The used model took into account the number of patients, HER2+ prevalence, length and cost of treatment, and the effectiveness of the therapy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative case scenarios were performed to ensure the robustness of the results. Introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab caused substantial costs for a relatively small hospital district. In base-case analysis the 4-year net budget impact was 1.3 million euro. The trastuzumab acquisition costs were partially offset by the reduction in costs associated with the treatment of cancer recurrence and metastatic disease. Budget impact analyses provide important information about the overall economic impact of new treatments, and thus offer complementary information to cost-effectiveness analyses. Inclusion of treatment outcomes and probabilistic sensitivity analysis provides more realistic estimates of the net budget impact. The length of trastuzumab treatment has a strong effect on the budget impact.

  2. Knowledge-based analysis of functional impacts of mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... MicroRNAs are a class of important post-transcriptional regulators. ... In the analysis of a SNP in the seed region of hsa-miR-96 ... pathway' and 'Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway' were significantly and ...

  3. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator – Determining stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Elmegård, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate three different methods for assessing stability of dynamical equilibrium states during experimental bifurcation analysis, using a control-based continuation method. The idea is to modify or turn off the control at an equilibrium state and study the resulting behavior...

  4. Analysis of the impact of domestication of Warburgia ugandensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal co-ordinates analysis and dendrogram separated the ten populations into two major groups corresponding to Kenyan and Tanzanian populations, respectively. Ugandan populations were shared between the two major groups; this is probably because Uganda is believed to be the centre of diversity for W.

  5. Analysis of the impact of retrievable spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, E.T.; White, M.K.; Fleischman, R.M.

    1978-03-01

    The impact of retrievably storing spent fuel is measurable in terms of the contribution the stored spent fuel makes to implementing the fuel management option selected. For the case of a decision to recycle LWR fuel in LWRs, a useful indicator of impact is the ratio of energy production with varying degrees of spent fuel retrievability to that achievable with total spent fuel retrievability. For a decision made in the year 2000, this ratio varies from 0.81 (10 yr storage in reactor basins) to 0.97 (retrievable storage for 25 years after fuel discharge). An earlier decision to recycle in LWRs results in both of these ratios being nearer to 1.0. If a decision is reached to implement a breeder reactor economy, the chosen comparison is the installed breeder capacity achievable with varying degrees of spent fuel retrievability. If a decision to build breeder reactors is reached in the year 2000, the maximum possible installed breeder capacity in 2040 varies from 490 GWe (10 yr storage in reactor basins) to 660 GWe (all fuel retrievably stored). If all fuel is retrievably stored 25 years, 635 GWe of breeder capacity is achievable by 2040. For an earlier decision date, such as 1985, the maximum possible installed breeder capacity in 2040 ranges from 740 GWe (no retrievable storage) to 800 GWe (all fuel retrievably stored). As long as a decision to reprocess is reached before 2000, most of the potential benefit of retrievable storage may be realized by implementing retrievable storage after such a decision is made. Neither providing retrievable spent fuel storage prior to a decision to reprocess, nor designing such storage for more than 25 years of retrievability appear to offer significant incremental benefit

  6. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  7. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  8. A quantitative impact analysis of sensor failures on human operator's decision making in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In emergency or accident situations in nuclear power plants, human operators take important roles in generating appropriate control signals to mitigate accident situation. In human reliability analysis (HRA) in the framework of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the failure probabilities of such appropriate actions are estimated and used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Even though understanding the status of the plant is basically the process of information seeking and processing by human operators, it seems that conventional HRA methods such as THERP, HCR, and ASEP does not pay a lot of attention to the possibilities of providing wrong information to human operators. In this paper, a quantitative impact analysis of providing wrong information to human operators due to instrument faults or sensor failures is performed. The quantitative impact analysis is performed based on a quantitative situation assessment model. By comparing the situation in which there are sensor failures and the situation in which there are not sensor failures, the impact of sensor failures can be evaluated quantitatively. It is concluded that the impact of sensor failures are quite significant at the initial stages, but the impact is gradually reduced as human operators make more and more observations. Even though the impact analysis is highly dependent on the situation assessment model, it is expected that the conclusions made based on other situation assessment models with be consistent with the conclusion made in this paper. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a nuclear waste truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a hypothetical accident event for the preliminary design of a shipping cask which is used to transport radioactive waste by standard tractor-semitrailer truck. The nonlinear dynamic structural analysis code DYNA3D run on Sandia's Cray-1 computer was used to calculate the effects of the cask's closure-end impacting a rigid frictionless surface on an edge of its external impact limiter after a 30-foot fall. The center of gravity of the cask (made of 304 stainless steel and depleted uranium) was assumed to be directly above the impact point. An elastic-plastic material constitutive model was used to calculate the nonlinear response of the cask components to the transient loading. Interactive color graphics (PATRAN and MOVIE BYU) were used throughout the analysis, proving to be extremely helpful for generation and verification of the geometry and boundary conditions of the finite element model and for interpretation of the analysis results. Results from the calculations show the cask sustained large localized deformations. However, these were almost entirely confined to the impact limiters built into the cask. The closure sections were determined to remain intact, and leakage would not be expected after the event. As an example of a large three-dimensional finite element dynamic impact calculation, this analysis can serve as an excellent benchmark for computer aided design procedures

  10. Impact analysis of flow variability in sizing kanbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of variability flow, advocated by Factory Physics, in sizing Kanban production systems. The variability of flow presupposes that the variability of activities performed by a process is dissipated throughout the productive flow system, causing variations in the lead time, the work-in-process levels and the equipment availability, among others. To conduct the research, we created a didactic model of discrete event computer simulation. The proposed model aims to present the possible impacts caused by the variability flow in a production system regarding the sizing of the number of Kanbans cards, by using the results supplied by two different investigated scenarios. The main results of the research allow concluding that, by comparing the two scenarios developed in the model, the presence of variability in the production system caused an average increase of 32% in the number of Kanban cards (p=0,000. This implies that, in real productive systems, the study of Kanban sizing should consider the variability of individual operations, a fact often relegated as an assumption in the formulation from classical literature on the definition of the number of Kanbans, thus providing opportunities for the development of future research.

  11. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10 -4 Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility

  12. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz, E-mail: graci_ju@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos, E-mail: jgsantosbr@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega, E-mail: hmatsu@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Limeira, Larissa, E-mail: larissa.limeira07@gmail.com [Centro Universitario FIEO (UNIFIEO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L{sup -1} for estrone, 0.13 μg. L{sup -1} for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L{sup -1} for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L{sup -1} for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L{sup -1} for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  13. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz; Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega; Limeira, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L -1 for estrone, 0.13 μg. L -1 for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L -1 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L -1 for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L -1 for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  14. Empirical Analysis on the Impact of Personality Traits on Different Categories of Mobile App Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Gan Chunmei; Zhang Chunfu; Liang Xubin

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose/significance] This research attempts to investigate the impact of personality traits on the adoption and time spending of mobile photography apps, mobile game apps, mobile shopping apps and mobile video apps. [Method/process] 520 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and further analyzed by using the variance analysis and correlation analysis. [Result/conclusion] The result shows that agreeableness is posi...

  15. Integrated communication, navigation, and identification avionics: Impact analysis. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, M. H.; McManus, J. C.

    1985-10-01

    This paper summarizes the approach and findings of research into reliability, supportability, and survivability prediction techniques for fault-tolerant avionics systems. Since no technique existed to analyze the fault tolerance of reconfigurable systems, a new method was developed and implemented in the Mission Reliability Model (MIREM). The supportability analysis was completed by using the Simulation of Operational Availability/Readiness (SOAR) model. Both the Computation of Vulnerable Area and Repair Time (COVART) model and FASTGEN, a survivability model, proved valuable for the survivability research. Sample results are presented and several recommendations are also given for each of the three areas investigated under this study: reliability supportablility and survivability.

  16. Video Analysis Verification of Head Impact Events Measured by Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Nelson; Lincoln, Andrew E; Myer, Gregory D; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Putukian, Margot; Caswell, Shane V

    2017-08-01

    Wearable sensors are increasingly used to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head impact events in multiple sports. There is a paucity of evidence that verifies head impact events recorded by wearable sensors. To utilize video analysis to verify head impact events recorded by wearable sensors and describe the respective frequency and magnitude. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Thirty male (mean age, 16.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 73.4 ± 12.2 kg) and 35 female (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.3 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) players volunteered to participate in this study during the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants were instrumented with GForceTracker (GFT; boys) and X-Patch sensors (girls). Simultaneous game video was recorded by a trained videographer using a single camera located at the highest midfield location. One-third of the field was framed and panned to follow the ball during games. Videographic and accelerometer data were time synchronized. Head impact counts were compared with video recordings and were deemed valid if (1) the linear acceleration was ≥20 g, (2) the player was identified on the field, (3) the player was in camera view, and (4) the head impact mechanism could be clearly identified. Descriptive statistics of peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak rotational velocity (PRV) for all verified head impacts ≥20 g were calculated. For the boys, a total recorded 1063 impacts (2014: n = 545; 2015: n = 518) were logged by the GFT between game start and end times (mean PLA, 46 ± 31 g; mean PRV, 1093 ± 661 deg/s) during 368 player-games. Of these impacts, 690 were verified via video analysis (65%; mean PLA, 48 ± 34 g; mean PRV, 1242 ± 617 deg/s). The X-Patch sensors, worn by the girls, recorded a total 180 impacts during the course of the games, and 58 (2014: n = 33; 2015: n = 25) were verified via video analysis (32%; mean PLA, 39 ± 21 g; mean PRV, 1664

  17. Solid waste accident analysis in support of the Savannah River Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, W.J.; Crumm, A.T.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Rabin, M.S.; Rossi, D.E.

    1994-07-01

    The potential for facility accidents and the magnitude of their impacts are important factors in the evaluation of the solid waste management addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement. The purpose of this document is to address the potential solid waste management facility accidents for comparative use in support of the Environmental Impact Statement. This document must not be construed as an Authorization Basis document for any of the SRS waste management facilities. Because of the time constraints placed on preparing this accident impact analysis, all accident information was derived from existing safety documentation that has been prepared for SRS waste management facilities. A list of facilities to include in the accident impact analysis was provided as input by the Savannah River Technology Section. The accident impact analyses include existing SRS waste management facilities as well as proposed facilities. Safety documentation exists for all existing and many of the proposed facilities. Information was extracted from this existing documentation for this impact analysis. There are a few proposed facilities for which safety analyses have not been prepared. However, these facilities have similar processes to existing facilities and will treat, store, or dispose of the same type of material that is in existing facilities; therefore, the accidents can be expected to be similar

  18. Analysis reveals potential rangeland impacts if Williamson Act eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wetzel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available California budget cuts have resulted in dramatic reductions in state funding for the Williamson Act, a land protection program that reduces property taxes for the owners of 15 million acres of California farms and rangeland. With state reimbursements to counties eliminated, the decision to continue Williamson Act contracts lies with individual counties. We investigated the consequences of eliminating the Williamson Act, using a geospatial analysis and a mail questionnaire asking ranchers for plans under a hypothetical elimination scenario. The geospatial analysis revealed that 72% of rangeland parcels enrolled in Williamson Act contracts contained habitat important for statewide conservation goals. Presented with the elimination scenario, survey respondents reported an intention to sell 20% of their total 496,889 acres. The tendency of survey participants to respond that they would sell land was highest among full-time ranchers with low household incomes and without off-ranch employment. A majority (76% of the ranchers who reported that they would sell land predicted that the buyers would develop it for nonagricultural uses, suggesting substantial changes to California's landscape in a future without the Williamson Act.

  19. Environmental impact analysis (EIA) concerning lodgepole pine forestry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bengt; Rosvall, Ola; Engelmark, Ola; Sjoeberg, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the ecological consequences of forestry with Canadian lodgepole pine introduced into Sweden. The report includes a compilation of present knowledge in the area, research priorities, and proposed measures for dealing with the negative environmental consequences that could arise. The point of departure of the analysis is a description of the properties of lodgepole pine, including species-specific characteristics of the tree, and changes in stand environment and silvicultural management practices that can be expected. The report describes the dispersal capacity of lodgepole pine in its new Swedish environment and the effects of host-parasite interactions. Thereafter, ecological effects on the capacity of the soil for sustainable production and on biological diversity at various scales (tree, stand, landscape) are analysed. Lodgepole pine forestry is also considered in relation to current laws and regulations as well as national and international environmental goals. At the end of the report, a strategy is proposed for handling the inevitable uncertainties associated with the introduction of exotic species 111 refs, 14 figs

  20. Experimental impact testing and analysis of composite fan cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Klok, Andrew Joe

    For aircraft engine certification, one of the requirements is to demonstrate the ability of the engine to withstand a fan blade-out (FBO) event. A FBO event may be caused by fatigue failure of the fan blade itself or by impact damage of foreign objects such as bird strike. An un-contained blade can damage flight critical engine components or even the fuselage. The design of a containment structure is related to numerous parameters such as the blade tip speed; blade material, size and shape; hub/tip diameter; fan case material, configuration, rigidity, etc. To investigate all parameters by spin experiments with a full size rotor assembly can be prohibitively expensive. Gas gun experiments can generate useful data for the design of engine containment cases at much lower costs. To replicate the damage modes similar to that on a fan case in FBO testing, the gas gun experiment has to be carefully designed. To investigate the experimental procedure and data acquisition techniques for FBO test, a low cost, small spin rig was first constructed. FBO tests were carried out with the small rig. The observed blade-to-fan case interactions were similar to those reported using larger spin rigs. The small rig has the potential in a variety of applications from investigating FBO events, verifying concept designs of rotors, to developing spin testing techniques. This rig was used in the developments of the notched blade releasing mechanism, a wire trigger method for synchronized data acquisition, high speed video imaging and etc. A relationship between the notch depth and the release speed was developed and verified. Next, an original custom designed spin testing facility was constructed. Driven by a 40HP, 40,000rpm air turbine, the spin rig is housed in a vacuum chamber of phi72inx40in (1829mmx1016mm). The heavily armored chamber is furnished with 9 viewports. This facility enables unprecedented investigations of FBO events. In parallel, a 15.4ft (4.7m) long phi4.1inch (105mm

  1. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchherr, Julian, E-mail: julian.kirchherr@sant.ox.ac.uk; Charles, Katrina J., E-mail: katrina.charles@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2016-09-15

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  2. The social impacts of dams: A new framework for scholarly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.

    2016-01-01

    No commonly used framework exists in the scholarly study of the social impacts of dams. This hinders comparisons of analyses and thus the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to unify scholarly understanding of dams' social impacts via the analysis and aggregation of the various frameworks currently used in the scholarly literature. For this purpose, we have systematically analyzed and aggregated 27 frameworks employed by academics analyzing dams' social impacts (found in a set of 217 articles). A key finding of the analysis is that currently used frameworks are often not specific to dams and thus omit key impacts associated with them. The result of our analysis and aggregation is a new framework for scholarly analysis (which we call ‘matrix framework’) specifically on dams' social impacts, with space, time and value as its key dimensions as well as infrastructure, community and livelihood as its key components. Building on the scholarly understanding of this topic enables us to conceptualize the inherently complex and multidimensional issues of dams' social impacts in a holistic manner. If commonly employed in academia (and possibly in practice), this framework would enable more transparent assessment and comparison of projects.

  3. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Erhun; Evans, David

    2011-01-01

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  4. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  5. Dynamic Impact Analysis of Bagless Transfer System 3013 Can in Drops at Various Inclination Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide rational judgment for the most pernicious impact angle of dropping. A numerical simulation method, finite element analysis, is adopted for this study. The general-purpose finite element analysis code, ABAQUS(R) [HKS, 1998], facilitates the numerical computation. The geometrical finite element modeling is developed with the software PATRAN(R) [MSC, 1999]. The finite element code ABAQUS(R)has been verified according to the QA plans

  6. Impact Analysis of Age on Fallout Fatality Estimations for IND Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    dependent radiation dose response for acute effects was evaluated in detail. The analysis included data from animal studies, radiation oncology, and other...and genetic disposition. 17 Section 5. Future Work Analysis provided by the current study suggests that age-variability in dose response can...Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 Impact Analysis of Age on

  7. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation

  8. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  9. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  10. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  11. The impact of air pollution on the level of micronuclei measured by automated image analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Rossner, P.; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 42-47 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500390506; GA MŠk 2B06088; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : micronuclei * binucleated cells * automated image analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  12. Native Americans and cultural impact analysis: The proposed nuclear waste repository at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Beneath a surface patterning of legal, political, economic and other formal structures, Native American reservations and their tribes possess many culturally distinctive values and patterns of life. Generally it is this ancient underlying culture that Native American leaders wish to preserve and nourish. Their primary objective is tribal survival, and socioeconomic and cultural impact assessment theories and methods must reflect this objective. Conventional impact analysis rarely meets the needs of tribal leadership. Current, fragmented approaches must be replaced by integrative, holistic alternatives

  13. Understanding Land Use Impacts on Groundwater Quality Using Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; Masarik, K.; Masterpole, D.; Johnson, B.; Piette, S.

    2017-12-01

    Chippewa County, in western Wisconsin, has a unique historical set of groundwater quality data. The county conducted extensive groundwater sampling of private wells in 1985 (715 wells) and 2007 (800 wells). In 2016, they collaborated with UW-Extension and UW-Stevens Point to evaluate the current status of groundwater quality in Chippewa County by sampling of as many of the previously studied wells as possible. Nitrate was a primary focus of this groundwater quality inventory. Of the 744 samples collected, 60 were further analyzed for chemical indicators of agricultural and septic waste, two major sources of nitrate contamination. Wells for nitrate source analysis were selected from the 2016 participants based upon certain criteria. Only wells with a Wisconsin Unique Well Number were considered to ensure well construction information was available. Next, an Inverse Distance Weighting tool in ESRI ArcMap was used to assign values categorizing septic density. Two-thirds of the wells were selected in higher density areas and one-third in lower density areas. Equally prioritized was an even distribution of nitrate - N concentrations, with 28 of the wells having nitrate - N concentrations higher than the drinking water standard of 10 mg/L and 32 wells with concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/L. All wells with WUWN and nitrate - N concentrations greater than 20 mg/L were selected. The results of the nitrate source analyses will aid in determining temporal changes and spatial relationships of groundwater quality to soils, geology and land use in Chippewa County.

  14. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report, the second in the series, analyzes historical benefits and impacts of all state RPS policies, in aggregate, employing a consistent and well-vetted set of methods and data sets. The analysis focuses on three specific benefits: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water use. It also analyzes three other impacts: gross job additions, wholesale electricity market price suppression, and natural gas price suppression. These are an important subset, but by no means a comprehensive set, of all possible effects associated with RPS policies. These benefits and impacts are also subject to many uncertainties, which are described and, to the extent possible, quantified within the report.

  15. Application of the distinct element method to the analysis of the concrete members under impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuya, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Yoshihiko

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the distinct element method is applied to the analysis of the behavior of a structure under impact. At first, this method is applied to the one-dimensional wave propagation problem by comparing with the experimental results and the theoretical results. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by including not only elastic behavior but also the fracture of a structural member. Second, this method is developed to two-dimensional problems to simulate the behavior of a simply supported beam under an impact load. Finally, it could be shown that this method is effective to simulate wide phenomena from elastic behavior to a fracture under impact. ((orig.))

  16. Analysis of impact resistance of composite fan blade. Fukugozai fan blade no taishogekisei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, T; Okumura, H; Otake, K; Sofue, Y [Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-01-05

    Numerical analysis of impact response was carried out when a bird strike was simulated to study the applicability of fiber reinforced composite material to fan blades for turbo-fan engines. The validity of the numerical analysis was verified by comparing the analyzed results with impact tested results of a fan-blade model of Ti-alloy. The impact resistance was studied by applying this method to fan blades of composite materials such as carbon fiber, epoxy resin and carbon-silicate fiber reinforced Ti-alloy. The finite element method was used for the analysis by dividing the model into triangular flat elements. The relation between the impact load, the deformation of blade and the strain, the natural frequency characteristics, the elastic modulus and hetrogeneity of blade were considered to analyze the impact response. The impact load by the strike of 1.5 lbs bird is very severe to the fan blades for turbo-fan engines having the thrust of 5 ton class. 23 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Analysis and assessment of environmental impacts of small hydro power plant in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleňáková, M.; Fijko, R.; Remeňáková, I.

    2017-10-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important process that, prior to approval of the investment plan, can provide a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to apply a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of the environmental impacts of selected constructions, namely, small hydro power plant, using matrix of impacts. This analysis method is intended not only to increase the clarity and precision of the evaluation process, but also to align it with the requirements of the environmental impact assessment system. This modification should improve the reliability of the environmental impact assessment, and could moreover also be applied to other infrastructure projects. Comparison of alternatives and designation of the optimal variant are implemented based on selected criteria that objectively describe the characteristic lines of the planned alternatives of activity and their impact on the environment. The use of proper EIA procedures can help the decision-makers to formulate proper activities based on qualified decisions. The designed project in Spišské Bystré, Slovakia is used as a case study to clarify and exemplify the methodology and techniques.

  18. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  19. Analysis of impact of large commercial aircraft on a prestressed containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoungsoo, E-mail: kylee@pvamu.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie view, TX, 77446 (United States); Han, Sang Eul, E-mail: hsang@inha.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, School of Architecture, Inha University, 253 Yonghyundong Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseon-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses are performed using the missile–target interaction method. • A large commercial B747 aircraft is considered with erosion effect. • The rigid wall impact test shows the validity of the developed aircraft model. • The parametric studies on the fictitious containment building are performed. • The plastic failure of the target is governed by the impulse of aircraft at the first momentum peak. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of nonlinear dynamic analyses of a concrete containment building under extreme loads are presented. The impact of a large commercial B747 airliner is investigated as the extreme load, and a rigid wall impact test is performed using commercial nonlinear finite element codes. The impact forces exerted by the aircraft are verified compared with the time-dependent impact force provided by OECD/NEA (2002), which was calculated based on the so-called Riera method. The rigid wall impact analysis shows that the finite element model of a B747 is appropriate for the purpose of the aircraft crash analysis exposed to the external hazard of “Beyond Design-Basis Events” defined by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Finally, the applicability of this methodology is further studied and verified by conducting parametric studies on the critical infrastructures of nuclear power plant containment structures.

  20. Analysis of impact of large commercial aircraft on a prestressed containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoungsoo; Han, Sang Eul; Hong, Jung-Wuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aircraft impact analyses are performed using the missile–target interaction method. • A large commercial B747 aircraft is considered with erosion effect. • The rigid wall impact test shows the validity of the developed aircraft model. • The parametric studies on the fictitious containment building are performed. • The plastic failure of the target is governed by the impulse of aircraft at the first momentum peak. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of nonlinear dynamic analyses of a concrete containment building under extreme loads are presented. The impact of a large commercial B747 airliner is investigated as the extreme load, and a rigid wall impact test is performed using commercial nonlinear finite element codes. The impact forces exerted by the aircraft are verified compared with the time-dependent impact force provided by OECD/NEA (2002), which was calculated based on the so-called Riera method. The rigid wall impact analysis shows that the finite element model of a B747 is appropriate for the purpose of the aircraft crash analysis exposed to the external hazard of “Beyond Design-Basis Events” defined by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Finally, the applicability of this methodology is further studied and verified by conducting parametric studies on the critical infrastructures of nuclear power plant containment structures

  1. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  2. On the impact analysis of a PWR spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    by an instrumented indentation technique are performed, and the analysis results are compared with the previous research using the parent material properties

  3. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  4. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sethi, Gautam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report uses statistical analysis to evaluate the impact of wind power projects on property values, and fails to uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts.

  5. Application impact analysis: a risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Beth; Khan, Dawn Christine

    2014-01-01

    There are many possible disruptions that can occur in business. Overlooking or under planning for Business Continuity requires time, understanding and careful planning. Business Continuity Management is far more than producing a document and declaring business continuity success. What is the recipe for businesses to achieve continuity management success? Application Impact Analysis is a method for understanding the unique Business Attributes. This AIA Cycle involves a risk based approach to understanding the business priority and considering business aspects such as Financial, Operational, Service Structure, Contractual Legal, and Brand. The output of this analysis provides a construct for viewing data, evaluating impact, and delivering results, for an approved valuation of Recovery Time Objectives (RTO).

  6. Crush analysis of the foam-filled bitubal circular tube under oblique impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamaluddin, F.; Abdullah, S.; Arrifin, A. K.; Nopiah, Z. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents crashworthiness analysis of bitubal cylindrical tubes under different impact angular. The numerical solution of double cylindrical tubes are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Moreover, the structure was impacted by mass block as impactor respect to longitudinal direction of the tubes. The model of structure was developed by non-linear ABAQUS sofware with variations of load angle and dimensions of tube. The outcome of this study is the respons parameters such as the peak crusing force (PCF), energy absorption (EA) and specific energy absorption (SEA), thus it can be expected this tube as the great energy absorber.

  7. Analysis of environmental impact assessment for large-scale X-ray medical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jin; Pei Chengkai

    2011-01-01

    Based on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project, this paper elaborates the basic analysis essentials of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment, and provides the analysis procedure of environmental impact and dose estimation method under normal and accident conditions. The key points of EIA for the sales project of large-scale X-ray medical equipment include the determination of pollution factor and management limit value according to the project's actual situation, the utilization of various methods of assessment and prediction such as analogy, actual measurement and calculation to analyze, monitor, calculate and predict the pollution during normal and accident condition. (authors)

  8. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  9. A Coal-Use Economics Methodology for Navy Bases. Phase II of Engineering Services for Coal Conversion Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    PERFORM FLOW, CAPITAL COST, CALL CALCI ENGINEERING AND OPERATING CALL CALC2 CALCULATIONS AND MAINTENANCE REPORTS PERFORM FINANCIAL CALL ECONM FINANCIAL...8217-, " : ’.:. _’t " .- - -,, . , . , . ’,L "- "e " .°,’,/’,,.’" ""./"" " - - , "."-" ". 9 -".3 "’, 9.2.5 Financial Analysis Routines ECONM serves as

  10. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  11. The Analysis of the Impact of Depreciation on External Debt in Long Run: Evidence From Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Palić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exchange rate changes in small open economies has been a widely researched topic for decades. According to economic theory and relevant research, depreciation can have a positive impact on the economy through an increase in exports, and a negative effect through decrease in an individual consumption. The aim of this artcle is to assess the impact of exchange rate depreciation on external debt in Croatia in the long-run. The long-run impact of depreciation on external debt in Croatia is assessed using Johansen cointegration approach. The results point to the existence of one cointegration relation. The long-run impact of exchange rate depreciation on external debt in Croatia is statistically significant and positive, what is in line with previous research and economic theory. The conducted analysis outlines the possible negative impact of depreciation on Croatian economy through the increase of external indebtedness, what could consequently decrease the wealth of all sectors indebted in foreign currency. Since Croatia is a highly euroised small open economy with high external indebtedness in foreign currency, this research provides captivating results for monetary and fiscal policy-making in Croatia. Therefore, as a result of the conducted empirical analysis, the exchange rate depreciation in Croatia is not recommended as the instrument of increasing export competitiveness due to current high external indebtedness in foreign currency.

  12. Scenario analysis in environmental impact assessment: Improving explorations of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duinker, Peter N.; Greig, Lorne A.

    2007-01-01

    Scenarios and scenario analysis have become popular approaches in organizational planning and participatory exercises in pursuit of sustainable development. However, they are little used, at least in any formal way, in environmental impact assessment (EIA). This is puzzling because EIA is a process specifically dedicated to exploring options for more-sustainable (i.e., less environmentally damaging) futures. In this paper, we review the state of the art associated with scenarios and scenario analysis, and describe two areas where scenario analysis could be particularly helpful in EIA: (a) in defining future developments for cumulative effects assessment; and (b) in considering the influence of contextual change - e.g. climate change - on impact forecasts for specific projects. We conclude by encouraging EIA practitioners to learn about the promise of scenario-based analysis and implement scenario-based methods so that EIA can become more effective in fostering sustainable development

  13. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  14. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  15. Passage Key Inlet, Florida; CMS Modeling and Borrow Site Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Impact Analysis by Kelly R. Legault and Sirisha Rayaprolu PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes the...driven sediment transport at Passage Key Inlet. This analysis resulted in issuing a new Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) permit to...Funding for this study was provided by the USACE Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program, a Navigation Research, Development, and Technology Portfolio

  16. Potential impacts of ENDF/B-V on critical experiment analysis based on ZEBRA-8 criticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, T S

    1982-06-01

    The ZEBRA-8 series of null-zone measurements featured a different neutron spectrum for each assembly. The experiments were designed for the purpose of basic data testing. The series cover a range of spectra both harder and softer than that for the LMFBR. The potential impacts of the newly released ENDF/BV cross section library on LMFBR critical exeriment analysis are discussed based on analysis of ZEBRA-8 series.

  17. The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Yamasaki, Sakura

    2009-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the data of a previous study on the policy impact of antinuclear, ecology, and peace movements in three countries with the aim of replicating its findings. Our goal is to see whether using a different analytical technique will yield similar results. The previous study used a regression approach to time-series analysis. Here, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to analyze the previous study’s data. Specifically, we test the two main hypotheses based on the joi...

  18. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in economic profiles and numbers, origins, and expenditure of medical tourists. We applied input–output (I–O) analysis, based on state-specific I–O data and disaggregated foreign patient data. The an...

  19. The Brazilian energy matrix: Evolution analysis and its impact on farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz; Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio Oscare

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a technical and economic analysis of the Brazilian matrix energy evaluation, aiming at the evaluation of impacts inherent to technological innovation involved on energy matrix and the sectoral development. Particular attention is given to biomass energy, natural gas, and conventional fuels, considering their impacts on agricultural activity, identifying the highest potential for investment in this sector. As a result, a clear view of the importance of agricultural sector participation in the context of the Brazilian energy is obtained, not only as a consumer, but mainly through self-production energy policy of waste reuse as biomass and of biofuels. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of Brazilian energy matrix on farming. • We highlight the socio-political-economic impact on the agricultural sector. • We highlight the biofuels potential

  20. Reliability analysis of different structure parameters of PCBA under drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P. S.; Fan, G. M.; Liu, Y. H.

    2018-03-01

    The establishing process of PCBA is modelled by finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Firstly, introduce the Input-G method and the fatigue life under drop impact are introduced and the mechanism of the solder joint failure in the process of drop is analysed. The main reason of solder joint failure is that the PCB component is suffering repeated tension and compression stress during the drop impact. Finally, the equivalent stress and peel stress of different solder joint and plate-level components under different impact acceleration are also analysed. The results show that the reliability of tin-silver copper joint is better than that of tin- lead solder joint, and the fatigue life of solder joint expectancy decrease as the impact pulse amplitude increases.

  1. Computational contact and impact mechanics fundamentals of modeling interfacial phenomena in nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laursen, Tod A

    2003-01-01

    This book comprehensively treats the formulation and finite element approximation of contact and impact problems in nonlinear mechanics. Intended for students, researchers and practitioners interested in numerical solid and structural analysis, as well as for engineers and scientists dealing with technologies in which tribological response must be characterized, the book includes an introductory but detailed overview of nonlinear finite element formulations before dealing with contact and impact specifically. Topics encompassed include the continuum mechanics, mathematical structure, variational framework, and finite element implementations associated with contact/impact interaction. Additionally, important and currently emerging research topics in computational contact mechanics are introduced, encompassing such topics as tribological complexity, conservative treatment of inelastic impact interaction, and novel spatial discretization strategies.

  2. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, Alejandro; Aguado, Antonio; Cardim, Arnaldo; Byars, Ewan

    2007-01-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content

  3. Environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-16

    This environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries is intended to identify principal environmental impacts resulting directly or indirectly from the development of electric vehicle batteries. Thus, the result of this study could be used to determine the appropriate following step in the U.S. DOE's EIA process. The environmental impacts considered in this document are the incremental impacts generated during the various phases in the battery life cycle. The processes investigated include mining, milling, smelting, and refining of metallic materials for electrode components; manufacturing processes of inorganic chemicals and other materials for electrolytes and other hardware components; battery assembly processes; operation and maintenance of batteries; and recycling and disposal of used batteries. The severity of the incremental impacts is quantified to the extent consistent with the state-of-knowledge. Many of the industrial processes involve proprietary or patent information; thus, in many cases, the associated environmental impacts could not be determined. In addition, most candidate battery systems are still in the development phase. Thus, the manufacturing and recycling processes for most battery systems either have not been developed by industry, or the information is not available. For these cases, the associated environmental impact evaluations could only be qualitative, and the need for further investigations is indicated. 26 figures, 27 tables. (RWR)

  4. Development of estimation algorithm of loose parts and analysis of impact test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Ham, Chang Sik; Jung, Chul Hwan; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Tak Hwane; Kim, Tae Hwane; Park, Jin Ho

    1999-11-01

    Loose parts are produced by being parted from the structure of the reactor coolant system or by coming into RCS from the outside during test operation, refueling, and overhaul time. These loose parts are mixed with reactor coolant fluid and collide with RCS components. When loose parts are occurred within RCS, it is necessary to estimate the impact point and the mass of loose parts. In this report an analysis algorithm for the estimation of the impact point and mass of loose part is developed. The developed algorithm was tested with the impact test data of Yonggwang-3. The estimated impact point using the proposed algorithm in this report had 5 percent error to the real test data. The estimated mass was analyzed within 28 percent error bound using the same unit's data. We analyzed the characteristic frequency of each sensor because this frequency effected the estimation of impact point and mass. The characteristic frequency of the background noise during normal operation was compared with that of the impact test data. The result of the comparison illustrated that the characteristic frequency bandwidth of the impact test data was lower than that of the background noise during normal operation. by the comparison, the integrity of sensor and monitoring system could be checked, too. (author)

  5. The Impact of Productivity Increasing in Indonesian Maritim Sector: General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in productivity in the maritime sector will realize the maritime sector as a prime mover. This study aims to analyze the impact of the maritime sector productivity improvement on the performance of the economy. This research simulates increased productivity in the maritime sector (consisting of the fisheries, oil, gas sub-sector and marine transport services sector using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP version 8. Simulation analysis showed an increase in productivity in the maritime sector has a positive impact on welfare, real GDP, and trade balance of Indonesia. However, the impact of the increase in productivity is not followed by an increase in output in all sectors. This indicates that if the increase in productivity occurs only in the maritime sector alone without being followed by an increase in productivity in other sectors, the sectoral performance is not optimal.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3403

  6. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  7. Framework for the impact analysis and implementation of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Emma

    2011-10-14

    Abstract Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) are tools that quantify the contribution of symptoms, clinical signs and available diagnostic tests, and in doing so stratify patients according to the probability of having a target outcome or need for a specified treatment. Most focus on the derivation stage with only a minority progressing to validation and very few undergoing impact analysis. Impact analysis studies remain the most efficient way of assessing whether incorporating CPRs into a decision making process improves patient care. However there is a lack of clear methodology for the design of high quality impact analysis studies. We have developed a sequential four-phased framework based on the literature and the collective experience of our international working group to help researchers identify and overcome the specific challenges in designing and conducting an impact analysis of a CPR. There is a need to shift emphasis from deriving new CPRs to validating and implementing existing CPRs. The proposed framework provides a structured approach to this topical and complex area of research.

  8. An analysis of burn-off impact on the structure microporous of activated carbons formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Mirosław; Kopac, Türkan

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results on the application of the LBET numerical method as a tool for analysis of the microporous structure of activated carbons obtained from a bituminous coal. The LBET method was employed particularly to evaluate the impact of the burn-off on the obtained microporous structure parameters of activated carbons.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Capital Market Activities on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Capital Market Activities on the Nigerian Economy. ... Others include the expansion of the stock market in terms of depth and breadth and the attraction of foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment into the Nigerian economic landscape. Keywords: Nigeria, Market ...

  10. Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  11. Long-Term Impact of the Farm Financial Analysis Training Curriculum on FSA Borrowers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Kenneth L.; Douglass, Mark B.; Hanson, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Farm Financial Analysis Training (FFAT) course covers fundamental skills and concepts in liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. The research reported here identifies and measures the impacts of FFAT on participants including: 1) perceived gains in knowledge, 2) changes in management behavior, 3) changes in specific farm assets and…

  12. An Empirical Analysis of the Patterns in Defense Industry Consolidation and Their Subsequent Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hensel, Nayantara

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper explores the causes of the wave of defense mergers, as well as their impact. The analysis finds that the frequency of defense mergers is more strongly correlated with overall merger activity in the economy than with DoD outlays...

  13. PRT Impact Study Pre-PRT Phase : Volume 1. Travel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Part of a three-volume work, this report describes the analysis performed on travel data collected for the Pre-PRT Impact Study. The data analyzed consist of travel behavior, travel patterns, model utilization and travel costs of various modes of tra...

  14. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed great lakes water quality guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raucher, R.; Dixon, A.; Trabka, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Impact Analysis provides direction to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on minimum water quality standards and contains numerical water quality criteria for 32 pollutants as well as methodologies for the development of water quality criteria for additional pollutants discharged to these waters. It also provides guidance to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on antidegradation policies and standards and implementation procedures

  15. Impact of a Family Empowerment Intervention on Delinquent Behavior: A Latent Growth Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Wothke, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Analysis indicated that reported frequency of involvement in delinquency declined more over time for families receiving Family Empowerment Intervention (FEI) as opposed to those receiving Extended Services Intervention (ESI). Results provide support for the impact of FEI services on reported frequency of delinquent behavior over a 36-month…

  16. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform... guarantee, the value of the transaction, and the amount of new foreign production capacity are not included... date this notice appears in the Federal Register. James C. Cruse, Senior Vice President, Policy and...

  17. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  18. Impacts and Implications of Future-oriented Technology Analysis for Policy and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    SARITAS Ozcan; CAGNIN CRISTIANO; HAVAS Attila; MILES Ian

    2009-01-01

    Most of the papers in this special issue were presented at the Third International Seville Conference on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) that took place in October 2008. They address a wide variety of issues in FTA including methods and policy and governance impacts with discussions and demonstrations at the regional and corporate levels.

  19. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This... route service within China and from China to various regional and international destinations... to economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW., Room 442, Washington, DC 20571...

  20. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  1. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  2. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarti, Moncef; Hajiah, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: → A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. → The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. → It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. → Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  3. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2010 - part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - integrated assessment modeling and valuation.

  4. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  6. [Analysis of citations and national and international impact factor of Farmacia Hospitalaria (2001-2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; González Alcaide, G; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, J I; Valderrama Zurián, J C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the citation patterns and impact and immediacy indicators of the Farmacia Hospitalaria journal during the period 2001-2005. An analysis of citations chosen from 101 Spanish health science journals was carried out in order to determine the citing and cited journals and the national and international impact and immediacy indicators. A similar methodology used by Thomson ISI in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Journal Citation Reports (JRC) was applied. Farmacia Hospitalaria made 1,370 citations to 316 different journals. The percentage of self-citations was 9%. The national impact factor increased from 0.178 points in 2001 to 0.663 points in 2005 while the international impact factor increased from 0.178 to 0.806 for the same period. The analysis of citation patterns demonstrates the multidisciplinary nature of Farmacia Hospitalaria and a significant growth in the impact indicators over recent years. These indicators are higher than those of some other pharmacy journals included in Journal Citation Reports. Self-citation was not excessive and was similar to that of other journals.

  7. Ecotourism versus Mass Tourism. A Comparison of Environmental Impacts Based on Ecological Footprint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Ballet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic and policy interest in ecological footprint analysis has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, however, the application of ecological footprint analysis to tourism has been limited. This article aims to discuss the potential of ecological footprint analysis to assess sustainability in tourism. It is about a comparison of the global environmental impacts of different forms of tourism in southern countries where tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings. It illustrates how an ecotourism destination has a larger ecological footprint than a “mass” tourism destination.

  8. Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology.

  9. Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology

  10. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. This analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  11. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  12. Budget impact analysis of adjunctive therapy with lacosamide for partial-onset epileptic seizures in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to compute the budget impact of lacosamide, a new adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in epilepsy patients from 16 years of age who are uncontrolled and having previously used at least three anti-epileptic drugs from a Belgian healthcare payer perspective. The budget impact analysis compared the 'world with lacosamide' to the 'world without lacosamide' and calculated how a change in the mix of anti-epileptic drugs used to treat uncontrolled epilepsy would impact drug spending from 2008 to 2013. Data on the number of patients and on the market shares of anti-epileptic drugs were taken from Belgian sources and from the literature. Unit costs of anti-epileptic drugs originated from Belgian sources. The budget impact was calculated from two scenarios about the market uptake of lacosamide. The Belgian target population is expected to increase from 5333 patients in 2008 to 5522 patients in 2013. Assuming that the market share of lacosamide increases linearly over time and is taken evenly from all other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), the budget impact of adopting adjunctive therapy with lacosamide increases from €5249 (0.1% of reference drug budget) in 2008 to €242,700 (4.7% of reference drug budget) in 2013. Assuming that 10% of patients use standard AED therapy plus lacosamide, the budget impact of adopting adjunctive therapy with lacosamide is around €800,000-900,000 per year (or 16.7% of the reference drug budget). Adjunctive therapy with lacosamide would raise drug spending for this patient population by as much as 16.7% per year. However, this budget impact analysis did not consider the fact that lacosamide reduces costs of seizure management and withdrawal. The literature suggests that, if savings in other healthcare costs are taken into account, adjunctive therapy with lacosamide may be cost saving.

  13. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  14. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  15. Analysis of Traffic Parameter Estimation and Its Impacts on Wireless Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉滨; 沙学军; 强蔚

    2004-01-01

    Wide band or broadband access was paid much attention with the development of radio transmission technique. The wireless access control procedure play an important role in this type of system and efficiency of control algorithm has a great impact on throughput of channel resource. Based on wide band network control model and the characteristics of radio channel, this paper proposed a channel traffic estimation method and then performed a dynamic parameter control procedure and give detail analysis on estimation error and its impact on channel throughput and delay performance. Computation and simulation of system performance show a positive solution on system design.

  16. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Butler, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool

  17. Advances in the analysis of NPP and other critical structures subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of analysis and design criteria of structures subjected to aircraft impact was presented, focusing attention on factors considered of relevance for NPP design. One of these factors is related to model uncertainty, i.e. to the degree of belief of the designer in the numerical or analytical model employed to determine the structural response. Note that uncertainty grows as we approach the limits of past experience, region in which the analyst and design engineer find themselves when assessing the effects of aircraft impact

  18. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, R.L.; Knowlton, D.A.; Lin, D.C.K.; Fentiman, A.F. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  19. [HAS budget impact analysis guidelines: A new decision-making tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabri, Salah; Poullié, Anne-Isabelle; Autin, Erwan; Josselin, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-02

    Budget impact analysis (BIA) provides short and medium-term estimates on changes in budgets and resources resulting from the adoption of new health interventions. The objective of this article is to present the main messages of the newly developed French National Authority for Health (HAS) guidelines on budget impact analysis : issues, recommendations and perspectives. The HAS guidelines development process was based on data derived from a literature review on BIA (search dates : January 2000 to June 2016), an HAS retrospective investigation, a public consultation, international expert advice, and approval from the HAS Board and the Economic and Public Health Evaluation Committee. Based on its research findings, HAS developed its first BIA guidelines, which include recommendations on the following topics : BIA definition, perspective, populations, time horizon, compared scenarios, budget impact models, costing, discounting, choice of clinical data, reporting of results and uncertainty analysis. The HAS BIA guidelines are expected to enhance the usefulness of BIA as an essential part of a comprehensive economic assessment of healthcare interventions, which itself includes cost-effectiveness analysis and equity of access to healthcare.

  20. Limitations and pitfalls of climate change impact analysis on urban rainfall extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Olsson, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due...... to anthropogenic climate change. Current practices have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified...... and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities liveable into the future....

  1. Development of the simulation system IMPACT for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system IMPACT for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT's distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data

  2. Analysis of impact of mixing flow on the pebble bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chen; Li Fu; Guo Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the mixing flow in the pebble flow on pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) was analyzed in the paper. New code package MFVSOP which can simulate the mixing flow was developed. The equilibrium core of HTR-PM was selected as reference case, the impact of the mixing flow on the core parameters such as core power peak factor, power distribution was analyzed with different degree of mixing flow, and uncertainty analysis was carried out. Numerical results showed that the mixing flow had little impact on key parameters of pebble bed HTR, and the multiple-pass-operation-mode in pebble bed HTR can reduce the uncertainty arouse from the mixing flow. (authors)

  3. FINCRUSH : a computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport cask with fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1997-05-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive material transport cask with cooling fins, relationship between fin plastic deformation and fin energy absorption is used. This relationship was obtained by ORNL experiments and MONSER Co. in Canada. Based on ORNL experiments, a computer program FINCRUSH has been developed for rapid safety analysis of cask drop impact to obtain the maximum impact acceleration and the maximum fin deformation. Main features of FINCRUSH are as follows: (1) annulus fins on a cylindrical shell and plate fins on a disk can be treated, (2) it is capable of graphical representations for calculation results and fin absorption energy data and (3) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of the FINCRUSH. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method of FINCRUSH is presented. The second section presents comparisons between FINCRUSH and experimental results. The third section provides a use's guide for FINCRUSH. (author)

  4. FINCRUSH : a computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport cask with fins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive material transport cask with cooling fins, relationship between fin plastic deformation and fin energy absorption is used. This relationship was obtained by ORNL experiments and MONSER Co. in Canada. Based on ORNL experiments, a computer program FINCRUSH has been developed for rapid safety analysis of cask drop impact to obtain the maximum impact acceleration and the maximum fin deformation. Main features of FINCRUSH are as follows: (1) annulus fins on a cylindrical shell and plate fins on a disk can be treated, (2) it is capable of graphical representations for calculation results and fin absorption energy data and (3) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of the FINCRUSH. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method of FINCRUSH is presented. The second section presents comparisons between FINCRUSH and experimental results. The third section provides a use`s guide for FINCRUSH. (author)

  5. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  6. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd; Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif; Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed

    2015-01-01

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  7. ANALYSIS AND PARTICULARITIES OF EXTERNAL FACTORS IMPACT ON ECONOMICAL RESULTS OF STRATEGIC OBJECTS PLANNING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The relevance of the scientific problem described in the article are: to determine changes in economic performance, the effectiveness of the sectoral components of the service sector from the effects of environmental factors, which allows them to reach the planned long-term economic performance; management decision-making about structural and organizational changes, implementation of investment projects in the renovation and modernization of fixed capital, the creation of technology, process and product innovations directly connected with the impact analysis of such external factors as economic, socio-cultural, legal, political, innovative. The structure of the article is formed on the basis of presentation of the impact of specific groups of environmental factors on the competitiveness and economic performance of industry components of services based on the technology of strategic planning; complience of logical sequence of presentation of materials, establishing a causal relationship, the interaction of factors and elements of studied problems and objects. Features of external factors impact on the effectiveness of macro-economic entities, sectoral components of services are to the adequacy of the measures and strategies to counter the negative impact on the economic development of the objects of strategic development. Features of status changes and influence of internal factors on local and sectoral socio-economic systems dictate the need for a part of the available resources, the level of efficiency of the use of labor resources, fixed and current assets. The contribution of the author in a scientific perspective of this topic is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the main groups of external factors on economic activities of the service sector development; identifying features of internal factors impact on the economic and innovative development of strategic planning objects.

  8. Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) as an agonist opioid treatment in Spain: a budgetary impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Raga, José; González Saiz, Francisco; Pascual, César; Casado, Miguel A; Sabater Torres, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) as an agonist opioid treatment for opiate dependence. A budgetary impact analysis model was designed to calculate the annual costs (drugs and associated costs) to the Spanish National Healthcare System of methadone versus B/N. Data for the model were obtained from official databases and expert panel opinion. It was estimated that 86,017 patients would be in an agonist opioid treatment program each of the 3 years of the study. No increase in the number of patients is expected with the introduction of B/N combination. The budgetary impact (drugs and associated costs) for agonist opiate treatment in the first year of the study would be 89.53 million EUR. In the first year of B/N use, the budgetary impact would rise by 4.39 million EUR (4.6% of the total impact), with an incremental cost of 0.79 million EUR (0.9% of the total impact). The budgetary increase would be 0.6% (0.48 million EUR increase) and 0.6% (0.49 million EUR increase) in the second and third years of use, respectively. The mean cost per patient in the first year with and without B/N would be EUR 1,050 and 1,041, respectively. The most influential variables in the sensitivity analysis were logistics and production costs of methadone and the percentage use of B/N. With an additional cost of only EUR 9 per patient, B/N is an efficient addition to the therapeutic arsenal in the drug treatment of opiate dependence, particularly when considering clinical aspects of novel pharmacotherapy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Budget impact analysis of pemetrexed introduction: case study from a teaching hospital perspective, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjaruporn, Farsai; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Sooksriwong, Cha-oncin; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-09-01

    Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for preparing submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC). The model variables consisted of number of patients, growth rate of lung cancer, uptake rate of pemetrexed over time, unit prices of drugs, and the length and cost of treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine changes in budgetary impact due to variation of parameters or assumptions in the model. The introduction of pemetrexed was estimated to cause considerable costs for the teaching hospital. In the base-case analysis, the incremental costs were estimated at 8,553,984 Baht in the first year increasing to 12, 118, 144 Baht, 17,820,800 Baht and 17,820,800 Baht in the following years. The 4-year net budgetary impact was 20,154,480 Baht or approximately 127,560 Baht per patient. Sensitivity analyses found that number of treatment cycles andproportion of patients assumed to be treated with pemetrexed were the two most important influencing factors in the model. New costly innovative interventions should be evaluated using the BIA model to determine whether they are affordable. The Thai government should consider requiring the BIA study as one of the requirements for drug submission to assist in the determination of listing and subsidizing decision for medicines.

  10. Review of economic studies and budget impact analysis of ocriplasmin as a treatment of vitreomacular traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, L; Abreu-González, R; Pérez-Ramos, J; García-Pérez, S; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2016-06-01

    To review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of ocriplasmin as a treatment for vitreomacular traction (VMT), and to estimate the impact on the Spanish National Health System (NHS). 1) Systematic review. The following databases were searched in January 2015: MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, EMBASE, CRD, the Cochrane Library, and key websites. Selection criteria were: full economic evaluations that compared ocriplasmin with usual care ('watch and wait' and/or vitrectomy) in patients with VMT. The outcomes to extract were costs of the alternatives and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Studies of budget impact analysis were also included. The methodological quality was assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the included studies was carried out. 2) Estimation of budget impact. The impact on the budget as a result of the introduction of ocriplasmin in the NHS was estimated, including data from different sources. Six studies were identified, none of them performed in Spain. The two best studies concluded that ocriplasmin is cost-effective in their respective countries (Canada and United Kingdom), but only in patients with certain conditions (without epiretinal membrane, for example). The results of the budget impact analysis are different between countries. The analysis for Spain showed that the introduction of ocriplasmin would mean a saving over 1 million Euros for the NHS in 5 years. The cost-effectiveness of ocriplasmin has not been demonstrated in Spain. However, good studies performed in other countries found that ocriplasmin is cost-effective in selected patients. Given the current prices in Spain, ocriplasmin could involve a saving for the Spanish NHS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact analysis of the spacer grid assembly and shape optimization of the attached spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. J.; Lee, Z. N. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Spacer grids support fuel rods and maintain geometry from external impact loads. A simulation is performed for the strength of a spacer grid under the impact load. The critical impact load that leads to plastic deformation is identified by a free-fall test. A finite element model is established for the nonlinear simulation of the impact process. The simulation model is tuned based on the free-fall test. The model considers the aspects of welding and the contacts between components. Nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out using a software system called ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The results are discussed from a design viewpoint. Design requirements are defined and a design process is established. The design process includes mathematical optimization as well as practical design method. The shape of the grid spring is designed to maintain its function during the lifetime of the fuel assembly. A structural optimization method is employed for the shape design. A good design is found. Commercial codes are utilized for structural analysis and optimization. 18 refs., 61 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  12. A coupled stochastic rainfall-evapotranspiration model for hydrological impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2018-02-01

    A hydrological impact analysis concerns the study of the consequences of certain scenarios on one or more variables or fluxes in the hydrological cycle. In such an exercise, discharge is often considered, as floods originating from extremely high discharges often cause damage. Investigating the impact of extreme discharges generally requires long time series of precipitation and evapotranspiration to be used to force a rainfall-runoff model. However, such kinds of data may not be available and one should resort to stochastically generated time series, even though the impact of using such data on the overall discharge, and especially on the extreme discharge events, is not well studied. In this paper, stochastically generated rainfall and corresponding evapotranspiration time series, generated by means of vine copulas, are used to force a simple conceptual hydrological model. The results obtained are comparable to the modelled discharge using observed forcing data. Yet, uncertainties in the modelled discharge increase with an increasing number of stochastically generated time series used. Notwithstanding this finding, it can be concluded that using a coupled stochastic rainfall-evapotranspiration model has great potential for hydrological impact analysis.

  13. Assessing the impact of fisheries co-management interventions in developing countries: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louisa; Cherrett, Nia; Pemsl, Diemuth

    2011-08-01

    Co-management is now established as a mainstream approach to small-scale fisheries management across the developing world. A comprehensive review of 204 potential cases reveals a lack of impact assessments of fisheries co-management. This study reports on a meta-analysis of the impact of fisheries co-management in developing countries in 90 sites across 29 case-studies. The top five most frequently measured process indicators are participation, influence, rule compliance, control over resources, and conflict. The top five most frequently measured outcome indicators are access to resources, resource well-being, fishery yield, household well-being, and household income. To deal with the diversity of the 52 indicators measured and the different ways these data are collected and analysed, we apply a coding system to capture change over time. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that, overall fisheries co-management delivers benefits to end-users through improvements in key process and outcome indicators. However, the dataset as a whole is constituted primarily of data from the Philippines. When we exclude this body of work, few generalisations can be made about the impact of fisheries co-management. The lack of comparative data suitable for impact assessment and the difficulties in comparing data and generalising across countries and regions reiterates calls in other fields for more systematic approaches to understanding and evaluating governance frameworks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of utility analysis processes to estimate the impact of training for nuclear maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test two utility analysis models, the Cascio-Ramos Estimate of Performance in Dollars (CREPID) model and Godkewitsch financial utility analysis model and to determine their appropriateness as tools for evaluating training. This study was conducted in conjunction with Philadelphia Electric Company's Nuclear Training Group. Job performance of nuclear maintenance workers was assessed to document the impact of the training program. Assessment of job performance covered six job performance themes. Additionally, front-line nuclear maintenance supervisors were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the nuclear maintenance training. A comparison of supervisor's perceptions and outcomes of the utility analysis models was made to determine the appropriateness of utility analysis as quantitative tools for evaluating the nuclear maintenance training program. Application of the CREPID utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training through utility analysis was $5,843,750 which represented only four of the job performance themes. Application of the Godkewitsch utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training was $3,083,845 which represented all six performance themes. A comparison of the outcomes indicated a sizeable difference between the dollar values produced by the models. Supervisors indicated training resulted in improved productivity, i.e., improved efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, supervisors believed training was valuable because it provided nonmonetary benefits, e.g., improved self-esteem and confidence. The application of utility analysis addressed only monetary benefits of training. The variation evidenced by the difference in the outcome of the two models suggests that utility analysis open-quotes estimatesclose quotes may not accurately reflect the impact of training

  15. Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water – air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.

  16. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis of Acidification and Eutrophication Due to Emissions from the Production of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a major material used in the construction industry that emits a large amount of substances with environmental impacts during its life cycle. Accordingly, technologies for the reduction in and assessment of the environmental impact of concrete from the perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA must be developed. At present, the studies on LCA in relation to greenhouse gas emission from concrete are being carried out globally as a countermeasure against climate change. However, the studies on the impact of the substances emitted in the concrete production process on acidification and eutrophication are insufficient. As such, assessing only a single category of environmental impact may cause a misunderstanding about the environmental friendliness of concrete. The substances emitted in the concrete production process have an impact not only on global warming but also on acidification and eutrophication. Acidification and eutrophication are the main causes of air pollution, forest destruction, red tide phenomena, and deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. For this reason, the main substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that have an impact on acidification and eutrophication were deduced. In addition, an LCA technique through which to determine the major emissions from concrete was proposed and a case analysis was carried out. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to eutrophication were deduced to be NOx, NH3, NH4+, COD, NO3−, and PO43−. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to acidification, were found to be NOx, SO2, H2S, and H2SO4. The materials and energy sources among those input into the concrete production process, which have the biggest impact on acidification and eutrophication, were found to be coarse aggregate and fine aggregate.

  18. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  19. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  20. An economic analysis of transportation fuel policies in Brazil: Fuel choice, land use, and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri

    2016-01-01

    Brazil uses taxes, subsidies, and blending mandates as policy instruments to manage and stabilize its transportation fuel markets. The fuel sector has been very dynamic in recent years due to frequent policy adjustments and variable market conditions. In this paper, we use a price endogenous economic simulation model to analyze the impacts of such policy adjustments under various challenging conditions in the global ethanol and sugar markets. Our analysis specifically focuses on Brazilian producers' supply responses, consumers' driving demand and fuel choice, ethanol trade, land use, greenhouse gas emissions, and social welfare. The model results show that (i) under a low ethanol blending rate, conventional vehicles would be driven significantly less while flex-fuel and ethanol-dedicated vehicles would not be affected significantly; (ii) lowering the fuel taxes adversely affects the competitiveness of sugarcane ethanol against gasoline blends, thus lowering producers' surplus; and (iii) while a reduction in fuel taxes is advantageous in terms of overall social welfare, it has serious environmental impacts by increasing the GHG emissions from transportation fuels consumed in Brazil. - Highlights: • We examine the economic and environmental impacts of Brazilian fuel policies. • We also analyze impacts under different sugar and ethanol markets conditions. • Lowering blending rate reduces distance driven by conventional cars. • Lowering fuel tax rates affects competitiveness of ethanol against gasoline blend. • Reducing fuel tax rates has dramatic environmental impacts by increasing emissions.

  1. Web application and database modeling of traffic impact analysis using Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2017-06-01

    Traffic impact analysis (TIA) is a traffic study that aims at identifying the impact of traffic generated by development or change in land use. In addition to identifying the traffic impact, TIA is also equipped with mitigation measurement to minimize the arising traffic impact. TIA has been increasingly important since it was defined in the act as one of the requirements in the proposal of Building Permit. The act encourages a number of TIA studies in various cities in Indonesia, including Surakarta. For that reason, it is necessary to study the development of TIA by adopting the concept Transportation Impact Control (TIC) in the implementation of the TIA standard document and multimodal modeling. It includes TIA's standardization for technical guidelines, database and inspection by providing TIA checklists, monitoring and evaluation. The research was undertaken by collecting the historical data of junctions, modeling of the data in the form of relational database, building a user interface for CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) the TIA data in the form of web programming with Google Maps libraries. The result research is a system that provides information that helps the improvement and repairment of TIA documents that exist today which is more transparent, reliable and credible.

  2. Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shoufu; Zhao Dingtao; Marinova, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that energy consumption is the main source of GHG emissions in China, this paper analyses the effect of population, urbanisation level, GDP per capita, industrialisation level and energy intensity on the country's environmental impact using the STIRPAT model with data for 1978-2006. The analysis shows that population has the largest potential effect on environmental impact, followed by urbanisation level, industrialisation level, GDP per capita and energy intensity. Hence, China's One Child Policy, which restrains rapid population growth, has been an effective way of reducing the country's environmental impact. However, due to the difference in growth rates, GDP per capita had a higher effect on the environmental impact, contributing to 38% of its increase (while population's contribution was at 32%). The rapid decrease in energy intensity was the main factor restraining the increase in China's environmental impact but recently it has also been rising. Against this background, the future of the country looks bleak unless a change in human behaviour towards more ecologically sensitive economic choices occurs.

  3. Liquid Impact Erosion Mechanism and Theoretical Stress Analysis in TiN-Coated Turbine Blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. K.; Kim, W. W.; Kim, S. J.; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, Y. S.

    2000-01-01

    Coating of TiN film was done by reactive magnetron sputter ion plating to improve the liquid impact erosion resistance of steam turbine blade materials, 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B, for nuclear power plant application. TiN coated blade materials were initially deformed with depressions due to plastic deformation of the ductile substrate. The increase in the curvature in the depressions induced stress concentration with increasing number of impacts, followed by circumferential fracture of the TiN coating due to the circular propagation of cracks. The liquid impact erosion resistance of the blade materials was greatly improved by TiN coating done with the optimum ion plating condition. Damage decreased with increasing TiN coating thickness. According to the theoretical analysis of stresses generated by liquid impact, TiN coating alleviated the impact stress of 12Cr steel and Stellite 6B due to stress attenuation and stress wave reactions such as reflection and transmission at the coating substrate interface

  4. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...m3 micrograms per cubic meter US United States USACE United States Army Corp of Engineers USC United States Code USCB United States Census Bureau...effects and annoyance in that very few flight operations and ground engine runs occur between 2200 hours and 0700 hours. BMPs include restricting the

  5. Analysis of Operational Data: A Proof of Concept for Assessing Electrical Infrastructure Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Project Number 30, “Analysis of Operational Data for Tactical Situational Understanding” ERDC TR-15-10 ii Abstract Infrastructure variables required...for a community or society to function include basic facilities, services, and installations; and these variables can impact many aspects of daily...life. The structure and functionality of the electrical grid in an operating area can affect multiple operational varia - bles. Other infrastructure

  6. Physicochemical analysis of explosions due to impact in mixed paste propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovik, Aleksandr V. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 117977, Kosygin Street 4, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    An analysis has been performed on the impact sensitivity of paste explosive materials (PEM) with continuous physical structure containing air cavities of various sizes. It is shown that the sensitivities of PEMs based on ammonium perchlorate are strongly influenced by the extent of oxidizer decomposition during the low-temperature stages of thermal decomposition. Mechanically non-uniform PEMs are well sensitized by air bubbles of an optimum size. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  8. A Study on Impact of Informatization on Tourist Behavior : Analysis of Anime Pilgrimage

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 健

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows impact of informatization on tourist behavior in Japan. This research adopts analysis of "Anime Pilgrimage" in order to accomplish the above mentioned objective. Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. It would appear that this behavior was affected by informatization strongly. As a result, it was found that "Anime Pilgrim" was affected by informatization not only before "Anime Pilgrimage" but also throughout "Anime ...

  9. Analysis of NPP protection structure reliability under impact of a falling aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'man, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology for evaluation of NPP protection structure reliability by impact of aircraft fall down is considered. The methodology is base on the probabilistic analysis of all potential events. The problem is solved in three stages: determination of loads on structural units, calculation of local reliability of protection structures by assigned loads and estimation of the structure reliability. The methodology proposed may be applied at the NPP design stage and by determination of reliability of already available structures

  10. Stress analysis of feeder bends using neutrons: new results and cumulative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, D.; Donaberger, R. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Leitch, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Rogge, R.B. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Neutron diffraction has played a vital role in stress analysis of bends in carbon steel pipes, known as feeder pipes, in CANDU reactors. Due to incidents of cracking of feeders, extensive R&D programs to manage feeder cracking have been implemented over about ten years. We review the cumulative impacts of this research from the view point of the stress analysis using neutrons, and present new results by examining a feeder bend with a partial crack both experimentally using neutron diffraction and theoretically using a finite element model. (author)

  11. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  12. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts. PMID:28788464

  13. Budget impact analysis of drugs for ultra-orphan non-oncological diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlander, Michael; Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Gandjour, Afschin

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-orphan diseases (UODs) have been defined by a prevalence of less than 1 per 50,000 persons. However, little is known about budget impact of ultra-orphan drugs. For analysis, the budget impact analysis (BIA) had a time horizon of 10 years (2012-2021) and a pan-European payer's perspective, based on prevalence data for UODs for which patented drugs are available and/or for which drugs are in clinical development. A total of 18 drugs under patent protection or orphan drug designation for non-oncological UODs were identified. Furthermore, 29 ultra-orphan drugs for non-oncological diseases under development that have the potential of reaching the market by 2021 were found. Total budget impact over 10 years was estimated to be €15,660 and €4965 million for approved and pipeline ultra-orphan drugs, respectively (total: €20,625 million). The analysis does not support concerns regarding an uncontrolled growth in expenditures for drugs for UODs.

  14. Numerical analysis of impact-penetration problems for nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.J.; Chedmail, J.F.; Bianchini, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the finite element and finite difference analysis of two impact penetration problems, namely a fuel cask drop on a foundation slab and a missile penetration into a reinforced concrete structure. For a realistic detailed analysis, advanced techniques were required in the following areas: reinforced concrete simulation; remeshing algorithms for penetration induced distortions; boundary condition. The fuel cask drop on a concrete slab generates complex elasto plastic waves which propagate towards the pool where tensile cracks might appear. The problem is analysed in two steps: calculation of the energy absorbed locally around the impacted area; calculation of the three dimensional wave propagation towards the pool. For the analysis of missile penetration problems, two examples are shown: a 3000 kg missile with a velocity of 132 m/s penetrates a 1.2 m thick concrete wall (PAM-GDYNS) and a 3600 kg missile with a velocity of 90 m/s (F.D. Program HEMP-ESI) penetrates a wall at a floor level. For the second case, the computed impact-penetration mechanism is

  15. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  16. Observation impact studies with the Mercator Ocean analysis and forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E. D.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Lellouche, J. M.; Drevillon, M.; Turpin, V.; Benkiran, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean produces and delivers in real-time ocean analysis and forecasts on a daily basis. The quality of the analysis highly relies on the availability and quality of the assimilated observations.Tools are developed to estimate the impact of the present network and to help designing the future evolutions of the observing systems in the context of near real time production of ocean analysis and forecasts. OSE and OSSE are the main approaches used in this context. They allow the assessment of the efficiency of a given data set to constrain the ocean model circulation through the data assimilation process. Illustrations will mainly focus on the present and future evolution of the Argo observation network and altimetry constellation, including the potential impact of future SWOT data. Our systems show clear sensitivities to observation array changes, mainly depending on the specified observation error and regional dynamic. Impact on non observed variables can be important and are important to evaluate. Dedicated diagnostics has to be define to measure the improvements bring by each data set. Alternative approaches to OSE and OSSE are also explored: approximate computation of DFS will be presented and discussed. Limitations of each approach will be discussed in the context of real time operation.

  17. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-14

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO₂-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car's base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  18. An adjoint method of sensitivity analysis for residual vibrations of structures subject to impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Cheng, Gengdong

    2018-03-01

    For structures subject to impact loads, the residual vibration reduction is more and more important as the machines become faster and lighter. An efficient sensitivity analysis of residual vibration with respect to structural or operational parameters is indispensable for using a gradient based optimization algorithm, which reduces the residual vibration in either active or passive way. In this paper, an integrated quadratic performance index is used as the measure of the residual vibration, since it globally measures the residual vibration response and its calculation can be simplified greatly with Lyapunov equation. Several sensitivity analysis approaches for performance index were developed based on the assumption that the initial excitations of residual vibration were given and independent of structural design. Since the resulting excitations by the impact load often depend on structural design, this paper aims to propose a new efficient sensitivity analysis method for residual vibration of structures subject to impacts to consider the dependence. The new method is developed by combining two existing methods and using adjoint variable approach. Three numerical examples are carried out and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results show that the dependence of initial excitations on structural design variables may strongly affects the accuracy of sensitivities.

  19. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  20. Citation analysis may severely underestimate the impact of clinical research as compared to basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Klautz, Robert J M; Peul, Wilco C

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis has become an important tool for research performance assessment in the medical sciences. However, different areas of medical research may have considerably different citation practices, even within the same medical field. Because of this, it is unclear to what extent citation-based bibliometric indicators allow for valid comparisons between research units active in different areas of medical research. A visualization methodology is introduced that reveals differences in citation practices between medical research areas. The methodology extracts terms from the titles and abstracts of a large collection of publications and uses these terms to visualize the structure of a medical field and to indicate how research areas within this field differ from each other in their average citation impact. Visualizations are provided for 32 medical fields, defined based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database. The analysis focuses on three fields: Cardiac & cardiovascular systems, Clinical neurology, and Surgery. In each of these fields, there turn out to be large differences in citation practices between research areas. Low-impact research areas tend to focus on clinical intervention research, while high-impact research areas are often more oriented on basic and diagnostic research. Popular bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the impact factor, do not correct for differences in citation practices between medical fields. These indicators therefore cannot be used to make accurate between-field comparisons. More sophisticated bibliometric indicators do correct for field differences but still fail to take into account within-field heterogeneity in citation practices. As a consequence, the citation impact of clinical intervention research may be substantially underestimated in comparison with basic and diagnostic research.

  1. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M. [Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the `long` prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the `short` prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results.

  2. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the 'long' prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the 'short' prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results

  3. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  4. Sensitivity of Microstructural Factors Influencing the Impact Toughness of Hypoeutectoid Steels with Ferrite-Pearlite Structure using Multiple Regression Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Lee, Sang-In; Hwang, Byoung-chul

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of microstructural factors on the impact toughness of hypoeutectoid steels with ferrite-pearlite structure was quantitatively investigated using multiple regression analysis. Microstructural analysis results showed that the pearlite fraction increased with increasing austenitizing temperature and decreasing transformation temperature which substantially decreased the pearlite interlamellar spacing and cementite thickness depending on carbon content. The impact toughness of hypoeutectoid steels usually increased as interlamellar spacing or cementite thickness decreased, although the impact toughness was largely associated with pearlite fraction. Based on these results, multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the individual effect of pearlite fraction, interlamellar spacing, and cementite thickness on the impact toughness. The regression analysis results revealed that pearlite fraction significantly affected impact toughness at room temperature, while cementite thickness did at low temperature.

  5. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  6. Impact Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Side Openings Subjected to Eccentric Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Kamil Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research the behavior of reinforced concrete columns with large side openings under impact loads was studied. The overall cross sectional dimensions of the column specimens used in this research were (500*1400 mm with total height of (14000 mm. The dimensions of side openings were (600*2000 mm. The column was reinforced with (20 mm diameter in longitudinal direction, while (12 mm ties were used in the transverse direction. The effect of eccentric impact loads on the horizontal and vertical displacement for this column was studied. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out using ready computer finite element package (ANSYS to simulate the behavior of the reinforced concrete column with large side openings. Two load cases were considered in this investigation (C1, C2 with three different load values for each case. In the first case (C1 the loads was applied to one side of the column and in the second case (C2 the loads was applied to both sides. An Equilateral triangular load-time function was used for simulation the impact load results from gantry cranes supported by the column with total time duration (0.1 sec. In order to verify the analysis method, as no experimental data exist for comparing the obtained results, another analysis is made for tested conventional column under impact load at mid-height and good agreement has been obtained. For the above mentioned column, the maximum displacements were (33.3, 22.2 mm in the horizontal and longitudinal direction respectively, location of the maximum horizontal displacement was at the crown of the column. By comparing the results of the first loading case with the second one it is shown that in the horizontal direction, maximum displacement increases by (139%, (208%, and (147% respectively, also the maximum vertical displacement increases by (150%, (172%, and (172% respectively.

  7. A quantitative analysis of the impact of wind turbines on operational Doppler weather radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L.

    2015-02-01

    In many countries wind turbines are rapidly growing in numbers as the demand for energy from renewable sources increases. The continued deployment of wind turbines can, however, be problematic for many radar systems, which are easily disturbed by turbines located in the radar line of sight. Wind turbines situated in the vicinity of Doppler weather radars can lead to erroneous precipitation estimates as well as to inaccurate wind and turbulence measurements. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the impact of a wind farm, located in southeastern Sweden, on measurements from a nearby Doppler weather radar. The analysis is based on 6 years of operational radar data. In order to evaluate the impact of the wind farm, average values of all three spectral moments (the radar reflectivity factor, absolute radial velocity, and spectrum width) of the nearby Doppler weather radar were calculated, using data before and after the construction of the wind farm. It is shown that all spectral moments, from a large area at and downrange from the wind farm, were impacted by the wind turbines. It was also found that data from radar cells far above the wind farm (near 3 km altitude) were affected by the wind farm. It is shown that this in part can be explained by detection by the radar sidelobes and by scattering off increased levels of dust and turbulence. In a detailed analysis, using data from a single radar cell, frequency distributions of all spectral moments were used to study the competition between the weather signal and wind turbine clutter. It is shown that, when weather echoes give rise to higher reflectivity values than those of the wind farm, the negative impact of the wind turbines is greatly reduced for all spectral moments.

  8. Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Jun Hee; An, Yong-Hwi; Park, Kyung Tae; Kang, Kyung Min; Kang, Yeon June

    2014-11-01

    The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.

  9. Analysis of the overall structural behavior due to the impact of deformable missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, M.M.; Radini, R.R.; Hsueh, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a method of analysis to evaluate the overall behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to impact from deformable missiles. This method approaches the analysis in a very simple and practical way. The analysis is based on approximating the structure-missile system by a two-degree of freedom model. The two degrees of freedom model represents the missile and the structure, respectively. The hysteretic damping effects are considered implicitly through the nonlinearity of the two springs. Empirical formulas are presented for the evaluation of the dynamic properties of the nonlinear spring representing the concrete structure. The impact is simulated by applying an impulse on the two degrees of freedom system, then by the method of step by step numerical time integration (central difference formula is used) the time histories of the displacements and velocities of both the missile and structure are obtained. The numerical procedure is simple enough to be programmed by a hand or desk calculator which makes the method handy for most engineers and analysis. (orig.)

  10. An Analysis of the Most Adopted Rating Systems for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bernardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings are technical instruments that aim to evaluate the environmental impact of buildings and construction projects. In some cases, these rating systems can also cover urban-scale projects, community projects, and infrastructures. These schemes are designed to assist project management in making the projects more sustainable by providing frameworks with precise criteria for assessing the various aspects of a building’s environmental impact. Given the growing interest in sustainable development worldwide, many rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings have been established in recent years, each one with its peculiarities and fields of applicability. The present work is motivated by an interest in emphasizing such differences to better understand these rating systems and extract the main implications to building design. It also attempts to summarize in a user-friendly form the vast and fragmented assortment of information that is available today. The analysis focuses on the six main rating systems: the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM, the Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB, the Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQETM, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED, and the Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool.

  11. The Cockcroft difference: an analysis of the impact of a nursing leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Kate K; Willis, Leah

    2013-03-01

    Identifying impact areas of nursing leadership development programmes is needed to determine if there are measureable effects on participants. These impact areas help to identify measures to substantiate the benefits of nursing leadership programmes for organization leaders making decisions about support and implementation of such opportunities for their emerging leaders. Using mixed qualitative/quantitative methods, the impact of a nursing leadership development programme, the Amy V. Cockcroft Fellowship, is examined to determine if there are measureable influences. Themes of four areas of impact: improved conflict resolution/negotiation skills, communication skills, personal development and career action or change were identified through content analysis. These themes provide the basis for creating measureable indicators for nursing organizations to use in determining the value of nursing leadership development programmes such as the Amy V. Cockcroft Fellowship. Based on the findings established in this research article, nurse managers can focus on developing themselves and their peer groups through nursing leadership development programmes to prepare for leading in the present and future healthcare environment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Development of a Multisource and a Systematized Database for Economic and Policy Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ec. Filippo Oropallo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ISTAT is involved in various EU projects with the objective of "supporting the Lisbon objectives, EU governance and the process of national policy coverage with the best EU-wide and national policy impact and evaluation analyses". Existing knowledge on policy impact analyses is approximate. The "facts" on the impact of policies are charted only at the aggregate level and with a high degree of approximation. Macro indicators have well-known pitfalls and drawbacks. Understanding how policies affect economic performance and developing better indicators to gauge their effects is central to endow the EU with a set of efficient and fair policies. The gap in European knowledge and capacity for Policy Impact Analysis is patent. The DIECOFIS EU-FP5 project has taken up the challenge of reducing this gap in the field of taxation. Results have been quite encouraging and have open new vistas for future work. Particularly notable has been the development of a system of micro-founded indicators, based on factuals and counterfactuals, estimated through micro-simulation models. This has led to the current utilization of such a tool in the ex-ante microsimulation of the effects of several reforms of corporate taxation

  13. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The GEO-3 Scenarios 2002-2032. Quantification and Analysis of Environmental Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Potting, J.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Raskin, P.; Masui, T.; Rana, A.; Nellemann, C.; Rothman, D.

    2004-01-01

    The four contrasting visions of the world's next three decades as presented in the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) have many implications for policy - from hunger to climate change and from freshwater issues to biodiversity. The four scenarios analysed are Markets First, Policy First, Security First, Sustainability First. Presenting a deeper analysis than the original GEO-3 report, this Technical Report quantifies the impacts of the scenarios for all 19 GEO 'sub-regions', such as Eastern Africa and Central Europe. Regional impacts are discussed in the context of sustainable development. The report summary compares the impacts of the four scenarios across regions - and for the world as a whole - in the light of internationally agreed targets including those in the Millennium Declaration where applicable. It provides an account of the analytical methods, key assumptions, models and other tools, along with the approaches used in the analyses. Based on the methods and results, the report looks back on the process of producing the forward-looking analysis for GEO-3. Were all analytical centres on the same track? Did the approach adopted for GEO-3 contribute to the overall GEO objective of strengthening global-regional involvement and linkages?

  15. The GEO-3 Scenarios 2002-2032. Quantification and Analysis of Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkes, J.; Potting, J. (eds.) [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Henrichs, T. [Center for Environmental Systems Research CESR, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Kemp-Benedict, E.; Raskin, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston, MA (United States); Masui, T.; Rana, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies NIES, Ibaraki (Japan); Nellemann, C. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, GRID Global and Regional Integrated Data centres Arendal, Lillehammer (Norway); Rothman, D. [International Centre for Integrative Studies ICIS, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    The four contrasting visions of the world's next three decades as presented in the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) have many implications for policy - from hunger to climate change and from freshwater issues to biodiversity. The four scenarios analysed are Markets First, Policy First, Security First, Sustainability First. Presenting a deeper analysis than the original GEO-3 report, this Technical Report quantifies the impacts of the scenarios for all 19 GEO 'sub-regions', such as Eastern Africa and Central Europe. Regional impacts are discussed in the context of sustainable development. The report summary compares the impacts of the four scenarios across regions - and for the world as a whole - in the light of internationally agreed targets including those in the Millennium Declaration where applicable. It provides an account of the analytical methods, key assumptions, models and other tools, along with the approaches used in the analyses. Based on the methods and results, the report looks back on the process of producing the forward-looking analysis for GEO-3. Were all analytical centres on the same track? Did the approach adopted for GEO-3 contribute to the overall GEO objective of strengthening global-regional involvement and linkages?.

  16. Informing the NCA: EPA's Climate Change Impact and Risk Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Kolian, M.; Crimmins, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Climate Change Impact and Risk Analysis (CIRA) framework is designed to quantify the physical impacts and economic damages in the United States under future climate change scenarios. To date, the framework has been applied to 25 sectors, using scenarios and projections developed for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. The strength of this framework has been in the use of consistent climatic, socioeconomic, and technological assumptions and inputs across the impact sectors to maximize the ease of cross-sector comparison. The results of the underlying CIRA sectoral analyses are informing the sustained assessment process by helping to address key gaps related to economic valuation and risk. Advancing capacity and scientific literature in this area has created opportunity to consider future applications and strengthening of the framework. This presentation will describe the CIRA framework, present results for various sectors such as heat mortality, air & water quality, winter recreation, and sea level rise, and introduce potential enhancements that can improve the utility of the framework for decision analysis.

  17. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  18. Improving access to medicines via the Health Impact Fund in India: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Patrick; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Srinivas, Ravi; Bhalla, Sandeep; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Banerjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    In India, 50-65% of the population face difficulties in accessing medicines. The Health Impact Fund (HIF) is a novel proposal whereby pharmaceutical companies would be paid based on the measured global health impact of their drugs. We conducted a key stakeholder analysis to explore access to medicines in India, acceptability of the HIF and potential barriers and facilitators at policy level. To conduct a stakeholder analysis of the HIF in India: to determine key stakeholder views regarding access to medicines in India; to evaluate acceptability of the HIF; and to assess potential barriers and facilitators to the HIF as a policy. In New Delhi, we conducted semi-structured interviews. There was purposive recruitment of participants with snowball sampling. Transcribed data were analysed using stakeholder analysis frameworks and directed content analysis. Participation rate was 29% (14/49). 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted among stakeholders in New Delhi. All participants highlighted access to medicines as a problem in India. There were mixed views about the HIF in terms of relevance and scaleability. Stakeholders felt it should focus on diseases with limited or no market and potentially incorporate direct investment in research. First, access to medicines is perceived to be a major problem in India by all stakeholders, but affordability is just one factor. Second, stakeholders despite considerable support for the idea of the HIF, there are major concerns about scaleability, generalisability and impact on access to medicines. Third, the HIF and other novel drug-related health policies can afford to be more radical, e.g. working outside the existing intellectual property rights regime, targeting generic as well as branded drugs, or extending to research and development. Further innovations in access to medicines must involve country-specific key stakeholders in order to increase the likelihood of their success.

  19. Impact of Article Language in Multi-Language Medical Journals - a Bibliometric Analysis of Self-Citations and Impact Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of globalization there is an increasing use of English in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of English-language articles in multi-language medical journals on their international recognition – as measured by a lower rate of self-citations and higher impact factor (IF). Methods and Findings We analyzed publications in multi-language journals in 2008 and 2009 using the Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Reuters (former Institute of Scientific Information) and PubMed as sources of information. The proportion of English-language articles during the period was compared with both the share of self-citations in the year 2010 and the IF with and without self-citations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to analyze these factors as well as the influence of the journals‘ countries of origin and of the other language(s) used in publications besides English. We identified 168 multi-language journals that were listed in WoS as well as in PubMed and met our criteria. We found a significant positive correlation of the share of English articles in 2008 and 2009 with the IF calculated without self-citations (Pearson r=0.56, p = journal‘s country of origin – North American journals had a higher IF compared to Middle and South American or European journals. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a larger share of English articles in multi-language medical journals is associated with greater international recognition. Fewer self-citations were found in multi-language journals with a greater share of original articles in English. PMID:24146929

  20. [Design and implementation of online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yiran; Hao, Shuxin; Zhang, Guoqing; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yue; Xu, Dongqun

    2018-01-01

    To implement the online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring, and obtain the data analysis information real-time. Using the descriptive statistical method as well as time-series analysis and multivariate regression analysis, SQL language and visual tools to implement online statistical analysis based on database software. Generate basic statistical tables and summary tables of air pollution exposure and health impact data online; Generate tendency charts of each data part online and proceed interaction connecting to database; Generate butting sheets which can lead to R, SAS and SPSS directly online. The information system air pollution and health impact monitoring implements the statistical analysis function online, which can provide real-time analysis result to its users.

  1. Multi-criteria evaluation of CMIP5 GCMs for climate change impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on global hydrological cycle along with food-water-energy nexus. Currently, there are many climate models used in predicting important climatic variables. Though there have been advances in the field, there are still many problems to be resolved related to reliability, uncertainty, and computing needs, among many others. In the present work, we have analyzed performance of 20 different global climate models (GCMs) from Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We demonstrate a statistical multicriteria approach, using univariate and multivariate techniques, for selecting suitable GCMs to be used for climate change impact analysis in the region. Univariate methods includes mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, relative change (variability), Mann-Kendall test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test); whereas multivariate methods used were principal component analysis (PCA), singular value decomposition (SVD), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and cluster analysis. The analysis is performed on raw GCM data, i.e., before bias correction, for precipitation and temperature climatic variables for all the 20 models to capture the reliability and nature of the particular model at regional scale. The analysis is based on spatially averaged datasets of GCMs and observation for the period of 1970 to 2000. Ranking is provided to each of the GCMs based on the performance evaluated against gridded observational data on various temporal scales (daily, monthly, and seasonal). Results have provided insight into each of the methods and various statistical properties addressed by them employed in ranking GCMs. Further; evaluation was also performed for raw GCM simulations against different sets of gridded observational dataset in the area.

  2. Budget impact analysis-principles of good practice: report of the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean D; Mauskopf, Josephine A; Augustovski, Federico; Jaime Caro, J; Lee, Karen M; Minchin, Mark; Orlewska, Ewa; Penna, Pete; Rodriguez Barrios, Jose-Manuel; Shau, Wen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    , disease severity mix, or treatment patterns cannot be credibly captured by using the cost calculator approach, a cohort or patient-level condition-specific model may be used to estimate the budget impact of the new intervention, accounting appropriately for those entering and leaving the eligible population over time. In either case, the BIA should use data that reflect values specific to a particular decision maker's population. Sensitivity analysis should be of alternative scenarios chosen from the perspective of the decision maker. The validation of the model should include at least face validity with decision makers and verification of the calculations. Data sources for the BIA should include published clinical trial estimates and comparator studies for the efficacy and safety of the current and new interventions as well as the decision maker's own population for the other parameter estimates, where possible. Other data sources include the use of published data, well-recognized local or national statistical information, and, in special circumstances, expert opinion. Reporting of the BIA should provide detailed information about the input parameter values and calculations at a level of detail that would allow another modeler to replicate the analysis. The outcomes of the BIA should be presented in the format of interest to health care decision makers. In a computer program, options should be provided for different categories of costs to be included or excluded from the analysis. We recommend a framework for the BIA, provide guidance on the acquisition and use of data, and offer a common reporting format that will promote standardization and transparency. Adherence to these good research practice principles would not necessarily supersede jurisdiction-specific BIA guidelines but may support and enhance local recommendations or serve as a starting point for payers wishing to promulgate methodology guidelines. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and

  3. Vibro-acoustic and nonlinear analysis of cadavric femoral bone impaction in cavity preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberst Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Tikhonov regularisation, as inverse deconvolution technique, is applied to calculate the acoustic transfer functions from the acoustic responses and their mechanical impacts. The extracted spectra highlight that system characteristics altered during the cavity preparation process: in the high-frequency range the number of resonances increased with impacts and broach size. By applying nonlinear time series analysis the system dynamics increase in complexity and demand for a larger minimum embedding dimension. The growing number of resonances with similar level of the transfer function indicates a higher propensity to dissipate energy over sound; the change in embedding dimension indicates a decrease in linearity. The spectral changes as well as the altered dimension requirements indicate either an improved coupling between the bone and the broach or the onset of micro-fractures caused by growing stress levels within the bone.

  4. Test and Analysis Correlation of Form Impact onto Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge RCC Panel 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) began their study of the space shuttle Columbia accident, "physics-based" analyses using LS-DYNA were applied to characterize the expected damage to the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) leading edge from high-speed foam impacts. Forensic evidence quickly led CAIB investigators to concentrate on the left wing leading edge RCC panels. This paper will concentrate on the test of the left-wing RCC panel 8 conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the correlation with an LS-DYNA analysis. The successful correlation of the LS-DYNA model has resulted in the use of LS-DYNA as a predictive tool for characterizing the threshold of damage for impacts of various debris such as foam, ice, and ablators onto the RCC leading edge for shuttle return-to-flight.

  5. Climate change and the effects of dengue upon Australia: An analysis of health impacts and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, D; Gunasekera, D

    2010-01-01

    Projected regional warming and climate change analysis and health impact studies suggest that Australia is potentially vulnerable to increased occurrence of vector borne diseases such as dengue fever. Expansion of the dengue fever host, Aedes aegypti could potentially pose a significant public health risk. To manage such health risks, there is a growing need to focus on adaptive risk management strategies. In this paper, we combine analyses from climate, biophysical and economic models with a high resolution population model for disease spread, the EpiCast model to analyse the health impacts and costs of spread of dengue fever. We demonstrate the applicability of EpiCast as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies to manage the public health risks associated with shifts in the distribution of dengue fever in Australia.

  6. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  7. Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

  8. Dynamic analysis of aircraft impact using the linear elastic finite element codes FINEL, SAP and STARDYNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Krenk, S.

    1975-08-01

    The static and dynamic response of a cylindrical/ spherical containment to a Boeing 720 impact is computed using 3 different linear elastic computer codes: FINEL, SAP and STARDYNE. Stress and displacement fields are shown together with time histories for a point in the impact zone. The main conclusions from this study are: - In this case the maximum dynamic load factors for stress and displacements were close to 1, but a static analysis alone is not fully sufficient. - More realistic load time histories should be considered. - The main effects seem to be local. The present study does not indicate general collapse from elastic stresses alone. - Further study of material properties at high rates is needed. (author)

  9. Climate change and the effects of dengue upon Australia: An analysis of health impacts and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newth, D; Gunasekera, D, E-mail: david.newth@csiro.a [CSIRO Centre for Complex Systems Science, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, GPO Box 3023, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Projected regional warming and climate change analysis and health impact studies suggest that Australia is potentially vulnerable to increased occurrence of vector borne diseases such as dengue fever. Expansion of the dengue fever host, Aedes aegypti could potentially pose a significant public health risk. To manage such health risks, there is a growing need to focus on adaptive risk management strategies. In this paper, we combine analyses from climate, biophysical and economic models with a high resolution population model for disease spread, the EpiCast model to analyse the health impacts and costs of spread of dengue fever. We demonstrate the applicability of EpiCast as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies to manage the public health risks associated with shifts in the distribution of dengue fever in Australia.

  10. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  11. Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.

  12. MIDAS: Software for the detection and analysis of lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, José M.; Ortiz, José L.; Morales, Nicolás; Cabrera-Caño, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Since 2009 we are running a project to identify flashes produced by the impact of meteoroids on the surface of the Moon. For this purpose we are employing small telescopes and high-sensitivity CCD video cameras. To automatically identify these events a software package called MIDAS was developed and tested. This package can also perform the photometric analysis of these flashes and estimate the value of the luminous efficiency. Besides, we have implemented in MIDAS a new method to establish which is the likely source of the meteoroids (known meteoroid stream or sporadic background). The main features of this computer program are analyzed here, and some examples of lunar impact events are presented.

  13. Approaches to accident analysis in recent US Department of Energy environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.

    1996-01-01

    A review of accident analyses in recent US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) was conducted to evaluate the consistency among approaches and to compare these approaches with existing DOE guidance. The review considered several components of an accident analysis: the overall scope, which in turn should reflect the scope of the EIS; the spectrum of accidents considered; the methods and assumptions used to determine frequencies or frequency ranges for the accident sequences; and the assumption and technical bases for developing radiological and chemical atmospheric source terms and for calculating the consequences of airborne releases. The review also considered the range of results generated with respect to impacts on various worker and general populations. In this paper, the findings of these reviews are presented and methods recommended for improving consistency among EISs and bringing them more into line with existing DOE guidance

  14. Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact, by Afzal Chaudhry and Hans Kleinpoppen, describes in detail the measurements of the partial and total doubly differential cross sections for the multiple-ionization of rare gas atoms by electron impact. These measurements show, among other trends, the role of Auger transitions in the production of multiply ionized atoms in the region where the incident electron energy is sufficient to produce inner shell ionization. Other processes like Coster-Kronig transitions and shake off also contribute towards increasing the charge of the ions. As discussed in the book, an incident electron having energy of 6 keV, for example, in a collision with xenon atom can remove up to nine electrons! The measurements of doubly differential cross sections for the dissociative and non-dissociative ionization of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide and sulfur hexa fluoride molecular gases are also explored. The results of the measurements for the sulfur dioxide mole...

  15. EU Travel and Tourism Industry - A Cluster Analysis of Impact and Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL BULIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry has known a sustained growth in recent decades, this sector taking advantage of the capacity to generate added value regardless of the type of capital input. The impact of tourism on the economy is indisputable, but the efficiency and the competitiveness provide a sustainable development of this industry. The EU enlargement, geographical and numerical, provides both-a diversity of tourism destinations and an opportunity for growth, considering widening of single market. This paper aims to assess tourism in the European Union, considering the impact and value of the tourism multiplier effect in economy, respectively efficiency and competitiveness of tourism. This paper proposes a classification of EU countries based on cluster analysis, using K-means algorithm.

  16. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Xiu Yun, Zhu; Rong, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact

  17. Computer-aided event tree analysis by the impact vector method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.E.P.

    1984-01-01

    In the development of the Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Angra I, the ' large event tree/small fault tree' approach was adopted for the analysis of the plant behavior in an emergency situation. In this work, the event tree methodology is presented along with the adaptations which had to be made in order to attain a correct description of the safety system performances according to the selected analysis method. The problems appearing in the application of the methodology and their respective solutions are presented and discussed, with special emphasis to the impact vector technique. A description of the ETAP code ('Event Tree Analysis Program') developed for constructing and quantifying event trees is also given in this work. A preliminary version of the small-break LOCA analysis for Angra 1 is presented as an example of application of the methodology and of the code. It is shown that the use of the ETAP code sigmnificantly contributes to decreasing the time spent in event tree analyses, making it viable the practical application of the analysis approach referred above. (author) [pt

  18. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keibun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO 2 (tCO 2 ) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  19. Ecological impacts of small hydropower in China: Insights from an emergy analysis of a case plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Mingyue; Zhang, Lixiao; Ulgiati, Sergio; Wang, Changbo

    2015-01-01

    The belief that small hydropower (SHP) systems are sources of clean energy with few or no ecological problems has been driving the rapid expansion of SHP plants in China and elsewhere. This paper presents an evaluation of the ecological impacts of SHP based on an emergy analysis of a plant located in Guizhou Province in southwest China. The results suggest that periodic downstream drying-up of the river is the largest contributor to the induced ecological impacts in terms of emergy cost. In 2010, the ecosystem service losses caused by downstream ecosystem degradation totaled 2.35E+18 seJ, which accounts for 38% of the total emergy utilized in the annual operation of this plant. If such losses could be avoided, i.e., if the SHP operated as designed, SHP projects would produce relatively modest impacts on the environment. When the reaches downstream of the SHP plant are not affected, the environmental loading ratio (ELR) is 2.20 and the emergy sustainability index (ESI) is 0.93; however, the ELR increases to 3.82 and ESI decreases to 0.38 when river drying-up occurs. These results indicate that China should rigorously investigate potential ecological problems of SHP development and proceed with caution rather than readily believing unjustified assumptions. - Highlights: • Ecological impacts of a SHP plant in China are analyzed using emergy synthesis. • The ecosystem degradation due to periodic drying-up was the largest emergy cost. • The eco-friendliness of SHP is questionable when it is intensively developed. • China should proceed with caution regarding the potential ecological impact of SHP

  20. An analysis on the short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Li Ji Feng; Zhang Yaxiong

    2011-01-01

    Market-based instruments, particularly carbon tax, have recently drawn the attention of Chinese government by their cost-effective contribution to the achievement of China's climate targets. Most of the recent policy proposals have focused on its long-term impact. However, particularly for policy makers, both long term and short term effects of carbon tax would be necessary when determining tax rates. We provided a detailed analysis of short-term impacts of carbon tax on sectoral competitiveness in this paper. We divided China's economy into 36 sectors, based on its 2007 input-output table, in order to examine the ratio of carbon tax added costs to sector GDP. We were thus able to determine the impact level of a carbon tax on each sector. We then divided the sectoral trade impact into domestic competitiveness with regards to foreign imported products and international competitiveness external to the Chinese domestic market. We found that a high tax level (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may necessitate compensatory measures to certain highly affected industries, and that a low tax rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems for all industries and may therefore be considered as an appropriate starting point. - Highlights: → We study short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China. → For each sector, we study its carbon cost, GDP share and trade intensity. → A high rate (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may require compensatory measures to certain industries. → A low rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems.

  1. 2004 Power marketing program. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1 - summary and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a plan to allocate power within its marketing areas of California and Nevada. Five alternatives were analyzed based on the possible range of operations of the Central Valley Project (CVP) hydroelectric system, levels of power purchases, and customer group allocations. Scheduling of the hydropower generating plants is the key difference across the alternatives. The peaking, preferred, renewables, and no-action alternatives are based on scheduling to emphasize peaking power. The baseload alternative assumes steady water releases. The analysis found no significant impacts overall. However, peaking operations tend to result in the greatest benefits and least negative effects to resources where impacts could be quantified. The peaking alternative was selected as the environmentally preferred alternative. The peaking alternative would add up to 317 MW of load-carrying capacity during August compared to taking no action. The preferred alternative results in up to a 262-MW gain and the baseload alternative results in a loss of 581 MW in comparison to the no-action alternative. Although it is not possible to determine where or when any lost capacity would be made up, building replacement capacity would result in land-use impacts and the use of natural and financial resources. The baseload alternative would result in more stable pool fluctuation within regulating reservoirs, which may benefit resident fish, recreation, and cultural resources; but these effects would be minor and could not be quantified. Environmental impacts within the CVP are limited to fluctuations in the regulating reservoirs. Changes in allocations to customer groups result in negligible regional economic effects. The renewables alternative is similar in CVP operation to the peaking alternative and melds 50 MW of renewables with CVP hydropower. Its environmental impacts vary, depending on the presence of biomass in the resource mix. 84 refs., 44 figs., 27 tabs

  2. Health for Life in Primary Schools Program, United Kingdom: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Sandra; Donovan, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The Health for Life in Primary Schools Program helps schools promote healthy, active lifestyles through curriculum support related to healthy eating and cooking, growing food, physical activity, and family involvement. These interrelated strands are shown to have the greatest impact on healthy lifestyles, and the Health for Life in Primary Schools Program seeks to make these not one-off lessons, but a sustainable part of a school's culture. Each school involved with the program develops its own Action Plan in order to achieve program goals. Each school is assessed by an audit of facilities, skills, and curriculum at baseline and follow-up, and the pupils complete an on-line questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Other impact measures are individual to the school and relate to its own Action Plan. Health for Life in Primary Schools sought to assess the cohesiveness and strength of the program using the Program Impact Pathways (PIP) model. The program was deconstructed to its individual parts, with each part assessed in terms of its contribution to the overall program and constraints upon its effectiveness. The PIP analysis helped clarify the logic and structure of the program, whether its objectives can be achieved, the Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs), and the impact measures required to demonstrate success. The core indicators identified for impact evaluation were knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of pupils around healthy eating cooking, growing food, and physical activity. The PIP model confirmed that the Health for Life in Primary Schools Program is well structured and is well suited to achieve its goals. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation.

  3. The experience of electroconvulsive therapy and its impact on associated stigma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ando, Shuntaro; Sasaki, Natsuki; Bernick, Peter J; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Despite its efficacy and safety, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is underutilized, in part due to stigma associated with the treatment. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that experiencing ECT has an impact on associated stigma, as measured by patient and family knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Studies with cross-sectional and/or longitudinal designs were identified. Studies were further categorized into subcategories based on participant type (patients or patient family members) and outcome domain (knowledge or attitudes). Effect size (Cohen's d) was calculated for each study and then integrated into each subcategory (participant type by outcome domain) using a random effect model. Eight studies were identified as being eligible for analysis. Two studies were cross-sectional, five were longitudinal and one incorporated both designs. Analysis of the longitudinal studies indicated that experiencing ECT both increased knowledge of and improved attitudes toward ECT in patients; in family members of patients, analysis showed significant positive change in knowledge of ECT, but no significant change in attitudes toward ECT. Experience with ECT may have a positive impact on knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. However, the quality of evidence of included studies was low; further research is required in order to clarify the relationship and to identify information of use to individuals considering ECT as a treatment option. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  6. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  7. Comparative analysis of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic environmental auditing: Learning from the Japanese automotive industry case

    OpenAIRE

    Mbohwa, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper does a comparative analysis and assessment of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic ISO 14001 environmental management system auditing that using videoconferencing systems. The focus is on the Japanese automotive industry. The idea is to quantify the environmental impacts of auditing and resolve the important question on whether or not the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in environmental auditing reduces environmental impacts in IS...

  8. Impact analysis of side door of a car and bullet proof vest with material ‘SAM2X5-630’ using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhode, Trushant; Patil, Girish; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The components which are bound to impact are subjected to deformation even though it may be for a small scale. The efforts are always on for finding the best material to take impact that has no failure or moreover, less plastic deformation. A newly found material which is glass matrix steel named as ‘SAM2X5-630’ has astounding high elastic limit of 12.5GPa. Thus it can take powerful impact & regain its original shape avoiding the deformation of component under impact. The paper is focused on performing the Finite element analysis to assess the behaviour of ‘SAM2X5-630’ steel under impact loading of side door of car as well as impact of bullet on bulletproof jacket on which the material is assigned. The displacement or deformation occurred during impact is found to be lesser than known materials like Kevlar in bulletproof vest and Aluminium alloy in car door.

  9. HTGR technology economic/ business analysis and trade studies impacts. Impacts of HTGR commericialization on the U.S. economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silady, Fred [Technology Insights, Marlborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-07

    The approach to this task was to initially review the 2012 Business Plan and supporting analyses for the above impacts. With that understanding as a base, the Business Plan impacts are updated in terms of the GDP and job creation as a result of additional studies and inputs such as the revised market assessment from Task 1.1. For the impacts on U.S. competitiveness, the NGNP Industry Alliance team members have been utilized to provide inputs on supplier infrastructure development and on vendor capability.

  10. Budget impact analysis in Spanish patients with Dupuytren's contracture: fasciectomy vs. collagenase Clostridium histolyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salas-Cansado, M; Cuadros, M; Del Cerro, M; Arandes, J M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the budget impact of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) vs. fasciectomy (FSC) surgery for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease (DD) in Spain. A cost minimization analysis was adopted (effectiveness was assumed to be equivalent for both techniques). DD related costs were considered. CCH costs (including drug, administration and visits) were obtained from clinical trials and a real-life study. FSC costs (including type of admission, visits, operating room, re-admissions, tests, drugs and rehabilitation costs) were collected through a retrospective, observational, local study. Unit costs were obtained from local database systems (e-SALUD and BOT). Results were presented from the NHS perspective for the next 3 years. We assumed that there were 5100 fasciectomies per year (with a 5% annual increase) and that 20%, 30% and 40% of them will annually utilize CCH. In addition, a 10%, 15% and 20% of untreated diagnosed patients were expected to receive CCH. All the data were validated through an expert panel. A sensitivity analysis was performed with the main variables. The average FSC cost was €2250 (72% inpatients), €1703 for outpatients and €2467 for inpatients. The average CCH cost was €1220 (1.5 vial/injection and four visits) and could drop to €898 (1.1 vial/injections and three visits). The accumulated 3years budget impact analysis (BIA) was 45,971€ (K€-2993(1); 3870). According to this study, the inclusion of the CCH should produce a 3-year cumulative budgetary impact of €45,971 (K€-2993; 3870) for the NHS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Next-generation sequencing in NSCLC and melanoma patients: a cost and budget impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, Rosa A; Retèl, Valesca P; Coupé, Veerle MH; Nederlof, Petra M; Vogel, Maartje J; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has reached the molecular diagnostic laboratories. Although the NGS technology aims to improve the effectiveness of therapies by selecting the most promising therapy, concerns are that NGS testing is expensive and that the ‘benefits’ are not yet in relation to these costs. In this study, we give an estimation of the costs and an institutional and national budget impact of various types of NGS tests in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma patients within The Netherlands. First, an activity-based costing (ABC) analysis has been conducted on the costs of two examples of NGS panels (small- and medium-targeted gene panel (TGP)) based on data of The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI). Second, we performed a budget impact analysis (BIA) to estimate the current (2015) and future (2020) budget impact of NGS on molecular diagnostics for NSCLC and melanoma patients in The Netherlands. Literature, expert opinions, and a data set of patients within the NKI (n = 172) have been included in the BIA. Based on our analysis, we expect that the NGS test cost concerns will be limited. In the current situation, NGS can indeed result in higher diagnostic test costs, which is mainly related to required additional tests besides the small TGP. However, in the future, we expect that the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) will increase, for which it is expected that additional tests can be (partly) avoided. Although the current clinical benefits are expected to be limited, the research potentials of NGS are already an important advantage. PMID:27899957

  12. Impact of meningitis on intelligence and development: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Deborah; Rashid, Harunor; El-Bashir, Haitham; Sweeney, Faye; Shore, Tim; Booy, Robert; Viner, Russell M

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the question "what is the impact of meningitis on IQ and development." Search: conducted using standardized search terms across Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE to 06/2014. Eligibility: human studies of any infectious aetiology of meningitis reporting IQ or infant developmental age or stage outcomes. Quality: Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford, quality tools. Analysis: random effects meta-analysis by organism. 39 studies were included in the review, 34 providing data on IQ (2015 subjects) and 12 on developmental delay (382 subjects). Across all bacterial organisms, meningitis survivors had a mean IQ 5.50 (95% CI: -7.19, -3.80; I2 = 47%, p = 0.02) points lower than controls. IQ was significantly lower than controls for Neisseria meningitides (NM: 5 points) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib: 6 points) but not in viral meningitis, with only single studies included for Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and group B streptococcus (GBS). The pooled relative risk (RR) for low IQ (IQ<70) in survivors of bacterial meningitis compared with controls was 4.99 (95% CI: 3.17, 7.86) with no significant heterogeneity (I2 = 49%, p = 0.07). Developmental delay of approximately 0.5SD was reported in studies of bacterial meningitis but no delay in the only study of viral meningitis. We found moderate evidence that surviving bacterial meningitis has a deleterious impact on IQ and development but no evidence that viral meningitis had meaningful cognitive impacts. Survivors of bacterial meningitis should be routinely offered screening for cognitive deficits and developmental delay in addition to hearing loss.

  13. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The environmental impact analysis made as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline included consideration of the (1) technologically complex and geographically extensive proposed project, (2) extremely different physical environments across Alaska along the proposed route and elsewhere in Alaska and in Canada along alternative routes, (3) socioeconomic environment of the State of Alaska, and (4) a wide variety of alternatives. The analysis was designed specifically to fit the project and environment that would be affected. The environment was divided into two general parts--natural physical systems and superposed socioeconomic systems--and those parts were further divided into discipline-oriented systems or components that were studied and analyzed by scientists of the appropriate discipline. Particular attention was given to potential feedback loops in the impact network and to linkages between the project's impacting effects and the environment. The results of the analysis as reported in the final environmental impact statement were that both unavoidable and threatened environmental impacts would result from construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed pipeline system and the developments related to it. The principal unavoidable effects would be (1) disturbances of terrain, fish and wildlife habitat, and human environs, (2) the results of the discharge of effluent from the tanker-ballast-treatment facility into Port Valdez and of some indeterminate amount of oil released into the ocean from tank-cleaning operations at sea, and (3) the results associated with increased human pressures of all kinds on the environment. Other unavoidable effects would be those related to increase of State and Native Corporation revenues, accelerated cultural change of the Native population, and extraction of the oil and gas resource. The main threatened environmental effects would all be related to unintentional oil

  14. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jesse; El-Jawahri, Raed; Chai, Li; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2003-10-01

    Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing predicted responses with available experimental cadaver data in frontal and side pendulum impacts, as well as belt loading. Model responses were compared with similar individual cadaver tests instead of using cadaver corridors because the large differences between the upper and lower bounds of the corridors may confound the model validation. The validated model was then used to study thorax dynamic responses and injuries in various simulated impact conditions. Parameters that could induce injuries such as force, deflection, and stress were computed from model simulations and were compared with previously proposed thoracic injury criteria to assess injury potential for the thorax. It has been shown that the model exhibited speed sensitive impact characteristics, and the compressibility of the internal organs significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated FE human body model could be useful for injury assessment in various cadaveric impacts reported in the literature. Internal organ injuries, which are

  15. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  16. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  17. Methodological proposal for theoretical analysis professional skills and its impact on employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Almanza Jiménez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the level of employability of Engineers in Business Management Institute of Technology graduates Lazaro Cardenas in terms of their Professional competencies based on the initial hypothesis. The professional competencies have a direct positive relationship in which employability through the application of the survey method in Likert applied to both clusters, analysis of findings which show the impact of skills on employability, the existence of a positive correlation of both direct and opportunity was conducted to develop creativity and innovation through entrepreneurship.

  18. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J; Ebel, A; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1998-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  19. Analysis Of Impact Of Various Parameters On BER Performance For IEEE 802.11b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh B. Kalani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

  20. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype...... for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required...

  1. Impact of spatial kinetics in severe accident analysis for a large HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    The impact on spatial kinetics on the analysis of severe accidents initiated by the unprotected withdrawal of one or more control rods is investigated for a large heavy water reactor. Large inter- and intra-assembly power shifts are observed, and the importance of detailed geometrical modeling of fuel assemblies is demonstrated. Neglect of space-time effects is shown to lead to erroneous estimates of safety margins, and of accident consequences in the event safety margins are exceeded. The results and conclusions are typical of what would be expected for any large, loosely coupled core

  2. Epithermal neutron flux distribution and its impact on (n, γ) activation analysis result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovich, S.; Pukotich, P.; Zejnilovich, R.; Corte, F. de; Moens, L.; Hoste, J.; Simonitis, A.

    1985-01-01

    The differences are discussed between the simplified model, introduced to derive the generally accepted ideal 1/E - law, and the conditions existing in an actual reactor. For absolute and comparator types of (n, γ) activation analysis (NAA), the semiempirical 1/Esup(1+α) form is a better approximation - necessary to introduce, but sufficient for practical purposes. Parameter α, being a measure of the epithermal nonideality, is a characteristics of the reactor site. The impact of this nonideality on NAA result is outlined, together with the method for appropriate correction

  3. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  4. Discovering the Impact of ICT, FDI and Human Capital on GDP: a Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Campisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.

  5. 77 FR 55479 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research and Analysis on Impact of CMS Programs on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ..., Medicaid, and CHIP Programs: Research and Analysis on Impact of CMS Programs on the Indian Health Care System AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Single Source Award. SUMMARY: This notice supports expansion of research on the impact of CMS programs on the Indian health...

  6. Safety assessment technology on the free drop impact and puncture analysis of the cask for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Lee, Ho Chul; Hong, Song Jin; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun

    2001-03-01

    In this study, the regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for the free drop and puncture impact analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Impact analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for the free drop and the puncture impact analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is completely corresponded. And The integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology

  7. Safety assessment technology on the free drop impact and puncture analysis of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Lee, Ho Chul; Hong, Song Jin; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this study, the regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for the free drop and puncture impact analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Impact analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for the free drop and the puncture impact analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is completely corresponded. And The integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  8. Analysis of impact energy to fracture un-notched charpy specimens made from railroad tank car steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-11

    This paper describes a nonlinear finite element analysis : (FEA) framework that examines the impact energy to fracture : unnotched Charpy specimens by an oversized, nonstandard : pendulum impactor called the Bulk Fracture Charpy Machine : (BFCM). The...

  9. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  10. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...

  11. Prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia with pegfilgrastim in Italy: a budget impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rosti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF is indicated for reduction in the duration of neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy.
Objective: to evaluate the budgetary impact for the Italian NHS.
Design: a decision-analytic model has been developed to analyze the budget impact from the national health care system perspective. Costs include direct healthcare costs to the public payer of G-CSFs as well as their administration costs and costs of FN-related events. The comparison has been done using prophylaxis with G‑CSF (filgrastim for 11 days, pegfilgrastim, lenograstim for 11 days and antibiotics.
Patients and participants: The population of interest for the analysis were patients with breast cancer in stage II and III and patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL.
Main outcome measures and results: for all the three patients group (NHL, Breast II and III, and for all the chemotherapy regimens (CHOP 21 and R-CHOP 21 for NHL, AC-T, TAC and TC for Breast stage II and III the budget impact analyses shows a cost reduction for the Italian NHS, as a result of an increase of the use of pegfilgrastim.
Conclusions: in Italy, a treatment strategy including pegfilgrastim as either primary or secondary prophylaxis provides value for money.


  12. Testing and injury potential analysis of rollovers with narrow object impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Steven E; Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Hayden, Joshua; Orton, Tia; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2004-01-01

    Recent statistics highlight the significant risk of serious and fatal injuries to occupants involved in rollover collisions due to excessive roof crush. The government has reported that in 2002. Sports Utility Vehicle rollover related fatalities increased by 14% to more than 2400 annually. 61% of all SUV fatalities included rollovers [1]. Rollover crashes rely primarily upon the roof structures to maintain occupant survival space. Frequently these crashes occur off the travel lanes of the roadway and, therefore, can include impacts with various types of narrow objects such as light poles, utility poles and/or trees. A test device and methodology is presented which facilitates dynamic, repeatable rollover impact evaluation of complete vehicle roof structures with such narrow objects. These tests allow for the incorporation of Anthropomorphic Test Dummies (ATDs) which can be instrumented to measure accelerations, forces and moments to evaluate injury potential. High-speed video permits for detailed analysis of occupant kinematics and evaluation of injury causation. Criteria such as restraint performance, injury potential, survival space and the effect of roof crush associated with various types of design alternatives, countermeasures and impact circumstances can also be evaluated. In addition to presentation of the methodology, two representative vehicle crash tests are also reported. Results indicated that the reinforced roof structure significantly reduced the roof deformation compared to the production roof structure.

  13. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997–2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012–2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  14. A methodology for analysis of impacts of grid integration of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Mel; Banerjee, Rangan

    2011-01-01

    Present electricity grids are predominantly thermal (coal, gas) and hydro based. Conventional power planning involves hydro-thermal scheduling and merit order dispatch. In the future, modern renewables (hydro, solar and biomass) are likely to have a significant share in the power sector. This paper presents a method to analyse the impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. A load duration curve based approach has been developed. Renewable energy sources have been treated as negative loads to obtain a modified load duration curve from which capacity savings in terms of base and peak load generation can be computed. The methodology is illustrated for solar, wind and biomass power for Tamil Nadu (a state in India). The trade-offs and interaction between renewable sources are analysed. The impacts on capacity savings by varying the wind regime have also been shown. Scenarios for 2021-22 have been constructed to illustrate the methodology proposed. This technique can be useful for power planners for an analysis of renewables in future electricity grids. - Research highlights: → A new method to analyse impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. → Effects of wind, solar PV and biomass power on load duration curve and capacity savings are shown. → Illustration of intermittent renewables and their interplay for sites in India and the UK. → Future scenarios constructed for generation expansion planning with higher levels of renewable.

  15. Business Impact Analysis Terkait Penanganan dan Pemulihan Terhadap Bencana di PT Bank XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubil Rubil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For each company, disasters may have diverse impacts either financially or non-financially. Therefore, a company requires a business continuity plan. One important factor in developing such plan is Business Impact Analysis (BIA. With BIA, a company can identify and analyze Critical Business Functions (CBFs and potential impacts on the business whether operationally or financially, and further, business recovery priority, strategy and solution can be determined following a disaster.Methodologies used in developing this BIA are quantitativeand qualitative where for aspects related to financials, quantitive method is used. Meanwhile, for those aspects\\ related to non-financial areas, qualitative method is used. The development of this BIA was done through the dissemination of questionnaires to 62 business units in PT Bank XYZ. To draw the BIA, eight parameters were used, where as for the final result, there were three criticality levels found in the business units of PT Bank XYZ, i.e. very critical level - 18 business units (29%, critical level - 23 business units (37% and less critical level – 21 business units (34%. In addition, there were 71 applications used by CBFs. Based on the results of this study, PT Bank XYZ can determine the priority and key strategies for business units that require handling and recovery when a disaster occurs to maintain the bank's business operation's continuity and sustainability.Withthat, the company can minimize the potential loss resulted from a disaster.

  16. Assessing the Value of Biosimilars: A Review of the Role of Budget Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Jacobs, Ira; Popovian, Robert; Isakov, Leah; Shane, Lesley G

    2017-10-01

    Biosimilar drugs are highly similar to an originator (reference) biologic, with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety or efficacy. As biosimilars offer the potential for lower acquisition costs versus the originator biologic, evaluating the economic implications of the introduction of biosimilars is of interest. Budget impact analysis (BIA) is a commonly used methodology. This review of published BIAs of biosimilar fusion proteins and/or monoclonal antibodies identified 12 unique publications (three full papers and nine congress posters). When evaluated alongside professional guidance on conducting BIA, the majority of BIAs identified were generally in line with international recommendations. However, a lack of peer-reviewed journal articles and considerable shortcomings in the publications were identified. Deficiencies included a limited range of cost parameters, a reliance on assumptions for parameters such as uptake and drug pricing, a lack of expert validation, and a limited range of sensitivity analyses that were based on arbitrary ranges. The rationale for the methods employed, limitations of the BIA approach, and instructions for local adaptation often were inadequately discussed. To understand fully the potential economic impact and value of biosimilars, the impact of biosimilar supply, manufacturer-provided supporting services, and price competition should be included in BIAs. Alternative approaches, such as cost minimization, which requires evidence demonstrating similarity to the originator biologic, and those that integrate a range of economic assessment methods, are needed to assess the value of biosimilars.

  17. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. C. S.; Galvão, C. O.; Silva, G. N. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES) was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997-2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012-2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  18. Environmental analysis of Ribeiro wine from a timeline perspective: harvest year matters when reporting environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-05-15

    A series of Galician (NW Spain) wines, such as Rías Baixas and Ribeiro have acquired international renown in the past few years. In this particular study, viticulture, vinification and bottling and packaging in a winery of the Ribeiro appellation were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the largest environmental impacts for four different years of production (2007-2010). The selected functional unit was a 750 mL bottle of Ribeiro white wine, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through direct communication using questionnaires. Results showed considerable annual variability in environmental performance, stressing the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Therefore, environmental scaling was proposed for the assessed wine based on the individual environmental impacts for each harvest year. Furthermore, the main hot spots identified were compost and pesticide production and emissions, in the agricultural phase and bottle production and electricity consumption, in the subsequent stages of wine production, in most of the selected impact categories. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the compost transportation policy, recovery of natural resources for vineyard infrastructure, the introduction of new packaging formats in the bottling process and the use of pesticides with lower toxicity potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Lai, ZhiYi; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The entire life cycle of a municipal solid waste (MSW) oxy-fuel incineration power plant was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impacts. The functional unit was 1000 kg (1 t) MSW. During the life cycle, the saving standard coal by electricity generation was more than diesel consumption, and the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The total weighted resource consumption and total weighted environment potential of MSW oxy-fuel incineration were −0.37 mPR 90 (milli person equivalent) and −0.27 PET 2010 (person equivalent), better than MSW incineration with CO 2 capture via monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption. The sensitivity analysis showed that the electric power consumption of air separation unit (ASU) was the primary influencing parameter, and the influence of electric power consumption of CO 2 compressor was secondary, while transport distance had small influence. Overall, MSW oxy-fuel incineration technology has certain development potential with the increment of MSW power supply efficiency and development of ASU in the future. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant is novel. • The MSW oxy-fuel incineration was better than the MSW incineration with MEA. • Among calculated impacts, the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest. • The electric power consumption of ASU was the primary influencing parameter

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  1. An Analysis of Cyber-Attack on NPP Considering Physical Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joonbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some research teams performed related works on cyber-physical system which is a system that cyber-attack can lead to serious consequences including product loss, damage, injury and death when it is attacked. They investigated the physical impact on cyber-physical system due to the cyber-attack. But it is hard to find the research about NPP cyber security considering the physical impact or safety. In this paper, to investigate the relationship between physical impact and cyber-attack, level 1 PSA results are utilized in chapter 2 and cyber-attack analysis is performed in chapter 3. The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans.

  2. An Analysis of Cyber-Attack on NPP Considering Physical Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Hyo; Kang, Hyun Gook; Son, Han Seong

    2016-01-01

    Some research teams performed related works on cyber-physical system which is a system that cyber-attack can lead to serious consequences including product loss, damage, injury and death when it is attacked. They investigated the physical impact on cyber-physical system due to the cyber-attack. But it is hard to find the research about NPP cyber security considering the physical impact or safety. In this paper, to investigate the relationship between physical impact and cyber-attack, level 1 PSA results are utilized in chapter 2 and cyber-attack analysis is performed in chapter 3. The cyber security issue on NPP is inevitable issue. Unlike general cyber security, cyber-physical system like NPP can induce serious consequences such as core damage by cyber-attack. So in this paper, to find how hacker can attack the NPP, (1) PSA results were utilized to find the relationship between physical system and cyber-attack and (2) vulnerabilities on digital control systems were investigated to find how hacker can implement the possible attack. It is expected that these steps are utilized when establishing penetration test plans or cyber security drill plans

  3. Impact analysis and testing of tritiated heavy water transportation packages including hydrodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Tulk, J.D.; Gavin, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has recently designed a new Type B(M) Tritiated Heavy Water Transportation Package (THWTP) for the road transportation of tritiated heavy water from its operating nuclear stations to the Tritium Removal Facility in Ontario. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe shock and impact scenarios such as those prescribed by IAEA standards. The package, shown in figure 1, comprises an inner container filled with tritiated heavy water, and a 19 lb/ft 3 polyurethane foam-filled overpack. The overpack is of sandwich construction with 304L stainless steel liners and 10.5 inch thick nominal foam walls. The outer shell is 0.75 inch thick and the inner shell is 0.25 inch thick. The primary containment boundary consists of the overpack inner liner, the containment lid and outer containment seals in the lid region. The total weight of the container including the 12,000 lb. payload is 36,700 lb. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hydrodynamic effect of the tritiated heavy water payload on the structural integrity of the THWTP during a flat end drop from a height of 9 m. The study consisted of three phases: (i) developing an analytical model to simulate the hydrodynamic effects of the heavy water payload during impact; (ii) performing an impact analysis for a 9 m flat end drop of the THWTP including fluid structure interaction; (iii) verification of the analytical models by experiment

  4. Spallation impact analysis of plutonium storage container at K-Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 100-pound concrete block falls 55-foot from ceiling spallation upon the top of the 9975 shipping package. This finite element analysis aims to evaluate the dynamic impact from the spallation upon the packaging. The geometric configuration of the packaging is meticulously modeled in detail. However, the drum is eliminated and the fiberboard with radius greater than 5.6 inches is conservatively omitted. The primary containment vessel and 3013 container were not included to simplify the model. The concrete block is modeled as a rigid body. The material properties are conservatively selected. The final results indicate that the secondary containment vessel is intact during this spallation impact. Consequently the primary containment vessel and 3013 container would not experience damage and containment is maintained. The secondary containment vessel protects the primary containment vessel from the dynamic impact. The top fiberboard is compressed from 3.5 inches to 0.875 inches will eventually recover to 1.8 inches according to tests performed at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  5. Internet-based psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: a qualitative analysis of feasibility, acceptability and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poole Ria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent exploratory randomised trial we found that a novel, internet-based psychoeducation programme for bipolar disorder (Beating Bipolar was relatively easy to deliver and had a modest effect on psychological quality of life. We sought to explore the experiences of participants with respect to feasibility, acceptability and impact of Beating Bipolar. Methods Participants were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis techniques were employed; to explore and describe participants’ experiences, the data were analysed for emerging themes which were identified and coded. Results The programme was feasible to deliver and acceptable to participants where they felt comfortable using a computer. It was found to impact upon insight into illness, health behaviour, personal routines and positive attitudes towards medication. Many participants regarded the programme as likely to be most beneficial for those recently diagnosed. Conclusions An online psychoeducation package for bipolar disorder, such as Beating Bipolar, is feasible and acceptable to patients, has a positive impact on self-management behaviours and may be particularly suited to early intervention. Alternative (non-internet formats should also be made available to patients.

  6. Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Quasem Al-Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.

  7. Obesity prevention advocacy in Australia: an analysis of policy impact on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emily; Hughes, Roger; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-06-01

    To explore obesity policy options recommended by stakeholders and identify their impact on individual autotomy. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. A content analysis of submissions to the Australian Government's Inquiry into Obesity was conducted. Each recommendation was categorised by its impact on autonomy, according to existing frameworks. Chi-square test for independence was used to explore the association between autonomy and stakeholder support defined as frequency of recommendation. The extent of support for a policy option was significantly associated with impact on autonomy (pautonomy were least frequently recommended in every setting; but more likely in schools (27%) than other settings (autonomy were most widely recommended (46%). Stakeholders advocated policy options that enhance individual autonomy to a greater extent than those that diminish autonomy. Implications for public health: Targeting obesity policy options that enhance rather than diminish autonomy may be more politically acceptable across most settings, with the exception of schools where more restrictive policy options are appropriate. Re-framing options accordingly may improve leadership by government in obesity policy. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.

  9. Impact of the specialization from failures data in probability safety analysis for process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Antonio C.O.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this paper is to show the Bayesian inference in reliability studies, which are used to failures, rates updating in safety analyses. It is developed the impact of its using in quantitative risk assessments (QRA) for industrial process plants. With this approach we find a structured and auditable way of showing the difference between an industrial installation with a good project and maintenance structure from another one that shows a low level of quality in these areas. In general the evidence from failures rates and as follow the frequency of occurrence from scenarios, which the risks taken in account in ERA, are taken from generics data banks, instead of, the installation in analysis. The use of this methodology in probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for nuclear plants is commonly used when you need to find the final fault tree event evaluation applied to a scenario, but it is not showed in a PSA level III. (author)

  10. Impact of Credit Restructuring on the Quality of Bank Asset Portfolio. A Cluster Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed an analysis of the financial crisis impact on the procedures formanagement of loan portfolios in several banking systems. Despite ample liquidity injectionprograms implemented by major central banks and government actions, credit risk remains a keychallenge of the current banking systems. On a medium term, the high percentage of bad loans hasbecome a structural vulnerability. To maintain an acceptable quality of loan portfolios and not todamage the prudential and profitability indicators, credit institutions in EU member states haveproceeded to apply various techniques for credit restructuring. The quantitative analysis carried out inthe last part of the paper revealed a relatively moderate granularity of banking systems considered, interms of capitalization, volume of bank reserves and net provisions, in response to the persistent trendof loan portfolio deterioration.

  11. Citation analysis of the Brazilian tourism journals: subsidies for the es-timation of impact factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Eduardo de Oliveira Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of all references made by articles published at the four major Brazilian tourism journals. A total of 28,767 references in the 1,254 articles published since the first volume of each journal until the end of 2014. References were analyzed with respect to their type (journal, book, thesis, conference paper and others, place of publishing (Brazil or other countries and authorship. For the references of scientific articles, the names of these specific vehicles were identified. The results indicate the most cited authors, books, articles and journals. Impact factors of journals and the h-index of Hirsch (2005 of authors were also estimated. Moreover, techniques of social network analysis were applied to the representation of the relationships between authors and journals, besides estimating complex centrality indexes for these agents. The results also indicate some tendencies of change in the actual scenario arising from the strengthening of new authors and journals.

  12. Potential impact of neonicotinoid use on Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in Texas: A historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Hannah M H; Mora, Miguel A; Brightsmith, Donald J; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge A

    2018-01-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978-2012 in Texas' ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We considered bobwhite abundance, neonicotinoid use, climate, and land-use variables in our analysis. Neonicotinoid use was significantly (pTexas Plains ecological regions in the time periods following neonicotinoid introduction (1994-2003) or after their widespread use (2004-2012). Our analyses suggest that the use of neonicotinoid insecticides may negatively affect bobwhite populations in crop-producing regions of Texas.

  13. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a reactor structure with impact between core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The seismic analysis of the FFTF-PIOTA (Fast Flux Test Facility-Postirradiation Open Test Assembly), subjected to a horizontal DBE (Design Base Earthquake) is presented. The PIOTA is the first in a set of open test assemblies to be designed for the FFTF. Employing the direct method of transient analysis, the governing differential equations describing the motion of the system are set up directly and are implicitly integrated numerically in time. A simple lumped-mass beam model of the FFTF which includes small clearances between core components is used as a ''driver'' for a fine mesh model of the PIOTA. The nonlinear forces due to the impact of the core components and their effect on the PIOTA are computed. 6 references

  14. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part A Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. This paper presents a statistical analysis of high frequency stress wave signals captured from a newly developed noninvasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. Acoustic emission (AE) signals have been introduced into the ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using an impact hammer, and the AE wave propagation was captured using an AE sensor. Specifically, a healthy steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AE features extracted from the captured signals are rise time, peak amplitude, duration and count. The VIAE technique also analysed the AE signals using statistical features such as root mean square (r.m.s.), energy, and crest factor. It was evident that duration, count, r.m.s., energy and crest factor could be used to automatically identify the presence of defect in carbon steel tubes using AE signals captured using the non-invasive VIAE technique.

  15. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and New Source Perofrmance Standards (NSPS) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the regulatory process, EPA is required to develop a regulatory impact analysis (RIA). This August 2010 RIA includes an economic impact analysis (EIA) and a small entity impacts analysis and documents the RIA methods and results for the 2010 rules

  16. EVOLUTION OF ECONOMY AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKET – A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra TEODORESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic context has a strong impact on the insurance sector. On the one hand, the decisions related to sector regulation could influence the life of the insurance companies. On the other hand, taxes and other measures that may affect purchasing power, economic instability represent a threat. It is a fact that insurances are products that customers and companies access them when economic conditions are predictable and budgets could be accurately predicted. The paper mainly analyzes in terms of indicators, the impact of the economy on the insurance sector. We are talking about the interrelationships between Gross Written Premiums (the insurance "Budget" and some macroeconomic indicators characterizing the Romanian economy, such as Gross Domestic Product, net average earnings, the average number of employees etc. Statistical analysis is performed for a 12-year period during 2002-2013. This analysis is based on official statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, the National Forecasting Commission and the National Bank of Romania. The methodology consists of correlation and regression analysis. Of the variables used in the study we mention: Gross Domestic Product, the number of employees, employment, net average earnings, the activity rate of the working age population (15-64 years, non-governmental domestic credit. The analysis of correlation between the studied variables reveals that is a strong correlation between Gross Written Premiums and GDP, the number of employees, average earnings and non-government domestic credit.. Thus, economic growth, rising incomes, the increasing number of employees and facilitating credit conditions could be some elements that would lead to sustainable growth of the insurance market.

  17. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves and offshore wind. Due to the visual impact of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental impact) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental impact issues. The wave energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the wave climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the wave energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like Wave Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present

  18. Multivariate areal analysis of the impact and efficiency of the family planning programme in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Boon Ann

    1987-06-01

    The findings of the final phase of a 3-phase multivariate areal analysis study undertaken by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in 5 countries of the Asian and Pacific Region, including Malaysia, to examine the impact of family planning programs on fertility and reproduction are reported. The study used Malaysia's administrative district as the unit of analysis because the administration and implementation of socioeconomic development activities, as well as the family planning program, depend to a large extent on the decisions of local organizations at the district or state level. In phase 1, existing program and nonprogram data were analyzed using the multivariate technique to separate the impact of the family planning program net of other developmental efforts. The methodology in the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth investigation of selected areas in order to discern the dynamics and determinants of efficiency. The insights gained in phase 2 regarding dynamics of performance were used in phase 3 to refine the input variables of the phase 1 model. Thereafter, the phase 1 analysis was repeated. Insignificant variables and factors were trimmed in order to present a simplified model for studying the impact of environmental, socioeconomic development, family planning programs, and related factors on fertility. The inclusion of a set of family planning program and development variables in phase 3 increased the predictive power of the impact model. THe explained variance for total fertility rate (TFR) of women under 30 years increased from 71% in phase 1 to 79%. It also raised the explained variance of the efficiency model from 34% to 70%. For women age 30 years and older, their TFR was affected directly by the ethnic composition variable (.76), secondary educational status (-.45), and modern nonagricultural occupation (.42), among others. When controlled for other socioeconomic development and environmental indicators, the

  19. Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan; Meng Aihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. ► Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. ► The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 °C, 950 °C, and 1150 °C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 °C and 1150 °C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700–1000 °C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Human Abdominal Impact Responses and Injuries through Finite Element Simulations of a Full Human Body Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jesse S; El-Jawahri, Raed; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2005-11-01

    Human abdominal response and injury in blunt impacts was investigated through finite element simulations of cadaver tests using a full human body model of an average-sized adult male. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing model responses with available experimental cadaver test data in pendulum side impacts and frontal rigid bar impacts from various sources. Results of various abdominal impact simulations are presented in this paper. Model-predicted abdominal dynamic responses such as force-time and force-deflection characteristics, and injury severities, measured by organ pressures, for the simulated impact conditions are presented. Quantitative results such as impact forces, abdominal deflections, internal organ stresses have shown that the abdomen responded differently to left and right side impacts, especially in low speed impact. Results also indicated that the model exhibited speed sensitive response characteristics and the compressibility of the abdomen significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated finite element human body model can be useful for abdominal injury assessment. Internal organ injuries, which are difficult to detect in experimental studies with human cadavers due to the difficulty of instrumentation, may be more easily identified with a validated finite element model through stress-strain analysis.

  1. Integrated analysis for population estimation, management impact evaluation, and decision-making for a declining species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brian A.; Moore, Clinton; Norton, Terry M.; Maerz, John C.

    2018-01-01

    A challenge for making conservation decisions is predicting how wildlife populations respond to multiple, concurrent threats and potential management strategies, usually under substantial uncertainty. Integrated modeling approaches can improve estimation of demographic rates necessary for making predictions, even for rare or cryptic species with sparse data, but their use in management applications is limited. We developed integrated models for a population of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) impacted by road-associated threats to (i) jointly estimate demographic rates from two mark-recapture datasets, while directly estimating road mortality and the impact of management actions deployed during the study; and (ii) project the population using population viability analysis under simulated management strategies to inform decision-making. Without management, population extirpation was nearly certain due to demographic impacts of road mortality, predators, and vegetation. Installation of novel flashing signage increased survival of terrapins that crossed roads by 30%. Signage, along with small roadside barriers installed during the study, increased population persistence probability, but the population was still predicted to decline. Management strategies that included actions targeting multiple threats and demographic rates resulted in the highest persistence probability, and roadside barriers, which increased adult survival, were predicted to increase persistence more than other actions. Our results support earlier findings showing mitigation of multiple threats is likely required to increase the viability of declining populations. Our approach illustrates how integrated models may be adapted to use limited data efficiently, represent system complexity, evaluate impacts of threats and management actions, and provide decision-relevant information for conservation of at-risk populations.

  2. LCI Databases Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elduque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, society’s concern for the environment has increased. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes. Calculating the environmental impact of plastic products is relevant as the global plastics production rose to 288 million tons in 2012. Among the different ways of processing plastics, the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory for injection molding, and the data from which this database is created, have been studied. Generally, when an LCA of a product is carried out, databases such as EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used to quantify the environmental impact. This approach can be good enough in some cases but in order to assess a specific production process, like injection molding, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ for injection molding when using the PVC’s, PP’s or PET’s data. This aspect suggests the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process, to correctly evaluate its environmental burden. This also allows us to identify priority areas and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing plastics.

  3. Finite element analysis of blunt foreign body impact on the cornea after PRK and LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Nassiri, Nariman; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Nassiri, Nader; Majdi-N, Mercede; Farzaneh, Solmaz; Djalilian, Ali R; Peyman, Gholam A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of blunt foreign body impact on a human cornea after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK using a simulation model. Computational simulations were performed using a finite element analysis program (LS-Dyna, Livermore Software Technology Corp). The blunt foreign body was set to impact at the center of the corneal surface models (after PRK and LASIK) with thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm. Corneal rupture was assumed to occur at a peak stress of 9.45 MPa and at a strain of 18%. The foreign body projectile was blunt in shape, made from aluminum, contained plastic-kinematic properties, and had a density of 2700 kg/m(3). The projectile was launched at the center of the cornea with velocities ranging from 20 to 60 m/s. The threshold of impact velocities creating rupture in corneal thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm were 33, 32.8, 30.7, 27.9, and 22.8 m/s, respectively, in the PRK model. In the LASIK model, the thresholds creating rupture in the stromal bed of the corneas with thicknesses of 500, 450, 400, 350, and 300 μm were 40, 38.1, 35.6, 31.5, and 26.7 m/s, respectively. The 110-μm corneal flap in the LASIK model ruptured at all velocities. Ruptures occurred at lower velocities in the PRK cornea model than in the corneal stromal bed of the LASIK model following blunt foreign body impact. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-31

    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  5. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities

  6. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Students’ Behavioral Disorder: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xian-Liang; Guan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students’ behavioral disorder. Methods: First, we determine displaced students’ likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000–2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students’ in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Results: Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students’ relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students’ relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion: When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior. PMID:26006127

  7. Impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth – A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compute the overall effect size concerning the impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth. The connection of insurance activity and economic growth has been a widely investigated topic due to numerous papers and research attempts performed so far. The results, however, often differ among individual studies. Therefore a comprehensive analysis of the significance of causality from insurance activity, measured by insurance premium, to business cycle fluctuation, is well-required. Using 10 published and unpublished studies, we conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of insurance activity on economic growth. Insurance premium is taken as the measure of insurance activity. The combined significance test of individual t-statistics is employed. The calculation of the effect size allows understand the true effect relying on synthesis of so far published research with significantly higher amount of observations and better precision. Our results confirm positive effect of insurance activity on economic growth and are particularly important for policy makers who set the policy towards subjects in the insurance market.

  8. Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Sarah Mary; Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark; Bohling, Carl; Penland, Shea

    2009-12-01

    Results from historical (1855-2005) shoreline change analysis conducted along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana demonstrate that tropical cyclone frequency dominates the long-term evolution of this barrier island chain. Island area decreased at a rate of -0.16 km2/year for the relatively quiescent time period up until 1996, when an increase in tropical cyclone frequency accelerated this island area reduction to a rate of -1.01 km2/year. More frequent hurricanes also affected shoreline retreat rates, which increased from -11.4 m/year between 1922 and 1996 to -41.9 m/year between 1982 and 2005. The erosional impact caused by the passage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was unprecedented. Between 2004 and 2005, the shoreline of the northern islands retreated -201.5 m/year, compared with an average retreat rate of -38.4 m/year between 1922 and 2004. A linear regression analysis of shoreline change predicts that, as early as 2013, the backbarrier marsh that serves to stabilize the barrier island chain will be completely destroyed if storm frequency observed during the past decade persists. If storm frequency decreases to pre-1996 recurrence intervals, the backbarrier marsh is predicted to remain until 2037. Southern portions of the barrier island chain where backbarrier marsh is now absent behave as ephemeral islands that are destroyed after storm impacts and reemerge during extended periods of calm weather, a coastal behavior that will eventually characterize the entire island chain.

  9. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Students' Behavioral Disorder: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xian-Liang; Guan, Xian

    2015-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students' behavioral disorder. First, we determine displaced students' likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000-2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students' in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students' relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students' relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior.

  10. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  11. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO 2 /GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235 U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of

  12. Fractographic analysis, accuracy of fit and impact strength of acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated accuracy of fit, impact strength, types and morphology of fractures of a microwave acrylic resin polymerized with a cycle alternative to that recommended by the manufacturer. Onda Cryl was polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions (MC, 3 min at 360 W, 4-min pause, and 3 min at 810 W; and with an alternative cycle (AC of 6 min at 630 W. Accuracy of fit was measured at 3 points at the right (A and left (B ridge crests and at the midline (C on the posterior palatal seal for each denture base (n = 10/group. The measurements were taken immediately after finishing and after 30-day storage in water. The impact strength test (Charpy method was performed with a 40 kJ/cm load (n = 20/group. Fractographic analysis was accomplished for all fragments and the fracture types were characterized by means of their morphology, crack propagation angles and microstructure. Accuracy of fit data were analyzed by ANOVA, impact strength and radius values were compared by the t test, and the fractographic analysis data, by the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test. The significance level was fixed at p < 0.05. No statistical differences were found between the two cycles of polymerization used. However, after the 30-day storage period in water, the denture bases showed better fit (P < .05. Most of the fractures were classified as brittle (MD: 70%, AC: 80%. Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that both polymerization cycles are adequate to polymerize the denture resin studied.

  13. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010

  14. Analysis of the impact of correlated benchmark experiments on the validation of codes for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, M.; Stuke, M.; Behler, M.

    2013-01-01

    The validation of a code for criticality safety analysis requires the recalculation of benchmark experiments. The selected benchmark experiments are chosen such that they have properties similar to the application case that has to be assessed. A common source of benchmark experiments is the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) compiled by the 'International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project' (ICSBEP). In order to take full advantage of the information provided by the individual benchmark descriptions for the application case, the recommended procedure is to perform an uncertainty analysis. The latter is based on the uncertainties of experimental results included in most of the benchmark descriptions. They can be performed by means of the Monte Carlo sampling technique. The consideration of uncertainties is also being introduced in the supplementary sheet of DIN 25478 'Application of computer codes in the assessment of criticality safety'. However, for a correct treatment of uncertainties taking into account the individual uncertainties of the benchmark experiments is insufficient. In addition, correlations between benchmark experiments have to be handled correctly. For example, these correlations can arise due to different cases of a benchmark experiment sharing the same components like fuel pins or fissile solutions. Thus, manufacturing tolerances of these components (e.g. diameter of the fuel pellets) have to be considered in a consistent manner in all cases of the benchmark experiment. At the 2012 meeting of the Expert Group on 'Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment' (UACSA) of the OECD/NEA a benchmark proposal was outlined that aimed for the determination of the impact on benchmark correlations on the estimation of the computational bias of the neutron multiplication factor (k eff ). The analysis presented here is based on this proposal. (orig.)

  15. Impact of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Purcaro, Giorgia; Maimone, Mariarosa; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been on the separation-science scene for about 15 years. This three-dimensional method has made a great positive impact on various fields of research, and among these that related to food analysis is certainly at the forefront. The present critical review is based on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the untargeted (general qualitative profiling and fingerprinting) and targeted analysis of food volatiles; attention is focused not only on its potential in such applications, but also on how recent advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry will potentially be important for food analysis. Additionally, emphasis is devoted to the many instances in which straightforward gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is a sufficiently-powerful analytical tool. Finally, possible future scenarios in the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry food analysis field are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan (Malaysia); Ismail, Zubaidah [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  17. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  18. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  19. Economic Evaluation and Budget Impact Analysis of Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae Type b Infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Kotirum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0 and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1 compared with no vaccination. Budget impact analysis was also performed under Thai government perspective. The outcomes were reported as Hib-infected cases averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2014 Thai baht (THB ($ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. In base-case scenario, the model estimates that 3,960 infected cases, 59 disability cases, and 97 deaths can be prevented by national Hib vaccination program. The ICER for 3 + 0 schedule was THB 1,099 ($34 per QALY gained under societal perspective. The model was sensitive to pneumonia incidence among aged under 5 years old and direct non-medical care cost per episode of Hib pneumonia. Hib vaccination is very cost-effective in the Thai context. The budget impact analysis showed that Thai government needed to invest an additional budget of 110 ($3.4 million to implement Hib vaccination program. Policy makers should consider our findings for adopting this vaccine into national immunization program.

  20. The capitalization of operating leases: Analysis of the impact on the IBEX 35 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Pardo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyzes the consequences of the change in the accounting rules about operating leases in the companies and users of financial information. Design/methodology/approach: We use the constructive capitalization method to estimate the liabilities and leased assets and perform an ex ante analysis of the regulatory impact in the IBEX 35 non-financial companies. Non-parametric tests are employed to examine the effect on certain ratios, and through a multivariate regression we investigate the business characteristics that explain the variation of EBITDA. Findings: The ratios under study are significantly affected by the capitalization of operating leases. The explanatory analysis shows that larger companies, which have a higher market valuation and belong to the retail sectors are the ones with a greater increase in EBITDA. Research limitations/implications: The sample size is small, which implies some caution in the generalization of the results. Certain hypotheses have been introduced to apply the constructive method, although the sensitivity tests confirm that the results are robust. Practical implications: In certain cases, to avoid non-compliance with restrictions, particularly in debt contracts, contract renegotiations should be initiated. The constructive method yields liabilities and assets significantly smaller than other simpler methods (such as the factor method, so these results can be a relief for certain non-sophisticated users. Social implications: Investors, shareholders and lenders, and other users will have more transparent information, which should improve their decision-making. Originality/value: The study of the impact on the magnitudes of the balance sheet and the financial ratios is complemented with a descriptive analysis, which takes into account the industry, and with the modeling of the explanatory factors of the change in EBITDA.

  1. Budget impact analysis of conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus as immunosuppressive medication in renal transplantation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroutan N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Foroutan,1 Hamid R Rasekh,1 Jamshid Salamzadeh,1 Hamid R Jamshidi,1 Mohsen Nafar2 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Management, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Kidney Transplantation, Urinary Nephrology Research Center (UNRC, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine budget impact of conversion from cyclosporine (CsA to sirolimus (SRL in renal transplant therapy (RTT from the perspective of insurance organizations in Iran. Methods: An Excel-based model was developed to determine cost of RTT, comparing current CsA based therapy to an mTOR inhibitor-based therapy regimen. Total cost included both cost of immunosuppressive agents and relative adverse events. The inputs were derived from database of Ministry of Health and insurance organizations, hospital and pharmacy based registries, and available literature that were varied through a one-way sensitivity analysis. According to the model, there were almost 17,000 patients receiving RTT in Iran, out of which about 2,200 patients underwent the operation within the study year. The model was constructed based on the results of a local RCT, in which test and control groups received CsA, SRL, and steroids over the first 3 months posttransplantation and, from the fourth month on, CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, and steroids were used in the CsA group and SRL, MMF, and steroids were administered in the SRL group, respectively. Results: The estimated cost of RTT with CsA was US$4,850,000 versus US$4,300,000 receiving SRL. These costs corresponded to the cost saving of almost US$550,000 for the payers. Conclusion: To evaluate the financial consequence of adding mTOR inhibitors to the insurers’ formulary, in the present study, a budget impact analysis was conducted on sirolimus. Fewer cases of costly adverse events along with

  2. Improved Bean Varieties Make a difference in Western Kenya: An Impact Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odendo, M.

    2002-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Kakamega and Vihiga District of Western Kenya during 2001 cropping seasons to analyze impacts of root rot resistance bean varieties introduced in Kakamega and Vihiga Districts by KARI and CIAT between 1989 and 1998. The objective of the study were to: assess adoption of the introduced root rot resistance bush and climbing bean varieties, determine technological and socio-economic factors that enhances or lessen adoption and attainment of the impacts, and examine types and magnitude of the impacts of adoption of the improved bean varieties at farm-level. To form a composite picture on spread and impact of the varieties, a systematic approach was developed to collect and put together data from several sources mainly literature reviews and household surveys. Data were collected through interviews of 233 randomly selected households, using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used to analyse the data. The study showed that although several improved bean varieties were disseminated, most farmers did not adopt all the varieties; 35-80% of the farmers had mainly adopted three bush beans KK22, KK15 and KK8. A relatively small portion of farmers (8-19%) adopted climbers. Disease resistance (root rot) was only one of the criteria, but not the most important one, farmers used in selecting the varieties they adopted. Result of Tobit analysis showed that farmers perception of the trait of the bean varieties as well as farm-farmer characteristics were important determinants of decisions to adopt and intensity the adoption. The main impacts of the new beans were their contribution to equity by improving food self-sufficiency for about 97-99% of te farmers. Most farmers used their bean harvest mainly for subsistence, only a few farmers sold beans in any given season. The 63% of the households that sold beans to earn cash income to purchase other types of food as well as investing in capital assets, especially household

  3. Uncertainty in projected point precipitation extremes for hydrological impact analysis of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, Els; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Current trends in the hydro-meteorological variables indicate the potential impact of climate change on hydrological extremes. Therefore, they trigger an increased importance climate adaptation strategies in water management. The impact of climate change on hydro-meteorological and hydrological extremes is, however, highly uncertain. This is due to uncertainties introduced by the climate models, the internal variability inherent to the climate system, the greenhouse gas scenarios and the statistical downscaling methods. In view of the need to define sustainable climate adaptation strategies, there is a need to assess these uncertainties. This is commonly done by means of ensemble approaches. Because more and more climate models and statistical downscaling methods become available, there is a need to facilitate the climate impact and uncertainty analysis. A Climate Perturbation Tool has been developed for that purpose, which combines a set of statistical downscaling methods including weather typing, weather generator, transfer function and advanced perturbation based approaches. By use of an interactive interface, climate impact modelers can apply these statistical downscaling methods in a semi-automatic way to an ensemble of climate model runs. The tool is applicable to any region, but has been demonstrated so far to cases in Belgium, Suriname, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Time series representing future local-scale precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) conditions were obtained, starting from time series of historical observations. Uncertainties on the future meteorological conditions are represented in two different ways: through an ensemble of time series, and a reduced set of synthetic scenarios. The both aim to span the full uncertainty range as assessed from the ensemble of climate model runs and downscaling methods. For Belgium, for instance, use was made of 100-year time series of 10-minutes precipitation observations and daily

  4. Analysis of the economic impact of the national unified carbon trading market mechanism Hebei province, for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxing

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a grey prediction model is used to predict the carbon emission in Hebei province, and the impact analysis model based on TermCo2 is established. At the same time, we read a lot about CGE and study on how to build the scene, the selection of key parameters, and sensitivity analysis of application scenarios do industry for reference.

  5. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  6. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of €5.4 million.Conclusion: The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by €29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet.Keywords: cancer, breakthrough pain, economic analysis, costs, rapid onset opioids

  7. Cross-impact balances. Applying pair interaction systems and multi-value Kauffman nets to multidisciplinary systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer-Jehle, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    Cross-impact analysis is the name for a familiar method for multidisciplinary systems analysis in social sciences and management sciences, especially in technology foresight, technology assessment and scenario planning. A recently proposed form of cross-impact analysis, CIB, may be of interest for physicists, sociophysicists and complex network researchers because the CIB concept reveals considerable relations to some concepts of these research fields. This article describes the basics of CIB analysis framework, its applications in the social sciences, and its relations to the equilibrium points of pair interaction systems, random graphs, and generalized Kauffman nets. Therefore CIB can be seen as a merger of concepts originating in utterly different scientific fields. This may prove to be fruitful for both sides: For sociophysicists as an example of the application of complex network concepts in the social sciences and for cross-impact practitioners as a source of theoretical insights in the background of their tool.

  8. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging: the impact of regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Ru; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of regression methods on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). During rsfMRI preprocessing, regression analysis is considered effective for reducing the interference of physiological noise on the signal time course. However, it is unclear whether the regression method benefits rsfMRI analysis. Twenty volunteers (10 men and 10 women; aged 23.4 ± 1.5 years) participated in the experiments. We used node analysis and functional connectivity mapping to assess the brain default mode network by using five combinations of regression methods. The results show that regressing the global mean plays a major role in the preprocessing steps. When a global regression method is applied, the values of functional connectivity are significantly lower (P ≤ .01) than those calculated without a global regression. This step increases inter-subject variation and produces anticorrelated brain areas. rsfMRI data processed using regression should be interpreted carefully. The significance of the anticorrelated brain areas produced by global signal removal is unclear. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  9. On the Impact of Inhomogeneities in Meteorological Data on VLBI Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Phogat, Apurva; Soja, Benedikt; Glaser, Susanne; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we address the issue of the quality of meteorological data employed for VLBI data analysis. We use data from six numerical weather models (NWMs) to form references on which the homogenization process is based. We explore the impact of the choice of NWM as well as the way to extract data from it. Among our findings is that data from the surface fields of NWMs are not suitable for either geodetic analysis or homogenization efforts, whether they are in their original form or after they have been compensated for the height difference between the orography of the NWM and the actual elevation. The reason lies in the fact that for 77% of the VLBI stations a height bias larger than 2.5 mm appears, as well as an average bias in the zenith wet delay estimates of 12.2 mm. Should the proposed extraction approach be followed, the difference between operational and reanalysis NWMs is not significant for such an application. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of VLBI data over 13 years.

  10. Hypervelocity Impact Test Fragment Modeling: Modifications to the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on test satellites are performed by members of the orbital debris scientific community in order to understand and typify the on-orbit collision breakup process. By analysis of these test satellite fragments, the fragment size and mass distributions are derived and incorporated into various orbital debris models. These same fragments are currently being put to new use using emerging technologies. Digital models of these fragments are created using a laser scanner. A group of computer programs referred to as the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve code uses these digital representations in a multitude of ways that describe, measure, and model on-orbit fragments and fragment behavior. The Dynamic Rotation subroutine generates all of the possible reflected intensities from a scanned fragment as if it were observed to rotate dynamically while in orbit about the Earth. This calls an additional subroutine that graphically displays the intensities and the resulting frequency of those intensities as a range of solar phase angles in a Probability Density Function plot. This document reports the additions and modifications to the subset of the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve concerned with the Dynamic Rotation and Probability Density Function plotting subroutines.

  11. Safety analysis methodology with assessment of the impact of the prediction errors of relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The best estimate plus uncertainty approach (BEAU) requires the use of extensive resources and therefore it is usually applied for cases in which the available safety margin obtained with a conservative methodology can be questioned. Outside the BEAU methodology, there is not a clear approach on how to deal with the issue of considering the uncertainties resulting from prediction errors in the safety analyses performed for licensing submissions. However, the regulatory document RD-310 mentions that the analysis method shall account for uncertainties in the analysis data and models. A possible approach is presented, that is simple and reasonable, representing just the author's views, to take into account the impact of prediction errors and other uncertainties when performing safety analysis in line with regulatory requirements. The approach proposes taking into account the prediction error of relevant parameters. Relevant parameters would be those plant parameters that are surveyed and are used to initiate the action of a mitigating system or those that are representative of the most challenging phenomena for the integrity of a fission barrier. Examples of the application of the methodology are presented involving a comparison between the results with the new approach and a best estimate calculation during the blowdown phase for two small breaks in a generic CANDU 6 station. The calculations are performed with the CATHENA computer code. (author)

  12. Trends in working capital management and its impact on firms’ performance – An analysis of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the relationship between the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and working capital management. To make the research robust, accounting performance and measures of market related performance have been used to gauge the SMEs performance. This research utilizes secondary data obtained from the Alternative Investment Market concerning SMEs listed in the London Stock Exchange, to investigate the significance of working capital management towards the performance of SMEs. The working capital management components that were used in research are; account payable period APP, average collection period (ACP, return on assets (ROA and inventory holding period (IHP. The analysis of data involved the use of regression analysis and extensive use of correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between working capital management and SME performance. The study established that the use of WCM components such as cash conversion cycle, return on assets, cash conversion cycle and inventory holding period have a significant impact on the performance of SMEs. Further, it was established that when SMEs invested heavily in inventories and receivables, they amassed low profits while investment in current assets in relation to total assets lead to elevated profitability. Hence, it was concluded that there is a compelling relationship between WCM and SME performance.

  13. Impact vibration analysis of group of hexagonal bars immersed in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Toshihiko

    1994-01-01

    A simulation method was studied to calculate the vibration response during seismic excitation of a group of hexagonal bars installed in a restraint immersed in liquid. In this study, the influence of fluid force on structural motion was modeled using an added mass matrix. The added mass matrix was then transferred into the space composed of the eigen modes of hexagonal bars without the added mass and introduced into eigenvalue analysis of the whole bar group structure. By means of this method, the computational time of the added mass matrix calculation and the eigenvalue analysis can be reduced. It was shown that the proposed method yielded almost the same eigenvalues as the conventional method in the physical space. Using the proposed method, added mass models to be used in the impact vibration analysis were investigated. Comparing the calculated results by the proposed method with those using a concentrated added mass, which is a simplified model, showed that the concentrated added mass can be used for a rough response calculation, although the precise calculation requires the added mass matrix. (author)

  14. INMETRO products analysis program: impact on quality of the brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Borges

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to proceed a detailed analysis of the Products Analysis Program of Inmetro, evaluating its contribution to the suppliers of products and services. The relevance of this program - a governmental initiative financed with public resources that relates several sectors of the society – as a factor of incentive to the competitiveness of the national industry, can be evidenced by the research of the impact generated by this activity, translated in improvement actions to the analyzed products and services that aim at the correction of eventual non-conformity to the criteria set in standards and technical regulations related to health and safety. Several sectors in industry have been benefited with the creation or revision of standards, implementation of industry quality programs, voluntary or mandatory conformity assessment programs, and others. The consequences include, beyond the protection of the consumers, the increase of national industry competitiveness and domestic market strength, and the warranty of loyal competition between the suppliers. Key-words: Product Analysis, Quality, Inmetro.

  15. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  16. The Impact of Normalization Methods on RNA-Seq Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyprych-Walczak, J.; Szabelska, A.; Handschuh, L.; Górczak, K.; Klamecka, K.; Figlerowicz, M.; Siatkowski, I.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies, such as the Illumina Hi-seq, are powerful new tools for investigating a wide range of biological and medical problems. Massive and complex data sets produced by the sequencers create a need for development of statistical and computational methods that can tackle the analysis and management of data. The data normalization is one of the most crucial steps of data processing and this process must be carefully considered as it has a profound effect on the results of the analysis. In this work, we focus on a comprehensive comparison of five normalization methods related to sequencing depth, widely used for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data, and their impact on the results of gene expression analysis. Based on this study, we suggest a universal workflow that can be applied for the selection of the optimal normalization procedure for any particular data set. The described workflow includes calculation of the bias and variance values for the control genes, sensitivity and specificity of the methods, and classification errors as well as generation of the diagnostic plots. Combining the above information facilitates the selection of the most appropriate normalization method for the studied data sets and determines which methods can be used interchangeably. PMID:26176014

  17. 1-D Wavelet Signal Analysis of the Actuators Nonlinearities Impact on the Healthy Control Systems Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of the 1-D wavelet analysis to extract several patterns from signals data sets collected from healthy and faulty input-output signals of control systems as a preliminary step in real-time implementation of fault detection diagnosis and isolation strategies. The 1-D wavelet analysis proved that is an useful tool for signals processing, design and analysis based on wavelet transforms found in a wide range of control systems industrial applications. Based on the fact that in the real life there is a great similitude between the phenomena, we are motivated to extend the applicability of these techniques to solve similar applications from control systems field, such is done in our research work. Their efficiency will be demonstrated on a case study mainly chosen to evaluate the impact of the uncertainties and the nonlinearities of the sensors and actuators on the overall performance of the control systems. The proposed techniques are able to extract in frequency domain some pattern features (signatures of interest directly from the signals data set collected by data acquisition equipment from the control system.

  18. Impacts of agricultural land use on biological integrity: A causal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riseng, C.M.; Wiley, M.J.; Black, R.W.; Munn, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural land use has often been linked to nutrient enrichment, habitat degradation, hydrologic alteration, and loss of biotic integrity in streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program sampled 226 stream sites located in eight agriculture-dominated study units across the United States to investigate the geographic variability and causes of agricultural impacts on stream biotic integrity. In this analysis we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop a national and set of regional causal models linking agricultural land use to measured instream conditions. We then examined the direct, indirect, and total effects of agriculture on biotic integrity as it acted through multiple water quality and habitat pathways. In our nation-wide model, cropland affected benthic communities by both altering structural habitats and by imposing water quality-related stresses. Regionspecific modeling demonstrated that geographic context altered the relative importance of causal pathways through which agricultural activities affected stream biotic integrity. Cropland had strong negative total effects on the invertebrate community in the national, Midwest, and Western models, but a very weak effect in the Eastern Coastal Plain model. In theWestern Arid and Eastern Coastal Plain study regions, cropland impacts were transmitted primarily through dissolved water quality contaminants, but in the Midwestern region, they were transmitted primarily through particulate components of water quality. Habitat effects were important in the Western Arid model, but negligible in the Midwest and Eastern Coastal Plain models. The relative effects of riparian forested wetlands also varied regionally, having positive effects on biotic integrity in the Eastern Coastal Plain andWestern Arid region models, but no statistically significant effect in the Midwest. These differences in response to cropland and riparian cover suggest that best management practices and

  19. Budget impact analysis of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Saito, Chie; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Konta, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Our recently published cost-effectiveness study on chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan evaluated the use of dipstick test, serum creatinine (Cr) assay or both in specific health checkup (SHC). Mandating the use of serum Cr assay additionally, or the continuation of current policy mandating dipstick test only was found cost-effective. This study aims to examine the affordability of previously suggested reforms. Budget impact analysis was conducted assuming the economic model would be good for 15 years and applying a population projection. Costs expended by social insurers without discounting were counted as budgets. Annual budget impacts of mass screening compared with do-nothing scenario were calculated as ¥79-¥-1,067 million for dipstick test only, ¥2,505-¥9,235 million for serum Cr assay only and ¥2,517-¥9,251 million for the use of both during a 15-year period. Annual budget impacts associated with the reforms were calculated as ¥975-¥4,129 million for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥963-¥4,113 million for mandating serum Cr assay only and abandoning dipstick test. Estimated values associated with the reform from ¥963-¥4,129 million per year over 15 years are considerable amounts of money under limited resources. The most impressive finding of this study is the decreasing additional expenditures in dipstick test only scenario. This suggests that current policy which mandates dipstick test only would contain medical care expenditure.

  20. Analysis of basis at Eastern hubs and the impact of gas from Sable Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, P.; Schlesinger, B.; Ratra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The major changes that are happening in natural gas markets in the northeast region of North America can be attributed to the introduction of Sable Island as a new source of gas supply, new domestic industrial markets for gas in Atlantic Canada and Northern New England, and major growth in gas-fired electric power generation. This report presented a long term outlook for new Canadian gas supplies to the northeastern North American market with particular reference to prices and basis relationships that will develop between major existing and potential market centres in the area. The development of pipeline transmission and merchant power plant construction in the region was also reviewed. Four potential scenarios were examined for the period to 2010 via a model-based approach. Emerging basis trends under various market conditions were projected. The key observations from the analysis are that the basis between Northeast city gates and the major producing areas will probably increase greatly by 2010. The rise in basis is mostly due to growth in gas demand while changes in gas supply will have only a minor impact on basis. It was also suggested that reference levels of gas production from Sable Island will not alter prices in a significant manner, but higher levels of gas production from Sable Island will benefit Sable producers and Northeast consumers. Basis impacts are moderated when enough pipeline capacity exists to enable toll discounting. The report also stated that there is little risk to the basis impact when gas demand is greater than forecasted. Fluctuations will occur around the general basis trend. 18 refs., 26 tabs., 39 figs