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Sample records for ecmp electrolyte performance

  1. Enhanced performance of ultracapacitors using redox additive-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dharmendra; Kanungo, Jitendra; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) as redox additive had been added to 1 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) electrolyte with an aim of enhancing the capacitance and energy density of ultracapacitors via redox reactions at the interfaces of electrode-electrolyte. Ultracapacitors were fabricated using chemically treated activated carbon as electrode with H2SO4 and H2SO4-KI as an electrolyte. The electrochemical performances of fabricated supercapacitors were investigated by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum capacitance ` C' was observed with redox additives-based electrolyte system comprising 1 M H2SO4-0.3 M KI (1072 F g- 1), which is very much higher than conventional 1 M H2SO4 (61.3 F g- 1) aqueous electrolyte-based ultracapacitors. It corresponds to an energy density of 20.49 Wh kg- 1 at 2.1 A g- 1 for redox additive-based electrolyte, which is six times higher as compared to that of pristine electrolyte (1 M H2SO4) having energy density of only 3.36 Wh kg- 1. The temperature dependence behavior of fabricated cell was also analyzed, which shows increasing pattern in its capacitance values in a temperature range of 5-70 °C. Under cyclic stability test, redox electrolyte-based system shows almost 100% capacitance retention up to 5000 cycles and even more. For comparison, ultracapacitors based on polymer gel electrolyte polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (10 wt%)—{H2SO4 (1 M)-KI (0.3 M)} (90 wt%) have been fabricated and characterized with the same electrode materials.

  2. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...... trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF). The polymer electrode material was polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS). The cells were of the form, Li / PAN : EC : PC : LiCF3SO3 / PPy : DBS. Polymer electrodes of three different thicknesses were studied using cycling at different scan rates. All cells...

  3. The Electronic CardioMetabolic Program (eCMP) for Patients With Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M J; Koliwad, Suneil; Poon, Tak; Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Griggs, Robert; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-27

    Effective lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk adults that are both practical for use in ambulatory care settings and scalable at a population management level are needed. Our aim was to examine the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of delivering an evidence-based Electronic Cardio-Metabolic Program (eCMP) for improving health-related quality of life, improving health behaviors, and reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care high-risk adults. We conducted a randomized, wait-list controlled trial with 74 adults aged ≥18 years recruited from a large multispecialty health care organization. Inclusion criteria were (1) BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and prediabetes, previous gestational diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, or (2) BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD 11.2), BMI 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 5.4) and were 59.5% female, 82.4% white. Participants were randomized to participate in eCMP immediately (n=37) or 3 months later (n=37). eCMP is a 6-month program utilizing video conferencing, online tools, and pre-recorded didactic videos to deliver evidence-based curricula. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. Data were collected and analyzed between 2014 and 2015. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included biometric cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, body weight), self-reported diet and physical activity, mental health status, retention, session attendance, and participant satisfaction. Change in quality of life was not significant in both immediate and delayed participants. Both groups significantly lost weight and reduced waist circumference at 6 months, with some cardiometabolic factors trending accordingly. Significant reduction in self-reported anxiety and perceived stress was seen in the immediate intervention group at 6 months. Retention rate was 93% at 3 months and 86% at 6 months

  4. High-performance electrolyte in the presence of dextrose and its derivatives for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Liao; Lu, Yi-Fang; Do, Jing-Shan

    Dextrose and its derivatives (e.g. glucose, gluconic acid and gluconic lactone) are added to modify the characteristics of electrolytes used in aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The results show that the conductivity and sparking voltage of the electrolytes are severely affected by the concentration of dextrose gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. In addition, the pH of the electrolyte is only slightly affected by the quantity of gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. The capacitance, dissipation factor, and leakage current of capacitors impregnated with the electrolytes prepared in this work are periodically measured under storage conditions and loading at 105 °C.

  5. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  6. High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nianfang

    2017-06-01

    A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. 320 mW cm-2 of peak power density and over 260 mW cm-2 at 0.4 V are obtained when working at 90 °C with normal pressure air supply. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. From the comparison of iR-compensated cathode potential of methanol/air with that of H2/air fuel cell, the impact of methanol crossover on cathode performance decreases with current density and becomes negligible at high current density. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

  7. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short.

  8. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti 3 O 5 , and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti 2 O 5 and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short

  9. Laboratory septic tank performance response to electrolytic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Rahul M; Flora, Joseph R V

    2002-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of electrolytic stimulation on the performance of two laboratory-scale septic tanks. The tanks were fed a synthetic solution that included cellulose, peptone trypticase, beef extract, and urea. After a baseline period with no passed current, currents ranging from 100 to 500 mA were passed through the electrodes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency from the tanks improved when a current was passed, with higher removal efficiencies observed at higher levels of passed current. Hydrolytic reactions resulted in ammonia and phosphate levels in the tanks that were higher than the influent. At currents > 300 mA, these hydrolytic reactions were suppressed, resulting in phosphate levels similar to the influent and ammonia levels lower than the influent because of the settling of ammonia-containing components of the feed solution. A slight increase in nitrate levels was observed when a current was passed, indicating minimal stimulation of nitrification activity. Abiotic studies confirmed that the COD can be removed via electrolysis and the removal was proportional to the passed current. Under the conditions of this study, the primary benefit of electrolytic stimulation of the septic tank is enhanced COD removal.

  10. Microstructured Electrolyte Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue

    Fuel cells, with the advantages of high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission, and long lifetime are a promising technology for both portable power and stationary power sources. The development of efficient electrolyte membranes with high ionic conductivity, good mechanical durability and dense structure at low cost remains a challenge to the commercialization of fuel cells. This thesis focuses on exploring novel composite polymer membranes and ceramic electrolytes with the microstructure engineered to improve performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), respectively. Polymer/particle composite membranes hold promise to meet the demands of DMFCs at lower cost. The structure of composite membranes was controlled by aligning proton conducting particles across the membrane thickness under an applied electric field. The field-induced structural changes caused the membranes to display an enhanced water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability in comparison to membranes prepared without an applied field. Although both methanol permeability and proton conductivity are enhanced by the applied field, the permeability increase is relatively lower than the proton conductivity improvement, which results in enhanced proton/methanol selectivity and improved DMFC performance. Apatite ceramics are a new class of fast ion conductors being studied as alternative SOFC electrolytes in the intermediate temperature range. An electrochemical/hydrothermal deposition method was developed to grow fully dense apatite membranes containing well-developed crystals with c-axis alignment to promote ion conductivity. Hydroxyapatite seed crystals were first deposited onto a metal substrate electrochemically. Subsequent ion substitution during the hydrothermal growth process promoted the formation of dense, fully crystalline films with microstructure optimal for ion transport. The deposition parameters were systematically investigated, such as

  11. Performance limitations of polymer electrolytes based on ethylene oxide polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Han, Yong Bong; Hou, Jun; Kerr, John B.; Qiao, Jun; Sloop, Steven E.; Tian, Minmin; Wang, Shanger

    1999-01-01

    Studies of polymer electrolyte solutions for lithium-polymer batteries are described. Two different salts, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), were dissolved in a variety of polymers. The structures were all based upon the ethylene oxide unit for lithium ion solvation and both linear and comb-branch polymer architectures have been examined. Conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient and transference number measurements demonstrate the superior transport properties of the LiTFSI salt over LiTf. Data obtained on all of these polymers combined with LiTFSI salts suggest that there is a limit to the conductivity achievable at room temperature, at least for hosts containing ethylene oxide units. The apparent conductivity limit is 5 x 10-5 S/cm at 25 C. Providing that the polymer chain segment containing the ethylene oxide units is at least 5-6 units long there appears to be little influence of the polymer framework to which the solvating groups are attached. To provide adequate separator function, the mechanical properties may be disconnected from the transport properties by selection of an appropriate architecture combined with an adequately long ethylene oxide chain. For both bulk and interfacial transport of the lithium ions, conductivity data alone is insufficient to understand the processes that occur. Lithium ion transference numbers and salt diffusion coefficients also play a major role in the observed behavior and the transport properties of these polymer electrolyte solutions appear to be quite inadequate for ambient temperature performance. At present, this restricts the use of such systems to high temperature applications. Several suggestions are given to overcome these obstacles

  12. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  13. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of water electrolyte supplementation on performance, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under heat stress, 0.5% KCl and 0.5%NaCl supplementation in water reduced rectal temperature, increased body weight, improved FCR, and reduced blood pH. Electrolyte supplementation also influenced red blood cell count as well as serum levels of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate. Supplementing KCl and NaCl in ...

  15. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  16. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Chiu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jian-Ging; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Lin, King-Fu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  17. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  18. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  19. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  20. Enhancing Capacity Performance by Utilizing the Redox Chemistry of the Electrolyte in a Dual-Electrolyte Sodium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Sirugaloor Thangavel; Bae, Hyuntae; Han, Jinhyup; Kim, Youngsik

    2018-05-04

    A strategy is described to increase charge storage in a dual electrolyte Na-ion battery (DESIB) by combining the redox chemistry of the electrolyte with a Na + ion de-insertion/insertion cathode. Conventional electrolytes do not contribute to charge storage in battery systems, but redox-active electrolytes augment this property via charge transfer reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The capacity of the cathode combined with that provided by the electrolyte redox reaction thus increases overall charge storage. An aqueous sodium hexacyanoferrate (Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 ) solution is employed as the redox-active electrolyte (Na-FC) and sodium nickel Prussian blue (Na x -NiBP) as the Na + ion insertion/de-insertion cathode. The capacity of DESIB with Na-FC electrolyte is twice that of a battery using a conventional (Na 2 SO 4 ) electrolyte. The use of redox-active electrolytes in batteries of any kind is an efficient and scalable approach to develop advanced high-energy-density storage systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electrolytes for methanol-air fuel cells. I. The performance of methanol electro-oxidation catalysts in sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew, M.R.; McNicol, B.D.; Short, R.T.; Drury, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    Phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid have been compared as potential electrolytes for methanol-air fuel cells. The performances of typical electro-oxidation catalysts were measured in both electrolytes over a range of concentrations. With all catalysts the activity falls with increasing acid concentration. While this is to some extent due to the decrease in water activity at higher concentrations it seems that with both acids there is significant poisoning of the catalyst. The results can be explained for both electrolytes by assuming that adsorption of undissociated acid poisons the catalyst surfaces and that the reaction rate on the poisoned surfaces is proportional to the water activity.

  2. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ˜75 F g-1, ˜987 kW kg-1 and ˜27 W h kg-1, respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (˜158 F g-1) and energy density (˜53 W h kg-1). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices.

  3. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-20

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ~75 F g(-1), ~987 kW kg(-1) and ~27 W h kg(-1), respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (~158 F g(-1)) and energy density (~53 W h kg(-1)). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  4. Influence of temperature and electrolyte on the performance of activated-carbon supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Verbrugge, Mark; Soukiazian, Souren

    For hybrid electric vehicle traction applications, energy storage devices with high power density and energy efficiency are required. A primary attribute of supercapacitors is that they retain their high power density and energy efficiency even at -30 °C, the lowest temperature at which unassisted starting must be provided to customers. More abuse-tolerant electrolytes are preferred to the high-conductivity acetonitrile-based systems commonly employed. Propylene carbonate based electrolytes are a promising alternative. In this work, we compare the electrochemical performance of two high-power density electrical double layer supercapacitors employing acetonitrile and propylene carbonate as solvents. From this study, we are able to elucidate phenomena that control the resistance of supercapacitor at lower temperatures, and quantify the difference in performance associated with the two electrolytes.

  5. Electrochemical Approach for Analyzing Electrolyte Transport Properties and Their Effect on Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Nikolay; Lyagaeva, Julia; Vdovin, Gennady; Medvedev, Dmitry; Demin, Anatoly; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    2017-08-16

    The design and development of highly conductive materials with wide electrolytic domain boundaries are among the most promising means of enabling solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to demonstrate outstanding performance across low- and intermediate-temperature ranges. While reducing the thickness of the electrolyte is an extensively studied means for diminishing the total resistance of SOFCs, approaches involving an improvement in the transport behavior of the electrolyte membranes have been less-investigated. In the present work, a strategy for analyzing the electrolyte properties and their effect on SOFC output characteristics is proposed. To this purpose, a SOFC based on a recently developed BaCe 0.5 Zr 0.3 Dy 0.2 O 3-δ proton-conducting ceramic material was fabricated and tested. The basis of the strategy consists of the use of traditional SOFC testing techniques combined with the current interruption method and electromotive force measurements with a modified polarization-correction assessment. This allows one to determine simultaneously such important parameters as maximal power density; ohmic and polarization resistances; average ion transport numbers; and total, ionic, and electronic film conductivities and their activation energies. The proposed experimental procedure is expected to expand both fundamental and applied basics that could be further adopted to improve the technology of electrochemical devices based on proton-conducting electrolytes.

  6. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole nanofiber and its enhanced electrochemical performances in different electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Das

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A porous nanocomposite based on polypyrrole (PPy and sodium alginate (SA has been synthesized by easy, inexpensive, eco-friendly method. As prepared nanocomposite showed fibrillar morphology in transmission electron microscopic (TEM analysis. The average diameter of ~100 nm for the nanofibers was observed from scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis. As prepared nanofiber, was investigated as an electrode material for supercapacitor application in different aqueous electrolyte solutions. PPy nanofiber showed enhanced electrochemical performances in 1M KCl solution as compared to 1M Na2SO4 solution. Maximum specific capacitance of 284 F/g was found for this composite in 1 M KCl electrolyte. It showed 76% specific capacitance retention after 600 cycles in 1 M KCl solution. Electrochemical Impedance Spectra showed moderate capacitive behavior of the composite in both the electrolytes. Further PPy nanofiber demonstrated higher thermal stability as compared to pure PPy.

  7. Electrochemical performance of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Fan, Li-Zhen; Fan, Huanhuan; Shi, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Cross-linked trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) were prepared by in situ thermal polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the GPEs are >10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and continuously increased with the increase of liquid electrolyte content. The GPEs have excellent electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li/Li + . The LiCoO 2 |TMPTMA-based GPE|graphite cells exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 129 mAh g −1 at the 0.2C, and good cycling stability with around 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles. Both the simple fabricating process of polymer cell and outstanding electrochemical performance of such new GPE make it potentially one of the most promising electrolyte materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

  8. Electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells having electrolytes made by suspension and solution precursor plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M.; Kuhn, J.; Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes were deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). The electrolytes were evaluated for permeability, microstructure, and electrochemical performance. With SPS, three different suspensions were tested to explore the influence of powder size distribution and liquid properties. Electrolytes made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 2.6 μm were more gas-tight than those made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 0.6 μm. A peak open circuit voltage of 1.00 V was measured at 750 °C with a cell with an electrolyte made from a suspension of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The use of a flammable suspension liquid was beneficial for improving electrolyte conductivity when using lower energy plasmas, but the choice of liquid was less important when using higher energy plasmas. With SPPS, peak electrolyte conductivities were comparable to the peak conductivities of the SPS electrolytes. However, leak rates through the SPPS electrolytes were higher than those through the electrolytes made from suspensions of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The electrochemical test data on SPPS electrolytes are the first reported in the literature.

  9. Gel polymer electrolyte lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, M.C.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Behar, A.; Whitcanack, L.D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Yu, J.-S. [LG Chem/Research Park, P.O. Box 61Yu Song, Science Town, Daejon (Korea); Alamgir, M. [Compact Power, Inc., 1857 Technology Drive, Troy, MI 48083 (United States)

    2007-03-20

    For a number of NASA's future planetary and terrestrial applications, high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries that can operate at very low temperature are desired. In the pursuit of developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance, we have also focused on assessing the viability of using gel polymer systems, due to their desirable form factor and enhanced safety characteristics. In the present study we have evaluated three classes of promising liquid low-temperature electrolytes that have been impregnated into gel polymer electrolyte carbon-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based Li-ion cells (manufactured by LG Chem. Inc.), consisting of: (a) binary EC + EMC mixtures with very low EC-content (10%), (b) quaternary carbonate mixtures with low EC-content (16-20%), and (c) ternary electrolytes with very low EC-content (10%) and high proportions of ester co-solvents (i.e., 80%). These electrolytes have been compared with a baseline formulation (i.e., 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + DEC + DMC (1:1:1%, v/v/v), where EC, ethylene carbonate, DEC, diethyl carbonate, and DMC, dimethyl carbonate). We have performed a number of characterization tests on these cells, including: determining the rate capacity as a function of temperature (with preceding charge at room temperature and also at low temperature), the cycle life performance (both 100% DOD and 30% DOD low earth orbit cycling), the pulse capability, and the impedance characteristics at different temperatures. We have obtained excellent performance at low temperatures with ester-based electrolytes, including the demonstration of >80% of the room temperature capacity at -60 C using a C/20 discharge rate with cells containing 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + MB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (MB, methyl butyrate) and 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + EB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (EB, ethyl butyrate) electrolytes. In addition, cells containing the ester-based electrolytes were observed to support 5C pulses at -40 C, while still

  10. Designed synergetic effect of electrolyte additives to improve interfacial chemistry of MCMB electrode in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte for enhanced low and room temperature performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Su, Wei-Nien; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Chen, Hung-Ming; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Chia-Hsin; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2018-05-09

    The performance of lithium ion batteries rapidly falls at lower temperatures due to decreasing conductivity of electrolytes and Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) on graphite anode. Hence, it limits the practical use of lithium ion batteries at sub-zero temperatures and also affects the development of lithium ion batteries for widespread applications. The SEI formed on the graphite surface is very influential in determining the performance of the battery. Herein, a new electrolyte additive, 4-Chloromethyl-1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2-oxide (CMDO), is prepared to improve the properties of commonly used electrolyte constituents - ethylene carbonate (EC), and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC). The formation of an efficient passivation layer in propylene carbonate (PC) -based electrolyte for MCMB electrode was investigated. The addition of CMDO resulted in a much less irreversible capacity loss and induces thin SEI formation. However, the combination of the three additives played a key role to enhance reversible capacity of MCMB electrode at lower or ambient temperature. The electrochemical measurement analysis showed that the SEI formed from a mixture of the three additives gave better intercalation-deintercalation of lithium ions.

  11. How a gel polymer electrolyte affects performance of lithium/sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Tran, Dat T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Conventional separator is coated with a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite layer. •Composite coating increases tensile strength and electrolyte wettability. •Coated separator offers an alternative approach for making gel polymer Li/S battery. •Li/S battery takes benefits of gel polymer electrolyte at the expense of capacity. -- Abstract: Gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) and composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) have been widely employed to improve the safety and cycling performance of rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. In order to determine whether this approach is applicable to lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery, we examine the effect of CGPE on the cycling and storage performances of Li/S cells by comparing a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite coated separator (C-separator) with a pristine separator (P-separator). Results show that the composite coating significantly enhances the wettability of liquid electrolyte on the separator and that resulting CGPE can tightly glue the separator and electrode together. In comparison with the P-separator, the C-separator offers Li/S cells similar capacity retention and rate capability; however it greatly affects the specific capacity of sulfur. The analysis on the impedance spectrum of a lithium polysulfide (PS) solution reveal that the reduction of sulfur specific capacity is due to the high viscosity of the CGPE and the strong adsorption of SiO 2 filler to the PS species, which trap PS species in the separator and hence reduce the utilization of sulfur active material. Therefore, the benefits of the GPE and CGPE to the Li/S batteries can be taken only at the expense of sulfur specific capacity

  12. High Rate Performance Nanocomposite Electrode of Mesoporous Manganese Dioxide/Silver Nanowires in KI Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, manganese dioxide has become a research hotspot as an electrode material because of its low price. However, it has also become an obstacle to industrialization due to its low ratio of capacitance and the low rate performance which is caused by the poor electrical conductivity. In this study, a KI solution with electrochemical activity was innovatively applied to the electrolyte, and we systematically investigated the rate performance of the mesoporous manganese dioxide and the composite electrode with silver nanowires in supercapacitors. The results showed that when mesoporous manganese dioxide and mesoporous manganese dioxide/silver nanowires composite were used as electrodes, the strength of the current was amplified five times (from 0.1 to 0.5 A/g, the remaining rates of specific capacitance were 95% (from 205.5 down to 197.1 F/g and 92% (from 208.1 down to 191.7 F/g in the KI electrolyte, and the rate performance was much higher than which in an Na2SO4 electrolyte with a remaining rate of 25% (from 200.3 down to 49.1 F/g and 60% (from 187.2 down to 113.1 F/g. The morphology and detail structure were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The electrochemical performance was assessed by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L -1 glycerol and 4 mol L -1 KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min -1 , high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt 3 Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  14. Enhancing the stability and performance of a battery cathode using a non-aqueous electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Yeol [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sen, Sujat [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Song, Hyun-Kon [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy and School of Nano-Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Banyeon-ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea); Palmore, G. Tayhas R. [Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    For conductive polymers to be considered materials for energy storage, both their electroactivity and stability must be optimized. In this study, a non-aqueous electrolyte (0.2 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile) was studied for its effect on the charge storage capacity and stability of two materials used in batteries developed in our laboratory, polypyrrole (pPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiaxoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)). The results are compared to the performance of these materials in an aqueous electrolyte (0.2 M HCl/aq). Loss of ABTS dopant was eliminated principally due to the low solubility of ABTS in acetonitrile, resulting in cathode materials with improved stability in terms of load cycling and performance. (author)

  15. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J., E-mail: joselinares@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L{sup -1} glycerol and 4 mol L{sup -1} KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min{sup -1}, high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt{sub 3}Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  17. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  18. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests under...

  19. The effect of various electrolyte cations on electrochemical performance of polypyrrole/RGO based supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianbo; Xu, Youlong; Wang, Jie; Lin, Jun; Sun, Xiaofei; Mao, Shengchun

    2015-11-21

    In this work, polypyrrole/graphene doped by p-toluenesulfonic is prepared as an active material for supercapacitors, and its capacitance performance is investigated in various aqueous electrolytes including HCl, LiCl, NaCl, and KCl with a concentration of 3 M, respectively. A rising trend of capacitance is observed according to the cationic mobility (Li(+) Na(+) > Li(+) > H(+)). The reason can be attributed to the fact that the insertion/de-insertion of large size cation brings a significant doping level decrease and an over-oxidation increase during the charging-discharging cycles. Hence, we not only obtain good capacitance performance (280.3 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)), superior rate capability (225.8 F g(-1) at 500 mV s(-1)) and high cycling stability (92.0% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 1 A g(-1)) by employing 3 M HCl as an electrolyte, but also reveal that the electrolyte cations have a significant effect on the supercapacitors' electrochemical performance.

  20. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ∼75 F g −1 , ∼987 kW kg −1 and ∼27 W h kg −1 , respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (∼158 F g −1 ) and energy density (∼53 W h kg −1 ). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. (paper)

  1. A mixed-pH dual-electrolyte microfluidic aluminum–air cell with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Binbin; Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A mix-pH dual-electrolyte Al–air cell is proposed. • Cells with dual-electrolyte exhibit higher performance. • Cell performance increases with increasing electrolyte concentration and flow rate. • Optimized channel thickness is 0.3 mm. • A restriction of reaction activation on the Al side is observed. - Abstract: Energy storage capacity has been a major limiting factor in pursuit of increasing functionality and mobility for portable devices. To increase capacity limits, novel battery designs with multi-electron redox couples and increased voltages have been listed as a priority research direction by the US Department of Energy. This study leverages the benefits of microfluidics technology to develop a novel mixed-pH media aluminum–air cell which incorporates the advantages of the trivalence of aluminum and mixed-pH thermodynamics. Experimentally, the new cell exhibited an open circuit potential of 2.2 V and a maximum power density of 176 mW cm −2 , which are respectively 37.5% and 104.6% higher than conventional single alkaline aluminum–air cell under similar conditions. With further optimization of channel thickness, a power density of 216 mW cm −2 was achieved in the present study.

  2. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  3. Effect of sulfolane on the performance of lithium bis(oxalato)borate-based electrolytes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiyou; Zhao Yangyu; Shi Xinming; Li Bucheng; Xu Xiaoli; Zhao Wei; Cui Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High purity of LiBOB is obtained by the compressing dry granulation method. ► LiBOB-SL/DEC electrolyte is an excellent candidate electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. ► It shows high oxidation potentials (>5.3 V) and satisfactory conductivities. ► In Li/MCMB cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits excellent film-forming characteristics and low impedances of the interface films. ► In LiFePO 4 /Li cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits stable cycle performance and high discharge voltage plateau (>3.35 V). - Abstract: Lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) is a promising salt for lithium ion batteries. However, before applying in lithium ion batteries, it is necessary to prepare high purity LiBOB with a simple method, and find more appropriate solvent systems to exert the perfect electrochemical performance of LiBOB. In this paper, LiBOB is synthesized by the compressing dry granulation method, with the yield of 97%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of LiBOB-sulfolane (SL)/diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte are investigated. It shows high oxidation potentials (>5.3 V) and satisfactory conductivities, also the temperature dependence of the conductivity is well in accord with the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) behavior. When used in Li/MCMB (mesophase carbon microbeads) cells, this novel electrolyte exhibits not only excellent film-forming characteristics, but also low impedances of the interface films. When used in LiFePO 4 /Li cells, compared to the cell with the electrolyte system of LiBOB-EC/DEC electrolyte, LiBOB-SL/DEC electrolyte exhibit several advantages, such as more stable cycle performance, and higher discharge voltage plateau (>3.35 V).

  4. Preparation and performance of intermediate-temperature fuel cells based on Gd-doped ceria electrolytes with different compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Mori, Toshiyuki; Yan, Pengfei; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, ZhiPeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 electrolyte had less density of oxygen vacancies ordering. ► Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 fuel cell showed better performance than Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 . ► The relationship between microstructures and performance for cells were discussed. ► Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte with higher grain boundary conductivity was concluded. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of two frequently used Gd x Ce 1−x O 2−x/2 electrolytes (x = 0.1 and x = 0.2) on the performance of fuel cells operated at intermediate temperature was studied. The microstructures of ceria electrolytes responsible for the performance were discussed. Electrochemical measurements of as-prepared cells showed that the cell with Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte had a better performance than that of Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 1.95 . It can be concluded that the increase of grain boundary conductivity of Gd 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 electrolyte contributes to its better cell performance.

  5. An interface-reconstruction effect for rechargeable aluminum battery in ionic liquid electrolyte to enhance cycling performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al metal has been regarded as a promising anode for rechargeable batteries because of its natural abundance and high theoretical specific capacity. However, rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs using Al metal as anode display poor cycling performances owing to interface problems between anode and electrolyte. The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI layer on the anode has been confirmed to be essential for improving cycling performances of rechargeable batteries. Therefore, we immerse the Al metal in ionic liquid electrolyte for some time before it is used as anode to remove the passive film and expose fresh Al to the electrolyte. Then the reactions of exposed Al, acid, oxygen and water in electrolyte are occurred to form an SEI layer in the cycle. Al/electrolyte/V2O5 full batteries with the thin, uniform and stable SEI layer on Al metal anode perform high discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE. This work illustrates that an SEI layer is formed on Al metal anode in the cycle using a simple and effective pretreatment process and results in superior cycling performances for RABs.

  6. Influence of Electrode Design and Contacting Layers on Performance of Electrolyte Supported SOFC/SOEC Single Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mihails Kusnezoff; Nikolai Trofimenko; Martin Müller; Alexander Michaelis

    2016-01-01

    The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type i...

  7. Corrosion protection performance of single and dual Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating for aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhan Kumar, A.; Kwon, Sun Hwan; Jung, Hwa Chul; Shin, Kwang Seon

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coatings are known to be one of the most appropriate method for corrosion protection of magnesium (Mg) alloy. The improvement of PEO coatings and the optimization of their surface aspects are of major importance. In this current work, the influence of dual PEO coating on strip-cast AZ31 Mg alloy substrate has been evaluated with the aim of improving the surface and corrosion protection aspects. For this purpose, AZ31 Mg substrates are subjected to single and dual PEO processing in silicate and phosphate electrolyte under similar condition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the number of pores in PEO coating processed in silicate electrolyte is higher than others. X-ray diffraction analysis of PEO coatings showed that the surface coating is mainly comprised of Mg 2 SiO 4 , Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and MgO with different quantity based on PEO processing. Compared with the AZ31 Mg, the corrosion potential (E corr ) of both type PEO coatings was positively shifted about 250–400 mV and the corrosion current density (i corr ) was lowered by 3-4 orders of magnitude as result of adequate corrosion protection to the Mg alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution. All of the observation obviously showed that the dual PEO coating provides better corrosion protection performance than their respective single due to its synergistic beneficial effect. - Highlights: • Influence of dual PEO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy substrate was evaluated. • XRD confirmed formation of thin MgO inner, Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Mg 2 SiO 4 outer layer. • SEM results showed uniform coating with no cracks and relatively less micro pores. • Micro hardness of dual PEO coatings is higher than single PEO coatings. • Dual coating provides superior corrosion performance due to its synergistic effect

  8. Effect of aluminum anodizing in phosphoric acid electrolyte on adhesion strength and thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sulki; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Yonghwan; Jung, Uoochang; Chung, Wonsub

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance of the anodized aluminum 6061 in phosphoric acid electrolyte to improve the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance for use in metal core printed circuit boards (MCPCB). The electrolyte temperature and applied voltage were altered to generate varied pore structures. The thickness, porosity and pore diameter of the anodized layer were measured. The pore morphologies were affected most by temperature, which was the driving force for ion transportation. The mechanism of adhesive bond was penetration of the epoxy into the pores. The optimal anodization conditions for maximum adhesive bond strength, 27 MPa, were 293 K and 100V. The maximum thermal conductivity of the epoxy-treated anodized layer was 1.6 W/m·K at 273 K. Compared with the epoxy-treated Al layer used for conventional MCPCBs, the epoxy-treated anodized layer showed advanced thermal performance due to a low difference of thermal resistance and high heat dissipation.

  9. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ, p-benzoquinone (BQ, co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  10. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Jixiao; Ou, Bin; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2018-02-12

    Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ), p-benzoquinone (BQ), co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB) and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  11. Reduced graphene oxide aerogel with high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijiang; Wu, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Jin; Guo, Feifei; Zhuo, Shuping; Cui, Hongyou; Xing, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide aerogel (RGOA) is synthesized successfully through a simultaneous self-assembly and reduction process using hypophosphorous acid and I2 as reductant. Nitrogen sorption analysis shows that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of RGOA could reach as high as 830 m2 g-1, which is the largest value ever reported for graphene-based aerogels obtained through the simultaneous self-assembly and reduction strategy. The as-prepared RGOA is characterized by a variety of means such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests show that RGOA exhibits a high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes. The specific capacitance of RGOA is calculated to be 211.8 and 278.6 F g-1 in KOH and H2SO4 electrolytes, respectively. The perfect supercapacitive performance of RGOA is ascribed to its three-dimensional structure and the existence of oxygen-containing groups.

  12. Chemical etching of stainless steel 301 for improving performance of electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, P.; Nowicki, M.; Grzeszkowiak, M.; Czajka, R.; Béguin, F.

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of the study was to increase the surface roughness of stainless steel 301 current collectors by etching, in order to improve the electrochemical performance of electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) in 1 mol L-1 lithium sulphate electrolyte. Etching was realized in 1:3:30 (HNO3:HCl:H2O) solution with times varying up to 10 min. For the considered 15 μm thick foil and a mass loss around 0.4 wt.%, pitting was uniform, with diameter of pits ranging from 100 to 300 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed an increase of average surface roughness (Ra) from 5 nm for the as-received stainless steel foil to 24 nm for the pitted material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy realized on EDLCs with coated electrodes either on as-received or pitted foil in 1 mol L-1 Li2SO4 gave equivalent distributed resistance (EDR) of 8 Ω and 2 Ω, respectively, demonstrating a substantial improvement of collector/electrode interface after pitting. Correlatively, the EDLCs with pitted collector displayed a better charge propagation and low ohmic losses even at relatively high current of 20 A g-1. Hence, chemical pitting of stainless steel current collectors is an appropriate method for optimising the performance of EDLCs in neutral aqueous electrolyte.

  13. Effect of time-varying humidity on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noorani, Shamsuddin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn (United States); Shamim, Tariq [Mechanical Engineering, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: tshamim@masdar.ac.ae

    2011-07-01

    In the energy sector, fuel cells constitute a promising solution for the future due to their energy-efficient and environment-friendly characteristics. However, the performance of fuel cells is very much affected by the humidification level of the reactants, particularly in hot regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the effect of driving conditions on the performance of fuel cells. A macroscopic single-fuel-cell-based, one dimensional, isothermal model was used on a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to carry out a computational study of the impact of humidity conditions which vary over time. It was found that the variation of humidity has a significant effect on water distribution but a much lower impact on power and current densities. This paper provided useful information on fuel cells' performance under varying conditions which could be used to improve their design for mobile applications.

  14. Fabrication of Bi2O3||AC asymmetric supercapacitor with redox additive aqueous electrolyte and its improved electrochemical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Selvan, R. Kalai; Ulaganathan, M.; Melo, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been fabricated using α-Bi 2 O 3 and bio-waste derived activated carbon (AC) as negative and positive electrodes respectively with Li 2 SO 4 as electrolyte. Interestingly, the addition of KI into the Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte can significantly enhances the ASC performance through the redox reaction between iodine/iodide ions. -- Highlights: •Flower like α-Bi 2 O 3 is prepared. •An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using α-Bi 2 O 3 as negative electrode and bio-waste derived activated carbon as positive electrode. •Energy density is enhanced from 10.2 Wh kg −1 to 35.4 Wh kg −1 by using KI as redox additive in Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte. -- Abstract: A new asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was fabricated using flower like α-Bi2O3as negative and bio-waste derived activated carbon (AC) as positive electrodes with Li2SO4as electrolyte. Here, the fabricated ASC was operated over the potential range of 0-1.6 V and evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvano static charge-discharge (GCD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cycle life. Further to improve the performance of ASC, KI was used as electrolyte redox additive with pristine (Li2SO4) electrolyte due to their possible redox reactions of iodine ions. Remarkably, a nearly threefold improved specific capacitance and energy density of 99.5 F g −1 and 35.4 Wh kg −1 respectively was achieved by adding of KI into Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte, while it was only 29 F g −1 and 10.2 Wh kg −1 for pristine (Li2SO4) electrolyte used ASC at 1.5 mA cm −2

  15. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  16. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g-1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg-1 at 1 A g-1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  17. Effect of electrolyte additives on performance of plasma electrolytic oxidation films formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongping; Yan, Chuanwei; Wang, Fuhui

    2007-01-01

    Various plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films were prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D in a silicate bath with different additives such as phosphate, fluoride and borate. Effects of the additives on chemical composition and corrosion resistance of the PEO films were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that the PEO films obtained in solutions with both borate and fluoride had better corrosion resistance. In order to understand the corrosion mechanism of PEO films on magnesium alloy AZ91D, electronic property of the magnesium electrode with PEO films was studied by Mott-Schottky approach in a solution containing borate and chloride. The results indicated that magnesium electrodes with and without PEO films all exhibited n-type semiconducting property. However, in comparison with the magnesium electrode treated in solutions containing phosphate or borate, the electrode treated in solutions containing both borate and fluoride (M-film) had lower donor concentration and much negative flat band potential; therefore, the M-film had lower reactivity and higher corrosion resistance

  18. Electrolyte bi-layering strategy to improve the performance of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri Prakash, B.; Pavitra, R.; Senthil Kumar, S.; Aruna, S. T.

    2018-03-01

    Lowering of operation temperature has become one of the primary goals of solid oxide fuel (SOFC) research as reduced temperature improves the prospects for widespread commercialization of this energy system. Reduced operational temperature also mitigates the issues associated with high temperature SOFCs and paves way not only for the large scale stationary power generation but also makes SOFCs viable for portable and transport applications. However, there are issues with electrolyte and cathode materials at low temperatures, individually as well as in association with other components, which makes the performance of the SOFCs less satisfactory than expected at lowered temperatures. Bi-layering of electrolytes and impregnation of cathodes have emerged as two important strategies to overcome these issues and achieve higher performance at low temperatures. This review article provides the perspective on the strategy of bi-layering of electrolyte to achieve the desired high performance from SOFC at low to intermediate temperatures.

  19. Characteristics and performance of lanthanum gallate electrolyte-supported SOFC under ethanol steam and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo; Zhu, Xin-Jian; Yu, Qing-Chun; Tu, Heng-Yong [Institute of Fuel Cell, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu, Wan-Qi [Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on the electrochemical performance of perovskite-type materials based on doped LaGaO{sub 3}. La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGM) and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.115}Co{sub 0.085}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGMC) were used as electrolytes and (Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}){sub 0.9}MnO{sub 3} (PCM) and La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}Cr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM) as cathode and anode material, respectively. LSGM and LSGMC electrolytes were prepared by tape casting with a thickness of about 600 {mu}m. The performance of LSCM/LSGMC/PCM was slightly superior to that obtained on LSCM/LSGM/PCM at different temperatures in both humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam atmospheres, good values of power output in LSCM/LSGMC/PCM were 182 and 169 mW cm{sup -2} using humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam as fuel, respectively, and oxygen as oxidant at 850 C. Cell stability tests indicate no significant degradation in performance after 60 h of cell testing when LSCM anode was exposed to ethanol steam at 750 C. Almost no carbon deposits were detected after testing in ethanol steam at 750 C for >60 h on the LSCM anodes, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation. (author)

  20. Characteristics and performance of lanthanum gallate electrolyte-supported SOFC under ethanol steam and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhu, Xin-Jian; Hu, Wan-Qi; Yu, Qing-Chun; Tu, Heng-Yong

    This study is focused on the electrochemical performance of perovskite-type materials based on doped LaGaO 3. La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ (LSGM) and La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.115Co 0.085O 3- δ (LSGMC) were used as electrolytes and (Pr 0.7Ca 0.3) 0.9MnO 3 (PCM) and La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ (LSCM) as cathode and anode material, respectively. LSGM and LSGMC electrolytes were prepared by tape casting with a thickness of about 600 μm. The performance of LSCM/LSGMC/PCM was slightly superior to that obtained on LSCM/LSGM/PCM at different temperatures in both humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam atmospheres, good values of power output in LSCM/LSGMC/PCM were 182 and 169 mW cm -2 using humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam as fuel, respectively, and oxygen as oxidant at 850 °C. Cell stability tests indicate no significant degradation in performance after 60 h of cell testing when LSCM anode was exposed to ethanol steam at 750 °C. Almost no carbon deposits were detected after testing in ethanol steam at 750 °C for >60 h on the LSCM anodes, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation.

  1. Electrochemical performances of lithium ion battery using alkoxides of group 13 as electrolyte solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Masuda, Yuki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Wakihara, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Tris(methoxy polyethylenglycol) borate ester (B-PEG) and aluminum tris(polyethylenglycoxide) (Al-PEG) were used as electrolyte solvent for lithium ion battery, and the electrochemical property of these electrolytes were investigated. These electrolytes, especially B-PEG, showed poor electrochemical stability, leading to insufficient discharge capacity and rapid degradation with cycling. These observations would be ascribed to the decomposition of electrolyte, causing formation of unstable passive layer on the surface of electrode in lithium ion battery at high voltage. However, significant improvement was observed by the addition of aluminum phosphate (AlPO 4 ) powder into electrolyte solvent. AC impedance technique revealed that the increase of interfacial resistance of electrode/electrolyte during cycling was suppressed by adding AlPO 4 , and this suppression could enhance the cell capabilities. We infer that dissolved AlPO 4 components formed electrochemically stable layer on the surface of electrode

  2. Preparation and DMFC performance of a sulfophenylated poly(arylene ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baijun, E-mail: liubj@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hu Wei [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zou Haifeng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, Gilles P. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Jiang Zhenhua [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily prepared PEEKK by post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported similarly structured analogues and MEAs derived from comparative Nafion membranes.

  3. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  4. Performance of titanium dioxide-based cathodes in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, W.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Neat, R.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    Performance data on two polymorphs of titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) operating in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell at 120 C are presented. On the first discharge lithium ions can be electrochemically inserted into both forms to an approximate composition LiTiO[sub 2]. However, only the rutile material cycles with a significant capacity ([proportional to] 0.5 Li/TiO[sub 2]) with an average cell voltage of 1.73 V corresponding to a theoretical energy density of [proportional to] 290 W h kg[sup -1]. Our results are in contrast to earlier work reported on the intercalation of lithium into these phases at room temperature, where only the anatase form was found to intercalate lithium. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the rutile form undergoes a structural change during the first discharge resulting in the formation of a hexagonal form of LiTiO[sub 2].

  5. Ionic liquid as an electrolyte additive for high performance lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyab, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of lead-acid battery is improved in this work by inhibiting the corrosion of negative battery electrode (lead) and hydrogen gas evolution using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). The results display that the addition of ionic liquid to battery electrolyte (5.0 M H2SO4 solution) suppresses the hydrogen gas evolution to very low rate 0.049 ml min-1 cm-2 at 80 ppm. Electrochemical studies show that the adsorption of ionic liquid molecules on the lead electrode surface leads to the increase in the charge transfer resistance and the decrease in the double layer capacitance. I also notice a noteworthy improvement of battery capacity from 45 mAh g-1 to 83 mAh g-1 in the presence of ionic liquid compound. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirm the adsorption of ionic liquid molecules on the battery electrode surface.

  6. The effect of cathodic water on performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A simple analytical model of water transport in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell is developed. Nonlinear membrane resistance and voltage loss due to incomplete membrane humidification are calculated. Both values depend on parameter r, the ratio of mass transport coefficients of water in the membrane and in the backing layer. Simple equation for cell performance curve, which incorporates the effect of cathodic water is constructed. Depending of the value of r, the cell may operate in one of the two regimes. When r ≥ 1, incomplete membrane humidification simply reduces cell voltage; the limiting current density is determined by oxygen transport in the backing layer (oxygen-limiting regime). If r < 1, limiting current density is determined by membrane drying (water-limiting regime). In that case there exists optimal current density, which provides minimal membrane resistance. It is shown that membrane drying may lead to parasitic 'in-plane' proton current

  7. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  8. Performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with thin film catalyst electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Gab; Kim, Chang Soo; Peck, Dong Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to develop a kW-class polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), several electrodes have been fabricated by different catalyst layer preparation procedures and evaluated based on the cell performance. Conventional carbon paper and carbon cloth electrodes were fabricated using a ptfe-bonded Pt/C electrol catalyst by coating and rolling methods. Thin-film catalyst/ionomer composite layers were also formed on the membrane by direct coating and transfer printing techniques. The performance evaluation with catalyst layer preparation methods was carried out using a large or small electrode single cell. Conventional and thin film membrane and electrode assemblies (MEAs) with small electrode area showed a performance of 350 and 650 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V, respectively. The performance of direct coated thin film catalyst layer with 300 cm{sup 2} MEAs was higher than those of the conventional and transfer printing technique MEAs. The influence of some characteristic parameters of the thin film electrode on electrochemical performance was examined. Various other aspects of overall operation of PEMFC stacks were also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Improved performance and safety of lithium ion cells with the use of fluorinated carbonate-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ryan, V. S.; Surampudi, S.; Prakashi, G. K. S.; Hu, J.; Cheung, I.

    2002-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in developing lithium-ion electrolytes that possess enhanced safety characteristics, while still able to provide the desired stability and performance. Toward this end, our efforts have been focused on the development of lithium-ion electrolytes which contain partially and fully fluorinated carbonate solvents. The advantage of using such solvents is that they possess the requisite stability demonstrated by the hydrocarbon-based carbonates, while also possessing more desirable physical properties imparted by the presence of the fluorine substituents, such as lower melting points, increased stability toward oxidation, and favorable SEI film forming Characteristics on carbon. Specifically, we have demonstrated the beneficial effect of electrolytes which contain the following fluorinated carbonate-based solvents: methyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (MTFEC), ethyl-2,2,2 trifluoroethyl carbonate (ETFEC), propyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (PTFEC), methyl-2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (MHFPC), ethyl- 2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (EHFPC), and di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC). These solvents have been incorporated into multi-component ternary and quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes and evaluated in lithium-carbon and carbon-LiNio.8Coo.202 cells (equipped with lithium reference electrodes). In addition to determining the charge/discharge behavior of these cells, a number of electrochemical techniques were employed (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further characterize the performance of these electrolytes, including the SEI formation characteristics and lithium intercalatiodde-intercalation kinetics. In addition to their evaluation in experimental cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and conductivity measurements were performed on select electrolyte formulations to further our understanding of the trends

  10. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  11. Enhanced Performance of PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized Solar Cells via Optimizing Precursor Solution and Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Shen, Ting; Liu, Xiaoguang; Fei, Chengbin; Lv, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-03-01

    This work reports a PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4%. PbS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on mesoporous TiO2 film using a successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of QDs was found to be profoundly affected by the concentration of the precursor solution. At low concentrations, the rate-limiting factor of the crystal growth was the adsorption of the precursor ions, and the surface growth of the crystal became the limiting factor in the high concentration solution. The optimal concentration of precursor solution with respect to the quantity and size of synthesized QDs was 0.06 M. To further increase the performance of QDSCs, the 30% deionized water of polysulfide electrolyte was replaced with methanol to improve the wettability and permeability of electrolytes in the TiO2 film, which accelerated the redox couple diffusion in the electrolyte solution and improved charge transfer at the interfaces between photoanodes and electrolytes. The stability of PbS QDs in the electrolyte was also improved by methanol to reduce the charge recombination and prolong the electron lifetime. As a result, the PCE of QDSC was increased to 4.01%.

  12. Improvement of lithium-ion battery performance at low temperature by adopting polydimethylsiloxane-based electrolyte additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Man; Ly, Nguyen Vu; Won, Jung Ha; Lee, Young-Gi; Cho, Won Il; Ko, Jang Myoun; Kaner, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based grafted and ungrafted copolymers such as poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(siloxane-g-acrylate)] (PDMS-A), poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-phenylsiloxane) (PDMS-P), and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(siloxane-g-ethylene oxide)] (PDMS-EO) are used as additives to standard liquid electrolyte solutions to enhance the lithium-ion battery performance at low temperatures. Liquid electrolyte solutions with PDMS-based additives are electrochemically stable under 5.0 V and have adequate ionic conductivities of 10 −4 S cm −1 at -20 °C. Particularly, liquid electrolytes with PDMS-P and PDMS-EO exhibit higher ionic conductivities of around 5 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at -20 °C, indicating a specific resisting property against the freezing of the liquid electrolyte components. As a result, the addition of PDMS-based additives to liquid electrolytes improves the capacity retention ratio and rate-capability of lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures

  13. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  14. Performance of molten carbonate fuel cells with the electrolyte molded at low pressure (3) The stability of anode microlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, Atsuo; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Murata, Kenji; Shirogami, Tamotsu

    1987-01-01

    It is known that an addition of organic binder to the electrolyte layer which composes a fuel cell enables to produce a large plate of electrolyte even in low temperature and low pressure conditions. However, when the binder is volatilized, bores remain making poor performance as a sepa-rator plate of the reacting gas. In order to prevent the gas permeation, it is necessary to combine a double layered electrode with microporous layers on the electrode surface ajacent to the electrolyte layer. In this study, stability of microporous layers of the anode electrode was examined, and it was found that the microporous layers made by sintering Ni-powders was unstable and dissoluted, but the impregnation of such second element as Chromium oxide, Yttrium oxide, Aluminum oxide into the layer improved the stability. (10 figs, 1 tab, 6 refs)

  15. Electrolytic analogue study of the effect of openings and surrounds of various permeabilities on the performance of field drainage pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, W.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of various openings and surrounds of various permeabilities on the performance of field drainage pipes was studied by means of an electrolytic analogue. The results obtained were compared with these of analytical solutions. Rather simple and sufficiently accurate solutions exist to

  16. Analysis on the effect of polysulfide electrolyte composition for higher performance of Si quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) based on multiple exciton generation of QD has been expected to realize high efficiency. This work focused on Si QD instead of conventional QD materials because of their toxicity and scarcity. Si QDs were fabricated by multi-hollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition. General QDSCs use polysulfide electrolyte because it is suitable for stabilizing QDs and its redox reaction is the best as compared with other redox systems. The improvement of redox reaction which is one of the slowest reactions in the kinetic analysis is closely connected with the enhancement of performance. For the enhancement on the overall performance of Si QDSC, the performance dependence on electrolyte composition was investigated. The concentrations of Na 2 S and S were varied for the activation of redox reaction and KCl concentration was optimized for the improvement of electrolyte characteristics. Consequently, the best performance of Si QDSC was obtained with 1 M Na 2 S, 2 M S, and 0.4 M KCl polysulfide electrolyte

  17. Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation to improve the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dahye [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Kim, Yonghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wonsub, E-mail: wschung1@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation was performed using dispersed CuO particles in convectional PEO electrolyte. • Thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods, respectively. • Deposited copper oxide on the surface of the Al substrate was enhanced the corrosion resistance and the emissivity compared with the conventional PEO. - Abstract: A composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed for enhancing the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al alloy by dispersing cupric oxide (CuO) particles in a conventional PEO electrolyte. Cu-based oxides (CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) formed by composite PEO increased the emissivity of the substrate to 0.892, and made the surface being dark color, similar to a black body, i.e., an ideal radiator. In addition, the corrosion resistance was analyzed using potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. An optimum condition of 10 ampere per square decimeter (ASD) current density and 30 min processing time produced appropriate surface morphologies and coating thicknesses, as well as dense Cu- and Al-based oxides that constituted the coating layers.

  18. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  19. Performance of solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor in flowing lead bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    A solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor for liquid 45%lead-55%bismuth (Pb-Bi) was developed. The performance of the oxygen sensor in the flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated. The initial performance of the sensor was not reliable, since the reference fluid of the oxygen saturated bismuth in the sensor cell was not compact initially. The electromotive force (EMF) obtained from the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cell was the same as that from the magnesia stabilized zirconia (MSZ) cell in the flowing Pb-Bi. The EMF of the sensor in the flowing Pb-Bi was lower than that in the stagnant Pb-Bi. However, the difference was small. The sensor showed repeatability after the long term interruption and the Pb-Bi drain/charge operation. After the performance tests, the corrosion of the sensor cells were investigated metallurgically. The YSZ cell was eroded around the free surface of the flowing Pb-Bi after 3500 hour-exposure in the flowing Pb-Bi. The MSZ cell showed smooth surface without the erosion. Although the YSZ cell worked more stably than the MSZ cell, the mechanical strength of the YSZ cell is weaker than that of the MSZ cell. (author)

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical performance of pasted β-nickel hydroxide electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, B.; Bheema Raju, V.; Madhu, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    β-Nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH)2) was successfully synthesized using precipitation method. The structure and property of the β-Ni(OH)2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR), Raman spectra and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results of the FTIR spectroscopy and TG-DTA studies indicate that the β-Ni(OH)2 contains water molecules and anions. The microstructural and composition studies have been performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. A pasted-type electrode is prepared using β-Ni(OH)2 powder as the active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were performed to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the β-Ni(OH)2 electrode in 6 M KOH electrolyte. CV curves showed a pair of strong redox peaks as a result of the Faradaic redox reactions of β-Ni(OH)2. The proton diffusion coefficient (D) for the present β-Ni(OH)2 electrode material is found to be 1.44 × 10-12 cm2 s-1. Further, electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the β-Ni(OH)2 electrode reaction processes are diffusion controlled.

  1. Performance enhancement of membrane electrode assemblies with plasma etched polymer electrolyte membrane in PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea); Bae, Jin Woo; Cho, Yoon-Hwan; Lim, Ju Wan; Ahn, Minjeh; Jho, Jae Young; Sung, Yung-Eun [World Class University (WCU) program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kwon, Nak-Hyun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team 3, Advanced Technology Center, Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, 104 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, a surface modified Nafion 212 membrane was fabricated by plasma etching in order to enhance the performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Single-cell performance of MEA at 0.7 V was increased by about 19% with membrane that was etched for 10 min compared to that with untreated Nafion 212 membrane. The MEA with membrane etched for 20 min exhibited a current density of 1700 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.35 V, which was 8% higher than that of MEA with untreated membrane (1580 mA cm{sup -2}). The performances of MEAs containing etched membranes were affected by complex factors such as the thickness and surface morphology of the membrane related to etching time. The structural changes and electrochemical properties of the MEAs with etched membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  2. Performance of flexible capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fiber electrochemically prepared from various phosphate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn; Chang, Yunzhen; Li, Miaoyu; Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn; Zhou, Haihan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanping

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PPy/CFs have been fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole on carbon fibers. • The electrolytes in deposition solution have effect on PPy/CFs’ capacitive behavior. • Cells of PPy/CFs obtained from NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} electrolyte has good stability in PVA/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of electrolytes in electro-deposition solution on the capacitive properties of polypyrrole (PPy), we have chosen phosphoric acid, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate as electrolyte in deposition solution respectively and electrochemically deposited PPy on carbon fibers (CFs) via galvanostatic method. The morphologies of the PPy/CFs samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscope. The specific capacitance of PPy/CFs samples has been evaluated in different electrolytes through three-electrode test system. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been systematically measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical capacitors based on PPy/CFs prepared from deposition solution containing NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O electrolyte exhibit higher specific capacitance, flexibility and excellent stability (retaining 96.8% of initial capacitance after 13,000 cycles), and that three cells connected in series can power a light-emitting diode.

  3. Effects of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity on performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The correlations of electrolyte viscosity and SOC are obtained. • Effect of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity is considered in this model. • This model enables a more realistic simulation of variable distributions. • It provides accurate estimations of pumping work and system efficiency. - Abstract: The viscosity of the electrolyte in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) varies during charge and discharge as the concentrations of acid and vanadium ions in the electrolyte continuously change with the state of charge (SOC). In previous VRFB models, however, the electrolyte has been treated as a constant-viscosity solution. In this work, a mass-transport and electrochemical model taking account of the effect of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity is developed. The comparison between the present model and the model with the constant-viscosity simplification indicates that the consideration of the SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity enables (i) a more realistic simulation of the distributions of overpotential and current density in the electrodes, and (ii) more accurate estimations of pumping work and the system efficiency of VRFBs

  4. Influence of Electrode Design and Contacting Layers on Performance of Electrolyte Supported SOFC/SOEC Single Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihails Kusnezoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied. Furthermore, different interlayers on the air side have been tested to avoid the electrode delamination and to reduce the cell degradation in electrolysis mode. Finally, the influence of the contacting layer on cell performance, especially for cells with an ultrathin electrolyte and thin electrode layers, has been investigated. It has been found that Ni/CGO outperform traditional Ni/8YSZ electrodes and the introduction of a ScSZ interlayer substantially reduces the degradation rate of ESC in electrolysis mode. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that, for thin electrodes, the application of contacting layers with good conductivity and adhesion to current collectors improves performance significantly.

  5. Influence of Electrode Design and Contacting Layers on Performance of Electrolyte Supported SOFC/SOEC Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnezoff, Mihails; Trofimenko, Nikolai; Müller, Martin; Michaelis, Alexander

    2016-11-08

    The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied. Furthermore, different interlayers on the air side have been tested to avoid the electrode delamination and to reduce the cell degradation in electrolysis mode. Finally, the influence of the contacting layer on cell performance, especially for cells with an ultrathin electrolyte and thin electrode layers, has been investigated. It has been found that Ni/CGO outperform traditional Ni/8YSZ electrodes and the introduction of a ScSZ interlayer substantially reduces the degradation rate of ESC in electrolysis mode. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that, for thin electrodes, the application of contacting layers with good conductivity and adhesion to current collectors improves performance significantly.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical performance of in situ reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites using redox-additive aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Madhabi; Kumar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polyaniline nanotubes (PAniNTs) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ reduction of GO. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites are characterized by HRTEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The electrical and electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites are investigated for different RGO concentrations by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 448.71 F g-1 is obtained for 40 wt.% of RGO-PAniNTs nanocomposite as compared to 194.92 F g-1 for pure PAniNTs in 1 M KCl electrolyte. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrode, KI is used as redox-additive with 1 M KCl electrolyte. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 876.43 F g-1 and an improved cyclic stability of 91% as compared to 79% without KI after 5000 cycles is achieved for an optimized 0.1 M KI concentration. This is attributed to the presence of different ionic species of I- ions that give rise to a number of possible redox reactions improving the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. This improved capacitive performance is compared with that of catechol redox-additive in 1 M KCl electrolyte, and that of KI and catechol redox-additives added to 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  7. Effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of a hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, Poonam; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2007-03-23

    The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell depends on the number of factors such as impedance due to anions in the electrolytes, oxidation-reduction process of anions and size of cations of the electrolyte. This paper reports the effect of electrolytes on the photovoltaic performance of hybrid dye sensitized ZnO solar cells based on Eosin Y dye. The size of the cations has been varied by choosing different electrolytes such as LiBr+Br{sub 2}, LiI+I{sub 2}, tetrapropylammonium iodide +I{sub 2} in mixed solvent of acetronitrile and ethylene carbonate. The impedance of anions has been determined by electrochemical impedance spectra. It is observed that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} offers high impedance as compared to I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple. The oxidation-reduction reactions of electrolytes are measured by linear sweep voltammogram. It is found that Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -} is more suitable than an I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} couple in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of higher open-circuit photovoltage production and higher overall energy conversion efficiency. This is attributed to more positive potential of the dye sensitizer than that of Br{sup -}/Br{sub 3}{sup -}. The gain in V{sub oc} was due to the enlarged energy level difference between the redox potential of the electrolyte and the Fermi level (E{sub f}) of ZnO and the suppressed charge recombination as well. (author)

  8. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  9. High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrolyte Derived from Optimum Combination of Solvent and Lithium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Su Mi; Suk, Jungdon; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-10-01

    To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal. But, when TMS is combined with typical lithium salts, its performance is far from satisfactory. However, the TMS electrolyte containing LiNO 3 exhibits a very low overpotential, which minimizes the side reactions and shows high oxygen efficiency. LSV-DEMS study confirms that the TMS-LiNO 3 electrolyte efficiently produces NO 2 - , which initiates a redox shuttle reaction. Interestingly, this NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction derived from the LiNO 3 salt is not very effective in solvents other than TMS. Compared with other common Li-O 2 solvents, TMS seems optimum solvent for the efficient use of LiNO 3 salt. Good compatibility with lithium metal, high dielectric constant, and low donicity of TMS are considered to be highly favorable to an efficient NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction, which results in a high-performance Li-O 2 battery.

  10. High performance electrode for electrochemical oxygen generator cell based on solid electrolyte ion transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Ran, Ran; Chen, Zhihao; Zeng, Pingying; Gu, Hongxia; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009, JiangSu (China)

    2007-06-30

    A double-layer composite electrode based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} + Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (BSCF + SDC) and BSCF + SDC + Ag was investigated to be a promising cathode and also anode for the electrochemical oxygen generator based on samaria doped ceria electrolyte. The Ag particles in the second layer were not only the current collector but also the improver for the oxygen adsorption at the electrode. a.c. impedance results indicated that the electrode polarization resistance, as low as 0.0058 {omega} cm{sup 2} was reached at 800 C under air. In oxygen generator cell performance test, the electrode resistance dropped to half of the value at zero current density under an applied current density of 2.34 A cm{sup -2} at 700 C, and on the same conditions the oxygen generator cell was continual working for more than 900 min with a Faradic efficiency of {proportional_to}100%. (author)

  11. Enhanced cycling performance of a Li metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide-based electrolyte using highly concentrated lithium salt for a lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Stable charge-discharge cycling behavior for a lithium metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is strongly desired of lithium-oxygen batteries, because the Li anode is rapidly exhausted as a result of side reactions during cycling in the DMSO solution. Herein, we report a novel electrolyte design for enhancing the cycling performance of Li anodes by using a highly concentrated DMSO-based electrolyte with a specific Li salt. Lithium nitrate (LiNO3), which forms an inorganic compound (Li2O) instead of a soluble product (Li2S) on a lithium surface, exhibits a >20% higher coulombic efficiency than lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, and lithium perchlorate, regardless of the loading current density. Moreover, the stable cycling of Li anodes in DMSO-based electrolytes depends critically on the salt concentration. The highly concentrated electrolyte 4.0 M LiNO3/DMSO displays enhanced and stable cycling performance comparable to that of carbonate-based electrolytes, which had not previously been achieved. We suppose this enhancement is due to the absence of free DMSO solvent in the electrolyte and the promotion of the desolvation of Li ions on the solid electrolyte interphase surface, both being consequences of the unique structure of the electrolyte.

  12. Influence of polyoxyethylene phytosterol addition in ionic liquid-based electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sato, Kei; Sakurai, Sho; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ionic liquid solution of less solvophilic BPS exhibits a better surface active property and a weaker dye-desorption effect. • Photovoltaic performances of the N719- and NKX2677-sensitized DSSCs can be improved by the BPS addition to the IL-based electrolyte. • BPS added to the electrolyte plays a key role in reducing charge-transfer resistance and increasing electron lifetime in the TiO 2 electrode. - Abstract: In this work, we studied influence of polyoxyethylene phytosterol (BPS) addition in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide as an IL. Surface tension, photocurrent density-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectra were measured to clarify the role of BPS in the DSSCs using three different dyes. The results showed that the IL solution of less solvophilic BPS-EO5 exhibited a better surface active property and a weaker dye-desorption effect than BPS-EO30 and BPS-PO7/EO30. Short-circuit current densities of the N719- and NKX2677-sensitized cells were found to be noticeably increased by the addition of either BPS-EO5 or BPS-EO30 to the IL-based electrolyte in the concentration range of 0.001–0.01 mol dm −3 . Enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiencies were obtained for these DSSCs, which most likely resulted from the effects of BPS on reducing charge-transfer resistance at the TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface and on increasing electron lifetime within the TiO 2 photoanode.

  13. Enhanced electrocatalysis performance of amorphous electrolytic carbon from CO2 for oxygen reduction by surface modification in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Gu, Yuxing; Du, Kaifa; Wang, Xu; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The potential of electrolytic carbon as catalyst for oxygen reduction was evaluated. •A molten salt method for electrolytic-carbon modification was demonstrated. •The electrolytic carbon was activated for the ORR by the molten salt sulfidation. •Sulfur and cobalt dual modification further improved the ORR activity of the carbon. -- Abstract: The electrolytic carbon (E-carbon) derived from greenhouse gas CO 2 in molten carbonates at mild temperature possesses high electrical conductivity and suitable specific surface area. In this work, its potential as catalyst is investigated towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). It is revealed that the pristine E-carbon has no electrocatalytic activity for the ORR due to its high surface content of carboxyl group. The carbon was then treated in a Li 2 SO 4 containing Li 2 CO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -K 2 CO 3 molten salt at 550 °C. Sulfur modified E-carbon was obtained in the melt via a galvanic sulfidation reaction, in which Li 2 SO 4 served as a nontoxic sulfur source and an oxidant. The sulfur modified E-carbon showed a significantly improved electrocatalytic activity. Subsequently, a sulfur/cobalt dual modified carbon with much higher catalysis activity was successfully prepared by treating an E-carbon/CoSO 4 composite in the same melt. The dual modified E-carbon showed excellent catalytic performance with activity close to the commercial Pt/C catalyst but a high tolerance towards methanol.

  14. The influence of Ferric ion contamination on the solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunying; Zhang, Linsong; Li, Guangfu; Zhang, Geng; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathode possesses higher tolerance for the Fe 3+ contamination than the anode. • Fe 3+ are mostly reduced to Fe 2+ rather than occur underpotential deposition. • Increased electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to ohmic overpotential. • Voltage lags behind current for minutes in the multi-current-step test. • Poisoned electrolyser is mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h. - Abstract: Fe 3+ is a sort of common metal ion contaminant for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser. In this paper, the effect of Fe 3+ on the performance of SPE water electrolyser has been investigated by both in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The electron probe microanalysis and ultraviolet test results showed that Fe 3+ could migrate from the anode to the cathode and mostly be reduced to Fe 2+ in the cathode rather than occurred underpotential deposition as described in the previous report. The in-situ dynamic contamination test showed that the anode voltage increased sharply as soon as the Fe 3+ was fed into the anode, while the cathode voltage kept constant until the contamination time was over 30 minutes, indicating the higher tolerance of the cathode than the anode for the Fe 3+ contamination. The calculation results based on the electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy test results revealed that the striking increase of the electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to the ohmic overpotential, which was due to the replacement of H + by Fe 3+ in the Nafion resin. Interestingly, the voltage lagged behind the current for several minutes in the multi-current-step test for the contaminated electrolyser, which phenomenon may be used for judging whether the SPE water electrolyser performance degradation is due to the metal ions contamination. Furthermore, recovery strategy has been developed, and it was found that the contaminated electrolyser could be mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h

  15. Increased cathode performance using a thin film LSM layer on a structured 8YSZ electrolyte surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, D.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffee, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde der Elektrotechnik (IWE); Guntow, U.; Mueller, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung (ISC), Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    A considerable part of the power losses in a SOFC single cell occurs due to the polarization resistance of the cathode/electrolyte interface. The resulting high cathodic overvoltage corresponds to an enhanced degradation of the cell. In case of a screen printed LSM cathode layer (LSM: La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}) on a YSZ electrolyte substrate (YSZ: Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilised ZrO{sub 2}) the cathodic reaction is generally assumed to be restricted to the three phase boundary (tpb) between cathode, oxidant and the electrolyte surface. The electrochemical active area was increased by a modification of the cathode/electrolyte interface. Single cells with a thin film LSM layer on a structured 8YSZ electrolyte showed a power output of about 0.95 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V cell voltage (950 C; oxidant: air, 0.7 1/min; fuel: hydrogen, 0.5 1/min, 15% fuel utilization). (orig.)

  16. Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kai; Li, Hongdong; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Richeng; Zhao, Haofei; Shen, Xi; Wang, Liying; Song, Yanpeng; Qiu, Dongchao

    2017-02-01

    A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond (DNDs) into samarium doped ceria (SDC) is reported here. 1%wt. DNDs doping SDC (named SDC/ND) can enlarge the electrotyle grain size and change the valence of partial ceria. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current (AC) impedance spectra of internal grains. The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Hence all of them enhance the transportation of oxygen ions in SDC/ND electrolyte and the OCV. Ultimately the power density of SOFC can reach 762 mw cm-2 at 800 °C (twice higher than pure SDC, which is 319 mw cm-2 at 800 °C), and it remains high power density in the intermediate temperature (600-800 °C). It is relatively high for the electrolyte supported (300 μm) cells.

  17. Performance of carbon-carbon supercapacitors based on organic, aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Andrzej; Olejniczak, Angelika; Galinski, Maciej; Stepniak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, PL-60 965 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-09-01

    Properties of capacitors working with the same carbon electrodes (activated carbon cloth) and three types of electrolytes: aqueous, organic and ionic liquids were compared. Capacitors filled with ionic liquids worked at a potential difference of 3.5 V, their solutions in AN and PC were charged up to the potential difference of 3 V, classical organic systems to 2.5 V and aqueous to 1 V. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging and impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize these capacitors. The highest specific energy was recorded for the device working with ionic liquids, while the highest power is characteristic for the device filled with aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Aqueous electrolytes led to energy density an order of magnitude lower in comparison to that characteristic of ionic liquids. (author)

  18. The ionic conductivity, mechanical performance and morphology of two-phase structural electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol, epoxy resin and nano-silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Qihang; Yang, Jiping, E-mail: jyang08@163.com; Yu, Yalin; Tian, Fangyu; Zhang, Boming; Feng, Mengjie; Wang, Shubin

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Structural electrolytes based on PEG-epoxy resins were prepared. • Factors of influencing ionic conductivity and mechanical properties were studied. • Co-continuous morphology was benefit for improved structural electrolyte property. • Efficiently optimized multifunctional electrolyte performance was achieved. - Abstract: As one of significant parts of structural power composites, structural electrolytes have desirable mechanical properties like structural resins while integrating enough ionic conductivity to work as electrolytes. Here, a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-epoxy-based electrolytes filled with nano-silica were prepared. The ionic conductivity and mechanical performance were studied as functions of PEG content, lithium salt concentration, nano-silica content and different curing agents. It was found that, PEG-600 and PEG-2000 content in the epoxy electrolyte system had a significant effect on their ionic conductivity. Furthermore, increasing the nano-silica content in the system induced increased ionic conductivity, decreased glass transition temperature and mechanical properties, and more interconnected irregular network in the cured systems. The introduction of rigid m-xylylenediamine resulted in enhanced mechanical properties and reasonably decreased ionic conductivity. As a result, these two-phase epoxy structural electrolytes have great potential to be used in the multifunctional energy storage devices.

  19. Influence of electrolyte ion-solvent interactions on the performances of supercapacitors porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, C.; Matei Ghimbeu, C.; Dahbi, M.; Anouti, M.; Lemordant, D.; Béguin, F.; Vix-Guterl, C.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2014-10-01

    The development of advanced and safe electrochemical supercapacitors or hybrid supercapacitors combining a battery electrode material such as graphite and a porous carbon electrode implies the use of new electrolytes containing a tetra-alkylammonium or lithium salt dissolved preferentially in a safe and environmentally friendly solvent such as alkylcarbonates. In those systems, the carbon porosity of the activated carbon electrode controls the electrochemical behavior of the whole device. In this work, it is demonstrated that electrolytes containing highly polarizing ions such as Li+ dissolved in polar solvents such as alkylcarbonates do not completely loss their solvation shell at the opposite of what is observed for poorly solvated cations like TEABF4. As a consequence, the optimal carbon pore size for obtaining the largest energy density, while keeping a high power density, is wider when strongly solvated cations, like Li+ are used than for conventional organic electrolytes using acetonitrile as solvent and TEA+ as salt cations. TEA+ cations are easily desolvated and hence are able to penetrate in small pores matching the dimensions of bare ions. The dissimilarity of behavior of alkylcarbonates and acetonitrile based electrolytes highlights the importance of ion-solvent interactions when searching the optimal porous texture for the electrode material.

  20. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  1. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  2. Electrolyte containing lithium cation in squaraine-sensitized solar cells: interactions and consequences for performance and charge transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Vittoria; Barbero, Nadia; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido; Sliwa, Michel; Sauvage, Frédéric

    2017-10-18

    By optimizing the lithium concentration in an electrolyte to 50 mmol L -1 and the dye-to-chenodeoxycholic acid ratio in a VG1-based dye solution, we achieved 4.7% power conversion efficiency under standard AM 1.5G conditions. In addition to this performance, we herein discuss the role played by lithium in the electrolyte and its interplay in the charge transfer processes from ms to fs dynamics. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photoluminescence and pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, we conclude that although lithium increases the electron diffusion length, this has no satisfactory impact on electron injection and even slows dye regeneration. This study provides evidence that lithium is not only specifically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 but prompts a molecular reorganization of the self-assembled dye monolayer, forming harmful H-aggregates.

  3. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  4. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  5. Effect of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics of the gas diffusion medium on polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance under non-humidification condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heesung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • GDM played significant role in the PEFC performance under dry condition. • Hydrophobicity of GDM affect the water condensation at the surface. • Optimum water saturation in the porous layer was between 0.1 and 0.3. - Abstract: Water is a significant component of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, affecting the proton conductivity in the membrane electrolyte. Therefore, polymer electrolyte fuel cells are generally operated with a humidifier to maintain a high relative humidity of the supplied gases; however, the humidifier contributes additional weight and cost. Although many studies have attempted to develop polymer electrolyte fuel cells without a humidifier, the studies have been mainly focused on the self-humidified membrane electrolyte and catalyst layer. In this paper, the author investigates the effect of polytetrafluoroethylene coated gas diffusion medium on the water content in the membrane electrolyte. The water condensation on the surfaces of the gas diffusion medium is visualised when the polymer electrolyte fuel cell is operated under non-humidification conditions. Numerical simulation suggests that the optimum water saturation is between 0.1 and 0.3 at the gas diffusion medium to hydrate the membrane electrolyte sufficiently without significantly blocking the diffused species under non-humidification conditions

  6. Critical role of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface in photocatalytic performance for water-splitting reactions using Ta3N5 particles

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Harb, Moussab; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Aouine, Mimoun; Puzenat, Eric; Sautet, Philippe; Domen, Kazunari; Basset, Jean-Marie; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    the experiments. Electrochemical and Mott-Schottky analyses demonstrated that the surface layer drastically affects the energetic picture at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which can consequently affect the photocatalytic performance. Chemical etching

  7. Electrochemical behavior of high performance on-chip porous carbon films for micro-supercapacitors applications in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousse, K.; Huang, P.; Pinaud, S.; Respaud, M.; Daffos, B.; Chaudret, B.; Lethien, C.; Taberna, P. L.; Simon, P.

    2016-10-01

    Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) are promising materials for preparing integrated micro-supercapacitors, as on-chip CDC films are prepared via a process fully compatible with current silicon-based device technology. These films show good adherence on the substrate and high capacitance thanks to their unique nanoporous structure which can be fine-tuned by adjusting the synthesis parameters during chlorination of the metallic carbide precursor. The carbon porosity is mostly related to the synthesis temperature whereas the thickness of the films depends on the chlorination duration. Increasing the pore size allows the adsorption of large solvated ions from organic electrolytes and leads to higher energy densities. Here, we investigated the electrochemical behavior and performance of on-chip TiC-CDC in ionic liquid solvent mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF4) diluted in either acetonitrile or propylene carbonate via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thin CDC films exhibited typical capacitive signature and achieved 169 F cm-3 in both electrolytes; 65% of the capacitance was still delivered at 1 V s-1. While increasing the thickness of the films, EMI+ transport limitation was observed in more viscous PC-based electrolyte. Nevertheless, the energy density reached 90 μW h cm-2 in 2M EMIBF4/ACN, confirming the interest of these CDC films for micro-supercapacitors applications.

  8. The effect of porosity on performance of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polybenzimidazole (PBI based polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which called high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMS, operate at higher temperatures (120-200°C than conventional PEM fuel cells. Although it is known that HT-PEMS have some of the significant advantages as non-humidification requirements for membrane and the lack of liquid water at high temperature in the fuel cell, the generated water as a result of oxygen reduction reaction causes in the degradation of these systems. The generated water absorbed into membrane side interacts with the hydrophilic PBI matrix and it can cause swelling of membrane, so water transport mechanism in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA needs to be well understood and water balance must be calculated in MEA. Therefore, the water diffusion transport across the electrolyte should be determined. In this study, various porosity values of gas diffusion layers are considered in order to investigate the effects of porosity on the water management for two phase flow in fuel cell. Two-dimensional fuel cell with interdigitated flow-field is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a software. The operating temperature and doping level is selected as 160°C and 6.75mol H3PO4/PBI, respectively.

  9. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  10. The physicochemical properties of a [DEME][TFSI] ionic liquid-based electrolyte and their influence on the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drvarič Talian, Sara; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Dominko, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Electrolyte choice is an important decision on the quest for higher-energy batteries. Besides general guidelines on the required properties of an electrolyte suitable for use in lithium–sulfur batteries, the influence of more specific physicochemical properties on its characteristics is not well understood. For this purpose, binary mixtures based on the [DEME][TFSI] and dioxolane electrolyte system for lithium–sulfur batteries was investigated in this work. Selected physicochemical properties were determined for different mixtures of solvents and lithium salt concentrations. All the electrolytes prepared were also tested in the lithium–sulfur battery system. The capacity, Coulombic efficiency, overpotentials and impedance spectra were analyzed and a connection between them and the determined electrolyte properties elucidated. We show that the electrolyte's conductivity does not have a direct connection to any of the battery system properties measured. The highest specific capacities were obtained with batteries compromising 1.0 M LiTFSI and the highest ratio of dioxolane in the binary solvent mixture. On the other hand, the best Coulombic efficiencies were obtained with batteries having high ratios of ionic liquid. Resistance and overpotential are connected parameters and are a function of the ionic liquid content. None of the monitored parameters prevail, since the best electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity and stability was obtained with the 1.0 M LiTFSI in X[DEME][TFSI] = 0.199 electrolyte.

  11. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic lithium garnets particulate reinforced PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Samson Ho-Sum; He, Kang-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zha, Jun-Wei; Kamruzzaman, Md; Ma, Robin Lok-Wang; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K.Y.; Chung, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries are proposed to have ultimate safety and higher power and energy densities over conventional lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolytes. The Li ion conductivity and interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes are the major bottleneck of the development of all-solid-state batteries for practical uses. Here, we reported a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of uniform distributed Li ion conducting Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO) fillers in PEO/LiClO 4 matrix. The EO:Li + ratio of 15:1 is being used to achieve lower interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes through the melting process. The composite electrolyte is fabricated by simple solution casting method, which is more advantageous comparing with high temperature sintering or sol-gel method used in the fabrication of ceramic electrolytes. The composite electrolyte exhibits good Li ion conductivity of 4.8 × 10 −4 Scm −1 at 60 °C and excellent interfacial stability against Li metal. The all-solid-state lithium battery using this composite electrolyte shows a specific capacity of 140mAhg −1 and an unprecedentedly high capacity retention of 83% after 500 cycles at 60 °C and the rate of 1C. It is concluded that good electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability and contact as well as fast Li ion conductivity obtained by the addition of active garnet particulates to PEO/LiClO 4 matrix are essential criteria for good charge/discharge performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  12. Ultrathin Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanosheets for High-Performance Supercapacitors and Redox Electrolyte Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Dubal, Deepak P; Nagar, Bhawna; Ranc, Vaclav; Tomanec, Ondrej; Petr, Martin; Datta, Kasibhatta Kumara Ramanatha; Zboril, Radek; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Fischer, Roland A

    2018-04-01

    The design of advanced high-energy-density supercapacitors requires the design of unique materials that combine hierarchical nanoporous structures with high surface area to facilitate ion transport and excellent electrolyte permeability. Here, shape-controlled 2D nanoporous carbon sheets (NPSs) with graphitic wall structure through the pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are developed. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NPSs are used as the electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon-sheet-based symmetric cell shows an ultrahigh Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-area-normalized capacitance of 21.4 µF cm -2 (233 F g -1 ), exceeding other carbon-based supercapacitors. The addition of potassium iodide as redox-active species in a sulfuric acid (supporting electrolyte) leads to the ground-breaking enhancement in the energy density up to 90 Wh kg -1 , which is higher than commercial aqueous rechargeable batteries, maintaining its superior power density. Thus, the new material provides a double profits strategy such as battery-level energy and capacitor-level power density. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by dual-layered membrane electrode assembly structures with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bom; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dual-layered membrane electrode assemblies (d-MEAs) on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated using the following characterization techniques: single cell performance test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that the PEMFC with d-MEAs has better cell performance than that with typical mono-layered MEAs (m-MEAs). In particular, the d-MEA whose inner layer is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) showed the best fuel cell performance. This is due to the fact that the d-MEAs with MWCNTs have the highest electrochemical surface area and the lowest activation polarization, as observed from the CV and EIS test.

  14. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, Cassidy; Kleen, Greg J; Spendelow, Jacob S; Kopasz, John; Peterson, David; Garland, Nancy L; Ho, Donna Lee; Marcinkoski, Jason; Martin, Kathi Epping; Tyler, Reginald; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C

    2012-12-18

    Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C) in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC) and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC) will be discussed.

  15. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios C. Papageorgopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC will be discussed.

  16. Performance comparison of protonic and sodium phosphomolybdovanadate polyoxoanion catholytes within a chemically regenerative redox cathode polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David B.; Gunn, Natasha L. O.; Uwigena, Nadine; Davies, Trevor J.

    2018-01-01

    The direct reduction of oxygen in conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is seen by many researchers as a key challenge in PEFC development. Chemically regenerative redox cathode (CRRC) polymer electrolyte fuel cells offer an alternative approach via the indirect reduction of oxygen, improving durability and reducing cost. These systems substitute gaseous oxygen for a liquid catalyst that is reduced at the cathode then oxidised in a regeneration vessel via air bubbling. A key component of a CRRC system is the liquid catalyst or catholyte. To date, phosphomolybdovanadium polyoxometalates with empirical formula H3+nPVnMo12-nO40 have shown the most promise for CRRC PEFC systems. In this work, four catholyte formulations are studied and compared against each other. The catholytes vary in vanadium content, pH and counter ion, with empirical formulas H6PV3Mo9O40, H7PV4Mo8O40, Na3H3PV3Mo9O40 and Na4H3PV4Mo8O40. Thermodynamic properties, cell performance and regeneration rates are measured, generating new insights into how formulation chemistry affects the components of a CRRC system. The results include the best CRRC PEFC performance reported to date, with noticeable advantages over conventional PEFCs. The optimum catholyte formulation is then determined via steady state tests, the results of which will guide further optimization of the catholyte formulation.

  17. The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of Lithium-sulfur cell containing various organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok; Jung, Yongju; Lim, Hong S.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) cell and the optimal composition of ternary electrolyte for the improved discharge performance of the cell have been investigated. The capacity value and capacity stability with cycle are dependent on the nature of solvent as well as the composition of mixed solvent. The change trend of discharge performance as a function of content of each solvent component is studied. Capacity value increases as the 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) content decreases. Average discharge voltage shows larger value when the 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) content is small. Finally, we have obtained the optimal solvent composition by using a statistical method

  18. Performance of electrical double layer capacitors fabricated with gel polymer electrolytes containing Li+ and K+-salts: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative performance of the solid-state electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and poly (vinaylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropyline) (PVdF-HFP) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) containing potassium and lithium salts have been studied. The room temperature ionic conductivity of the GPEs have been found to be ∼3.8×10 −3 and 5.9×10 −3 S cm −1 for lithium and potassium based systems. The performance of EDLC cells studied by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge-discharge techniques, indicate that the EDLC with potassium salt containing GPE shows excellent performance almost equivalent to the EDLC with Li-salt-based GPE

  19. The Influence of Charged Species on the Phase Behavior, Self-Assembly, and Electrochemical Performance of Block Copolymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Jacob Lloyd

    One of the major barriers to expanding the capacity of large-scale electrochemical energy storage within batteries is the threat of a catastrophic failure. Catastrophic battery pack failure can be initiated by a defect within a single battery cell. If the failure of a defective battery cell is not contained, the damage can spread and subsequently compromise the integrity of the entire battery back, as well as the safety of those in its surroundings. Replacing the volatile, flammable liquid electrolyte components found in most current lithium ion batteries with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) would significantly improve the cell-level safety of batteries; however, poor ionic conductivity and restricted operating temperatures compared to liquid electrolytes have plagued the practical application of SPEs. Rather than competing with the performance of liquid electrolytes directly, our approach to developing SPEs relies on increasing electrolyte functionality through the use of block copolymer architectures. Block copolymers, wherein two or more chemically dissimilar polymer chains are covalently bound, have a propensity to microphase separate into nanoscale domains that have physical properties similar to those of each of the different polymer chains. For instance, the block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO), has often been employed as a solid polymer electrolyte because the nanoscale domains of polystyrene (PS) can provide mechanical reinforcement, while the poly(ethylene oxide) microphases can solvate and conduct lithium ions. Block copolymer electrolytes (BCEs) formed from SEO/salt mixtures result in a material with the bulk mechanical properties of a solid, but with the ion conducting properties of a viscoelastic fluid. The efficacy SEO-based BCEs has been demonstrated; the enhanced mechanical functionality provided by the PS domains resist the propagation of dendritic lithium structures during battery operation, thus enabling the use of a

  20. Influence of the electrolyte distribution near the micropores of the activated carbon (AC) electrode on high rate performance of high voltage capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung ho; Xu, Fan; Jung, Cheolsoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TFB can enhance the rate performance of high voltage capacitors. • TFB can suppress to increase the discharge slope to improve the cell performance. • TFB decreases the charge transfer resistance of an AC cell. • TFB affects the distribution of the electrolyte components near the microporous AC. - Abstract: This paper presents a method to enhance the rate performance of high voltage capacitors using an electrolyte additive, 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (TFB). With increasing discharge rate, the capacity of the activated carbon (AC)/lithium (Li) cell decreases with increasing the slope of the discharge curve and its potential drop at 4.6 V. By adding TFB, the discharge slope improves to increase the rate performance of the cell, and EIS showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rc) of the AC cell decreases. These results suggest that TFB affects the distribution of the electrolyte components near the microporous AC and improves the rate performance of the AC cell

  1. The Role of the Side Chain on the Performance of N-type Conjugated Polymers in Aqueous Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander

    2018-04-24

    We report a design strategy that allows the preparation of solution processable n-type materials from low boiling point solvents for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). The polymer backbone is based on NDI-T2 copolymers where a branched alkyl side chain is gradually exchanged for a linear ethylene glycol-based side chain. A series of random copolymers was prepared with glycol side chain percentages of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100 with respect to the alkyl side chains. These were characterized to study the influence of the polar side chains on interaction with aqueous electrolytes, their electrochemical redox reactions, and performance in OECTs when operated in aqueous electrolytes. We observed that glycol side chain percentages of >50% are required to achieve volumetric charging, while lower glycol chain percentages show a mixed operation with high required voltages to allow for bulk charging of the organic semiconductor. A strong dependence of the electron mobility on the fraction of glycol chains was found for copolymers based on NDI-T2, with a significant drop as alkyl side chains are replaced by glycol side chains.

  2. The Role of the Side Chain on the Performance of N-type Conjugated Polymers in Aqueous Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander; Maria, Iuliana P.; Hanifi, David; Donahue, Mary J.; Bryant, Daniel; Barth, Katrina J.; Makdah, Beatrice E.; Savva, Achilleas; Moia, Davide; Zetek, Matyá š; Barnes, Piers R.F.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Inal, Sahika; Rumbles, Garry; Malliaras, George G.; Nelson, Jenny; Rivnay, Jonathan; McCulloch, Iain

    2018-01-01

    We report a design strategy that allows the preparation of solution processable n-type materials from low boiling point solvents for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). The polymer backbone is based on NDI-T2 copolymers where a branched alkyl side chain is gradually exchanged for a linear ethylene glycol-based side chain. A series of random copolymers was prepared with glycol side chain percentages of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100 with respect to the alkyl side chains. These were characterized to study the influence of the polar side chains on interaction with aqueous electrolytes, their electrochemical redox reactions, and performance in OECTs when operated in aqueous electrolytes. We observed that glycol side chain percentages of >50% are required to achieve volumetric charging, while lower glycol chain percentages show a mixed operation with high required voltages to allow for bulk charging of the organic semiconductor. A strong dependence of the electron mobility on the fraction of glycol chains was found for copolymers based on NDI-T2, with a significant drop as alkyl side chains are replaced by glycol side chains.

  3. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, E.; Ehsani, M.; Khonakdar, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I 2 as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm −1 , with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type electrolyte

  4. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aram, E. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M., E-mail: m.ehsani@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, H.A. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, D-01067 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I{sub 2} as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm{sup −1}, with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup −2}) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type

  5. High-performance membrane-electrode assembly with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene content for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Gisu; Kim, MinJoong; Han, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    Although high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have a high carbon monoxide tolerance and allow for efficient water management, their practical applications are limited due to their lower performance than conventional low-temperature PEMFCs. Herein, we present a high......-performance membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content for HT-PEMFCs. Low or excess PTFE content in the electrode leads to an inefficient electrolyte distribution or severe catalyst agglomeration, respectively, which hinder the formation of triple phase boundaries...

  6. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  7. Fabrication of thin yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte layers by inkjet printing for high performing solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present how a low-cost HP Deskjet 1000 inkjet printer was used to fabricate a 1.2 mm thin, dense and gas tight 16 cm2 solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrolyte. The electrolyte was printed using an ink made of highly diluted (

  8. Effects of heat and water transport on the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under high current density operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Shiomi, Takeshi; Aoki, Osamu; Kubo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Key challenges to the acceptance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for automobiles are the cost reduction and improvement in its power density for compactness. In order to get the solution, the further improvement in a fuel cell performance is required. In particular, under higher current density operation, water and heat transport in PEMFCs has considerable effects on the cell performance. In this study, the impact of heat and water transport on the cell performance under high current density was investigated by experimental evaluation of liquid water distribution and numerical validation. Liquid water distribution in MEA between rib and channel area is evaluated by neutron radiography. In order to neglect the effect of liquid water in gas channels and reactant species concentration distribution in the flow direction, the differential cell was used in this study. Experimental results suggested that liquid water under the channel was dramatically changed with rib/channel width. From the numerical study, it is found that the change of liquid water distribution was significantly affected by temperature distribution in MEA between rib and channel area. In addition, not only heat transport but also water transport through the membrane also significantly affected the cell performance under high current density operation.

  9. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The oxidation of organic additives in the positive vanadium electrolyte and its effect on the performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam D.; Whitehead, Adam; Scherer, Günther G.; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe O.; Bhattarai, Arjun; Chandra, Ghimire P.; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many desirable properties, the vanadium redox flow battery is limited, in the maximum operation temperature that can be continuously endured, before precipitation begins in the positive electrolyte. Many additives have been proposed to improve the thermal stability of the charged positive electrolyte. However, we have found that the apparent stability, revealed in laboratory testing, is often simply an artifact of the test method and arises from the oxidation of the additive, with corresponding partial reduction of V(V) to V(IV). This does not improve the stability of the electrolyte in an operating system. Here, we examined the oxidation of some typical organic additives with carboxyl, alcohol, and multi-functional groups, in sulfuric acid solutions containing V(V). The UV-vis measurements and titration results showed that many compounds reduced the state-of-charge (SOC) of vanadium electrolyte, for example, by 27.8, 88.5, and 81.9% with the addition of 1%wt of EDTA disodium salt, pyrogallol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The cell cycling also indicated the effect of organic additives on the cell performance, with significant reduction in the usable charge capacity. In addition, a standard screening method for thermally stable additives was introduced, to quickly screen suitable additives for the positive vanadium electrolyte.

  11. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Co9 S8 /Co as a High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries with an Ether-Based Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingying; Pang, Qiang; Wei, Yingjin; Wei, Luyao; Ju, Yanming; Zou, Bo; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang

    2017-12-08

    Co 9 S 8 has been regarded as a desirable anode material for sodium-ion batteries because of its high theoretical capacity. In this study, a Co 9 S 8 anode material containing 5.5 wt % Co (Co 9 S 8 /Co) was prepared by a solid-state reaction. The electrochemical properties of the material were studied in carbonate and ether-based electrolytes (EBE). The results showed that the material had a longer cycle life and better rate capability in EBE. This excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to a low apparent activation energy and a low overpotential for Na deposition in EBE, which improved the electrode kinetic properties. Furthermore, EBE suppressed side reactions of the electrode and electrolyte, which avoided the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase film. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Redox flow batteries with serpentine flow fields: Distributions of electrolyte flow reactant penetration into the porous carbon electrodes and effects on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2018-04-01

    Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.

  14. Effects of ambient temperature, arginine-to-lysine ratio, and electrolyte balance on performance, carcass and blood parameters in commercial male turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Ferket, P.R.; Simons, P.C.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Pijpers, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of ambient temperature (T; 15 C vs. 30 C from 6 wk of age onwards), dietary Arg:Lys ratio (Arg:Lys ratio; 1.00 vs. 1.25), dietary electrolyte balance (DEB: 164 vs. 254 meq/kg), and their interactions on growth performance and carcass yields of male turkeys were studied. The experiment

  15. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF 6 -Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa [School of; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-15

    The effects Of propylene carbonate (PC) content in CsPF6-containing electrolytes on the performances of graphite electrode in lithium half cells and in graphite parallel to LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells are investigated. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is significantly-affected by PC content in the CsPF6-containing electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the PC solvent and the Cs+ additive. The synergistic effects of Cs+ additive and appropriate amount of PC enable the formation of a robust, ultrathin, and compact solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of graphite electrode, which is only permeable for desolvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it. Therefore, this SEI layer effectively suppresses the PC cointercalation and largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at relatively high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent improves the sustainable operation of graphite parallel to NCA full cells under a wide temperature range. The fundamental findings also shed light On the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in various energy-storage devices.

  16. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Energy Technology, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management. (author)

  17. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management.

  18. Novel electrospun gas diffusion layers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part I. Fabrication, morphological characterization, and in situ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Lavielle, N.; Hatton, B. D.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-06-01

    In this first of a series of two papers, we report an in-depth analysis of the impact of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) structure on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance through the use of custom GDLs fabricated in-house. Hydrophobic electrospun nanofibrous gas diffusion layers (eGDLs) are fabricated with controlled fibre diameter and alignment. The eGDLs are rendered hydrophobic through direct surface functionalization, and this molecular grafting is achieved in the absence of structural alteration. The fibre diameter, chemical composition, and electrical conductivity of the eGDL are characterized, and the impact of eGDL structure on fuel cell performance is analysed. We observe that the eGDL facilitates higher fuel cell power densities compared to a commercial GDL (Toray TGP-H-60) at highly humidified operating conditions. The ohmic resistance of the fuel cell is found to significantly increase with increasing inter-fiber distance. It is also observed that the addition of a hydrophobic treatment enhances membrane hydration, and fibres perpendicularly aligned to the channel direction may enhance the contact area between the catalyst layer and the GDL.

  19. N-doped structures and surface functional groups of reduced graphene oxide and their effect on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor with organic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shin-Ming; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Hsiu-Ping; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Chang, Chien-Liang; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) has been synthesized using a simple, efficient method combining instant thermal exfoliation and covalent bond transformation from a melamine-graphene oxide mixture. The capacitive performance of N-rGO has been tested in both aqueous (0.5 M H2SO4) and organic (1 M tetraethyl-ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) in propylene carbonate (PC)) electrolytes, which are compared with those obtained from thermal-reduced graphene oxide (T-rGO) and chemical-reduced graphene oxide (C-rGO). The contributions of scan-rate-independent (double-layer-like) and scan-rate-dependent (pseudo-capacitance-like) capacitance of all reduced graphene oxides in both aqueous and organic electrolytes were evaluated and compared. The results show that relatively rich oxygen-containing functional groups on C-rGO form significant ion-diffusion barrier, resulting in worse electrochemical responses in organic electrolyte. By contrast, the N-doped structures, large surface area, and lower density of oxygen-containing groups make N-rGO become a promising electrode material for organic electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). The capacitance rate-retention of N-rGO reaches 71.1% in 1 M TEABF4/PC electrolyte when the scan rate is elevated to 200 mVs-1, demonstrating that N-rGO improves the relatively low-power drawback of EDLCs in organic electrolytes. The specific energy and power of a symmetric N-rGO cell in the organic electrolyte reach 25 Wh kg-1 and 10 kW kg-1, respectively.

  20. Enhanced photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in binary ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hsin-Fang; Wu, Jhih-Lin; Hsu, Po-Ya [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Yung-Liang [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ouyang, Fan-Yi [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kai, Ji-Jung, E-mail: jjkai@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid (bi-IL) consisting of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanimide (EMIDCA) facilitated electron transfer and solidified the electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). We investigated the dependence of charge transport and photovoltaic performance on the composition of bi-IL electrolytes with varied ratio of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra revealed a decreased resistance to charge transfer at the Pt counter electrode (R{sub ct1}) when SiO{sub 2} (up to 2.0 wt.%) was added, improving the photovoltaic parameters. The DSC based on a TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline film (thickness 14.2 μm) with a composite ionic gel electrolyte of EMIDCA/PMII bi-IL (33 vol.% of EMIDCA) incorporating SiO{sub 2} (2 wt.%) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 5.28% under simulated solar illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm{sup −} {sup 2}). The durability of DSC with a SiO{sub 2} solidified electrolyte was superior to that of a liquid one, exhibiting good stability at 60 °C in darkness during an accelerated test for 1000 h. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were introduced in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte. ► Effect of various ratios of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in gel electrolytes was studied. ► Mechanism of charge transfer with addition of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was discussed. ► An enhanced solar to electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.28% was achieved. ► Thermal stability of a quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cell was improved.

  1. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wu; Jixiao Wang; Bin Ou; Song Zhao; Zhi Wang; Shichang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high tr...

  2. Effects of crown ethers in nanocomposite silica-gel electrolytes on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    The effects of crown ethers (CEs) on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated. Nanocomposite silica was used to form gel matrices in the electrolytes, which contained lithium iodide (LiI) and iodine (I2) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent. Three types of CEs, 12-crown-4 (12-C-4), 15-crown-5 (15-C-5), and 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) were used as additives to the gel electrolytes. DSSCs containing CEs showed enhancements in solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (η), with reference to the one without them. The crown ether, 15-C-5, with a size of cavity matching with the size of Li+ in the electrolyte rendered for its DSSC the best performance with an η of 3.60%, under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, as compared to 2.44% for the cell without any CE. Enhancements in the photovoltaic parameters of the cells with the CEs were explained based on the binding abilities of the CEs with lithium ions (Li+) in the electrolyte. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra were used to substantiate the explanations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane-based high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Hun; Oh, Kyeongmin; Ahn, Sungha; Kim, Na Young; Byeon, Ayeong; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Ju, Hyunchul; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-09-01

    Precise monitoring of electrolyte leaching in high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) devices during lifetime tests is helpful in making a diagnosis of their quality changes and analyzing their electrochemical performance degradation. Here, we investigate electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane-based HT-PEMFCs. We first perform quantitative analyses to measure PA leakage during cell operation by spectrophotometric means, and a higher PA leakage rate is detected when the current density is elevated in the cell. Second, long-term degradation tests under various current densities of the cells and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis are performed to examine the influence of PA loss on the membrane and electrodes during cell performance degradation. The combined results indicate that PA leakage affect cell performance durability, mostly due to an increase in charge transfer resistance and a decrease in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the electrodes. Additionally, a three-dimensional (3-D) HT-PEMFC model is applied to a real-scale experimental cell, and is successfully validated against the polarization curves measured during various long-term experiments. The simulation results highlight that the PA loss from the cathode catalyst layer (CL) is a significant contributor to overall performance degradation.

  4. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  5. Bubble-Sheet-Like Interface Design with an Ultrastable Solid Electrolyte Layer for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Panpan; Wang, Meng; Li, Na; Zhu, Haili; Ding, Xuan; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a bubble-sheet-like hollow interface design on Al foil anode to improve the cycling stability and rate performance of aluminum anode based dual-ion battery is reported, in which, a carbon-coated hollow aluminum anode is used as both anode materials and current collector. This anode structure can guide the alloying position inside the hollow nanospheres, and also confine the alloy sizes within the hollow nanospheres, resulting in significantly restricted volumetric expansion and ultrastable solid electrolyte interface (SEI). As a result, the battery demonstrates an excellent long-term cycling stability within 1500 cycles with ≈99% capacity retention at 2 C. Moreover, this cell displays an energy density of 169 Wh kg -1 even at high power density of 2113 W kg -1 (10 C, charge and discharge within 6 min), which is much higher than most of conventional lithium ion batteries. The interfacial engineering strategy shown in this work to stabilize SEI layer and control the alloy forming position could be generalized to promote the research development of metal anodes based battery systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influences of Contact Pressure on the Performances of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C. Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells face major challenges in sustaining the laboratory-scale performance during the scale up. The contact resistance mainly arises from the dimensional mismatch between gasket and gas diffusion layer during scale up, which may cause diminution in performance. In the present work, experiment as well as modelling is carried out for different combinations of clamping force and gasket thickness. The polarisation behaviours of PEFCs configured under different clamping torques and gasket thicknesses are analysed. The combination of 0.3 mm gasket and 0.3 mm GDL under 3 Nm and 5 Nm clamping forces offers 480 mΩ cm2 and 148 mΩ cm2 contact resistances, respectively. The configurations under 3 Nm and 5 Nm clamping torques with 0.2 mm thick gasket offer contact resistances as low as 23 mΩ cm2 and 11 mΩ cm2, respectively. The polarisation behaviour obtained from the experiment of such configurations is found to be in good agreement with the modelling results.

  7. Testing and performance of electrolytic oxygen meters for use in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.; Thompson, R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of yttria-doped thoria ceramic electrochemical oxygen meters in liquid sodium is described. Tests were carried out using laboratory loops. Temperature coefficients of the oxygen meters have been measured between 380 0 C and 480 0 C, and the response to changes in oxygen level using cold-trap temperatures from 125 0 C to 250 0 C was determined. The ceramic has been shown to give good performance over lifetimes exceeding 400 days in some cases. The temperature coefficients and response to oxygen level changes are in good agreement with thermodynamic predictions. The effect of running the meters in high-oxygen sodium has been studied and a general mode of failure has been shown to be grain-boundary attack by oxygen/sodium solutions. The effect of #betta#-radiation on the meters has been studied. The meters with a metal/metal oxide reference electrode were unaffected by dose rates up to 52860 mGy h - 1 . Meters with an air reference electrode do show an effect as a voltage reduction at levels down to 2420 mGy h - 1 . This effect was temperature-dependent and was insignificant at 500 0 C. (orig.)

  8. Final Report for Award DE-SC0005403. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, Joshua L. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Prasad, Ajay K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-06

    The enclosed document provides a final report to document the research performed at the University of Delaware under Grant DE-SC0005403: Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping. The ultimate goal of this project was to learn how to systematically strain the inter-atomic distance in thin ceramic films and how to use this newfound control to improve the ease by which oxygen ions can conduct through the films. Increasing the ionic conductivity of ceramics holds the promise of drastic improvements in the performance of solid oxide fuel cells, chemical sensors, gas permeation membranes, and related devices. Before this work, the experimental evidence advocating for strain-based techniques was often controversial and poorly characterized. Enabling much of this work was a new method to quickly create a very wide range of ceramic nanostructures that was established during the first phase of the project. Following this initial phase, we created a variety of promising nanostructured epitaxial films and multilayers with systematic variations in lattice mismatch and dopant content. Over the course of the work, a positive effect of tensile atomic strain on the oxygen conductivity was conclusively found using a few different forms of samples and experimental techniques. The samples were built by sputtering, an industrially scalable technique, and thus the technological implementation of these results may be economically feasible. Still, two other results consistently achieved over multiple efforts in this work give pause. The first of these results was that very specific, pristine surfaces upon which to build the nanostructures were strictly required in order to achieve measurable results. The second of these results was that compressively strained films with concomitant reductions in oxygen conductivity are much easier to obtain relative to tensile-strained films with increased conductivity.

  9. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

  10. Study on performance simulation of polymer electrolyte fuel cell for preventing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T; Doi, M; Fukuda, T; Hashimoto, R; Kanematsu, H; Utsumi, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of water content in the membrane of PEFC was analyzed by using a numerical simulation as well as understanding the behavior of internal moisture of PEFC. Eight parameters were selected for the simulation then 18 combinations of the parameters were allocated by design of experiments, thus the data obtained were analyzed by multiple regression analysis to understand the influence factor of operating conditions quantitatively. As a result, the influence of the operating parameters on the dryness of the membrane for the anode side and the cathode side of PEFC was quantitatively shown by using the method of the multiple regression analysis. Further it was found that the area where cerium carbonate ought to be coated for preventing the degradation without decreasing performance.

  11. Performance of intermediate temperature (600-800 °C) solid oxide fuel cell based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.

    The solid electrolyte chosen for this investigation was La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSGM). To select appropriate electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600 and 800 °C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were fabricated with La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3-La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and nickel-Ce 0.6La 0.4O 2 (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce 0.6La 0.4O 2 (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performances of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600 and 800 °C.

  12. Performance of intermediate temperature (600-800{sup o}C) solid oxide fuel cell based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Wenquan; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Boston University, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-09-29

    The solid electrolyte chosen for this investigation was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). To select appropriate electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600 and 800{sup o}C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performances of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600 and 800{sup o}C. (author)

  13. Preparation and performance of a novel gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene separator for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiuqing; Wu, Xiufeng; He, Junying; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride)/graphene (PVDF/graphene) gel polymer electrolyte is prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique for lithium ion battery application. The effect of graphene on the ion conductivity is investigated by AC impedance measurement. The relationship among the chemical structure, PVDF crystallinity, the graphene on macroporous formation and the ion conductivity are investigated. The results indicate that the graphene disperses homogenously in PVDF, and it also increases the porosity and decreases the crystallinity of the PVDF. At the same time, the unique structure increases the liquid uptake capability of PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of the PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte increases significantly from 1.85 mS cm"−"1 in pristine PVDF to 3.61 mS cm"−"1 with 0.002 wt% graphene. It is found that graphene not only increases the ionic conductivity but also markedly enhances the rate capability and the cycling performances of coin cell. This study shows that PVDF/graphene gel polymer electrolyte is a very promising material for lithium ion batteries.

  14. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  15. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  16. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  17. Photovoltaic performance of bifacial dye sensitized solar cell using chemically healed binary ionic liquid electrolyte solidified with SiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosar, Burak; Icli, Kerem Cagatay; Yavuz, Halil Ibrahim; Ozenbas, Macit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bifacial DSSC is realized and irradiated from front and rear sides. ► Maximum efficiency was found for 70% PMII/30% (EMIB(CN) 4 ) electrolyte composition. ► A significant increase in photocurrent using 0.1 M GuSCN and 0.4 M NMB was observed. ► Addition of SiO 2 nanoparticles to the electrolyte enhanced photovoltaic efficiency. ► Dispersed SiO 2 particles are found to be more efficient compared to SiO 2 overlayer. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of electrolyte composition, photoanode thickness, and the additions of GuSCN (guanidinium thiocyanate), NMB (N-methylbenimidazole), and SiO 2 on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells). A bifacial DSSC is realized and irradiated from front and rear sides. The devices give maximum photovoltaic efficiencies for 70% PMII (1-propyl-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide)/30% (EMIB(CN) 4 ) (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetracyanoborate) electrolyte composition and 10 μm thick photoanode coating which is considered to be the ideal coating thickness for the diffusion length of electrolyte and dye absorption. A significant increase in the photocurrent for DSSCs with optimum molarity of 0.1 M GuSCN was observed due to decreased recombination which is believed to be surface passivation effect at photoanode electrolyte interface suppressing recombination rate. Moreover, optimum NMB molarity was found to be 0.4 for maximum efficiency. Addition of SiO 2 to the electrolyte both as an overlayer and dispersed particles enhanced rear side illuminated cells where dispersed particles are found to be more efficient for the front side illuminated cells due to additional electron transport properties. Best rear side illuminated cell efficiency was 3.2% compared to front side illuminated cell efficiency of 4.2% which is a promising result for future rear side dye sensitized solar cell applications where front side illumination is not possible like tandem structures and for cells

  18. Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors evaluated under high temperature and high voltage stress using redox stable electrolytes and additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Delp, Samuel A.; Yan, Jin; Cao, Ben; Zheng, Jim P.; Jow, T. Richard; Read, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) were investigated for high power, moderate energy density applications for operation in extreme environments with prolonged cycle-life performance. The LICs were assembled as three-layered pouch cells in an asymmetric configuration employing Faradaic pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and non-Faradaic ion adsorption-desorption activated carbon (AC) cathodes. The capacity retention was measured under high stress conditions, while the design factor explored was electrolyte formulation using a set of carbonates and electrolyte additives, with a focus on their stability. The LIC cells were evaluated using critical performance tests under the following high stress conditions: long-term voltage floating-cycling stability at room temperature (2.2-3.8 V), high temperature storage at 3.8 V, and charge voltages up to 4.4 V. The rate performance of different electrolytes and additives was measured after the initial LIC cell formation for a 1C-10C rate. The presence of vinylene carbonate (VC) and tris (trimethylsilyl) phosphate (TMSP) were found to be essential to the improved electrochemical performance of the LIC cells under all testing conditions.

  19. Influence of the lithium salt electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of copper/LiFePO4 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trócoli, Rafael; Morales, Julián; Franger, Sylvain; Santos-Peña, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of the electrolyte salt, LiPF 6 or LiClO 4 , on the electrochemical properties of copper/LiFePO 4 composites. We found a different stability voltage window for the two electrolytes that was remarkably wide for LiPF 6 . Also, copper addition is commonly accepted to increase electrode conductivity, which is beneficial for electrochemical purposes. However, copper is always oxidised to a variable extent depending on the particular electrolyte during the charge phase. Oxidation of the electrolyte solvent (especially with LiClO 4 ) was also observed during the first charge. In the first cycle, copper was more or less efficiently removed from the electrode surface. In subsequent cycles, however, these phenomena failed to occur (LiPF 6 ) or were weaker (LiClO 4 ). In all these configurations, iron is partially dissolved, to an extent dependent on the amount of copper present in the composite and differing with the particular electrolyte used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allowed us to identify the process taking place close to 3.6 V in LiPF 6 configuration: Fe(II) from the composites are oxidised and irreversibly complexed by the joint action of HF formed from LiPF 6 and water traces and Cu(I) formed upon charging. Our hypothesis accurately explains the results observed in terms of charge/discharge profiles, capacities provided and capacities evolution upon cycling. Also, our test results testify to the importance of using low contents of copper in the composites and the good properties of LiPF 6 as electrolyte solvent.

  20. Cycling Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Electrodes in Ionic Liquid-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Won; Kang, Yong Ku

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the cycling behavior of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode in a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte based on non-flammable ionic liquid consisting of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide and vinylene carbonate. The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrodes in ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. Cycling data and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the optimum content of the cross-linking agent necessary to ensure both acceptable initial discharge capacity and good capacity retention was about 8 wt %

  1. High-performance Platinum-free oxygen reduction reaction and hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Priji; Ghosh, Arpita; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2018-02-26

    The integration of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack into vehicles necessitates the replacement of high-priced platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalyst, which contributes to about 45% of the cost of the stack. The implementation of high-performance and durable Pt metal-free catalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) could significantly enable large-scale commercialization of fuel cell-powered vehicles. Towards this goal, a simple, scalable, single-step synthesis method was adopted to develop palladium-cobalt alloy supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd 3 Co/NG) nanocomposite. Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) studies for the electrochemical activity towards ORR indicates that ORR proceeds via nearly four-electron mechanism. Besides, the mass activity of Pd 3 Co/NG shows an enhancement of 1.6 times compared to that of Pd/NG. The full fuel cell measurements were carried out using Pd 3 Co/NG at the anode, cathode in conjunction with Pt/C and simultaneously at both anode and cathode. A maximum power density of 68 mW/cm 2 is accomplished from the simultaneous use of Pd 3 Co/NG as both anode and cathode electrocatalyst with individual loading of 0.5 mg/cm 2 at 60 °C without any backpressure. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind of a fully non-Pt based PEM full cell.

  2. Towards Highly Performing and Stable PtNi Catalysts in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina C. Zignani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs, it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. The main objective of this work is to investigate PtNi/C catalysts in a PEFC under low relative humidity and pressure conditions, more representative of automotive applications. Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments. The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated. The catalyst characterized by a larger Pt content (Pt3Ni2/C presented the highest catalytic activity (lower potential losses in the activation region among the synthesized bimetallic PtNi catalysts and the commercial Pt/C, used as the reference material, after testing at high temperature (95 °C and low humidification (50% conditions for automotive applications, showing a cell potential (ohmic drop-free of 0.82 V at 500 mA·cm−2. In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0.6 V and 1.2 V. By comparing the electrochemical and physico-chemical parameters at the beginning of life (BoL and end of life (EoL, it was demonstrated that the Pt1Ni1/C catalyst was the most stable among the catalyst series, with only a 2% loss of voltage at 200 mA·cm−2 and 12.5% at 950 mA·cm−2. However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts.

  3. Digital power and performance analysis of inkjet printed ring oscillators based on electrolyte-gated oxide electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilha Marques, Gabriel; Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Dehm, Simone; Dasgupta, Subho; Hahn, Horst; Tahoori, Mehdi; Aghassi-Hagmann, Jasmin

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronic components offer certain technological advantages over their silicon based counterparts, like mechanical flexibility, low process temperatures, maskless and additive manufacturing possibilities. However, to be compatible to the fields of smart sensors, Internet of Things, and wearables, it is essential that devices operate at small supply voltages. In printed electronics, mostly silicon dioxide or organic dielectrics with low dielectric constants have been used as gate isolators, which in turn have resulted in high power transistors operable only at tens of volts. Here, we present inkjet printed circuits which are able to operate at supply voltages as low as ≤2 V. Our transistor technology is based on lithographically patterned drive electrodes, the dimensions of which are carefully kept well within the printing resolutions; the oxide semiconductor, the electrolytic insulator and the top-gate electrodes have been inkjet printed. Our inverters show a gain of ˜4 and 2.3 ms propagation delay time at 1 V supply voltage. Subsequently built 3-stage ring oscillators start to oscillate at a supply voltage of only 0.6 V with a frequency of ˜255 Hz and can reach frequencies up to ˜350 Hz at 2 V supply voltage. Furthermore, we have introduced a systematic methodology for characterizing ring oscillators in the printed electronics domain, which has been largely missing. Benefiting from this procedure, we are now able to predict the switching capacitance and driver capability at each stage, as well as the power consumption of our inkjet printed ring oscillators. These achievements will be essential for analyzing the performance and power characteristics of future inkjet printed digital circuits.

  4. Enhanced performance of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with aluminum nitride in its gel polymer electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2011-08-01

    The effects of incorporation of aluminum nitride (AlN) in the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were studied in terms of performance of the cell. The electrolyte, consisting of lithium iodide (LiI), iodine (I2), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), was solidified with poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP). The 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% of AlN were added to the electrolyte for this study. XRD analysis showed a reduction of crystallinity in the polymer PVDF-HFP for all the additions of AlN. The DSSC fabricated with a GPE containing 0.1 wt% AlN showed a short-circuit current density (JSC) and power-conversion efficiency (η) of 12.92±0.54 mA/cm2 and 5.27±0.23%, respectively, at 100 mW/cm2 illumination, in contrast to the corresponding values of 11.52±0.21 mA/cm2 and 4.75±0.08% for a cell without AlN. The increases both in JSC and in η of the promoted DSSC are attributed to the higher apparent diffusion coefficient of I- in its electrolyte (3.52×10-6 cm2/s), compared to that in the electrolyte without AlN of a DSSC (2.97×10-6 cm 2/s). At-rest stability of the quasi-solid-state DSSC with 0.1 wt% of AlN was found to decrease hardly by 5% and 7% at room temperature and at 40 °C, respectively, after 1000 h duration. The DSSC with a liquid electrolyte showed a decrease of about 40% at room temperature, while it virtually lost its performance in about 150 h at 40 °C. Explanations are further substantiated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by porosity measurements. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  6. MASS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF A FLOW-THROUGH ELECTROLYTIC REACTOR USING A POROUS ELECTRODE: PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES OF MERIT FOR Pb(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertazzoli R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead from an acid borate-nitrate solution containing Pb(II was used to characterize the mass transport properties of an electrolytic reactor with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes, operated in the flow-through mode. Current potential curves recorded at a rotating vitreous carbon disc electrode were used to determine the diffusion coefficient for Pb(II under the conditions of the experiments. The performance and figures of merit of the electrolytic reactor were investigated by using different flowrates and cathode porosities. Dimensionless Sherwood and Reynolds numbers were correlated to characterize the mass transport properties of the reactor, and they were fitted to the equation Sh=24Re0.32Sc0.33.

  7. Final Technical Report: SISGR: The Influence of Electrolyte Structure and Electrode Morphology on the Performance of Ionic-Liquid Based Supercapacitors: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrov, Dmitry [University of Utah

    2013-08-15

    Obtaining fundamental understanding and developing predictive modeling capabilities of electrochemical interfaces can significantly shorten the development cycles of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). A notable improvement in EDLC performance has been achieved due to recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms, development of advanced nanostructured electrodes and electrochemically stable electrolytes. The development of new generation of EDLCs is intimately linked to that of nanostructured carbon materials which have large surface area, good adsorption/desorption properties, good electrical conductivity and are relatively inexpensive. To address these scientific challenges the efforts of an interdisciplinary team of modelers and experimentalists were combined to enhance our understanding of molecular level mechanisms controlling the performance of EDLCs comprised of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes and nanostructured carbon-based electrodes and to utilize these knowledge in the design of a new generation of materials and devices for this energy storage application. Specifically our team efforts included: atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, materials science and electrode/device assembly, and synthesis and characterization of RTIL electrolytes.

  8. High-performance electrodes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte. Pt. 2. La(Sr)CoO{sub 3} cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki [The Kansai Electric Power, Hyogo (Japan); Miura, Kazuhiro [Kanden Kakou, Hyogo (Japan); Maric, Radenka; Ohara, Satoshi; Zhang, Xinge; Mukai, Kazuo; Fukui, Takehisa [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with 0.5 mm thick La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSGM) electrolyte, La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCo) cathode, and Ni-(CeO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(SmO{sub 1.5}){sub 0.2} (SDC) cermet anode showed an excellent initial performance, and high maximum power density, 0.47 W/cm{sup 2}, at 800 C. The results were comparable to those for the conventional SOFC with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, La(Sr)MnO{sub 3}-YSZ cathode and Ni-YSZ cermet anode at 1000 C. Using an LSCo powder prepared by spray pyrolysis, and selecting appropriate sintering temperatures, the lowest cathodic polarization of about 25 mV at 300 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured for a cathode prepared by sintering at 1000 C. Life time cell test results, however, showed that the polarization of the LSCo cathode increased with operating time. From EPMA results, this behavior was considered to be related to the interdiffusion of the elements at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Calcination of LSCo powder could be a possible way to suppress this interdiffusion at the interface. (orig.)

  9. High-performance electrodes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte. II. La(Sr)CoO 3 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Miura, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Maric, Radenka; Ohara, Satoshi; Zhang, Xinge; Mukai, Kazuo; Fukui, Takehisa

    The reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with 0.5 mm thick La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- α (LSGM) electrolyte, La 0.6Sr 0.4CoO 3- δ (LSCo) cathode, and Ni-(CeO 2) 0.8(SmO 1.5) 0.2 (SDC) cermet anode showed an excellent initial performance, and high maximum power density, 0.47 W/cm 2, at 800°C. The results were comparable to those for the conventional SOFC with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, La(Sr)MnO 3-YSZ cathode and Ni-YSZ cermet anode at 1000°C. Using an LSCo powder prepared by spray pyrolysis, and selecting appropriate sintering temperatures, the lowest cathodic polarization of about 25 mV at 300 mA/cm 2 was measured for a cathode prepared by sintering at 1000°C. Life time cell test results, however, showed that the polarization of the LSCo cathode increased with operating time. From EPMA results, this behavior was considered to be related to the interdiffusion of the elements at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Calcination of LSCo powder could be a possible way to suppress this interdiffusion at the interface.

  10. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weimin; Liu Jiang; Zhang Yaohui

    2008-01-01

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 ) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3 (LSCF)-La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3-δ (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-μm thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-μm thick La 0.4 Ce 0.6 O 1.8 (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H 2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm -2 at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation

  11. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Weimin [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Liu Jiang [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: jiangliu@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Yaohui [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2008-05-20

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9}) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF)-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-{mu}m thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-{mu}m thick La{sub 0.4}Ce{sub 0.6}O{sub 1.8} (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H{sub 2} as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm{sup -2} at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation.

  12. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO 2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes

  13. Fluoroethylene Carbonate-Based Electrolyte with 1 M Sodium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide Enables High-Performance Sodium Metal Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Koeun; Cha, Aming; Kang, Sujin; Wi, Taeung; Kang, Seok Ju; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2018-05-02

    Sodium (Na) metal anodes with stable electrochemical cycling have attracted widespread attention because of their highest specific capacity and lowest potential among anode materials for Na batteries. The main challenges associated with Na metal anodes are dendritic formation and the low density of deposited Na during electrochemical plating. Here, we demonstrate a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolyte with 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) salt for the stable and dense deposition of the Na metal during electrochemical cycling. The novel electrolyte combination developed here circumvents the dendritic Na deposition that is one of the primary concerns for battery safety and constructs the uniform ionic interlayer achieving highly reversible Na plating/stripping reactions. The FEC-NaFSI constructs the mechanically strong and ion-permeable interlayer containing NaF and ionic compounds such as Na 2 CO 3 and sodium alkylcarbonates.

  14. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  15. Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yuekun [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhuang Huifang; Sun Lan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin Changjian [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    The formation of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films by electrochemical anodizing titanium foils was investigated in a developed organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte. It was found that the structure and morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube layer were greatly dependent upon the electrolyte composition, anodizing potential and time. Under the optimized electrolyte composition and electrochemical conditions, a controllable, well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array layer could be fabricated in a short time. The diameters of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanotubes could be adjusted from 20 to 150 nm, and the thickness could be adjusted from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The photoresponse and the photocatalytic activity of the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films were also examined. The nanotube array film with a thickness of about 2.5 {mu}m had the highest incident photon to photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) (34.3%) at the 350 nm wavelength, and had better charge transfer ability under UV light illumination. The photocatalytic experimental results indicated that the 450 deg. C annealing samples have the highest photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange pollutant.

  16. Towards High-Performance Aqueous Sodium-Ion Batteries: Stabilizing the Solid/Liquid Interface for NASICON-Type Na2 VTi(PO4 )3 using Concentrated Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huang; Jeong, Sangsik; Qin, Bingsheng; Vieira Carvalho, Diogo; Buchholz, Daniel; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-02-22

    Aqueous Na-ion batteries may offer a solution to the cost and safety issues of high-energy batteries. However, substantial challenges remain in the development of electrode materials and electrolytes enabling high performance and long cycle life. Herein, we report the characterization of a symmetric Na-ion battery with a NASICON-type Na 2 VTi(PO 4 ) 3 electrode material in conventional aqueous and "water-in-salt" electrolytes. Extremely stable cycling performance for 1000 cycles at a high rate (20 C) is found with the highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes owing to the formation of a resistive but protective interphase between the electrode and electrolyte. These results provide important insight for the development of aqueous Na-ion batteries with stable long-term cycling performance for large-scale energy storage. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of different levels of crude protein and electrolyte balance on performance, blood parameters and bone characteristics for broiler chickens in phase of 36 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Clenice Navarini Giacobbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude protein (CP and electrolyte balance (EB of the feed of broilers. 480 male broiler of Cobb 500 strain were fed in the period 36 to 42 days of age with two basal diets, one with EB 200 and another with 240 mEq. kg-1, combined with CP levels of 18.00, 17.28, 16.56 and 15.84%. The reduction in CP levels had growing linear effect (P <0.01 on feed conversion of birds (BE 200 and 240 even with the supplementation of industrial amino acids. For weight gain, reduced levels of CP had decreasing linear effect (P <0.01 to birds consuming diets with EB of 240 mEq. kg-1 and quadratic effect (P <0.05 for those who consumed ration with EB than 200 mEq. kg-1 being the level of 17.54%, which resulted in better weight gain of birds. There was linear effect (P <0.05 of reduction in CP levels on the plasmatic values of sodium (EB200 and chlorine (EB240 and quadratic effect (P <0.05 on plasmatic concentration of potassium (EB200 of birds, being the level of 17.05%, which provided the lower potassium values. For the plasma levels of uric acid, total protein and calcium, and bone development, reduction in the levels of CP had no effect on neither one of EB levels studied. Supplementation with bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium chloride was not effective in improving the performance characteristics the birds, in the values of electrolyte balance studied, since there were no performance improvements with increase the electrolytic balance of the diets of 200 to 240 mEq.kg-1.

  18. Direct growth of Fe3O4-MoO2 hybrid nanofilm anode with enhanced electrochemical performance in neutral aqueous electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the electrochemical energy storage performance of supercapacitors (SCs, the current researches are general directed towards the cathode materials. However, the anode materials are relatively less studied. In the present work, Fe3O4-MoO2 (FO-MO hybrid nano thin film directly grown on Ti substrate is investigated, which is used as high-performance anode material for SCs in Li2SO4 electrolyte with the comparison to pristine Fe3O4 nanorod array. The areal capacitance of FO-MO hybrid electrode was initially found to be 65.0 mF cm−2 at 2 mV s−1 and continuously increased to 260.0% after 50 cycles of activation. The capacitance values were considerably comparable or higher than many reported thin-film iron oxide-based anodes in neutral electrolyte. With the protection of MoO2 shell, the FO-MO electrode developed in this study also exhibited excellent cyclic stability (increased to 230.8% after 1000 cycles. This work presents a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of iron oxide-based anodes for SCs.

  19. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  20. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  1. High performance, flexible, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) supercapacitors achieved by doping redox mediators in organogel electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Jinyu; Gu, Cheng; Yao, Mingming; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-11-01

    The relatively low energy density is now a central issue hindering the development of supercapacitors as energy storage devices. Various approaches are thus developed to enhance the energy density, mainly centering on the fabrication of electrode materials or optimization of cell configurations. Compared with these approaches, modifications in electrolytes are much simple and versatile. Herein, we integrate the wide voltages endowed by organic electrolytes and the additional capacitances brought by redox mediators, to fabricate high energy density supercapacitors. On the basis of this idea, supercapacitors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as electrode material exhibit extended operating voltage of 1.5 V, extraordinary capacitance of 363 F g-1 and high energy density of 27.4 Wh kg-1. The redox mediators reported here, ferrocene and 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy, are the first time being applied in supercapacitors, especially in the gel state. While providing additional faradaic capacitances, they also exhibit synergistic interaction with PEDOT and improve the cycling stability of supercapacitors.

  2. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  3. Anthraquinone derivative as high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries using ether-based electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqin Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials, especially the carbonyl compounds, are promising anode materials for room temperature sodium-ion batteries owing to their high reversible capacity, structural diversity as well as eco-friendly synthesis from bio-mass. Herein, we report a novel anthraquinone derivative, C14H6O4Na2 composited with carbon nanotube (C14H6O4Na2-CNT, used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries in ether-based electrolyte. The C14H6O4Na2-CNT electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 173 mAh g−1 and an ultra-high initial Coulombic efficiency of 98% at the rate of 0.1 C. The capacity retention is 82% after 50 cycles at 0.2 C and a good rate capability is displayed at 2 C. Furthermore, the average Na insertion voltage of 1.27 V vs. Na+/Na makes it a unique and safety battery material, which would avoid Na plating and formation of solid electrolyte interface. Our contribution provides new insights for designing developed organic anode materials with high initial Coulombic efficiency and improved safety capability for sodium-ion batteries.

  4. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  5. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  6. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  7. Performance of strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte with lanthanum-doped ceria as a buffer layer for IT-SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dokyol; Han, Ju-Hyeong; Kim, Eun-Gu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea); Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ryul [Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.8} (LSGM8080) powder, showing the highest electrical conductivity among LSGMs of various compositions, is synthesized using the glycine nitrate process (GNP) and used as the electrolyte for an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC). The LDC (Ce{sub 0.55}La{sub 0.45}O{sub 1.775}) powder is synthesized by a solid-state reaction and employed as the material for a buffer layer to prevent the reaction between the anode and electrolyte materials. The LDC also serves as the skeleton material for the anode. An anode-supported single cell with an active area of 1 cm{sup 2} is constructed for performance evaluation. A single-cell test is performed at 750 and 800 C. The maximum power density of the cell 459 and 664 mW cm{sup -2} at 750 and 800 C, respectively. (author)

  8. Performance of strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte with lanthanum-doped ceria as a buffer layer for IT-SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dokyol; Han, Ju-Hyeong; Kim, Eun-Gu; Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ryul

    La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 2.8 (LSGM8080) powder, showing the highest electrical conductivity among LSGMs of various compositions, is synthesized using the glycine nitrate process (GNP) and used as the electrolyte for an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC). The LDC (Ce 0.55La 0.45O 1.775) powder is synthesized by a solid-state reaction and employed as the material for a buffer layer to prevent the reaction between the anode and electrolyte materials. The LDC also serves as the skeleton material for the anode. An anode-supported single cell with an active area of 1 cm 2 is constructed for performance evaluation. A single-cell test is performed at 750 and 800 °C. The maximum power density of the cell 459 and 664 mW cm -2 at 750 and 800 °C, respectively.

  9. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  10. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  11. Performance evaluation of solid oxide fuel cells with thin film electrolyte fabricated by binder-assisted slurry casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W.M.; Liu, X.M.; Li, L.J. [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University of Technology, Liuzhou 545006 (China); Xiao, Y.F. [Department of Stomatology, Liuzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Liuzhou 545001 (China); Chen, Y. [School of Yingdong Life Science, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005 (China)

    2011-10-15

    A gas-tight yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte film was fabricated on porous NiO-YSZ anode substrates by a binder-assisted slurry casting technique. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that the YSZ film was relatively dense with a thickness of 10 {mu}m. La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM)-YSZ was applied to cathode using a screen-print technique and the single fuel cells were tested in a temperature range from 600 to 800 C. An open circuit voltage (OCV) of over 1.0 V was observed. The maximum power densities at 600, 700, and 800 C were 0.13, 0.44, and 1.1 W cm{sup -2}, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  13. Tunable photovoltaic performance of preferentially oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanodes based dye sensitized solar cells with quasi-state electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T C, Sabari Girisun; C, Jeganathan; N, Pavithra; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-12-20

    Photoanodes made of highly oriented TiO2 nanorod arrays with different aspect ratios were synthesized via one-step hydrothermal technique. Preferentially oriented single crystalline rutile TiO2 was confirmed by the single peak in XRD pattern (2θ=63o, (0 0 2)). FESEM image evidence the growth of an array of nanorods having different geometry with respect to reaction time and solution refreshment rate. The length, diameter and aspect ratio of the nanorods increased with reaction time as 4 hours (1.98 μm, 121 nm, 15.32), 8 hours (4 μm, 185 nm, 22.70), 12 hours (5.6 μm, 242 nm, 27.24) and 16 hours (8 μm, 254 nm, 38.02) respectively. Unlike conventional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with a liquid electrolyte, DSSC were fabricated here using 1D rutile TiO2 nanorods based photoanodes, N719 dye and quasi-state electrolyte. The charge transport properties were investigated from current-voltage curves and fitted using one-diode model. Interestingly photovoltaic performance of DSSCs increased exponentially with the length of the nanorod and is attributed to the higher surface to volume ratio, more dye anchoring, and channelized electron transport. Higher photovoltaic performance (Jsc=5.99 mA/cm2, Voc=750 mV, η=3.08%) was observed with photoanodes (16 hours) made of densely packed longest TiO2 nanorods (8 µm, 254 nm). © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Tunable photovoltaic performance of preferentially oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod photoanode based dye sensitized solar cells with quasi-state electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisun, T C Sabari; Jeganathan, C; Pavithra, N; Anandan, S

    2018-01-23

    Photoanodes made of highly oriented TiO 2 nanorod (NR) arrays with different aspect ratios were synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal technique. Preferentially oriented single crystalline rutile TiO 2 was confirmed by the single peak in an XRD pattern (2θ = 63°, (0 0 2)). FESEM images evidenced the growth of an array of NRss having different geometries with respect to reaction time and solution refreshment rate. The length, diameter and aspect ratio of the NRs increased with reaction time as 4 h (1.98 μm, 121 nm, 15.32), 8 h (4 μm, 185 nm, 22.70), 12 h (5.6 μm, 242 nm, 27.24) and 16 h (8 μm, 254 nm, 38.02), respectively. Unlike a conventional dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a liquid electrolyte, DSSCs were fabricated here using one-dimensional rutile TiO 2 NR based photoanodes, N719 dye and a quasi-state electrolyte. The charge transport properties were investigated using current-voltage curves and fitted using the one-diode model. Interestingly the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs increased exponentially with the length of the NR and was attributed to a higher surface to volume ratio, more dye anchoring, and channelized electron transport. The higher photovoltaic performance (J sc  = 5.99 mA cm -2 , V oc  = 750 mV, η = 3.08%) was observed with photoanodes (16 h) made with the longer, densely packed TiO 2 NRs (8 μm, 254 nm).

  15. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  16. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  17. Improved electrochemical performances of binder-free CoMoO4 nanoplate arrays@Ni foam electrode using redox additive electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we are successfully prepared cobalt molybdate (CoMoO4) grown on nickel foam as a binder free electrode by hydrothermal approach for supercapacitors and improved their electrochemical performances using potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) as redox additive. The formation of CoMoO4 on Ni foam with high crystallinity is confirmed using XRD, Raman, and XPS measurements. The nanoplate arrays (NPAs) of CoMoO4 are uniformly grown on Ni foam which is confirmed by FE-SEM analysis. The prepared binder-free CoMoO4 NPAs achieved maximum areal capacity of 227 μAh cm-2 with KOH electrolyte at 2.5 mA cm-2. This achieved areal capacity is further improved about three times using the addition of K3Fe(CN)6 as redox additive. The increased electrochemical performances of CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam electrode via redox additive are discussed in detail and the mechanism has been explored. Moreover, the assembled CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor device with an extended operating voltage window of 1.5 V exhibits an excellent performances such as high energy density and cyclic stability. The overall performances of binder-free CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam with redox additives suggesting their potential use as positive electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  18. Electrochemical performance of high specific capacity of lithium-ion cell LiV3O8//LiMn2O4 with LiNO3 aqueous solution electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingshu; Zheng Qingyang; Wang Fei; Dai Weimin; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, the electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. → The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. → In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. The results indicate that these two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and no hydrogen or oxygen produced, moreover, intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions occurred within the range of electrochemical stability of water. The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries.

  19. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  20. Performance comparison of portable direct methanol fuel cell mini-stacks based on a low-cost fluorine-free polymer electrolyte and Nafion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglio, V.; Stassi, A.; Modica, E.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A.S.; Caracino, P.; Ballabio, O.; Colombo, M.; Kopnin, E.

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost fluorine-free proton conducting polymer electrolyte was investigated for application in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) mini-stacks. The membrane consisted of a sulfonated polystyrene grafted onto a polyethylene backbone. DMFC operating conditions specifically addressing portable applications, i.e. passive mode, air breathing, high methanol concentration, room temperature, were selected. The device consisted of a passive DMFC monopolar three-cell stack. Two designs for flow-fields/current collectors based on open-flow or grid-like geometry were investigated. An optimization of the mini-stack structure was necessary to improve utilization of the fluorine-free membrane. Titanium-grid current collectors with proper mechanical stiffness allowed a significant increase of the performance by reducing contact resistance even in the case of significant swelling. A single cell maximum power density of about 18 mW cm -2 was achieved with the fluorine-free membrane at room temperature under passive mode. As a comparison, the performance obtained with Nafion 117 membrane and Ti grids was 31 mW cm -2 . Despite the lower performance, the fluorine-free membrane showed good characteristics for application in portable DMFCs especially with regard to the perspectives of significant cost reduction.

  1. Improved high-voltage performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode with Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite as electrolyte additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Ma, Yulin; Li, Qin; Cui, Yingzhi; Wang, Panpan; Cheng, Xinqun; Zuo, Pengjian; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi

    2017-01-01

    Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFEP) is investigated as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high operating voltage (4.6 V). Charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that TTFEP is effective to improve the cycling stability and rate capability of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. The capacity retention of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 /Li cell with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte reaches up to 85.4% after 100 cycles at 0.5C (1C = 160 mA g −1 ), while that of the cell with the baseline electrolyte (1 M LiPF 6 in EC/DMC electrolyte) only remains 74.2%. Moreover, the discharge capacity of the cathode with 1% TTFEP-containing electrolyte could maintain around 112.0 mAh g −1 at 4C. Based on the characterization of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a protective interphase film formed on the cathode surface can be found due to the preferential oxidation of TTFEP, which inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and mitigates the cathode structural destruction, leading to the improved electrochemical performance of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode at high voltage.

  2. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  3. High-rate supercapacitive performance of GO/r-GO electrodes interfaced with plastic-crystal-based flexible gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the performance of symmetrical electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) electrodes, and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) film. The GPE, comprising the solution of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) entrapped in poly (vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), shows suitability as separator/electrolyte in EDLCs due to its excellent electrochemical properties including high ionic conductivity (∼1.97 × 10 −3 S cm −1 a 20 °C). The GO and r-GO electrodes exhibit supercapacitive properties with the SN-based GPE as evidenced from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge analyses. The residual oxygen functionalities associated with GO-electrodes provide additional pseudo-capacitance resulting in higher specific capacitance and specific energy (∼66 F g −1 and 18 Wh kg −1 , respectively) as compared to r-GO electrodes (specific capacitance ∼60 F g −1 and specific energy ∼15.6 Wh kg −1 ). High knee frequency f k (∼38 Hz), low response time ∼τ 0 (∼166.5 ms) and high pulse power P 0 (∼32.9 kW kg −1 ), observed from EIS studies, indicate the high rate capability of GO-electrodes-based EDLCs. About three fold increase in f k and three times decrease in τ 0 indicates a substantially higher rate performance of r-GO-based EDLCs with respect to GO-based cell. The high rate capability of GO/r-GO electrodes in combination with SN-based GPEs is further confirmed from the rectangular CV shapes up to scan rates of 5 V s −1 for GO and 10 V s −1 for r-GO electrodes. The r-GO based EDLC offers higher specific power (∼54.9 kW kg −1 ) as compared to that of GO-based EDLC (∼33.3 kW kg −1 ), as observed from charge-discaharge studies. Both EDLCs show stable capacitive performance up to ∼11000-13500 charge

  4. Fabrication of a three-dimensional micro-manipulator by laser irradiation and electrochemical techniques and the effect of electrolytes on its performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Ueda, M.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2007-03-20

    Ribbon type and three-dimensional micro-actuators, consisting of three-layer structure of acrylic acid resin/Au/polypyrrole, were fabricated by aluminum anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrochemical techniques, and their performance was examined. Anodized aluminum specimens were irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove anodic oxide films locally, and then an Au layer was deposited at the area where film had been removed. The subsequent electrophoretic deposition of acrylic acid resin on the Au layer, dissolution of anodic oxide film and the metal substrate, and deposition of polypyrrole on backside of Au layer by electro-polymerization enabled the fabrication of a three-layer actuator. Cyclic voltammetry of the ribbon type actuator in different electrolyte solutions showed that redox reactions of polypyrrole is accompanied with doping and dedoping of hydrated cations, and that the redox reaction strongly depends on the valency of cations in the solutions. The three-dimensional micro-actuator showed good performance as a manipulator, gripping and moving objects of several milligram in solutions. (author)

  5. Investigating the effects of gas diffusion layer substrate thickness on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell performance via synchrotron X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Chevalier, S.; Banerjee, R.; Antonacci, P.; Ge, N.; Yip, R.; Kotaka, T.; Tabuchi, Y.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to visualize the liquid water accumulation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to compare the impact of carbon substrate thickness on water management. A differential fuel cell with an active area of 0.68 cm 2 and rib/channel width of 0.2 mm was custom-made to provide 1-dimensional (1D) conditions over the active area. The fuel cell with the thin substrate (TGP-H-030) outperformed the fuel cell with the thick substrate (TGP-H-060). The fuel cell with the thinner substrate exhibited a higher limiting current density, less liquid water in the microporous layer (MPL)-substrate transition region, and reduced oxygen transport resistance measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The compression behaviour of each GDL was also investigated through two consecutive fuel cell assemblies. The pressure in the second assembly was lower than that for the initial assemblies for both GDLs, and this significant change in assembly pressure was more pronounced for the thinner GDL (TGP-H-030). The resulting interfacial contact between the catalyst layer and the GDL was degraded, which manifested in the microscale displacement of fuel cell materials during operation (detected as a negative liquid water thickness). While the thinner GDL provided superior performance, the long term effects of material deformation may exacerbate a heterogeneous distribution of liquid water that could also impact the performance.

  6. Effects of clamping force on the water transport and performance of a PEM (proton electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with relative humidity and current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.

  7. DMFC Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared from a Graft-Copolymer Consisting of a Polysulfone Main Chain and Styrene Sulfonic Acid Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Endo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC applications were prepared from a graft-copolymer (PSF-g-PSSA consisting of a polysulfone (PSF main chain and poly(styrene sulfonic acid (PSSA side chains with various average distances between side chains (Lav and side chain lengths (Lsc. The polymers were synthesized by grafting ethyl p-styrenesulfonate (EtSS on macro-initiators of chloromethylated polysulfone with different contents of chloromethyl (CM groups, and by changing EtSS content in the copolymers by using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. The DMFC performance tests using membrane electrode assemblis (MEAs with the three types of the PEMs revealed that: a PSF-g-PSSA PEM (SF-6 prepared from a graft copolymer with short average distances between side chains (Lav and medium Lsc had higher DMFC performance than PEMs with long Lav and long Lsc or with short Lav and short Lsc. SF-6 had about two times higher PDmax (68.4 mW/cm2 than Nafion® 112 at 30 wt % of methanol concentration. Furthermore, it had 58.2 mW/cm2 of PDmax at 50 wt % of methanol concentration because of it has the highest proton selectivity during DMFC operation of all the PSF-g-PSSA PEMs and Nafion® 112.

  8. Enhanced electrochemical performances of PANI using redox additive of K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] in aqueous electrolyte for symmetric supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugavani, A.; Kaviselvi, S.; Sankar, K.Vijaya; Selvan, R.Kalai, E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} studied on the electrochemical properties of PANI. • The polaron band – π* transition reveals the emeraldine salt (conductive) form. • CV curves exhibit quasi-reversible redox behavior. • Symmetric PANI SC shows 228 F g{sup −1} at 1 mA cm{sup −2} in K{sub 4}[Fe (CN){sub 6}] added 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • PANI-1 symmetric supercapacitor shows almost 100% of capacity retention. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) particles were prepared by reflux assisted chemical oxidative polymerization method with the aid of ammonium per sulfate/ferric chloride as oxidants and HCl/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the medium. Amorphous nature and the emeraldine state of PANI were revealed from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Moreover, ultra violet–visible spectra attributes to the polaron band – π* transition of polyaniline. The scanning electron microscopic image shows that the particle size is in the range of 0.2–2 μm. The electrochemical performances of the material were investigated in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.08 M K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] added 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge studies were carried out to find its suitability as a supercapacitor electrode material. The charge discharge analysis of the fabricated symmetric supercapacitors revealed the fact that the electrolyte containing redox additive (0.08 M K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]) delivered an enhanced specific capacitance of 228 F g{sup −1} (∼912 F g{sup −1} for single electrode) than that of 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (100 F g{sup −1}) at 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Further cycling stability is performed at 5 mA cm{sup −2} ensures the durability of the supercapacitor.

  9. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Based High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela

    2015-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. Continuous tests with pure dry H2 and meth...

  10. Effect of crude protein concentration and dietary electrolyte balance on litter quality, foot pad dermatitis, growth performance and processing yields in two medium heavy turkey hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T; Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J

    2017-10-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of crude protein (CP) concentration and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, processing yields, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in male turkeys from two commercial hybrids. Soya bean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources selected for lower K concentrations to lower DEB in order to improve litter quality and subsequent quality of foot pads. 2. Effects of CP on litter friability and wetness were not consistent during the production period. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low CP was significantly lower than FPD in turkeys fed on diets with high CP until 84 d. Growth performance was adversely affected at low CP. Processing yields were not affected by CP. 3. Litter was significantly dryer in pens of turkeys fed on diets with low DEB than in pens of turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. FPD in turkeys fed on diets with low DEB was significantly lower than in turkeys fed on diets with high DEB. Growth performance and processing yields were adversely affected at low DEB. 4. FPD in turkey hybrid A was higher than in turkey hybrid B at 28 d of age. Thereafter, no differences in FPD between turkey hybrids were observed. Growth performance and processing yields were not affected by turkey hybrid. 5. Overall, a significant interaction effect of CP × DEB was observed for FCR: in turkeys fed on the high DEB treatment, FCR of turkeys fed on the high CP diets was lower than FCR of turkeys fed on the low CP (LCP) diets whereas on the low DEB treatment, FCR was not affected by CP treatment. 6. It was concluded that litter quality can be improved and FPD may be decreased in turkeys fed on diets containing lower CP and DEB levels.

  11. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Performances of Starch-Based Biopolymer as Gel Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Nagaraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have become a validated and economically credible competitor to the traditional solid-state junction photovoltaic devices. DSSCs based on biopolymer gel electrolyte systems offer the perspective of competitive conversion efficiencies with a very low-cost fabrication. In this paper, a new starch-based biopolymer gel electrolyte system is prepared by mixing lithium iodide and iodine with bare and citric acid cross-linked potato starches with glycerol as the plasticizing agent. The effect of the preparation methods on the starch cross-linking degree as well as the photoconversion efficiency of the resulting DSSC cells is carefully analyzed. Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology and conformational changes of starch in the electrolytes. The conductivity of the biopolymer electrolytes was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. DSSC based on the starch-gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by photovoltaic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results clearly show that the cross-linking increases the recombination resistance and open circuit voltage (VOC of the DSSC, and thereby the photoconversion efficiency of the cell. In particular, electrolytes containing 1.4 g bare and cross-linked starches showed ionic conductivities of σ = 1.61, 0.59, 0.38, and 0.35 S cm−1, and the corresponding DSSCs showed efficiencies of 1.2, 1.4, 0.93, and 1.11%, respectively.

  12. Numerical simulations of a full-scale polymer electrolyte fuel cell with analysing systematic performance in an automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heesung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D full-scale fuel cell performance is numerically simulated. • Generated and consumed power in the system is affected by operating condition. • Systematic analysis predicts the net power of conceptual PEFC stack. - Abstract: In fuel cell powered electric vehicles, the net power efficiency is a critical factor in terms of fuel economy and commercialization. Although the fuel cell stack produces enough power to drive the vehicles, the transferred power to the power train could be significantly reduced due to the power consumption to operate the system components of air blower and cooling module. Thus the systematic analysis on the operating condition of the fuel cell stack is essential to predict the net power generation. In this paper numerical simulation is conducted to characterize the fuel cell performance under various operating conditions. Three dimensional and full-scale fuel cell of the active area of 355 cm 2 is numerically modelled with 47.3 million grids to capture the complexities of the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and electrochemical reactions. The proposed numerical model requires large computational time and cost, however, it can be powerful to reasonably predict the fuel cell system performance at the early stage of conceptual design without requiring prototypes. Based on the model, it has been shown that the net power is reduced down to 90% of the gross power due to the power consumption of air blower and cooling module

  13. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  14. Co-extrusion of electrolyte/anode functional layer/anode triple-layer ceramic hollow fibres for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells-electrochemical performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an anode functional layer (AFL) with controlled thickness on physical and electrochemical properties of a micro-tubular SOFC have been systematically studied. A series of electrolyte/AFL/anode triple-layer hollow fibres with controllable AFL thicknesses (16.9-52.7 μm) have been fabricated via a single-step phase-inversion assisted co-extrusion technique. Both robustness of the cell and gas-tightness of the electrolyte layer are considerably improved by introducing the AFL of this type. The fracture force of the sample with the thickest AFL (9.67 N) almost doubles when compared to the electrolyte/anode dual-layer counterpart (5.24 N). Gas-tightness of the electrolyte layer is also considerably increased as AFL contributes to better-matched sintering behaviours between different components. Moreover, the formation of an AFL simultaneously with electrolyte and anode significantly improves the cell performances. The sample with the thinnest AFL (approximately 16.9 μm, 6% of the total anode thickness) leads to a 30% (from 0.89 to 1.21 W cm-2) increase in maximum power density, due to increased triple-phase boundaries (TPB). However, further increase in TPB from a thicker AFL is less effective for improving the cell performance, due to the substantially increased fuel diffusion resistance and subsequently higher concentration polarization. This indicates that the control over the AFL thickness is critically important in avoiding offsetting the benefits of extended TPB and consequently decreased cell performances.

  15. Y and Ni Co-Doped BaZrO3 as a Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Exhibiting Superior Power Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Shafi, Shahid P.

    2015-10-16

    The fabrication of anode supported single cells based on BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) electrolyte is challenging due to its poor sinteractive nature. The acceleration of shrinkage behavior, improved sinterability and larger grain size were achieved by the partial substitution of Zr with Ni in the BZY perovskite. Phase pure Ni-doped BZY powders of nominal compositions BaZr0.8-xY0.2NixO3-δ were synthesized up to x = 0.04 using a wet chemical combustion synthesis route. BaZr0.76Y0.2Ni0.04O3-δ (BZYNi04) exhibited adequate total conductivity and the open circuit voltage (OCV) values measured on the BZYNi04 pellet suggested lack of significant electronic contribution. The improved sinterability of BZYNi04 assisted the ease in film fabrication and this coupled with the application of an anode functional layer and a suitable cathode, PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBCO), resulted in a superior fuel cell power performance. With humidified hydrogen and static air as the fuel and oxidant, respectively, a peak power density value of 428 and 240 mW cm−2 was obtained at 700 and 600°C, respectively.

  16. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous graphene aerogel as an efficient electrode material for high performance supercapacitor in ionic liquid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujuan; Liu, Zhaoen; Sun, Li; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhuo, Kelei

    2018-06-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene aerogel (NS-GA) is prepared by one-pot process. The as-prepared materials are investigated as supercapacitors electrodes in an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, EMIMBF4) electrolyte. The NS-GA is characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the NS-GA has hierarchical porous structure. Electrochemical performance is investigated by cycle voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. Notably, the supercapacitor based on the NS-GA-5 possesses a maximum energy density of 100.7 Wh kg-1 at power density of 0.94 kW kg-1. The electrode materials also offer a large specific capacitance of 203.2 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and the capacitance retention of NS-GA-5 is 90% after 3000 cycles at a scan rate of 2 A g-1. The NS-GA-5 with numerous advantages including low cost and remarkable electrochemical behaviors can be a promising electrode material for the application of supercapacitors.

  17. A trigeneration system based on polymer electrolyte fuel cell and desiccant wheel – Part B: Overall system design and energy performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intini, M.; De Antonellis, S.; Joppolo, C.M.; Casalegno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seasonal simulation of a trigeneration system for building air-conditioning. • Effects of technical constraints on trigeneration system power consumption. • Optimal PEMFC unit size for maximizing trigeneration primary energy savings. - Abstract: This paper represents the second part of a major work focusing on a trigeneration system integrating a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) and a desiccant wheel-based air handling unit. Low temperature PEMFC systems have a significant potential in combined heating, cooling and power applications. However cogenerated heat temperature is relatively low (up to 65–70 °C), resulting in low efficiency of the cooling process, and the fuel processor is far from being flexible, hindering the operation of the system at low load conditions. Therefore a trigeneration system based on PEMFC should be carefully designed through accurate simulation tools. In the current paper a detailed analysis of the energy performance of the trigenerative system is provided, taking into account constraints of real applications, such as PEMFC part load behavior, desiccant wheel effectiveness, heat storage losses and air handling unit electrical consumptions. The methodology adopted to model system components is deeply described. Energy simulations are performed on yearly basis with variable building air conditioning loads and climate conditions, in order to investigate the optimal trigenerative unit size. A sensitivity analysis on crucial design parameters is provided. It is shown that constrains of actual applications have relevant effects on system energy consumption, which is significantly far from expected values based on a simplified analysis. Primary energy savings can be positive in winter time if the ratio of PEMFC heating capacity to air conditioning peak heating load is close to 0.15. Instead on yearly basis primary energy savings cannot be achieved with present components performance. Positive savings

  18. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime

  19. Influence of local porosity and local permeability on the performances of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiki, Tilda [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon); Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Charon, Willy; Iltchev, Marie-Christine; Kouta, Raed [Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Accary, Gilbert [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon)

    2010-08-15

    In the literature, many models and studies focused on the steady-state aspect of fuel cell systems while their dynamic transient behavior is still a wide area of research. In the present paper, we study the effects of mechanical solicitations on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the coupling between the physico-chemical phenomena and the mechanical behavior. We first develop a finite element method to analyze the local porosity distribution and the local permeability distribution inside the gas diffusion layer induced by different pressures applied on deformable graphite or steel bipolar plates. Then, a multi-physical approach is carried out, taking into account the chemical phenomena and the effects of the mechanical compression of the fuel cell, more precisely the deformation of the gas diffusion layer, the changes in the physical properties and the mass transfer in the gas diffusion layer. The effects of this varying porosity and permeability fields on the polarization and on the power density curves are reported, and the local current density is also investigated. Unlike other studies, our model accounts for a porosity field that varies locally in order to correctly simulate the effect of an inhomogeneous compression in the cell. (author)

  20. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil, R.A.; Theerthagiri, J. [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Madhavan, J., E-mail: jagan.madhavan@gmail.com [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Murugan, K. [Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Arunachalam, Prabhakarn [Electrochemistry Research Group, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Arof, A.K. [Centre for Ionics University Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2016-10-15

    successful attempt to provide a new pathway to enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Graphical abstract: In this study, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was synthesized from low cost urea and it was used as a precursor to synthesize of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composite. The pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO electrolytes were fabricated by solution casting method. A remarkably enhanced PCE of 4.73% was observed for 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO electrolyte with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composite photoanode based DSSC. - Highlights: • 2-APY added PVDF-HFP/PEO electrolyte was prepared by solution casting method. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites were synthesized by wet-impregnation method. • DSSC with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} and 2-APY added electrolyte showed the efficiency of 4.73 %. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and 2-APY can be a useful dopant to enhance the performance of DSSCs.

  1. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C3N4/TiO2 photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, R.A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Murugan, K.; Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Arof, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the effect of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APY) on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) blend polymer electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) and potassium iodide (KI)) and iodine (I 2 ) were studied for enhancing the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) consisting of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite as photoanode. The g-C 3 N 4 was synthesized from low cost urea by thermal condensation method. It was used as a precursor to synthesize the various weight percentage ratios (5%, 10% and 15%) of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites by wet-impregnation method. The pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes were arranged by wet chemical process (casting method) using DMF as a solvent. The synthesized g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites and polymer blend electrolytes were studied and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ionic conductivity values of the pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO blend electrolytes were estimated to be 4.53×10 −5 and 1.87×10 −4 Scm −1 respectively. The UV–vis absorption spectroscopy was carried out for the pure and different wt% of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites coated FTO films after N3 dye-sensitization. The 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite film showed a maximum absorption compared to the others. The DSSC assembled with 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 as photoanode using the pure polymer blend electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.17% , which was superior than that of DSSC based pure TiO 2 (2.46%). However, the PCE was increased to 4.73% for the DSSC assembled using 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 as photoanode with 2-APY incorporated polymer blend electrolyte. Hence, the present study is a successful attempt to provide a new pathway to enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Graphical abstract: In this study, the g-C 3 N

  2. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  3. Enhanced photoelectric performance in self-powered UV detectors based on ZnO nanowires with plasmonic Au nanoparticles scattered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yiyu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Bin; Dai, Wei; Pan, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. Au nanoparticles were well dispersed in the mixed solution of ethanol and deionized water. A simple self-powered ultraviolet detector based on solid-liquid heterojunction was fabricated, utilizing ZnO NWs as active photoanode and such prepared mixed solution as electrolyte. The introduction of Au nanoparticles results in considerable improvements in the responsivity and sensitivity of the device compared with the one using deionized water as electrolyte, which is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting by Au nanoparticles.

  4. Critical role of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface in photocatalytic performance for water-splitting reactions using Ta3N5 particles

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2014-08-26

    Distinct photocatalytic performance was observed when Ta3N 5 was synthesized from commercially available Ta2O 5 or from Ta2O5 prepared from TaCl5 via the sol-gel route. With respect to photocatalytic O2 evolution with Ag+ as a sacrificial reagent, the Ta3N5 produced from commercial Ta2O5 exhibited higher activity than the Ta3N5 produced via the sol-gel route. When the Ta3N5 photocatalysts were decorated with Pt nanoparticles in a similar manner, the Ta3N5 from the sol-gel route exhibited higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity from a 10% aqueous methanol solution than Ta3N5 prepared from commercial Ta2O5 where no hydrogen can be detected. Detailed surface and bulk characterizations were conducted to obtain fundamental insight into the resulting photocatalytic activities. The characterization techniques, including XRD, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and surface-area measurements, revealed only negligible differences between these two photocatalysts. Our thorough characterization of the surface properties demonstrated that the very thin outermost layer of Ta3N5, with a thickness of a few nanometers, consists of either the reduced state of tantalum (TaN) or an amorphous phase. The extent of this surface layer was likely dependent on the nature of precursor oxide surfaces. DFT calculations based on partially oxidized Ta3N4.83O0.17 and N deficient Ta3N4.83 consisting of reduced Ta species well described the optoelectrochemical properties obtained from the experiments. Electrochemical and Mott-Schottky analyses demonstrated that the surface layer drastically affects the energetic picture at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which can consequently affect the photocatalytic performance. Chemical etching of the surface of Ta3N5 particles to remove this surface layer unites the photocatalytic properties with the photocatalytic performance of these two materials. Mott-Schottky plots of these chemically etched Ta3N5 materials

  5. Super-capacitive electro-chemical performance of polymer blend gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) in carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahidah, S. Nuur; Majid, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the fabrication and comparative performance characteristics of a symmetrical electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) employed gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) assembled between carbon based electrodes. Three cells, A, B and C were fabricated using different composition of active materials (activated or porous carbon), binder (PVdF-HFP) and conductivity enhancer (super-P). The configuration of cell A: 0.9 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP, cell B: 0.45 activated carbon/0.45 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP and cell C: 0.8 activated carbon/0.1 super-P/0.1 PVdF-HFP. The GPE, comprising a poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)/poly(vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoroproplyne) (PVdF-HFP) blend complexed with magnesium triflate, Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 , was prepared by the solution casting technique at 60 °C. The physico-chemical properties of the GPEs were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The ionic conductivity at the ambient temperature of the GPE is 2.16 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 7.5 wt.% of Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 with a ∼2.6 V electro-chemical stability window. At the 1000th cycle, the specific capacitance, C s of cell A is 89 F g −1 while cell B and C are 63 and 49 F g −1 . Cell A shows excellent long-term cyclic stability (less than a 5% decrease in specific capacitance after 1000 cycles). The best operating voltage for cell A is 1.6 V with the specific capacitance 106 F g −1 after 500 cycles

  6. The Effects of Self-Discharge on the Performance of Symmetric Electric Double-Layer Capacitors and Active Electrolyte-Enhanced Supercapacitors: Insights from Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of self-discharge on the performance of symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and active electrolyte-enhanced supercapacitors were examined by incorporating self-discharge into electrochemical capacitor models during charging and discharging. The sources of self-discharge in capacitors were side reactions or redox reactions and several impurities and electric double-layer (EDL) instability. The effects of self-discharge during capacitor storage was negligible since it took a fully charged capacitor a minimum of 14.0 days to be entirely discharged by self-discharge in all conditions studied, hence self-discharge in storage condition can be ignored. The first and second charge-discharge cycle energy efficiencies η_{{{{E}}1}} and η_{{{{E}}2}} of a capacitor of electrode effective conductivity α1 = 0.05 S/cm with only EDL instability self-discharge with current density J_{{VR}} = 1.25 × 10-3 A/cm2 were 72.33% and 72.34%, respectively. Also, energy efficiencies η_{{{{E}}1}} and η_{{{{E}}2}} of a similar capacitor with both side reactions and redox reactions and EDL instability self-discharges with current densities J_{{VR}} = 0.00125 A/cm2 and J_{{{{VR}}1}} = 0.0032 A/cm2 were 38.13% and 38.14% respectively, compared with 84.24% and 84.25% in a similar capacitor without self-discharge. A capacitor with only EDL instability self-discharge and that with both side reactions and redox reactions and EDL instability self-discharge lost 9.73 Wh and 28.38 Wh of energy, respectively, through self-discharge during charging and discharging. Hence, EDLCs charging and discharging time is significantly dependent on the self-discharge rate which are too large to be ignored.

  7. Composite, Polymer-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratner, Mark A

    2001-01-01

    .... Several substantive advances towards new, improved performance electrolyte materials both for low temperature fuel cell applications and for advanced secondary lithium battery materials have been reported...

  8. Magnesia nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells: An effective recombination suppressant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Shyama Prasad; Bhargava, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MgO loaded electrolyte retards recombination at titania/electrolyte interface. ► Recombination reactions are retarded by adsorption of anions on MgO in electrolyte. ► Zeta potential measurements show anionic adsorption on the surface of MgO. ► MgO loaded electrolyte performs efficiently than TBP containing electrolyte. -- Abstract: Recombination reactions at the photoanode/electrolyte interface reduce the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Unlike modification of titania photoanode by coating with MgO which act as a barrier layer toward recombination, addition of MgO nanopowder to electrolyte prevents recombination through adsorption of anions (triiodide/iodide) from electrolyte. In the present study, the surface charge of MgO has been utilized to adsorb anions from electrolyte. This anionic adsorption onto the MgO nanopowders in electrolyte has been confirmed by zeta potential measurements. MgO retards the recombination reaction as efficiently as 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) which is the most widely used additive in the electrolyte. Higher photocurrent and conversion efficiency is achieved by using MgO loaded electrolyte as compared to TBP added electrolyte. Dark current measurements show that recombination reactions are effectively retarded by use of MgO loaded electrolytes. Open circuit voltage decay measurements also confirm higher electron lifetime at the titania/electrolyte interface in MgO loaded electrolyte based cell as compared to additive free electrolyte based cell

  9. Effects of crown ethers in nanocomposite silica-gel electrolytes on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    I) and iodine (I2) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent. Three types of CEs, 12-crown-4 (12-C-4), 15-crown-5 (15-C-5), and 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) were used as additives to the gel electrolytes. DSSCs containing CEs showed enhancements in solar

  10. Enhanced performance of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with aluminum nitride in its gel polymer electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yen; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    I), iodine (I2), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), was solidified with poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP). The 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% of AlN were added to the electrolyte for this study. XRD analysis

  11. Y and Ni Co-Doped BaZrO3 as a Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Exhibiting Superior Power Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Shafi, Shahid P.; Bi, Lei; Boulfrad, Samir; Traversa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of anode supported single cells based on BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) electrolyte is challenging due to its poor sinteractive nature. The acceleration of shrinkage behavior, improved sinterability and larger grain size were achieved

  12. Comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles on the performance and charge recombination of water-based gel electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Malihe; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar; Mozaffari, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (J sc ) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured. For further characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the charge transfer at Pt/electrolyte interface and charge recombination and electron transport at TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface. Significant improvements in conversion efficiency and short circuit current density of DSSCs fabricated by chitosan nanoparticle were observed that can be attributed to the higher mobility of I 3 - due to the lower viscosity and smaller size of chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailoring the electrode-electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) by laser micro-patterning to improve their electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, J. A.; Lahoz, R.; Laguna-Bercero, M. A.; Larrea, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cathode activation polarisation is one of the main contributions to the losses of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. To reduce this loss we use a pulsed laser to modify the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes to make a corrugated micro-patterning in the mesoscale. The beam of the laser source, 5 ns pulse width and emitting at λ = 532 nm (green region), is computer-controlled to engrave the selected micro-pattern on the electrolyte surface. Several laser scanning procedures and geometries have been tested. Finally, we engrave a square array with 28 μm of lattice parameter and 7 μm in depth on YSZ plates. With these plates we prepare LSM-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ symmetrical cells (LSM: La1-xSrxMnO3) and determine their activation polarisation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). To get good electrode-electrolyte contact after sintering it is necessary to use pressure-assisted sintering with low loads (about 5 kPa), which do not modify the electrode microstructure. The decrease in polarisation with respect to an unprocessed cell is about 30%. EIS analysis confirms that the reason for this decrease is an improvement in the activation processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  14. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  15. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  16. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  17. Performance of molten carbonate fuel cells with the electrolyte molded at low pressure (IV). Analysis of performance decay factors in MCFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, Atuo; Ozu, Hideyuki; Murata, Kenji; Shirogami, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Takao; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Horiuchi, Nagayuki

    1987-09-01

    A 1500-h performance test on a 30 x 30 cm cell stack of 10 molten carbonate fuel cells was performed to evaluate the durability of the stack. Beyond 1000 h, decay of its performance was observed. The result of the study for the cause of the decay is reported. The structures of the single cell and stack are introduced. The effective area of the electrode is 530 m/sup 2/. After 1020 h use, the output voltage decreased. Analysis of the cell characteristics and post-test analysis were performed to study the cause of the decrease. It was found that the main cause for the voltage loss would be the occurrence of slight short circuiting between the edge-seal areas via a corrosion product. However, little transfer of lithium and potassium ions was observed through the manifold seal which had been regarded as the main cause for the decay of stacked cells. It was assumed that this was due to the employment of a sealing material which contained glass of low manifold ion conductivity. (10 figs, 4 refs)

  18. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  19. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Polymer anion-selective membranes for electrolytic splitting of water. Part II: enhancement of ionic conductivity and performance under conditions of alkaline water electrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Žitka, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2012), s. 545-554 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08005 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212903 - WELTEMP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : water electrolysis * alkaline environment * polymer electrolyte Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.836, year: 2012

  3. Importance of the counterion in optimization of a borate electrolyte system for analyses of anions in samples with complex matrices performed by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Březková, M.; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 20 (2004), s. 3406-3415 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR IAA4031401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolyte * borate buffer * capillary zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  4. High-performance supercapacitors of carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres coated on flexible carbon fibre paper: Effects of oxygen-containing group contents, electrolytes and operating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Wutthiprom, Juthaporn; Suktha, Phansiri; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Chanlek, Narong; Shepherd, Celine; Hadzifejzovic, Emina; Moloney, Mark G.; Foord, John S.; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-01-01

    Although functionalized carbon-based materials have been widely used as the supercapacitor electrodes, the optimum contents of the functional groups, the charge storage mechanisms, and the effects of electrolytes and operating temperature have not yet been clearly investigated. In this work, carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres (c-HCN) with different functional group contents synthesized by an oxidation process of carbon nanospheres with nitric acid were coated on flexible carbon fibre paper and used as the supercapacitor electrodes. An as-fabricated supercapacitor of the c-HCN with a finely tuned 6.2 atomic % of oxygen of the oxygen-containing groups in an ionic liquid electrolyte exhibits a specific capacitance of 390 F g"−"1, a specific energy of 115 Wh kg"−"1, and a maximum specific power of 13548 W kg"−"1 at 70 °C. The charge storage mechanism investigated is based on the chemical adsorption of the ionic liquid electrolyte on the c-HCN electrode. This process is highly reversible leading to high capacity retention. The supercapacitor in this work may be practically used in many high energy and power applications.

  5. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  6. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  7. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  8. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  9. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  11. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref

  13. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  14. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  15. A review of electrolyte materials and compositions for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Deng, Yida; Hu, Wenbin; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-11-07

    Electrolytes have been identified as some of the most influential components in the performance of electrochemical supercapacitors (ESs), which include: electrical double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors and hybrid supercapacitors. This paper reviews recent progress in the research and development of ES electrolytes. The electrolytes are classified into several categories, including: aqueous, organic, ionic liquids, solid-state or quasi-solid-state, as well as redox-active electrolytes. Effects of electrolyte properties on ES performance are discussed in detail. The principles and methods of designing and optimizing electrolytes for ES performance and application are highlighted through a comprehensive analysis of the literature. Interaction among the electrolytes, electro-active materials and inactive components (current collectors, binders, and separators) is discussed. The challenges in producing high-performing electrolytes are analyzed. Several possible research directions to overcome these challenges are proposed for future efforts, with the main aim of improving ESs' energy density without sacrificing existing advantages (e.g., a high power density and a long cycle-life) (507 references).

  16. Nafion and modified-Nafion membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) employ membrane electrolytes for proton transport during the cell reaction. The membrane forms a key component of the PEFC and its performance is controlled by several physical parameters, viz. water up-take, ion-exchange capacity, proton conductivity and humidity. The article ...

  17. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  18. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  19. Electrochemical performance of a hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with a graphite anode preloaded from lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, C.; Lota, G.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.; Frackowiak, E.; Béguin, F.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid LiC capacitor combining a lithium-ion battery type (graphite) electrode and an electrical double-layer (activated carbon) one has been developed by preloading graphite from 2 mol L −1 lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) organic electrolyte. The graphite intercalation compound was formed by applying ca. 10 successive charge/self-discharge pulses. The optimized hybrid device operates in the voltage range from 1.5 to 4.2 V and displays 60% higher gravimetric capacitance than an electric double-layer (EDL) capacitor using the same activated carbon for both electrodes. As a result, the energy density reaches 80 Wh kg −1 , which is four times higher than the value for the EDL capacitor with the same total mass of carbon.

  20. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  1. Mechanisms for naphthalene removal during electrolytic aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ramesh K; Flora, Joseph R V; Ferry, John

    2003-02-01

    Batch tests were performed to investigate chemical and physical processes that may result during electrolytic aeration of a contaminated aquifer using naphthalene as a model contaminant. Naphthalene degradation of 58-66% took place electrolytically and occurred at the same rates at a pH of 4 and 7. 1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a product of the electrolysis. Stripping due to gases produced at the electrodes did not result in any naphthalene loss. Hydrogen peroxide (which may be produced at the cathode) did not have any effect on naphthalene, but the addition of ferrous iron (which may be present in aquifers) resulted in 67-99% disappearance of naphthalene. Chlorine (which may be produced from the anodic oxidation of chloride) can effectively degrade naphthalene at pH of 4, but not at a pH of 7. Mono-, di- and poly chloronaphthalenes were identified as oxidation products. Ferric iron coagulation (due to the oxidation of ferrous iron) did not significantly contribute to naphthalene loss. Overall, electrolytic oxidation and chemical oxidation due to the electrolytic by-products formed are significant abiotic processes that could occur and should be accounted for if bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites via electrolytic aeration is considered. Possible undesirable products such as chlorinated compounds may be formed when significant amounts of chlorides are present.

  2. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  3. REMOVAL OF COPPER ELECTROLYTE CONTAMINANTS BY ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gabai

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Selective adsorbents have become frequently used in industrial processes. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using adsorption to separate copper refinery electrolyte contaminants, with better results than those obtained with conventional techniques. During copper electrorefinning, many impurities may be found as dissolved metals present in the anode slime which forms on the electrode surface, accumulated in the electrolyte or incorporated into the refined copper on the cathode by deposition. In this study, synthetic zeolites, chelating resins and activated carbons were tested as adsorbents to select the best adsorbent performance, as well as the best operating temperature for the process. The experimental method applied was the finite bath, which consists in bringing the adsorbent into contact with a finite volume of electrolyte while controlling the temperature. The concentration of metals in the liquid phase was continuously monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS

  4. Electrolyte solution transport in electropolar nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbing; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen Xi; Qiao Yu; Zhou Qulan; Li Yibing; Tak, Moonho; Park, Taehyo

    2010-01-01

    Electrolyte transport in nanochannels plays an important role in a number of emerging areas. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, the fundamental transport behavior of an electrolyte/water solution in a confined model nanoenvironment is systematically investigated by varying the nanochannel dimension, solid phase, electrolyte phase, ion concentration and transport rate. It is found that the shear resistance encountered by the nanofluid strongly depends on these material/system parameters; furthermore, several effects are coupled. The mechanisms of the nanofluidic transport characteristics are explained by considering the unique molecular/ion structure formed inside the nanochannel. The lower shear resistance observed in some of the systems studies could be beneficial for nanoconductors, while the higher shear resistance (or higher effective viscosity) observed in other systems might enhance the performance of energy dissipation devices.

  5. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  6. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell: acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    A mathematical model for a complete Li/SOCl/sub 2/ static cell with acid electrolyte is presented. Concentrated solution theory is extended to account for the presence of two neutral species in the electrolyte. The effects of initial acid concentration, positive electrode thickness, and galvanostatic discharge rate on cell performance are elucidated. Results are compared with equivalent cells that use a neutral electrolyte.

  7. Mg/O2 Battery Based on the Magnesium-Aluminum Chloride Complex (MACC) Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardar, Galin; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Thomson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Mg/O2 cells employing a MgCl2/AlCl3/DME (MACC/DME) electrolyte are cycled and compared to cells with modified Grignard electrolytes, showing that performance of magnesium/oxygen batteries depends strongly on electrolyte composition. Discharge capacity is far greater for MACC/DME-based cells, whil...

  8. Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lindberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

  9. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  10. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  11. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Conductometry of electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.

    1992-09-01

    A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  13. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  14. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-01-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I corr ) and higher corrosion potential (E corr ) than those of the substrate.

  15. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei, E-mail: wangjw@ustb.edu.cn; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-11-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I{sub corr}) and higher corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) than those of the substrate.

  16. Structural Properties and Sensing Performance of CeYxOy Sensing Films for Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor pH Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Wang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yi

    2017-06-07

    In this study we developed CeY x O y sensing membranes displaying super-Nernstian pH-sensitivity for use in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) pH sensors. We examined the effect of thermal annealing on the structural properties and sensing characteristics of the CeY x O y sensing membranes deposited through reactive co-sputtering onto Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the structural, morphological, and chemical features, respectively, of the CeY x O y films after their annealing at 600-900 °C. Among the tested systems, the CeY x O y EIS device prepared with annealing at 800 °C exhibited the highest sensitivity (78.15 mV/pH), the lowest hysteresis voltage (1.4 mV), and the lowest drift rate (0.85 mV/h). Presumably, these annealing conditions optimized the stoichiometry of (CeY)O 2 in the film and its surface roughness while suppressing silicate formation at the CeY x O y -Si interface. We attribute the super-Nernstian pH-sensitivity to the incorporation of Y ions in the Ce framework, thereby decreasing the oxidation state Ce (Ce 4+  → Ce 3+ ) and resulting in less than one electron transferred per proton in the redox reaction.

  17. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  18. Electrolytic plasma processing of steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Araya, R.N; Baeza, B

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatments of steels with plasma is normally carried out in low-pressure ionized gaseous atmospheres. Among the treatments used most often are: nitruration, carburization and boronized. A plasma can also generate at atmospheric pressure. One way to produce it is with an electrochemical cell that works at a relatively high inter-electrode voltage and under conditions of heavy gas generation. This type of plasma is known as electrolytic plasma. This work studies the feasibility of using electrolytic plasma for the surface processing of steels. Two processes were selected: boronized and nitruration., for the hardening of two types of steel: one with low carbon (1020) and one with low alloy (4140). In the case of the nitruration, the 1020 steel was first aluminized. The electrolytes were aqueous solutions of borax for the boronizing and urea for the nitruration. The electrolytic plasmas were classified qualitatively, in relation with their luminosity by low, medium and high intensity. The boronizing was carried out with low intensity plasmas for a period of one hour. The nitruration was performed with plasmas of different intensities and for period of a few minutes to half an hour. The test pieces processed by electrolytic plasma were characterized by micro-hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. The maximum surface hardnesses obtained for the 1020 and 4140 steels were the following: 300 and 700 HV for the boronizing, and 1650 and 1200 HV for the nitruration, respectively. The utilization of an electrolytic plasma permits the surface processing of steels, noticeably increasing their hardness. With this type of plasma some thermo-chemical surface treatments can be done very rapidly as well (CW)

  19. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  20. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  1. Effects of TiO2 and TiC Nanofillers on the Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Polymer Gel Electrolyte of a Cobalt Redox System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Shanmuganathan; Liu, I-Ping; Chen, Li-Tung; Hou, Yi-Chen; Li, Chiao-Wei; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-09-21

    Polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) of cobalt redox system are prepared for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) is used as a gelator of an acetonitrile (ACN) liquid electrolyte containing tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II/III) redox couple. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles are utilized as nanofillers (NFs) of this PGE, and the effects of the two NFs on the conductivity of the PGEs, charge-transfer resistances at the electrode/PGE interface, and the performance of the gel-state DSSCs are studied and compared. The results show that the presence of TiC NFs significantly increases the conductivity of the PGE and decreases the charge-transfer resistance at the Pt counter-electrode (CE)/PGE interface. Therefore, the gel-state DSSC utilizing TiC NFs can achieve a conversion efficiency (6.29%) comparable to its liquid counterpart (6.30%), and, furthermore, the cell efficiency can retain 94% of its initial value after a 1000 h stability test at 50 °C. On the contrary, introduction of TiO2 NFs in the PGE causes a decrease of cell performances. It shows that the presence of TiO2 NFs increases the charge-transfer resistance at the Pt CE/PGE interface, induces the charge recombination at the photoanode/PGE interface, and, furthermore, causes a dye desorption in a long-term-stability test. These results are different from those reported for the iodide redox system and are ascribed to a specific attractive interaction between TiO2 and cobalt redox ions.

  2. Performance of La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ perovskite-structure anode material at lanthanum gallate electrolyte for IT-SOFC running on ethanol fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Wang, S. R.; Liu, R. Z.; Ye, X. F.; Nie, H. W.; Sun, X. F.; Wen, T. L.

    Perovskite-structure La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ (LSCM) powders were prepared using a simple combustion process. Thermal analysis was carried out on the perovskite precursor to investigate the oxide-phase formation. The structural phase of the powders was determined by X-ray diffraction. These results showed that the decomposition of the precursors occurs in a two-step reaction and temperatures higher than 1100 °C are required for these decomposition reactions. For the electrochemical characterization, LSCM anode materials and (Pr 0.7Ca 0.3) 0.9MnO 3 (PCM) cathode materials were screen-printed on two sides of dense La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSGM) electrolyte layers prepared by tape casting with a thickness of about 600 μm, respectively. The morphology of the screen-printed La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ perovskite thick films (65 μm) was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and showed a porous microstructure. In addition, fuel cell tests were carried out using humidified hydrogen or ethanol stream as fuel and oxygen as oxidant. The performance of the conventional electrolyte-supported cell LSCM/LSGM/PCM while operating on humidified hydrogen was modest with a maximum power density of 165, 99 and 62 mW cm -2 at 850, 800 and 750 °C, respectively, the corresponding values for the cell while operating on ethanol stream was 160, 101 and 58 mW cm -2, respectively. Cell stability tests indicate no significant degradation in performance has been observed after 60 h of cell testing when LSCM anode was exposed to ethanol steam at 750 °C, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation.

  3. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  4. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  5. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  6. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  7. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  8. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Yanga, Dennis A.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration

  9. Solid electrolyte batteries and fast ion conducting glasses, factors affecting a proposed merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, D R; Tuller, H L; Button, D P; Valez, M [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1983-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with advanced battery systems employing glass as a solid electrolyte. After an initial discussion of battery systems employing solid electrolytes, and of the attractive features offered by glass electrolytes, consideration is given to batteries fabricated with such electrolytes and to their performance characteristics. Subsequent discussion is directed to the two principal characteristics of glasses which are critical to their use as solid electrolytes - viz., their electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosive attack. The present state of knowledge in each of these areas is summarized, with particular focus on glasses with exceptionally high ionic conductivities - so-called fast ion conductors or FIC's.

  10. Suppressed Sr segregation and performance of directly assembled La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ oxygen electrode on Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Na; He, Shuai; Li, Na; Zhang, Qi; Rickard, William D. A.; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-04-01

    Active and stable oxygen electrode is probably the most important in the development of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) technologies. Herein, we report the successful development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) perovskite oxides directly assembled on barrier-layer-free yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte as highly active and stable oxygen electrodes of SOECs. Electrolysis polarization effectively induces the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to that observed under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation conditions. However, in contrast to the significant performance decay under SOFC operation conditions, the cell with directly assembled LSCF oxygen electrodes shows excellent stability, tested for 300 h at 0.5 A cm-2 and 750 °C under SOEC operation conditions. Detailed microstructure and phase analysis reveal that Sr segregation is inevitable for LSCF electrode, but anodic polarization substantially suppresses Sr segregation and migration to the electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to the formation of stable and efficient electrode/electrolyte interface for water and CO2 electrolysis under SOECs operation conditions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using directly assembled MIEC cobaltite based oxygen electrodes on barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte of SOECs.

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    . However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  12. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  13. Enhanced Li-O_2 battery performance, using graphene-like nori-derived carbon as the cathode and adding LiI in the electrolyte as a promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiaoyuan; Leng, Limin; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Guanghua; Dong, Yuanyuan; Du, Li; Liu, Lina; Liao, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-like nori-derived carbon was prepared as a new cathode of Li-O_2 battery. • The battery showed superior round-trip efficiency and good cycling stability. • The NORI catalyst with LiI dramatically enhanced the performance of Li-O_2 battery. • The added LiI changed the morphology and chemical nature of the discharge products. - Abstract: To rapidly promote the development of electric vehicles, an efficient cathode catalyst for Li-O_2 batteries is urgently needed. In the present study, we prepared a new type of doped carbon catalyst derived from nori biomass for the cathode of Li-O_2 batteries, using a hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis method. The catalyst presented a graphene-like nanosheet structure, a high surface area, and excellent ORR/OER activity. Li-O_2 batteries with this catalyst exhibited superior round-trip efficiency (at current densities of 500 mA/g, the corresponding coulombic efficiency was 99.8%) and excellent cycling stability (100 stable cycles at 200 mA/g under capacity limitation). Furthermore, the charge–discharge overpotential could be reduced dramatically by adding LiI to the electrolyte, resulting in greatly enhanced battery performance. The battery’s energy efficiency was over 90%, even after 100 cycles at limited capacity. We concluded the following: (i) the high surface area and nanosheet structure of the nori catalyst provided sufficient space not only to accommodate the discharge products but also to guarantee that oxygen, soluble catalyst, and lithium ions could be freely transported; and (ii) these combined with the redox mediator LiI that was added to the electrolyte, which could freely access the interior of the air electrode, easily reacting with the solid discharge products and effectively changing the morphology and chemical nature of the discharge products. We believe these factors were responsible for the significantly enhanced performance of the resulting Li-O_2 batteries, suggesting

  14. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  15. Advanced Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han

    Research on solid electrochemical energy storage devices aims to provide high performance, low cost, and safe operation solutions for emerging applications from flexible consumer electronics to microelectronics. Polymer electrolytes, minimizing device sealing and liquid electrolyte leakage, are key enablers for these next-generation technologies. In this thesis, a novel proton-conducing polymer electrolyte system has been developed using heteropolyacids (HPAs) and polyvinyl alcohol for electrochemical capacitors. A thorough understanding of proton conduction mechanisms of HPAs together with the interactions among HPAs, additives, and polymer framework has been developed. Structure and chemical bonding of the electrolytes have been studied extensively to identify and elucidate key attributes affecting the electrolyte properties. Numerical models describing the proton conduction mechanism have been applied to differentiate those attributes. The performance optimization of the polymer electrolytes through additives, polymer structural modifications, and synthesis of alternative HPAs has achieved several important milestones, including: (a) high proton mobility and proton density; (b) good ion accessibility at electrode/electrolyte interface; (c) wide electrochemical stability window; and (d) good environmental stability. Specifically, high proton mobility has been addressed by cross-linking the polymer framework to improve the water storage capability at normal-to-high humidity conditions (e.g. 50-80% RH) as well as by incorporating nano-fillers to enhance the water retention at normal humidity levels (e.g. 30-60% RH). High proton density has been reached by utilizing additional proton donors (i.e. acidic plasticizers) and by developing different HPAs. Good ion accessibility has been achieved through addition of plasticizers. Electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte system has also been investigated and expanded by utilizing HPAs with different heteroatoms

  16. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    composite electrolyte as shown by the thermos- gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity measurements suggest that the addition of DC to the gel...stability of the composite electrolyte as shown by the thermos- gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity measurements suggest that the...2.3. Testing methods and equipment Impedance testing using the Solartron 1260A Impedance/ Gain- phase Analyzer was performed on each cell at

  17. High performance Ni-Sm{sub 0.15}Ce{sub 0.85}O{sub 2-{delta}} cermet anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells using LaGaO{sub 3} based oxide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shizhong; Takita, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Ando, Masaki [Materials Production Course, Graduate School of Engineering, Oita University, Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Ishihara, Tatsumi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2004-10-29

    Effect of the composition and synthesizing approaches on the performance of Ni-15 mol% Sm{sup 3+} doped CeO{sub 2} (Sm{sub 0.15}Ce{sub 0.85}O{sub 2-{delta}}, SDC) composite anodes were studied. The results showed that the addition of SDC into Ni significantly improved the performance of Ni anode mainly by reducing the ohmic resistance of the cell and the overpotential at anode/electrolyte interface. The introduction of SDC into Ni created more active sites for H{sub 2} oxidation; however, it also increased the activation energy of the process at the same time. Therefore, the anodic overpotential of Ni-SDC composite electrode was higher than pure Ni at low reaction temperatures (873 K), while lower than that of pure Ni at 1073 K. Further experiments showed that the activities of Ni-SDC composite electrodes showed strong dependency on the synthesizing approaches. The electrodes prepared with impregnation methods exhibited a much higher activity compared with the electrodes prepared with solid-state reaction due to the reduced ohmic resistance. The low ohmic resistance of the cells using Ni-SDC anodes prepared with impregnation method is due to the improved distribution of Ni and SDC in the green powder of anode. An equal distribution of Ni and SDC is essential to minimize the reaction between Ni and strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and decrease the ohmic resistance.

  18. Electrolytic preconcentration in instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioda, R E; Batley, G E; Lund, W; Wang, J; Leach, S C

    1986-05-01

    The use of electrolytic deposition as a separation and preconcentration step in trace metal analysis is reviewed. Both the principles and applications of the technique are dealt with in some detail. Electrolytic preconcentration can be combined with a variety of instrumental techniques. Special attention is given to stripping voltammetry, potentiometric stripping analysis, different combinations with atomic-absorption spectrometry, and the use of flow-through porous electrodes. It is pointed out that the electrolytic preconcentration technique deserves more extensive use as well as fundamental investigation.

  19. High flash point electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isken, P.; Dippel, C.; Schmitz, R.; Schmitz, R.W.; Kunze, M.; Passerini, S.; Winter, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Lex-Balducci, A., E-mail: a.lex-balducci@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Substitution of linear carbonates in conventional electrolytes with adiponitrile allows the realization of high flash point electrolytes. > EC:ADN based electrolytes display a higher anodic stability than a conventional electrolyte based on EC:DEC. > Graphite and NCM electrodes used in combination with the EC:ADN based electrolyte display a performance comparable with that of conventional electrolytes. - Abstract: The high flash point solvent adiponitrile (ADN) was investigated as co-solvent with ethylene carbonate (EC) for use as lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The flash point of this solvent mixture was more than 110 deg. C higher than that of conventional electrolyte solutions involving volatile linear carbonate components, such as diethyl carbonate (DEC) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The electrolyte based on EC:ADN (1:1 wt) with lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) displayed a conductivity of 2.6 mS cm{sup -1} and no aluminum corrosion. In addition, it showed higher anodic stability on a Pt electrode than the standard electrolyte 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}) in EC:DEC (3:7 wt). Graphite/Li half cells using this electrolyte showed excellent rate capability up to 5C and good cycling stability (more than 98% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 1C). Additionally, the electrolyte was investigated in NCM/Li half cells. The cells were able to reach a capacity of 104 mAh g{sup -1} at 5C and capacity retention of more than 97% after 50 cycles. These results show that an electrolyte with a considerably increased flash point with respect to common electrolyte systems comprising linear carbonates, could be realized without any negative effects on the electrochemical performance in Li-half cells.

  20. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  1. High performance ceria-bismuth bilayer electrolyte low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) fabricated by combining co-pressing with drop-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jie; Bi, Lei; Qian, Jing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Junyu; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O2-δ-Er0.4Bi1.6O3 bilayer structure film, which showed an encouraging performance in LT-SOFCs, was successfully fabricated by a simple low cost technique combining one-step co-pressing with drop-coating.

  2. High performance ceria-bismuth bilayer electrolyte low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) fabricated by combining co-pressing with drop-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jie

    2015-03-24

    The Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O2-δ-Er0.4Bi1.6O3 bilayer structure film, which showed an encouraging performance in LT-SOFCs, was successfully fabricated by a simple low cost technique combining one-step co-pressing with drop-coating.

  3. Rambutan-like CNT-Al2O3 scaffolds for high-performance cathode catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, KwangHyun; Cho, Seonghun; Lim, Eun Ja; Park, Seok-Hee; Yim, Sung-Dae

    2018-03-01

    Rambutan-like CNT-Al2O3 scaffolds are introduced as a potential candidate for CNT-based catalyst supports to overcome the CNT issues, such as the easy bundling in catalyst ink and the poor pore structure of the CNT-based catalyst layers, and to achieve high MEA performance in PEFCs. Non-porous α-phase Al2O3 balls are introduced to enable the growth of multiwalled CNTs, and Pt nanoparticles are loaded onto the CNT surfaces. In a half-cell, the Pt/CNT-Al2O3 catalyst shows much higher durability than those of a commercial Pt/C catalyst even though it shows lower oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity than Pt/C. After using the decal process for MEA formation, the Pt/CNT-Al2O3 shows comparable initial performance characteristics to Pt/C, overcoming the lower ORR activity, mainly due to the facile oxygen transport in the cathode catalyst layers fabricated with the CNT-Al2O3 scaffolds. The Pt/CNT-Al2O3 also exhibits much higher durability against carbon corrosion than Pt/C owing to the durable characteristics of CNTs. Systematic analysis of single cell performance for both initial and after degradation is provided to understand the origin of the high initial performance and durable behavior of Pt/CNT-Al2O3-based catalyst layers. This will provide insights into the design of electrocatalysts for high-performance MEAs in PEFCs.

  4. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuzheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Cai, Yixiao [Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kim, Jung-Sik [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Wang, Baoyuan [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Wang, Jun, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se; Zhang, Yaoming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Li, Junjiao [Nanjing Yunna Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  5. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  6. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuzheng; Zhu, Bin; Cai, Yixiao; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoming; Li, Junjiao

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  7. Anastomotic leak detection by electrolyte electrical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Daniel T; Cline, Adam M; Johnson, Scott B

    2010-08-01

    To characterize a new method of postoperative gastrointestinal leak detection based on electrical resistance changes due to extravasated electrolyte contrast. Postoperative gastrointestinal leak results in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs that can be mitigated by early diagnosis. A sensitive and specific diagnostic test that could be performed at the bedside has the potential to shorten the time to diagnosis and thereby improve the quality of treatment. Anaesthetized rats underwent celiotomy and creation of a 5-mm gastrotomy. In experimental animals, electrical resistance changes were measured with a direct current ohmmeter after the introduction of 5 cc of 23.4% NaCl electrolyte solution via gavage and measured with a more sensitive alternating current ohmmeter after the gavage of 1-5 cc of 0.9% NaCl. Comparison was made to negative controls and statistical analysis was performed. Leakage from the gastrotomy induced by as little as 1 cc of gavage-delivered 0.9% NaCl contrast solution was detectable as a statistically significant drop in electrical resistance when compared to results from negative controls. Electrical resistance change associated with electrolyte-gated leak detection is highly sensitive and specific and has the potential to be rapidly translated into clinical settings.

  8. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  9. High performance electrodes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte. I. Ni-SDC cermet anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, S.; Maric, R.; Zhang, X.; Mukai, K.; Fukui, T.; Yoshida, H.; Inagaki, T.; Miura, K.

    A Ni-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) cermet was selected as the anode material for reduced temperature (800°C) solid oxide fuel cells. The NiO-SDC composite powder, synthesized by spray pyrolysis, was employed as the starting anode powder in this study. The influence of Ni content in Ni-SDC cermets on the electrode performance was investigated in order to create the most suitable microstructures. It was found that anodic polarization was strongly influenced by the Ni content in Ni-SDC cermets. The best results were obtained for anode cermets with Ni content of around 50 vol.%; anodic polarization was about 30 mV at a current density of 300 mA/cm 2. This high performance seems to be attributable to the microstructure, in which Ni grains form a skeleton with well-connected SDC grains finely distributed over the Ni grains surfaces; such microstructure was also conducive to high stability of the anode.

  10. High performance electrodes for reduced temperature solide oxide fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte. Pt. 1. Ni-SDC cermet anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, S.; Maric, R.; Zhang, X.; Mukai, K.; Fukui, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, H.; Inagaki, T. [The Kansai Electroc Power Co. Inc., Hyogo (Japan); Miura, K. [Kanden Kakou Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A Ni-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) cermet was selected as the anode material for reduced temperature (800 C) solid oxide fuel cells. The NiO-SDC composite powder, synthesized by spray pyrolysis, was employed as the starting anode powder in this study. The influence of Ni content in Ni-SDC cermets on the electrode performance was investigated in order to create the most suitable microstructures. It was found that anodic polarization was strongly influenced by the Ni content in Ni-SDC cermets. The best results were obtained for anode cermets with Ni content of around 50 vol.%; anodic polarization was about 30 mV at a current density of 300 mA/cm{sup 2}. This high performance seems to be attributable to the microstructure, in which Ni grains form a skeleton with well-connected SDC grains finely distributed over the Ni grains surfaces; such microstructure was also conducive to high stability of the anode. (orig.)

  11. Fire-extinguishing organic electrolytes for safe batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Watanabe, Eriko; Takada, Koji; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2018-01-01

    Severe safety concerns are impeding the large-scale employment of lithium/sodium batteries. Conventional electrolytes are highly flammable and volatile, which may cause catastrophic fires or explosions. Efforts to introduce flame-retardant solvents into the electrolytes have generally resulted in compromised battery performance because those solvents do not suitably passivate carbonaceous anodes. Here we report a salt-concentrated electrolyte design to resolve this dilemma via the spontaneous formation of a robust inorganic passivation film on the anode. We demonstrate that a concentrated electrolyte using a salt and a popular flame-retardant solvent (trimethyl phosphate), without any additives or soft binders, allows stable charge-discharge cycling of both hard-carbon and graphite anodes for more than 1,000 cycles (over one year) with negligible degradation; this performance is comparable or superior to that of conventional flammable carbonate electrolytes. The unusual passivation character of the concentrated electrolyte coupled with its fire-extinguishing property contributes to developing safe and long-lasting batteries, unlocking the limit toward development of much higher energy-density batteries.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  13. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  14. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  15. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  16. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  17. The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable battery of Zn/Na0.44MnO2 based on hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Yehua; Xiang, Yanhong; Liu, Zhixiong; He, Zeqiang; Wu, Xianming; Li, Youji; Xiong, Lizhi; Li, Chuanchang; Chen, Jian

    2016-12-01

    There is a broad application prospect for smart grid about aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery. In order to improve its electrochemical performance, a hybrid cationic aqueous-based rechargeable battery system based on the nanostructural Na0.44MnO2 and metallic zinc foil as the positive and negative electrodes respectively is built up. Nano rod-like Na0.44MnO2 is synthesized by sol-gel method followed by calcination at 850 °C for 9 h, and various characterization techniques including the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the as-prepared material. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge measurements are performed at the same time. The results show that the battery delivers a very high initial discharge capacity of 186.2 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C-rate in the range of 0.5-2.0 V, and it exhibits a discharge capacity of 113.3 mAh g-1 at high current density of 4 C-rate, indicative of excellent rate capability.

  18. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  19. High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Self-Assembled Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interlayer and a Robust Electrode-Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Min; Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Manthiram, Arumugam; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-01-13

    Elemental sulfur electrode has a huge advantage in terms of charge-storage capacity. However, the lack of electrical conductivity results in poor electrochemical utilization of sulfur and performance. This problem has been overcome to some extent previously by using a bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) paper interlayer between the sulfur cathode and the polymeric separator, resulting in good electron transport and adsorption of dissolved polysulfides. To advance the interlayer concept further, we present here a self-assembled MWCNT interlayer fabricated by a facile, low-cost process. The Li-S cells fabricated with the self-assembled MWCNT interlayer and a high loading of 3 mg cm(-2) sulfur exhibit a first discharge specific capacity of 1112 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C rate and retain 95.8% of the capacity at 0.5 C rate after 100 cycles as the self-assembled MWCNT interlayer facilitates good interfacial contact between the interlayer and the sulfur cathode and fast electron and lithium-ion transport while trapping and reutilizing the migrating polysulfides. The approach presented here has the potential to advance the commercialization feasibility of the Li-S batteries.

  20. Electrolyte-gated transistors based on phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films: bridging redox properties, charge carrier transport and device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Soavi, Francesca; Marcaccio, Massimo; Brunner, Pierre-Louis; Sayago, Jonathan; Santato, Clara

    2018-05-24

    The n-type organic semiconductor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), a soluble fullerene derivative well investigated for organic solar cells and transistors, can undergo several successive reversible, diffusion-controlled, one-electron reduction processes. We exploited such processes to shed light on the correlation between electron transfer properties, ionic and electronic transport as well as device performance in ionic liquid (IL)-gated transistors. Two ILs were considered, based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI] as the anion and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [EMIM] or 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium [PYR14] as the cation. The aromatic structure of [EMIM] and its lower steric hindrance with respect to [PYR14] favor a 3D (bulk) electrochemical doping. As opposed to this, for [PYR14] the doping seems to be 2D (surface-confined). If the n-doping of the PCBM is pursued beyond the first electrochemical process, the transistor current vs. gate-source voltage plots in [PYR14][TFSI] feature a maximum that points to the presence of finite windows of high conductivity in IL-gated PCBM transistors.

  1. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  2. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  3. Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Electrolyte for Electrochemical Polyaniline Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, A. I.; Im, Hyunsik; Jung, Woong; Kim, Hyungsang; Kim, Byungchul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sang; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2013-05-01

    The effect of different wt.% of ionic liquid "1,6-bis (trimethylammonium-1-yl) hexane tetrafluoroborate" in 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte on the supercapacitor properties of polyaniline (PANI) thin film are investigated. The PANI film is synthesized using electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfuric acid. The electrochemical properties of the PANI thin film are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The optimum amount of the ionic liquid is found to be 2 wt.% which provides better ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 259 F/g is obtained using the 2 wt.% electrolyte. This capacitance remains at up to 208 F/g (80% capacity retention) after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA/g. The PANI film in the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte shows small electrochemical resistance, better rate performance and higher cyclability. The increased ionic conductivity of the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed electrolyte causes a reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which can be useful in electrochemically-preferred power devices for better applicability.

  4. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  5. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  6. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  8. Molybdenum oxide nanowires based supercapacitors with enhanced capacitance and energy density in ethylammonium nitrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarfraz, Mansoor; Aboud, Mohamed F.A.; Shakir, Imran, E-mail: shakir@skku.edu

    2015-11-25

    Orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO{sub 3}) nanowires as an electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) electrolyte exhibits a high specific capacitance of 288 Fg{sup −1}, which is 8 times higher than the specific capacitance obtained from MoO{sub 3} nanowires in water based electrolyte. MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN electrolyte exhibit energy density of 46.32 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 20.3 kW kg{sup −1} with outstanding cycling stability with specific capacitance retention of 96% over 3000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN based electrolyte is primarily due to its relatively low viscosity (0.28 P at 25 °C), high electrical conductivity (20 mS cm{sup −1} at 25 °C) and large working voltage window. The results clearly demonstrate that EAN as electrolyte is one of the most promising electrolyte for high performance large scale energy storage devices. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single crystalline molybdenum oxide nanowires. • Ethylammonium Nitrate as an electrolyte for high performance large scale psuedocapacitor based energy storage devices. • Molybdenum oxide nanowires based electrodes shows 8 fold enhancement in Ethylammonium Nitrate electrolyte as compared to water based electrolytes. • The devices in Ethylammonium Nitrate exhibit excellent stability, retaining 96% of its initial capacity after 3000 cycles.

  9. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  10. Enhanced supercapacitance of activated vertical graphene nanosheets in hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahoo, Gopinath; Polaki, S. R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kamruddin, M.; Mathews, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors are becoming the workhorse for emerging energy storage applications due to their higher power density and superior cycle life compared to conventional batteries. The performance of supercapacitors depends on the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and interaction between them. Owing to the beneficial interconnected porous structure with multiple conducting channels, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) have proved to be leading supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach based on the combination of surface activation and a new organo-aqueous hybrid electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in H2SO4, to achieve significant enhancement in supercapacitor performance of VGN. As-synthesized VGN exhibits an excellent supercapacitance of 0.64 mF/cm2 in H2SO4. However, identification of a novel electrolyte for performance enhancement is the subject of current research. The present manuscript demonstrates the potential of the hybrid electrolyte in enhancing the areal capacitance (1.99 mF/cm2) with excellent retention (only 5.4% loss after 5000 cycles) and Coulombic efficiency (93.1%). In addition, a five-fold enhancement in the capacitance of VGNs (0.64 to 3.31 mF/cm2) with a reduced internal resistance is achieved by the combination of KOH activation and the hybrid electrolyte.

  11. Structural properties and sensing performance of high-k Nd2TiO5 thin layer-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor for pH detection and urea biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Lin, Jian-Chi; Wu, Min-Hsien; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2009-05-15

    For high sensitive pH sensing, an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) device with Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layers fabricated on Si substrates by means of reactive sputtering and the subsequent post-deposition annealing (PDA) treatment was proposed. In this work, the effect of thermal annealing (600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C) on the structural characteristics of Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The observed structural properties were then correlated with the resulting pH sensing performances. For enzymatic field-effect-transistors-based urea biosensing, a hybrid configuration of the proposed Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer with urease-immobilized alginate film attached was established. Within the experimental conditions investigated, the EIS device with the Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer annealed at 800 degrees C exhibited a higher pH detection sensitivity of 57.2 mV/pH, a lower hysteresis voltage of 2.33 mV, and a lower drift rate of 1.80 mV/h compared to those at other annealing temperatures. These results are attributed to the formation of a thinner low-k interfacial layer at the oxide/Si interface and the higher surface roughness occurred at this annealing temperature. Furthermore, the presented urea biosensor was also proved to be able to detect urea with good linearity (R(2)=0.99) and reasonable sensitivity of 9.52 mV/mM in the urea concentration range of 3-40 mM. As a whole, the present work has provided some fundamental data for the use of Nd(2)TiO(5) thin layer for EIS-based pH detection and the extended application for biosensing.

  12. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  13. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  14. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Shao, Yuyan; Gallagher, Kevin

    2016-07-11

    Moving to lighter and less expensive battery chemistries compared to lithium-ion requires the control of energy storage mechanisms based on chemical transformations rather than intercalation. Lithium sulfur (Li/S) has tremendous theoretical specific energy, but contemporary approaches to control this solution-mediated, precipitation-dissolution chemistry requires using large excesses of electrolyte to fully solubilize the polysulfide intermediate. Achieving reversible electrochemistry under lean electrolyte operation is the only path for Li/S to move beyond niche applications to potentially transformational performance. An emerging topic for Li/S research is the use of sparingly solvating electrolytes and the creation of design rules for discovering new electrolyte systems that fundamentally decouple electrolyte volume from reaction mechanism. This perspective presents an outlook for sparingly solvating electrolytes as the key path forward for longer-lived, high-energy density Li/S batteries including an overview of this promising new concept and some strategies for accomplishing it.

  15. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  16. Cathode-Electrolyte Interfaces with CGO Barrier Layers in SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Hjelm, Johan; Menon, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy characterization across the cathode–electrolyte interface of two different types of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) is performed to understand the origin of the cell performance disparity. One IT-SOFC cell had a sprayed-cosintered Ce0.90Gd0.01O1.95 (CGO...

  17. An Evaluation of Four Electrolyte Models for the Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalodin Momeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of four electrolyte models for prediction the osmotic and activity coefficients of different aqueous salt solutions at 298 K, atmospheric pressure and in a wide range of concentrations are evaluated. In two of these models, (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid e-NRTL and Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid MSA-NRTL, association between ions of opposite charges for simplification purposes is ignored and in the other two ones, (Associative Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid AMSA-NRTL and Binding Mean Spherical Approximation BiMSA association and solvation effects are considered. The predictions of these four models for the osmotic and activity coefficients of electrolyte solutions at 298 K and atmospheric pressure are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. This comparison includes, 28 different aqueous salt solutions including thio-cyanates, perchlorates, nitrates, hydroxides, quaternary ammonium salts and others. The results show, the performance of models that consider association effects are better than others especially for higher salt concentrations. However, the best performance belongs to BiMSA model which has some parameters with physical meaning.

  18. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  19. The potential for ionic liquid electrolytes to stabilise the magnesium interface for magnesium/air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Timothy; Howlett, Patrick C.; Tsagouria, Maureen; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Forsyth, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium/air batteries are a possible high-energy density power source that, to date, have not received strong commercial interest due to issues with the corrosion of the magnesium and evaporation of the electrolyte. In this work we report on the use of ionic liquid based electrolytes to stabilise the metal/electrolyte interface and their impact on the electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic measurements indicate that the water content of the ionic liquid electrolyte plays an important role in the cell discharge characteristics. Surface characterisation using EIS, ATR-FTIR and powder diffraction examined the unique properties of the surface film formed on the magnesium anode.

  20. Ionic liquids as electrolytes for Li-ion batteries-An overview of electrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Andrzej; Świderska-Mocek, Agnieszka

    The paper reviews properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries. It has been shown that the formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode surface is critical to the correct operation of secondary lithium-ion batteries, including those working with ionic liquids as electrolytes. The SEI layer may be formed by electrochemical transformation of (i) a molecular additive, (ii) RTIL cations or (iii) RTIL anions. Such properties of RTIL electrolytes as viscosity, conductivity, vapour pressure and lithium-ion transport numbers are also discussed from the point of view of their influence on battery performance.

  1. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  2. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed

  3. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  4. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  5. The installation and dismantling of electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to construction of aluminium electrolytic cells, their installation and dismantling. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  6. Characterization of positive electrode/electrolyte interphase in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, N.; Martin, J.F.; Soudan, P.; Guyomard, D. [Inst.des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    Lithium batteries appear to be the most viable energy source for portable electronic devices because of their energy density. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the negative electrode and the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery monitors the overall battery behaviour in terms of irreversible capacity loss, charge transfer kinetics and storage properties. This paper reported on a study that examined the influence of the storage atmosphere and the formation of a protective surface layer on the electrochemical performance. The objective was to better understand the interfacial problems controlling the long term life duration and cyclability. The positive/electrolyte interphase evolution was followed upon aging/cycling using 7Li MAS NMR, XPS and impedance spectroscopy. This very novel and uncommon technique was used to characterize the growth and evolution of the surface of some electrode materials for lithium batteries, due to contact with the ambient atmosphere or electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 were chosen for the studies because they are among the most promising candidates for positive electrodes for future lithium batteries. The reaction of LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 with the ambient atmosphere or LiPF6 electrolyte is extremely fast and leads to an important amount of lithium-containing diamagnetic species. The NMR spectra provided valuable structural information on the interaction between the interphase and the active material after contact with electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. MAS NMR was shown to be a very promising tool to monitor phenomena taking place at the interface between electrode and electrolyte in lithium batteries. The study showed the affect of the potential on the strength of the interaction between the surface layer and the active material and the partial removal of this layer along the electrochemical cycling. 11 refs.

  7. Towards versatile and sustainable hydrogen production via electrocatalytic water splitting: Electrolyte engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2016-12-17

    Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. The electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances where water splitting reaction is conducted, required solution conditions such as the identity and molarity of ions may significantly differ. Quantitative understanding of such electrolyte properties on electrolysis performance is effective to facilitate developing efficient electrocatalytic systems. The electrolyte can directly participate in reaction schemes (kinetics), electrode stability, and/or indirectly impacts the performance by influencing concentration overpotential (mass transport). This review aims to guide fine-tuning of the electrolyte properties, or electrolyte engineering, for (photo)electrochemical water splitting reactions.

  8. Towards versatile and sustainable hydrogen production via electrocatalytic water splitting: Electrolyte engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. The electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances where water splitting reaction is conducted, required solution conditions such as the identity and molarity of ions may significantly differ. Quantitative understanding of such electrolyte properties on electrolysis performance is effective to facilitate developing efficient electrocatalytic systems. The electrolyte can directly participate in reaction schemes (kinetics), electrode stability, and/or indirectly impacts the performance by influencing concentration overpotential (mass transport). This review aims to guide fine-tuning of the electrolyte properties, or electrolyte engineering, for (photo)electrochemical water splitting reactions.

  9. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  10. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode at high cutoff voltage by modifying electrode/electrolyte interface with lithium metasilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiale; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Bi, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaojiang; Peng, Yiyuan; Li, Yiqing; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrochemical properties of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode are investigated at high voltage of 4.6 V. •The Li 2 SiO 3 suppresses the decomposition of LiPF 6 and carbonate solvents. •Li 2 SiO 3 helpfully retards the transition metal dissolution by consuming HF. •The enhanced electrochemical properties of the LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathode mixed with Li 2 SiO 3 . -- Abstract: Developing high-voltage Li ion batteries (LIBs) is an important trend to meet the requirement of high energy density battery. However, high voltage will cause a series of problems harming the cycle performance of LIBs at the same time. This work is to investigate the effect of inorganic substance Li 2 SiO 3 on the electrochemical performance of LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 (NCM622) cathode at high cutoff voltage of 4.6 V. XRD result shows that the structure of NCM622 cathode material is not affected by mixing Li 2 SiO 3 . However, XPS and EIS tests indicate that Li 2 SiO 3 has an evident influence on suppressing the decomposition of LiPF 6 and carbonate solvents at high voltage, reducing interfacial solid film impedance and modifying electrode/electrolyte interface. In addition, Li 2 SiO 3 retards the transition metal dissolution by consuming HF. Therefore, it enhances the electrochemical properties of the NCM622 cathode significantly. The highest discharge capacity increases to 191.7 mA h g -1 by mixing Li 2 SiO 3 , compared with the value of 180 mA h g -1 in the case of NCM622 cathode. The NCM622 electrode mixed with Li 2 SiO 3 also exhibits a better capacity retention of 73.4% after 200 cycles and a high rate capability at 20C with the value of 89 mA h g -1 , in contrast with 62.2% and 31 mA h g -1 attained in the NCM622 cathode.

  11. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  12. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  13. Stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable ionic liquid incorporated polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical stability of electrolyte in all-solid-state supercapacitor attains immense attention as it addresses safety aspects. In this study, we have demonstrated, the fabrication of stretchable supercapacitor based on stretchable electrolyte and hydrogen exfoliated graphene electrode. We synthesized ionic liquid incorporated stretchable Poly(methyl methacrylate) electrolyte which plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support for electrode material. The molecular vibration studies show composite nature of the electrolyte. At least four-fold stretchability has been observed along with good ionic conductivity (0.78 mS cm{sup −1} at 28 °C) for this polymer electrolyte. This stretchable supercapacitor shows a low equivalent series resistance (16 Ω) due to the compatibility at electrode–electrolyte interface. The performance of the device has been determined under strain as well. - Highlights: • A stretchable supercapacitor has been fabricated using stretchable electrolyte. • Here ionic liquid incorporated polymer plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support. • The developed device shows low equivalent series resistance. • The device has specific capacitance of 83 F g{sup −1}, at the specific current of 2.67 A g{sup −1}. • The energy density and power density of 25.7 Wh kg{sup −1} and 35.2 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  14. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  15. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-11-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte structure showed good chemical stability in both CO2 and H2O atmosphere, indicating that the BZPY layers effectively protect the inner BCY electrolyte, while the BCY electrolyte alone decomposed completely under the same conditions. Fuel cell prototypes fabricated with the sandwiched electrolyte achieved a relatively high performance of 185 mW cm- 2 at 700 C, with a high electrolyte film conductivity of 4 × 10- 3 S cm- 1 at 600 C. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Oral rehydration therapy for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative fluid and electrolyte management is usually performed by intravenous therapy. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of surgical patients. The study consisted of two studies, designed as a prospective observational study. In a pilot study, 20 surgical patients consumed 1000 mL of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia. Parameters such as serum electrolyte concentrations, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) as an index of renal blood flow, volume of esophageal-pharyngeal fluid and gastric fluid (EPGF), and patient satisfaction with ORT were assessed. In a follow-up study to assess the safety of ORT, 1078 surgical patients, who consumed ORS until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia, were assessed. In the pilot study, water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate were effectively and safely supplied by ORT. The FENa value was increased at 2 h following ORT. The volume of EPGF collected following the induction of anesthesia was 5.3±5.6 mL. In the follow-up study, a small amount of vomiting occurred in one patient, and no aspiration occurred in the patients. These results suggest that ORT is a safe and effective therapy for the preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of selected surgical patients.

  17. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  18. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  19. Electrolytic formation of technetium complexes with π-acceptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, F.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of pertechnetate was performed in aqueous solution containing π-acceptor ligands. Cyanide and 1,10-phenanthroline were the selected ligands. In both cases, electrolyses produced a cathodic TcO 2 deposit and soluble Tc complexes. When cyanide was the ligand, the complexes formed were [Tc(CN) 6 ] 5- and [TcO 2 (CN) 4 ] 3- . When working with the amine, [Tc(phen) 3 ] 2+ and another positively charged species were found after reaction. Results are compared with previous studies with amines, and the usefulness of the electrolytic route to obtain Tc complexes is evaluated. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  1. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  2. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  3. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  4. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L -1 and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process

  5. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on whisker or microfibrils polyoxyethylene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, Fannie, E-mail: fannie.alloin@lepmi.grenoble-inp.f [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); D' Aprea, Alessandra [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Kissi, Nadia El [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dufresne, Alain [Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Bossard, Frederic [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes composed of high molecular weight poly(oxyethylene) PEO as a matrix, LiTFSI as lithium salt and ramie, cotton and sisal whiskers with high aspect ratio and sisal microfibrils (MF), as reinforcing phase were prepared by casting-evaporation. The morphology of the composite electrolytes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and their thermal behavior (characteristic temperatures, degradation temperature) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanocomposite electrolytes based on PEO reinforced by whiskers and MF sisal exhibited very high mechanical performance with a storage modulus of 160 MPa at high temperature. A weak decrease of the ionic conductivity was observed with the incorporation of 6 wt% of whiskers. The addition of microfibrils involved a larger decrease of the conductivity. This difference may be associated to the more restricted PEO mobility due to the addition of entangled nanofibers.

  6. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance. (author)

  7. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  8. Carboxymethyl Carrageenan Based Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Jumaah, F.N.; Ghani, M.A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlights the potential of carboxymethyl carrageenan based on iota and kappa to be utilized as host polymer. • The highest conductivity were achieved up to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 by carboxymethyl carrageenan without the addition of plasticizer. • The electrochemical stability windows of the films were electrochemically stable up to 3.0 V. - Abstract: A series of biodegradable carboxymethyl carrageenan based polymer electrolytes, which are carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan (sulphate per disaccharide) and carboxymethyl iota carrageenan (two sulphates per disaccharide), have been prepared by a solution casting technique with different ratios of lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) salts. Interestingly, the lithium ions tended to interact with the carbonyl group in the different modes of symmetry, as observed from reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In the carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan electrolytes, as the concentration of LiNO 3 increased, the asymmetric stretching peak of the carbonyl bond became dominant because it can be observed clearly with the shifting of the peak from 1592 to 1602 cm −1 due to the interaction between the lithium ion and the carbonyl group, while the broad O-H stretching peak became sharp and intense. However, for the carboxymethyl iota carrageenan, the asymmetry stretching mode of the carbonyl group shifted from 1567 to 1599 cm −1 , as the salt concentration increased. The shifting of the C-O-C peak also occurred in the iota-based electrolytes. However, the changes in the peak that represented SO 4 2− symmetric stretching were only detected when the ion pair formation was observed. It was proposed that the peak shifting was due to the presence of the lithium ion pathway, forming a dative bond between the lithium and oxygen in the carbonyl group. Accordingly, as more peak shifting was observed, the number of the ion pathways also increased. This hypothesis was supported by the impedance

  9. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  10. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs

  11. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-07-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  13. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  14. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical separation of oxygen from air is a promising application for oxide conductor solid electrolytes. However, several important specifications are required in order to obtain an efficient separation device. First of all, the electrolyte material must exhibit a high conductivity at moderate temperature. From this point of view, a new family of materials called BIMEVOX ideally fulfils this condition. Secondly, a typical separation device must comport two electrodes on opposite faces of the electrolyte. These electrodes must act as electronic collectors but also, at the cathodic side, as an oxygen dissociation catalyst. BIMEVOX electrolytes exhibit ionic conductivity values that can allow work at temperature below 500C. The classical electrode approach, like in solid oxide fuel cells, consists in using a specific mixed oxide, for instance strontium lanthanum manganite or cobaltite. However, the lower the temperature, the lower the efficiency of these electrodes which quickly appears as the limiting factor. In previous work on bismuth lead oxide electrolytes, we proposed a new approach that consists of using the surface of the bismuth-based electrolyte itself as the catalyst, the electron collection being then performed by a co-sintered metallic grid. This `in-situ` electrode system provides many advantages, particularly it eliminates the problem of the chemical compatibility between electrode and electrolyte materials. Taking into account the presence of both catalytic vanadium and bismuth cations in BIMEVOX, we checked under these conditions the separation of oxygen from air for different electrolytes (BICOVOX, BICUVOX, BIZNVOX) at various temperatures in the range 430-600C. For instance, using a BICOVOX pellet with a gold grid inserted on each side makes it possible to separate oxygen with nearly 100% efficiency for current density values up to 1000 mA/cm{sup -2}. For higher intensity values, the faradic efficiency progressively but reversibly decreases

  15. Nb and Pd co-doped La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ as a stable, high performance electrode for barrier-layer-free Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kongfa; He, Shuai; Li, Na; Cheng, Yi; Ai, Na; Chen, Minle; Rickard, William D. A.; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-02-01

    La0.6Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) is the most intensively investigated high performance cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), but strontium segregation and migration at the electrode/electrolyte interface is a critical issue limiting the electrocatalytic activity and stability of LSCF based cathodes. Herein, we report a Nb and Pd co-doped LSCF (La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ, LSCFNPd) perovskite as stable and active cathode on a barrier-layer-free anode-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte cell using direct assembly method without pre-sintering at high temperatures. The cell exhibits a peak power density of 1.3 W cm-2 at 750 °C and excellent stability with no degradation during polarization at 500 mA cm-2 and 750 °C for 175 h. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis show that the electrochemical polarization promotes the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface in operando and exsolution of Pd/PdO nanoparticles. The Nb doping in the B-site of LSCF significantly reduces the Sr surface segregation, enhancing the stability of the cathode, while the exsoluted Pd/PdO nanoparticles increases the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. The present study opens up a new route for the development of cobaltite-based perovskite cathodes with high activity and stability for barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte based IT-SOFCs.

  16. Modulation of solid electrolyte interphase of lithium-ion batteries by LiDFOB and LiBOB electrolyte additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Wang, Shuwei; Hu, Guohong; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Shen, Cai

    2018-05-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is an organic-inorganic composite layer that allows Li+ transport across but blocks electron flow across and prevents solvent diffusing to electrode surface. Morphology, thickness, mechanical and chemical properties of SEI are important for safety and cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we employ a combination of in-situ AFM and XPS to investigate the effects of two electrolyte additives namely lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) on SEI layer. LiDFOB is found to result in a thin but hard SEI layer containing more inorganic species (LiF and LiCO3); meanwhile LiBOB promotes formation of a thick but soft SEI layer containing more organic species such as ROCO2Li. Findings from present study will help development of electrolyte additives that promote formation of good SEI layer.

  17. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  18. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  19. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  20. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuphorn, H. (Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany))

    1992-09-15

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects world-wide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles. (orig.).

  1. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  2. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  3. Broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery—Part 1: Electrolyte research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Shuibo; Yu, Lihong; Wu, Lantao; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping; Xi, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of temperature (-35 °C-50 °C) on properties of VRFB electrolyte is studied. • V 2+ , V 3+ , V 3.5+ , V 4+ (VO 2+ ) and V 5+ (VO 2 + ) electrolytes are tested respectively. • V 2+ , V 3+ and V 3.5+ precipitates at low temperature can redissolve when temperature increases. • V 5+ precipitates at high temperature cannot redissolve when temperature decreases. • Conductivity and viscosity of the electrolytes are greatly affected by temperature. - Abstract: The broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is one of the key issues which affects the large-scale and safety application of VRFB. Typically, five types of vanadium electrolytes, namely V 2+ , V 3+ , V 3.5+ (V 3+ :VO 2+ = 1:1), V 4+ (VO 2+ ) and V 5+ (VO 2 + ), are the most common electrolytes' status existing in VRFB system. In this work, the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of these vanadium electrolytes are studied in detail at a broad temperature range (-35 °C–50 °C). The results show that all types of vanadium electrolytes are stable between -25 °C–30 °C. The temperature fluctuation will largely influence the conductivity and viscosity of the electrolytes. Besides, the electrochemical properties of the positive (VO 2+ ) and negative (V 3+ ) electrolytes are greatly affected by the temperature; and the charge transfer process fluctuates more greatly with the temperature variation than the charge diffusion process does. These results enable us to better and more comprehensively evaluate the performance of the electrolyte changing with the temperature, which will be beneficial for the rational choice of electrolyte for VRFB operation under various conditions.

  4. Thermally responsive polymer electrolytes for inherently safe electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jesse C.

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in electrochemical energy storage devices, while preserving the performance, lifetimes, and versatility that large-format systems require. Initial work focused on the development of a model system that demonstrated the concept of RPEs in an electrochemical device. Aqueous electrolyte solutions of polymers exhibiting properties that change in response to temperature were developed for applications in EDLCs and supercapacitors. These "smart materials" provide a means to control electrochemical systems where polymer phase separation at high temperatures affects electrolyte properties and inhibits device performance. Aqueous RPEs were synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide, which governs the thermal properties, and fractions of acrylic acid or vinyl sulfonic acids, which provide ions to the solution. The molecular properties of these aqueous RPEs, specifically the ionic composition, were shown to influence the temperature-dependent electrolyte properties and the extent to which these electrolytes control the energy storage characteristics of a supercapacitor device. Materials with high ionic content provided the highest room temperature conductivity and electrochemical activity; however, RPEs with low ionic content provided the highest "on

  5. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-06-07

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service-temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, we report such wide-temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the ethylene carbonate (EC) content in the ternary solvent system of EC, propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) with LiPF 6 salt and CsPF 6 additive. An extended service-temperature range from -40 to 60 °C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNi 0.80 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 , NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room temperature and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated together with the ionic conductivity and phase-transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt) with 0.05 M CsPF 6 , which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite∥NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite∥LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 . This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the high capacity retention (68%) at -40 °C and C/5 rate, significantly higher than that (20%) of the conventional LIB electrolyte, and the nearly identical stable cycle life as the conventional LIB electrolyte at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 60 °C.

  6. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William

    2010-01-01

    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane

  7. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  8. New Supercapacitors Based on the Synergetic Redox Effect between Electrode and Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox electrolytes can provide significant enhancement of capacitance for supercapacitors. However, more important promotion comes from the synergetic effect and matching between the electrode and electrolyte. Herein, we report a novel electrochemical system consisted of a polyanilline/carbon nanotube composite redox electrode and a hydroquinone (HQ redox electrolyte, which exhibits a specific capacitance of 7926 F/g in a three-electrode system when the concentration of HQ in H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte is 2 mol/L, and the maximum energy density of 114 Wh/kg in two-electrode symmetric configuration. Moreover, the specific capacitance retention of 96% after 1000 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles proves an excellent cyclic stability. These ultrahigh performances of the supercapacitor are attributed to the synergistic effect both in redox polyanilline-based electrolyte and the redox hydroquinone electrode.

  9. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  10. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  11. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great efforts over the past decades, thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes in mixed solvents is still a challenge today. The existing modeling frameworks based on activity coefficient models are data-driven and require expert knowledge to be parameterized. It has been suggested...... using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  12. A self-standing hydrogel neutral electrolyte for high voltage and safe flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, N.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2017-04-01

    The development of safe flexible supercapacitors implies the use of new non-liquid electrolytes for avoiding device leakage which combine mechanical properties and electrochemical performance. In this sense, hydrogel electrolytes composed of a solid non-conductive matrix holding an aqueous electrolytic phase are a reliable solution. In this work, we propose a green physical route for producing self-standing hydrogel films from a PVA polymer based on the freezing/thawing method without using chemical cross-linking agents. Moreover, a neutral electrolytic phase as Na2SO4 is used for reaching higher cell voltages than in an acidic or basic electrolyte. Such new PVA-Na2SO4 hydrogel electrolyte, which also acts as separator, allows reaching voltages windows as high as 1.8 V in a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor with optimal capacitance retention through thousands of cycles. Additionally, in reason of the fast mobility of the ions inside of the polymeric matrix, the hydrogel electrolyte based supercapacitor keeps the power density of the liquid electrolyte device.

  13. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Optimal Gel Electrolyte Using the Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was adopted to determine the optimal gel electrolyte used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Since electrolyte is a very important factor in fabrication of high performance and long-term stability DSSCs, to find the optimal composition of gel electrolyte is desired. In this paper, the common ingredients used in the liquid electrolyte were chosen. The ingredients then mixed with cheap ionic liquids and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP were added to form colloidal electrolyte (gel. The optimal composition of each materials in the gel electrolyte determined by Taguchi method consists of 0.03 M I2, 0.15 M KI, 0.6 M LiI, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine (TBP, and 10% PVDF-HFP dissolved in the acetonitrile and 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN solution with volume ratio of 2 : 1. The short circuit current density of 14.11 mA/cm2, the conversion efficiency (η of 5.52%, and the lifetime of over 110 days were observed for the dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with optimal gel electrolyte. The lifetime increases 10 times when compared with the conventional dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with liquid electrolyte.

  14. Electrolyte effects on the surface chemistry and cellular response of anodized titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Naofumi; Kozuka, Taro; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti samples were anodized using various electrolytes. • Anodization decreased carbon adsorption, improving hydrophilicity. • Improved hydrophilicity led to improved cellular attachment. • Only one electrolyte showed any heteroatom incorporation into the TiO 2 layer. • Choice of electrolyte played no role on the effects of anodization. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium (Ti) material is used to enhance biocompatibility, yet the effects of various electrolytes on surface characteristics and cellular behavior have not been completely elucidated. To investigate this topic, oxide layers were produced on Ti substrates by anodizing them in aqueous electrolytes of (NH 4 ) 2 O·5B 2 O 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 , after which their surface characteristics and cellular responses were examined. Overall, no surface differences between the electrolytes were visually observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the anodized surfaces are composed of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), while incorporation from electrolyte was only observed for (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 . Surface adsorption of carbon contaminants during sterilization was suppressed by anodization, leading to lower water contact angles. The attachment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells was also improved by anodization, as evidenced by visibly enlarged pseudopods. This improved attachment performance is likely due to TiO 2 formation. Overall, electrolyte selection showed no effect on either surface chemistry or cellular response of Ti materials

  15. High-temperature solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Sayed, Farheen N.; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal fragility of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a major source of performance decay in graphite anodes, and efforts to overcome the issues offered by extreme environments to Li-ion batteries have had limited success. Here, we demonstrate that the SEI can be extensively reinforced by carrying the formation cycles at elevated temperatures. Under these conditions, decomposition of the ionic liquid present in the electrolyte favored the formation of a thicker and more protective layer. Cells in which the solid electrolyte interphase was cast at 90 °C were significantly less prone to self-discharge when exposed to high temperature, with no obvious damages to the formed SEI. This additional resilience was accomplished at the expense of rate capability, as charge transfer became growingly inefficient in these systems. At slower rates, however, cells that underwent SEI formation at 90 °C presented superior performances, as a result of improved Li+ transport through the SEI, and optimal wetting of graphite by the electrolyte. This work analyzes different graphite hosts and ionic liquids, showing that this effect is more pervasive than anticipated, and offering the unique perspective that, for certain systems, temperature can actually be an asset for passivation.

  16. Evaluation of electrolytes for redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Dryfe, R.A.W.; Roberts, E.P.L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of redox systems have been investigated in this work with the aim of identifying electrolytes suitable for testing redox flow battery cell designs. The criteria for the selection of suitable systems were fast electrochemical kinetics and minimal cross-contamination of active electrolytes. Possible electrolyte systems were initially selected based on cyclic voltammetry data. Selected systems were then compared by charge/discharge experiments using a simple H-type cell. The all-vanadium electrolyte system has been developed as a commercial system and was used as the starting point in this study. The performance of the all-vanadium system was significantly better than an all-chromium system which has recently been reported. Some metal-organic and organic redox systems have been reported as possible systems for redox flow batteries, with cyclic voltammetry data suggesting that they could offer near reversible kinetics. However, Ru(acac) 3 in acetonitrile could only be charged efficiently to 9.5% of theoretical charge, after which irreversible side reactions occurred and [Fe(bpy) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 2 in acetonitrile was found to exhibit poor charge/discharge performance

  17. Effect of an electrolyte salt dissolving in polysiloxane-based electrolyte on passive film formation on a graphite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroshi; Nutt, Steven

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed during the first charge of a graphite/lithium metal test cell to determine the effect of an electrolyte salt on passive film formation in a polysiloxane-based electrolyte. The graphite electrode was separated from the lithium metal electrode by a porous polyethylene membrane immersed in a polysiloxane-based electrolyte with the dissolved lithium bis(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) or lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In case of LiTFSI, the conductivity of system decreased at 1.2 V. In contrast, for the case of LiBOB, the conductivity decreased at 1.7 V. The magnitudes of charge transfer resistance and film resistance for LiTFSI were smaller than that for LiBOB. Passive films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) after charging (lithiating) in polysiloxane-based electrolyte were inspected microscopically. Gel-like film and island-like films were observed for LiBOB [H. Nakahara, A. Masias, S.Y. Yoon, T. Koike, K. Takeya, Proceedings of the 41st Power Sources Conference, vol. 165, Philadelphia, June 14-17, 2004; H. Nakahara, S.Y. Yoon, T. Piao, S. Nutt, F. Mansfeld, J. Power Sources, in press; H. Nakahara, S.Y. Yoon, S. Nutt, J. Power Sources, in press]. However, for LiTFSI, there was sludge accumulation on the HOPG surface. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of silicon on both HOPG specimens with LiBOB and with LiTFSI. The electrolyte salt dissolved in the polysiloxane-based electrolyte changed the electrochemical and morphological nature of passive films on graphite electrode.

  18. Performance comparison of low and high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Experimental examinations, modelling and numerical simulation; Leistungsvergleich von Nieder- und Hochtemperatur-Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen. Experimentelle Untersuchungen, Modellierung und numerische Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehn, Helmut

    2010-11-03

    The experimental part of this thesis essentially comprises the performance comparison of low temperature (LT) - polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) on basis of Nafion {sup registered} and high temperature (HT)- PEMFCs on basis of Polybenzimidazol (PBI)/phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The performance characteristic of commercially available Nafion {sup registered} - LT - (E-TEK-Series 12 W) and PBI/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} - HT -(Celtec P 1000) membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were examined with a single cell in dependence of cell temperature (LT-MEA: 50 - 80 C, HT-MEA: 120 - 190 C), anode and cathode pressure (1 - 3 bar), stoichiometry of gas supply streams and relative humidity (only LT-MEA). Because of the same active cell area of both MEAs (45.16 cm{sup 2}) and the fact, that the flow field for the gas distribution of the test cell can be used universally, the performance tests with both MEA-types could be carried out with the same single test cell. When comparing the performance of both MEAs under similar test conditions - except increased temperature and deactivated humidification of the HT-MEA - at 0.7 A/cm{sup 2} with both MEA-types nearly equal performance densities of 0.3 - 0.45 W/cm{sup 2} can be reached. Since there is no liquid process water present in the HT-MEA the operation is not limited by concentration losses; therefore the HT-MEA can be operated in a wider range with higher current densities and because of the not required water management the operation of the HT-MEA is essentially simplified. Further advantages of the HT-MEA exist in the relative high tolerance against the catalyst poison carbon monoxide - the operation with reformat gas and hydrogen rich gases is facilitated - and an improved heat management because of the elevated operation temperature. However, a disadvantage of the Celtec-P-1000-MEA exists in the degradation at deep temperatures. At operating conditions, in which liquid process water is present, there is the

  19. Optofluidic interferometry chip designs of differential NIR absorbance based sensors for identification and quantification of electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Gerrit W.; Wexler, Adam D.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    Design and optimization of integrated photonic NIR absorbance based sensors for identification and quantification of aqueous electrolytes was performed by simulation in MATLAB and Optodesigner. Ten designs are presented and compared for suitability.

  20. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  1. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  2. Double-membrane triple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushan, Yan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2018-03-13

    A redox flow battery is provided having a double-membrane (one cation exchange membrane and one anion exchange membrane), triple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and one electrolyte positioned between and in contact with the two membranes). The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte. This design physically isolates, but ionically connects, the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte. The physical isolation offers great freedom in choosing redox pairs in the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte, making high voltage of redox flow batteries possible. The ionic conduction drastically reduces the overall ionic crossover between negative electrolyte and positive one, leading to high columbic efficiency.

  3. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  4. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  5. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.

    2017-12-26

    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  6. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  7. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  8. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    electrolyte based quasi-solid-state QDSSC under 0.12 sun illumination. The high conductivity and the good permeation of gel electrolyte may contribute mainly to its excellent photovoltaic performance

  9. Ceramic membrane fuel cells based on solid proton electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Guangyao; Ma, Qianli; Peng, Ranran; Liu, Xingqin [USTC Lab. for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ma, Guilin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has reached its new stage characterized with thin electrolytes on porous electrode support, and the most important fabrication techniques developed in which almost all are concerned with inorganic membranes, and so can be named as ceramic membrane fuel cells (CMFCs). CMFCs based on proton electrolytes (CMFC-H) may exhibit more advantages than CMFCs based on oxygen-ion electrolytes (CMFC-O) in many respects, such as energy efficiency and avoiding carbon deposit. Ammonia fuelled CMFC with proton-conducting BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.9} (BCGO) electrolyte (50 {mu}m in thickness) is reported in this works, which showed the open current voltage (OCV) values close to theoretical ones and rather high power density. And also, we have found that the well known super oxide ion conductor, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSGM), is a pure proton conductor in H{sub 2} and mixed proton and oxide ion conductor in wet air, while it is a pure oxide ion conductor in oxygen or dry air. To demonstrate the CMFC-H concept to get high performance fuel cells the techniques for thin membranes, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), particularly novel CVD techniques, should be given more attention because of their many advantages. (author)

  10. Transpassive electrodissolution of depleted uranium in alkaline electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1998-03-01

    To aid in removal of oralloy from the nuclear weapons stockpile, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are decontaminating oralloy parts by electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline electrolytes composed of sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. To improve the process, electrodissolution experiments were performed with depleted uranium to understand the effects of various operating parameters. Sufficient precipitate was also produced to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the uranium oxide precipitates from the electrolyte before it enters the decontamination fixture. In preparation for the experiments, a potential-pH diagram for uranium was constructed from thermodynamic data for fully hydrated species. Electrodissolution in unstirred solutions showed that uranium dissolution forms two layers, an acidic bottom layer rich in uranium and an alkaline upper layer. Under stirred conditions results are consistent with the formation of a yellow precipitate of composition UO 3 ·2H 2 O, a six electron process. Amperometric experiments showed that current efficiency remained near 100% over a wide range of electrolytes, electrolyte concentrations, pH, and stirring conditions

  11. Ionogel Electrolytes through Sol-Gel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.

    Electrical energy needs have intensified due to the ubiquity of personal electronics, the decarbonization of energy services through electrification, and the use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite developments in mechanical and thermal methods, electrochemical technologies are the most convenient and effective means of storing electrical energy. These technologies include both electrochemical cells, commonly called batteries, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", which store energy electrostatically. Both device types require an ion-conducting electrolyte. Current devices use solutions of complex salts in organic solvents, leading to both toxicity and flammability concerns. These drawbacks can be avoided by replacing conventional electrolytes with room-temperature molten salts, known as ionic liquids (ILs). ILs are non-volatile, non-flammable, and offer high conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Device mass can be reduced by combining ILs with a solid scaffold material to form an "ionogel," further improving performance metrics. In this work, sol-gel chemistry is explored as a means of forming ionogel electrolytes. Sol-gel chemistry is a solution-based, industrially-relevant, well-studied technique by which solids such as silica can be formed in situ. Previous works used a simple acid-catalyzed sol-gel reaction to create brittle, glassy ionogels. Here, both the range of products that can be accomplished through sol-gel processing and the understanding of interactions between ILs and the sol-gel reaction network are greatly expanded. This work introduces novel ionogel materials, including soft and compliant silica-supported ionogels and PDMS-supported ionogels. The impacts of the reactive formulation, IL identity, and casting time are detailed. It is demonstrated that variations in formulation can lead to rapid gelation and open pore structures in the silica scaffold or slow gelation and more dense silica

  12. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture results of the investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process on some metals (aluminum, titanium, tantalum, magnesium, and zirconium were presented. Whole process involves anodizing metals above the dielectric breakdown voltage where numerous micro-discharges are generated continuously over the coating surface. For the characterization of PEO process optical emission spectroscopy and real-time imaging were used. These investigations enabled the determination of electron temperature, electron number density, spatial density of micro-discharges, the active surface covered by micro-discharges, and dimensional distribution of micro-discharges at various stages of PEO process. Special attention was focused on the results of the study of the morphology, chemical, and phase composition of oxide layers obtained by PEO process on aluminum, tantalum, and titanium in electrolytes containing tungsten. Physicochemical methodes: atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for examining obtained oxide coatings. Also, the application of the obtained oxide coatings, especially the application of TiO2/WO3 coatings in photocatalysis, were discussed.

  13. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  14. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  15. A NOVEL GEL ELECTROLYTE FOR VALVE-REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin GENÇTEN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel gel electrolyte system used in lead-acid batteries was investigated in this work. The gel systems were prepared by addition different amount of Al2O3, TiO2 and B2O3 into the gelled system consisting of 6 wt% fumed silica and 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. The anodic peak currents and peak redox capacities of the gel electrolytes were characterized by cyclic voltammetric method. They decreased by the time B2O3 and Al2O3 were used as additives in fumed silica based gel electrolyte system. However, these values increased by the adding 3.0 wt% of TiO2. The solution and charge transfer resistances of the gel electrolytes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. While the solution resistances were lower in gel systems having different amount additives than pure fumed silica based gel, the charge transfer resistance was the lowest in gel electrolytes consisting fumed silica and fumed silica-TiO2. The battery performances were studied by obtaining discharge curves of prepared gel electrolytes. The performance of gelled systems were higher than that of non-gelled electrolyte at room temperature. The mixture of fumed silica-TiO2 was suggested an alternative gel formulation for gel VRLA batteries.

  16. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  17. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  18. Degradation of the corrosion resistance of anodic oxide films through immersion in the anodising electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906-Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P., E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.e [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Center, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906-Getafe (Spain); Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906-Getafe (Spain); Department of Corrosion and Protection, National Center for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The deterioration of AA2024, AA6061 and AA7475 anodised in an environmentally-compliant tartaric acid/sulphuric acid electrolyte has been examined as a function of the immersion time in the electrolyte after termination of anodising. By transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, degradation of the porous oxide film was qualitatively observed on AA2024. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that AA2024 and AA7075 were more sensitive to prolonged immersion in the anodising electrolyte compared with AA6061, due to increased barrier layer thinning rates and increased susceptibility to localized corrosion. Salt spray tests confirmed the previous, indicating decay of anticorrosion performance for AA2024 and AA7075.

  19. Degradation of the corrosion resistance of anodic oxide films through immersion in the anodising electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Ocon, P.; Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2010-01-01

    The deterioration of AA2024, AA6061 and AA7475 anodised in an environmentally-compliant tartaric acid/sulphuric acid electrolyte has been examined as a function of the immersion time in the electrolyte after termination of anodising. By transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, degradation of the porous oxide film was qualitatively observed on AA2024. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that AA2024 and AA7075 were more sensitive to prolonged immersion in the anodising electrolyte compared with AA6061, due to increased barrier layer thinning rates and increased susceptibility to localized corrosion. Salt spray tests confirmed the previous, indicating decay of anticorrosion performance for AA2024 and AA7075.

  20. Characterization and processing of bipolar semiconductor electrodes in a dual electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattarin, S.; Musiani, M.M. [Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa del C.N.R., Padova (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes may be induced at both faces of a bipolar semiconductor electrode without application of metal contacts by using the dual electrolyte arrangement -- metal/electrolyte 1/semiconductor/electrolyte 2/metal -- and by applying a voltage to the end metal electrodes. The possibilities of semiconductor characterization (determination of action spectra and doping level) and processing (photoetching and metal electrodeposition) are discussed on the basis of model experiments, performed with n-InP wafers. The advantages of this approach over traditional PEC and electroless techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on etching.

  1. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  2. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous ...

  3. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  4. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nishiumi

    2009-01-01

    spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and NH4Cl to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte Al2O3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  5. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  6. F4U production by electrolytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban Duque, A.; Gispert Benach, M.; Hernandez Arroyo, F.; Montes Ponce de Leon, M.; Rojas de Diego, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the nuclear fuel cycle program developed at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission it has been studied the electrolytic reduction of U-VI to U-IV. The effect of the materials, electrolyte concentration, pH, current density, cell size and laboratory scale production is studied. The Pilot Plant and the production data are also described. (Author) 18 refs

  7. Electrodissolution studies of 304 stainless steel in sodium nitrate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1997-12-01

    To explore the impact of a wide range of operating parameters upon 304 stainless steel (SS) dissolution in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) electrolyte, the staff of Engineering Science Applications-Energy and Process Engineering performed a series of beaker experiments. The variables that the authors explored included NaNO 3 concentration, chromate concentration, pH, stirring rate, and current density. They adjusted the run length to obtain approximately 10 mg/cm 2 metal removal so that they could compare surface finishes under similar test conditions. Key findings may be summarized as follows. Current efficiency during dissolution depends most strongly upon current density and electrolyte concentration. At 0.05 A/cm 2 , current density is more dependent upon chromium concentration than they previously thought. They obtained the best surface finish in a classical electropolishing regime at current densities above 1.5 A/cm 2 . Mirror-like finishes were obtained at near 100% current efficiency. At 0.05 a/cm 2 they obtained reasonable surface finishes, particularly at lower electrolyte concentration. Current efficiency was low (30%). At intermediate current densities, they obtained the worst surface finishes, that is, surfaces with severe pitting. Also, they explored preferential attack of the weld zone during electrodissolution of 304 stainless steel cans. Electrodissolution removed approximately twice as much material from cans with unshielded weld zones as from cans with shielded weld zones. The following implications are apparent. While operation above 1 A/cm 2 yields the best surface finish at 100% current efficiency, equipment size and power feedthrough limitations reduce the attractiveness of this option. Because other Los Alamos researchers, obtained more favorable results with the sulfate electrolyte, the authors recommend no further work for the sodium nitrate electrolyte system

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  9. Thermally stable electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.; Koch, V. R.

    1989-09-01

    During the second year of research under NASA SBIR Contract NAS7-967, Covalent Associates and NASA contract monitors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory agreed to perform an evaluation of the three best electrolytes developed during Phase 2. Due to the extensive period of time required to collect meaningful cycling data, we realized the study would extend well beyond the original formal end of the Phase 2 program (August 31, 1988). The substitution of this effort in lieu of an earlier proposed 20-cell final deliverable is formally documented in Modification No. 1 of Contract NAS7-967 as task 7. This Addendum contains the results of the cycling studies performed at Covalent Associates. In addition, sealed ampoules of each of these three electrolytes were delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electrochemical Power Group. Their concurrent evaluation in a different test vehicle has also been recently concluded and their results are also summarized herein.

  10. Concept of polymer alloy electrolytes: towards room temperature operation of lithium-polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Yasuda, Toshikazu; Nishi, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Polymer alloy technique is very powerful tool to tune the ionic conductivity and mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte. A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) polymer alloy electrolyte, composed of non-cross-linkable siloxane-based polymer and cross-linked 3D network polymer, was prepared. Such polymer alloy electrolyte has quite high ionic conductivity (more than 10 -4 Scm -1 at 25 o C and 10 -5 Scm -1 at -10 o C) and mechanical strength as a separator film with a wide electrochemical stability window. A lithium metal/semi-IPN polymer alloy solid state electrolyte/LiCoO 2 cell demonstrated promising cycle performance with room temperature operation of the energy density of 300Wh/L and better rate performance than conventional PEO based lithium polymer battery ever reported

  11. Improving low-temperature performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 full-cell by coating solid-state electrolyte Li-Al-Ti-P-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Kun; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Huang, Chao; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2018-06-01

    Octahedral cathode materials LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO), with primary particles size of 300-600 nm are prepared through one-step co-precipitation. Then solid-state electrolyte Li2O-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 (LATP) was coated on LNMO to form continuous surface-modification layer. There is no obviously difference of structure, morphology between coated LATP LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LATP-LNMO) and pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (P-LNMO). Low-temperature electrochemical performance of P-LNMO and LATP-LNMO electrodes, including charge-discharge capacity, cycle performance, middle discharge voltage and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), were measured systematically with three electrode. The results reveal that LATP-LNMO electrode presents superior electrochemical performance at low temperature, compared to P-LNMO electrode. At -20 °C, the capacity retention of LATP-LNMO (61%) is much higher than that of P-LNMO (39%). According to EIS, the enhancement of performance of LATP-LNMO cathode at low temperature can be attribute to LATP coating, which not only promotes lithium-ion diffusion at electrode/electrolyte interface but also decreases the charge transfer resistance. Finally, the electrochemical performances of full cell of LATP-LNMO or P-LNMO cathode vs Li4Ti5O12 anode are investigated. The energy density can be achieved to 270 Wh·Kg-1 at -20 °C if using LATP-LNMO, which is much better than that of P-LNMO.

  12. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  13. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: lisha_csu@163.com [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  14. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sha; Huang Kelong; Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. → Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. → D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. → The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO 2+ ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  15. A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Xie, Yong; Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Liang, Xin; Xu, Wu

    2018-04-01

    Reformulation of electrolyte systems and improvement of separator wettability are vital to electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, especially for suppressing Li dendrites. In this work we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive that improves separator wettability and suppresses Li dendrite growth in LMBs. A triblock polyether (Pluronic P123) was introduced as an additive into a commonly used carbonate-based electrolyte. It was found that addition of 0.2~1% (by weight) P123 into the electrolyte could effectively enhance the wettability of polyethylene separator. More importantly, the adsorption of P123 on Li metal surface can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer and contribute to suppress the growth of Li dendrites. A smooth and dendritic-free morphology can be achieved in the electrolyte with 0.2% P123. The Li||Li symmetric cells with the 0.2% P123 containing electrolyte exhibit a relatively stable cycling stability at high current densities of 1.0 and 3.0 mA cm-2.

  16. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  18. Effects of fluid, electrolyte and substrate ingestion on endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Fenn, C E; Leiper, J B

    1989-01-01

    The availability of carbohydrate (CHO) as a substrate for the exercising muscles is known to be a limiting factor in the performance of prolonged cycle exercise, and provision of exogenous CHO in the form of glucose can increase endurance capacity. The present study examined the effects of ingestion of fluids and of CHO in different forms on exercise performance. Six male volunteers exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a workload which required approximately 70% of Vo2max. After one preliminary trial, subjects performed this exercise test on six occasions, one week apart. Immediately before exercise, and at 10-min intervals throughout, subjects ingested 100 ml of one of the following: control (no drink), water, glucose syrup, fructose syrup, glucose-fructose syrup or a dilute glucose-electrolyte solution. Each of the syrup solutions contained approximately 36 g CHO per 100 ml; the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution contained 4 g glucose per 100 ml. A randomised Latin square order of administration of trials was employed. Expired air samples for determination of Vo2, respiratory exchange ratio and rate of CHO oxidation were collected at 15-min intervals. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects drinking the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution exercised longer (90.8 (12.4) min, mean (SEM] than on the control test (70.2 (8.3) min; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Improved ionic conductivity of lithium-zinc-tellurite glass-ceramic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarto, W.; Ramdhan, A. M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.; Warsito

    An enhancement in the secondary battery safety demands the optimum synthesis of glass-ceramics electrolytes with modified ionic conductivity. To achieve improved ionic conductivity and safer operation of the battery, we synthesized Li2O included zinc-tellurite glass-ceramics based electrolytes of chemical composition (85-x)TeO2·xLi2O·15ZnO, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching method at 800 °C followed by thermal annealing at 320 °C for 3 h and characterized. The effects of varying temperature, alternating current (AC) frequency and Li2O concentration on the structure and ionic conductivity of such glass-ceramics were determined. The SEM images of the annealed glass-ceramic electrolytes displayed rough surface with a uniform distribution of nucleated crystal flakes with sizes less than 1 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the well crystalline nature of achieved electrolytes. Incorporation of Li2O in the electrolytes was found to generate some new crystalline phases including hexagonal Li6(TeO6), monoclinic Zn2Te3O8 and monoclinic Li2Te2O5. The estimated crystallite size of the electrolyte was ranged from ≈40 to 80 nm. AC impedance measurement revealed that the variation in the temperatures, Li2O contents, and high AC frequencies have a significant influence on the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes. Furthermore, electrolyte doped with 15 mol% of Li2O exhibited the optimum performance with an ionic conductivity ≈2.4 × 10-7 S cm-1 at the frequency of 54 Hz and in the temperature range of 323-473 K. This enhancement in the conductivity was attributed to the sizable alteration in the ions vibration and ruptures of covalent bonds in the electrolytes network structures.

  1. Effect of inorganic additive sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic on positive electrolytes for a vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Kook; Shim, Joonmok; Yang, Jung Hoon; Jin, Chang-Soo; Lee, Bum Suk; Lee, Young-Seak; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Jeon, Jae-Deok

    2014-01-01

    Sodium pyrophosphate tetrabasic (SPT) is employed as an inorganic additive in the positive electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) to improve its long-term stability and electrochemical performance. The results of precipitation tests show that the long-term stability of positive electrolytes (2 MV(V) solution in 4 M total sulfates with 0.05 M SPT additive) is improved compared to the blank one. UV-vis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements also suggest that the addition of SPT can effectively delay the formation of precipitation in positive electrolytes, and no new substances are formed in V(V) electrolytes with SPT. The calcined precipitates extracted from the electrolytes with and without a SPT additive are identified as V 2 O 5 by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A VRFB single-unit cell employing positive electrolytes with an additive exhibits the high energy efficiency of 74.6% at a current density of 40 mA cm 2 at the 500 th cycle at 20°C, compared to 71.8% for the cell employing the electrolyte without an additive. Moreover, the cell employing the electrolyte with an additive exhibits less discharge capacity fading during cycling in comparison with the pristine one. The disassembled cell without an additive shows a large number of V 2 O 5 precipitation particles on the felt electrode after 500 cycles. Meanwhile, the felt electrode of the cell with an additive has little precipitation. That precipitation gives rise to an imbalance between the positive and negative half-cell electrolytes, which results in a significant capacity loss. The additive has shown positive results under limited laboratory short-term and small-scale conditions

  2. Li-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety and Tolerance to High-Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Given that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted to developing nonflammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of promising electrolytes have been developed incorporating flame-retardant additives, and have been shown to have good performance in a number of systems. However, these electrolyte formulations did not perform well when utilizing carbonaceous anodes with the high-voltage materials. Thus, further development was required to improve the compatibility. A number of Li-ion battery electrolyte formulations containing a flame-retardant additive [i.e., triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] were developed and demonstrated in high-voltage systems. These electrolytes include: (1) formulations that incorporate varying concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (from 5 to 15%), (2) the use of mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent, and (3) the use of LiBOB as an electrolyte additive intended to improve the compatibility with high-voltage systems. Thus, improved safety has been provided without loss of performance in the high-voltage, high-energy system.

  3. A calorimeter for the electrolytic cell and other open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Papucci, F.; Salvetti, G.; Tognoni, E.; Tombari, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is presented a calorimetric method and the construction details of a differential calorimeter use full for studying the reaction in an electrolytic cell and more generally slow chemico-physical processes occurring in the thermodynamically open systems. The method allows measurements of the heat balance of the cell, from which the enthalpy change of the process under investigation can be calculated. the theoretical description of the calorimetric cell and the results of several studies planned to describe the performances of the instrument up to the boiling point of the electrolytic solution are reported. The features of this calorimeter fulfill most of the requirements of 'cold fusion' experiments, where the heat production is the fundamental and controversial aspect. By controlling both the heat and the matter exchanged, the calorimeter can be utilised also to study bio energetic processes, e. g. fermentation, microbial metabolism and biodegradation, and liquid phase chemical reactions, involving gases as reactants and/or products

  4. Lanthanum germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Diaz-Carrasco, P.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Germanate apatites with composition La{sub 10-x}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75-3x/2} have been evaluated for the first time as possible electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Different electrode materials have been considered in this study, i.e. manganite, ferrite, nickelates and cobaltite as cathode materials; and NiO-CGO composite and chromium-manganite as anodes. The chemical compatibility and electrochemical performance of these electrodes with La{sub 9.8}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.45} have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRPD analysis did not reveal appreciable bulk reactivity with the formation of reaction products between the germanate electrolyte and these electrodes up to 1,200 C. However, a significant cation interdiffusion was observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which leads to a significant decrease of the performance of these electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, G.; Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Ravesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C KOH ) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ∼10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C KOH from ∼0.05 M to ∼0.60 M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO 2 substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C KOH was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H 2 bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H 2 supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t d on C KOH was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

  6. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application.

  7. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  8. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  9. Electrolytic Preparation of High Dielectric Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hultquist, A. E; Sibert, M. E

    1966-01-01

    .... Some attention is devoted to zirconates, niobates, and tantalates. In addition to barium compounds, the comparable calcium, magnesium, strontium and potassium double oxides are evaluated by the appropriate electrolytic techniques...

  10. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  11. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  12. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  13. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  14. EFFECT OF MULTIPARITY ON ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) were measured using standard ... There was also no significant difference in blood pressure among the groups and between ... substances as well as exaggerated response to posture. (Korda, 1987).

  15. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  16. A novel and high-effective redox-mediated gel polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guofu; Feng, Enke; Sun, Kanjun; Peng, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alkali and P-phenylenediamine doped polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte is prepared. • The PVA-KOH-PPD gel electrolyte can also be used as separator. • The introduction of PPD increases the ionic conductivity of electrolyte. • The supercapacitor exhibits flexible and high energy density. - Abstract: A supercapacitor utilize a novel redox-mediated gel polymer (PVA-KOH-PPD) as electrolyte and separator, and activated carbon as electrodes is assembled. The PVA-KOH-PPD gel polymer as potential electrolyte for supercapacitor is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It is found that the supercapacitor exhibits high ionic conductivity (25 mS cm −1 ), large electrode specific capacitance (611 F g −1 ) and high energy density (82.56 Wh kg −1 ). The high performance is attributed to the addition of quick redox reactions at the electrolyte|electrode interface as PPD undergoes a two-proton/two-electron reduction and oxidation during cycling. Furthermore, the supercapacitor with PVA-KOH-PPD gel polymer shows excellent charge-discharge stability, after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, the supercapacitor still retains a high electrode specific capacitance of 470 F g −1 . It is believed that the idea using redox mediator has a good prospect for improving the performances of supercapacitors

  17. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-05-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles).We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures including SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, CV and CD curves and a summary table of capacitance. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00773a

  18. Electrospun polyimide-based fiber membranes as polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiujun; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Luning; Song, Yu; Shi, Qiao; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on electrospun polyimide (PI) membranes are incorporated with electrolyte solution containing 1 mol L −1 LiPF 6 /ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate to examine their potential application for lithium ion batteries. The as-electrospun non-woven membranes demonstrate a uniformly interconnected structure with an average fiber diameter of 800 nm. The membranes, showing superior thermal stability and flame retardant property compared to the commercial Celgard® membranes, exhibit high porosity and high uptake when activated with the liquid electrolyte. The resulting PI electrolytes (PIs) have a high ionic conductivity up to 2.0 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and exhibit a high electrochemical stability potential more than 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). They also possess excellent charge/discharge performance and capacity retention. The initial discharge capacities of the Li/PIs/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells are 178.4, 167.4, 160.3, 148.3 and 135.9 mAh g −1 at the charge/discharge rates of 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, respectively. After 200 cycles at 5 C, a capacity around ∼146.8 mAh g −1 can be still achieved. The PI-based polymer electrolytes with strong mechanical properties and good electrochemical performance are proved to be promising electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

  19. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  20. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  1. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  2. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  3. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  4. Modeling Electrolytically Top-Gated Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković ZL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate doping of a single-layer graphene in the presence of electrolytic top gating. The interfacial phenomenon is modeled using a modified Poisson–Boltzmann equation for an aqueous solution of simple salt. We demonstrate both the sensitivity of graphene’s doping levels to the salt concentration and the importance of quantum capacitance that arises due to the smallness of the Debye screening length in the electrolyte.

  5. Handheld Microneedle-Based Electrolyte Sensing Platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Philip R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rivas, Rhiana [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, David [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Thayne L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, Markku [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shawa, Luay [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Victor H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Ronen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories will provide technical assistance, within time and budget, to Requester on testing and analyzing a microneedle-based electrolyte sensing platform. Hollow microneedles will be fabricated at Sandia and integrated with a fluidic chip using plastic laminate prototyping technology available at Sandia. In connection with commercial ion selective electrodes the sensing platform will be tested for detection of electrolytes (sodium and/or potassium) within physiological relevant concent ration ranges.

  6. Physics of failure based analysis of aluminium electrolytic capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satya Ranjan; Behera, S.K.; Kumar, Sachin; Varde, P.V.; Ravi Kumar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are one of the important devices in various power electronic systems, such as motor drives, uninterruptible power supply, electric vehicles and dc power supply. Electrolytic capacitors are also the integral part of many other electronic devices. One of the primary function of electrolytic capacitors is the smoothing of voltage ripple and storing electrical energy. However, the electrolytic capacitor has the shortest lifespan of components in power electronics. Past experiences show that electrolytic capacitor tends to degrade and fail faster under high electrical or thermal stress conditions during operations. The primary failure mechanism of an electrolytic capacitor is the evaporation of the electrolyte due to electrical or thermal overstress. This leads to the drift in the values of two important parameters-capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the electrolytic capacitor. An attempt has been made to age the electrolytic capacitor and validate the results. The overall goal is to derive the accurate degradation model of the electrolytic capacitor. (author)

  7. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  8. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrofluoroether electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: Reduced gas decomposition and nonflammable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2011-10-01

    The optimum combination of high energy density at the desired power sets lithium-ion battery technology apart from the other well known secondary battery chemistries. However, this is besieged by thermal instability of the electrolyte. This "Achilles heel" still remains a significant safety issue and unless this propensity is improved the promise of widespread adoption of Li-ion batteries for Transportation application may not be realized. With this in mind we launched a systematic study to evaluate fluoro solvents that are known to be nonflammable, for thermal and electrochemical performances. We investigated hydro-fluoro-ethers (HFE) (1) 2-trifluoromethyl-3-methoxyperfluoropentane {TMMP} and (2) 2-trifluoro-2-fluoro-3-difluoropropoxy-3-difluoro-4-fluoro-5-trifluoropentane {TPTP} in Sandia-built cells. Thermal properties under near abuse conditions that exist in thermal runaway environment and the electrochemical characteristics for these electrolytes were measured. In the thermal ramp (TR) measurement, EC:DEC:TPTP-1 M LiBETI (or TFSI or LiPF6) electrolytes exhibited no ignition/fire. Similar behavior was observed for the EC:DEC:TMMP-1 M LiBETI. Further, in ARC studies the HFE electrolytes generated less gas by 50% compared to the EC:EMC-1.2 M LiPF6 {CAR-1} electrolyte. Although in all cases the HFEs generated less gas, the onset of gas generation appears to depend on the salt. For the LiBETI and TFSI containing HFEs the onset is pushed out by ∼80 °C and for the LiPF6 the onset is comparable to that of the CAR-1. The solution ionic conductivity of these HFE electrolytes was lower (4-5 times) than that of the CAR-1 electrolyte however, the electrochemical performance was comparable. For example, full cells in 2032 type coin cells containing LiMN0.33Ni0.33Co0.33O2 cathode and carbon anode showed around 5 mA h capacity and the computed specific capacity was ∼154 mA h for all the electrolytes. In half-cells against lithium the cathode and anode gave specific

  10. Role of perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in lithium metal batteries: Implication for suppressed Al current collector corrosion and the stability of Li metal/electrolytes interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lina; Liu, Jia; Armand, Michel; Mauger, Alain; Julien, Christian M.; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Liqun

    2018-03-01

    The development of safe and high performance lithium metal batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century. Historically, intrinsic instabilities of conventional liquid organic electrolytes induced battery failures and safety issues that hinder the practical utilization of advanced rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Herein, we report a multifunctional perfluoropolyether-based liquid polymer electrolyte (PFPE-MC/LiTFSI), presenting a unique "anion-solvent" interaction. This interaction optimizes the interfacial chemistry of lithium metal batteries, which effectively inhibits the corrosion of aluminum current collectors, suppresses lithium dendrite growth, and also facilitates the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer on Li anode. Even at a high current density of 0.7 mA cm-2, the lithium dendrites do not form after 1360 h of continuous operation. The LiFePO4|PFPE-MC/LiTFSI|Li cell delivers a stable cycling performance with over 99.9% columbic efficiency either at ambient temperature or high temperature, which is significantly superior to those using traditional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, PFPE-MC/LiTFSI electrolyte also possesses eye-catching properties, such as being non-flammable, non-volatile, non-hygroscopic, and existing in the liquid state between -90 °C and 200 °C, which further ensures the high safety of the lithium metal batteries, making this electrolyte promising for the development of high energy lithium metal batteries.

  11. Electrolytic production and dispensing of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is undoubtedly the only option that can meet both the California zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standard and the President`s goal of tripling automobile efficiency without sacrificing performance in a standard 5-passenger vehicle. The three major automobile companies are designing and developing FCEVs powered directly by hydrogen under cost-shared contracts with the Department of Energy. Once developed, these vehicles will need a reliable and inexpensive source of hydrogen. Steam reforming of natural gas would produce the least expensive hydrogen, but funding may not be sufficient initially to build both large steam reforming plants and the transportation infrastructure necessary to deliver that hydrogen to geographically scattered FCEV fleets or individual drivers. This analysis evaluates the economic feasibility of using small scale water electrolysis to provide widely dispersed but cost-effective hydrogen for early FCEV demonstrations. We estimate the cost of manufacturing a complete electrolysis system in large quantities, including compression and storage, and show that electrolytic hydrogen could be cost competitive with fully taxed gasoline, using existing residential off-peak electricity rates.

  12. Electrolytic conductivity of synthetic organomineral complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksiezopolska Alicja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the formation of organomineral complexes in soils is very complex and still little known. Examination of the complexes in unaltered form, as isolated from the soil, is very difficult due to the dispersing effect of all extraction agents which break the complexes up, destroying their natural properties. It is much easier to perform most of the tests on preparations of organomineral complexes obtained under laboratory conditions. This paper is concerned with model research on the formation of synthetic complexes of humic acids with minerals: Na-montmorillonite, mica, kaolinite at various pH values (3-7 and in the presence of aluminum ions. The aim of the research was to develop an optimum reaction of suspension for the synthesis of organomineral complexes, to study the role of aluminum ions, and to attempt to determine the degree of their complexity on the basis of the electrolytic conductivity (EC. An important influence of the suspension pH value on the value of EC was observed. The greatest correlation was found in the organomineral preparations with kaolinite and with aluminum (r = 0.93***. Generally, it can be stated that the degree of reaction of humic acids with minerals depended most of all on the type of mineral, on the pH value, and on the presence of aluminum.

  13. Designing advanced materials by environmental friendly plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, I.; Valeca, M.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Marin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the CANDU-PHWR nuclear reactors, Zr-2.5Nb coated with a black adherent oxide film of 1 to 2 μm in thickness is currently used for the manufacture of pressure tubes. The black oxide thin film has corrosion protective properties. However, it can be damaged during the regular refueling process, thus causing hydrogen/oxygen ingression. Therefore, an enhanced wear and corrosion resistance coating is needed. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an anodic electrochemical treatment, both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, widely used in the formation of a protective oxide film on the metal surface to enhance wear and corrosion resistance as well as prolonging component lifetime. The state of the art reveals that PEO method is suitable for improving the wear resistance of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Few studies are performed in this field and thus, it is necessary to conduct a more detailed insight study on the processing parameters for PEO treatment. By understanding the influence of process parameters, such as electrolyte temperature and electrolyte composition, we can find the way to obtain a coating with improved mechanical and corrosion properties on zirconium alloys. (authors)

  14. Moessbauer studies of microscopic disorder in solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1987-01-01

    We implement for the first time Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) to investigate short-range properties of disorder in solid electrolytes. MS in 129 I and 119 Sn was carried out in RbAg 4 I 5 and as impurity in Ag 2 Se, respectively. Measurements were performed both in the superionic and the normal phases. It is shown that localized cation hopping is an inherent feature of the α-AgI-type solid electrolytes. In RbAg 4 I 5 , at temperatures far below T c , a small fraction of Ag is still locally mobile and at T>T c , its concentration increases exponentially. A strong linear temperature dependence of the point-charge electric field gradient is observed and explained in terms of local hopping. With 119 Sn in Ag 2 Se we observe the onset of 'local melting' of the Ag surroundingt the SnSe 4 cluster at 50 K below the bulk superionic phase transition. The characteristic features of MS related to microscopic studies of solid electrolytes are fully described. (orig.)

  15. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  16. Polymer-electrolyte-gated nanowire synaptic transistors for neuromorphic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Can; Sun, Jia; Gou, Guangyang; Kong, Ling-An; Qian, Chuan; Dai, Guozhang; Yang, Junliang; Guo, Guang-hua

    2017-09-01

    Polymer-electrolytes are formed by dissolving a salt in polymer instead of water, the conducting mechanism involves the segmental motion-assisted diffusion of ion in the polymer matrix. Here, we report on the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire synaptic transistors using polymer-electrolyte gating. A thin layer of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium perchlorate (PEO/LiClO4) was deposited on top of the devices, which was used to boost device performances. A voltage spike applied on the in-plane gate attracts ions toward the polymer-electrolyte/SnO2 nanowire interface and the ions are gradually returned after the pulse is removed, which can induce a dynamic excitatory postsynaptic current in the nanowire channel. The SnO2 synaptic transistors exhibit the behavior of short-term plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation and self-adaptation, which is related to the electric double-effect regulation. In addition, the synaptic logic functions and the logical function transformation are also discussed. Such single SnO2 nanowire-based synaptic transistors are of great importance for future neuromorphic devices.

  17. Interactions of alkali metals and electrolyte with cathode carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naas, Tyke

    1997-12-31

    The Hall-Heroult process for electrolytic reduction of alumina has been the only commercial process for production of primary aluminium. The process runs at high temperature and it is important to minimize the energy consumption. To save energy it is desirable to reduce the operating temperature. This can be achieved by adding suitable additives such as LiF or KF to the cryolitic electrolyte. This may conflict with the objective of extending the lifetime of the cathode linings of the cell as much as possible. The thesis investigates this possibility and the nature of the interactions involved. It supports the hypothesis that LiF-additions to the Hall-Heroult cell electrolyte is beneficial to the carbon cathode performance because the diminished sodium activity reduces the sodium induced stresses during the initial period of electrolysis. The use of KF as an additive is more dangerous, but the results indicate that additions up to 5% KF may be tolerated in acidic melts with semigraphitic or graphitic cathodes with little risk of cathode problems. 153 refs., 94 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. High temperature fuel cell with ceria-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Eguchi, K.; Yahiro, H.; Baba, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cation-doped ceria is investigated as an electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cell. As for application to the fuel cells, the electrolyte are desired to have high ionic conductivity in deriving a large electrical power. A series of cation-doped ceria has higher ionic conductivity than zirconia-based oxides. In the present study, the basic electrochemical properties of cation-doped ceria were studied in relation to the application of fuel cells. The performance of fuel cell with yttria-doped ceria electrolyte was evaluated. Ceria-based oxides were prepared by calcination of oxide mixtures of the components or calcination of co-precipitated hydroxide mixtures from the metal nitrate solution. The oxide mixtures thus obtained were sintered at 1650 0 C for 15 hr in air into disks. Ionic transference number, t/sub i/, was estimated from emf of oxygen concentration cell. Electrical conductivities were measured by dc-4 probe method by varying the oxygen partial pressure. The fuel cell was operated by oxygen and hydrogen

  19. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  20. Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Photo-Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Girolamo, Mariarita; Siracusano, Stefania; Sebastian, David; Baglio, Vincenzo; Schuster, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Water-fed photo-electrolysis cells equipped with perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion® 115) and quaternary ammonium-based (Fumatech® FAA3) ion exchange membranes as separator for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions were investigated. Protonic or anionic ionomer dispersions were deposited on the electrodes to extend the interface with the electrolyte. The photo-anode consisted of a large band-gap Ti-oxide semiconductor. The effect of membrane characteristics on the photo-electrochemical conversion of solar energy was investigated for photo-voltage-driven electrolysis cells. Photo-electrolysis cells were also studied for operation under electrical bias-assisted mode. The pH of the membrane/ionomer had a paramount effect on the photo-electrolytic conversion. The anionic membrane showed enhanced performance compared to the Nafion®-based cell when just TiO2 anatase was used as photo-anode. This was associated with better oxygen evolution kinetics in alkaline conditions compared to acidic environment. However, oxygen evolution kinetics in acidic conditions were significantly enhanced by using a Ti sub-oxide as surface promoter in order to facilitate the adsorption of OH species as precursors of oxygen evolution. However, the same surface promoter appeared to inhibit oxygen evolution in an alkaline environment probably as a consequence of the strong adsorption of OH species on the surface under such conditions. These results show that a proper combination of photo-anode and polymer electrolyte membrane is essential to maximize photo-electrolytic conversion. PMID:28468242

  1. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  2. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-05-26

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  3. A Suitable Polysulfide Electrolyte for CdSe Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polysulfide liquid electrolyte is developed for the application in CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. A solvent consisting of ethanol and water in the ratio of 8 : 2 by volume has been found as the optimum solvent for preparing the liquid electrolytes. This solvent ratio appears to give higher cell efficiency compared to pure ethanol or water as a solvent. Na2S and S give rise to a good redox couple in the electrolyte for QDSSC operation, and the optimum concentrations required are 0.5 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Addition of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN to the electrolyte further enhances the performance. The QDSSC with CdSe sensitized electrode prepared using 7 cycles of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR produces an efficiency of 1.41% with a fill factor of 44% on using a polysulfide electrolyte of 0.5 M Na2S, 0.1 M S, and 0.05 M GuSCN in ethanol/water (8 : 2 by volume under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2 white light. Inclusion of small amount of TiO2 nanoparticles into the electrolyte helps to stabilize the polysulfide electrolyte and thereby improve the stability of the CdSe QDSSC. The CdSe QDs are also found to be stable in the optimized polysulfide liquid electrolyte.

  4. Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges Posed by Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Fuminori, E-mail: fuminori.mizuno@tema.toyota.com; Singh, Nikhilendra; Arthur, Timothy S.; Fanson, Paul T. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ramanathan, Mayandi [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Benmayza, Aadil; Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Magnesium (Mg) battery technologies have attracted attention as a high energy-density storage system due to the following advantages: (1) potentially high energy-density derived from a divalent nature, (2) low-cost due to the use of an earth-abundant metal, and (3) intrinsic safety aspect attributed to non-dendritic growth of Mg. However, these notable advantages are downplayed by undesirable battery reactions and related phenomena. As a result, there are only a few working rechargeable Mg battery systems. One of the root causes for undesirable behavior is the sluggish diffusion of Mg{sup 2+} inside a host lattice. Another root cause is the interfacial reaction at the electrode/electrolyte boundary. For the cathode/electrolyte interface, Mg{sup 2+} in the electrolyte needs a solvation–desolvation process prior to diffusion inside the cathode. Apart from the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the cathode, the divalent nature of Mg should cause kinetically slower solvation–desolvation processes than that of Li-ion systems. This would result in a high charge-transfer resistance and a larger overpotential. On the contrary, for the anode/electrolyte interface, the Mg deposition and dissolution process depends on the electrolyte nature and its compatibility with Mg metal. Also, the Mg metal/electrolyte interface tends to change over time, and with operating conditions, suggesting the presence of interfacial phenomena on the Mg metal. Hence, the solvation–desolvation process of Mg has to be considered with a possible SEI. Here, we focus on the anode/electrolyte interface in a Mg battery, and discuss the next steps to improve the battery performance.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  6. Review on modeling of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiping; Kadam, Sanket; Li, Hong; Shi, Siqi; Qi, Yue

    2018-03-01

    A passivation layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed on electrode surfaces from decomposition products of electrolytes. The SEI allows Li+ transport and blocks electrons in order to prevent further electrolyte decomposition and ensure continued electrochemical reactions. The formation and growth mechanism of the nanometer thick SEI films are yet to be completely understood owing to their complex structure and lack of reliable in situ experimental techniques. Significant advances in computational methods have made it possible to predictively model the fundamentals of SEI. This review aims to give an overview of state-of-the-art modeling progress in the investigation of SEI films on the anodes, ranging from electronic structure calculations to mesoscale modeling, covering the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrolyte reduction reactions, SEI formation, modification through electrolyte design, correlation of SEI properties with battery performance, and the artificial SEI design. Multi-scale simulations have been summarized and compared with each other as well as with experiments. Computational details of the fundamental properties of SEI, such as electron tunneling, Li-ion transport, chemical/mechanical stability of the bulk SEI and electrode/(SEI/) electrolyte interfaces have been discussed. This review shows the potential of computational approaches in the deconvolution of SEI properties and design of artificial SEI. We believe that computational modeling can be integrated with experiments to complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the complex SEI for the development of a highly efficient battery in the future.

  7. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes poly(vinylidone fluoride)/nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmawati, Suci A.; Sulistyaningsih,; Putro, Alviansyah Z. A.; Widyanto, Nugroho F.; Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Dyartanti, Endah R., E-mail: endahrd@uns.ac.id [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Polymer electrolytes are defined as semi solid electrolytes used as separator in lithium ion battery. Separator used as medium for transfer ions and to prevent electrical short circuits in battery cells. To obtain the optimal battery performance, separator with high porosity and electrolyte uptake is required. This can reduce the resistance in the transfer of ions between cathode and anode. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of different solvent (Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), pore forming agent poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) and nanoclay as filler in addition of membrane using phase inversion method on the morphology, porosity, electrolyte uptake and degree of crystallinity. The membrane was prepared by the phase inversion method by adding PVP and Nanoclay using different solvents. The phase inversion method was prepared by dissolving Nanoclay and PVP in solvent for 1-2 hours, and then add the PVDF with stirring for 4 hours at 60°C. The membranes were characterized by porosity test, electrolyte uptake test, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that DMAc as solvent gives the highest value of porosity and electrolyte uptake. The addition of nanoclay and PVP enlarge the size of the pores and reduce the degree of crystallinity. So, the usage of DMAc as solvent is better than NMP or DMF.

  8. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  9. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  10. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells stably working at 80 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hanqing; Li, Qihao; Hu, Meixue; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells are a new class of polymer electrolyte fuel cells that fundamentally enables the use of nonprecious metal catalysts. The cell performance mostly relies on the quality of alkaline polymer electrolytes, including the ionic conductivity and the chemical/mechanical stability. For a long time, alkaline polymer electrolytes are thought to be too weak in stability to allow the fuel cell to be operated at elevated temperatures, e.g., above 60 °C. In the present work, we report a progress in the state-of-the-art alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology. By using a newly developed alkaline polymer electrolyte, quaternary ammonia poly (N-methyl-piperidine-co-p-terphenyl), which simultaneously possesses high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical/mechanical stability, the fuel cell can now be stably operated at 80 °C with high power density. The peak power density reaches ca. 1.5 W/cm2 at 80 °C with Pt/C catalysts used in both the anode and the cathode. The cell works stably in a period of study over 100 h.

  11. Molecular simulations of electrolyte structure and dynamics in lithium-sulfur battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanbum; Kanduč, Matej; Chudoba, Richard; Ronneburg, Arne; Risse, Sebastian; Ballauff, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    The performance of modern lithium-sulfur (Li/S) battery systems critically depends on the electrolyte and solvent compositions. For fundamental molecular insights and rational guidance of experimental developments, efficient and sufficiently accurate molecular simulations are thus in urgent need. Here, we construct a molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation model of representative state-of-the art electrolyte-solvent systems for Li/S batteries constituted by lithium-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and LiNO3 electrolytes in mixtures of the organic solvents 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL). We benchmark and verify our simulations by comparing structural and dynamic features with various available experimental reference systems and demonstrate their applicability for a wide range of electrolyte-solvent compositions. For the state-of-the-art battery solvent, we finally calculate and discuss the detailed composition of the first lithium solvation shell, the temperature dependence of lithium diffusion, as well as the electrolyte conductivities and lithium transference numbers. Our model will serve as a basis for efficient future predictions of electrolyte structure and transport in complex electrode confinements for the optimization of modern Li/S batteries (and related devices).

  12. Photolithographically Patterned TiO2 Films for Electrolyte-Gated Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitova, Irina; Kumar, Prajwal; Meng, Xiang; Soavi, Francesca; Santato, Clara; Cicoira, Fabio

    2016-06-15

    Metal oxides constitute a class of materials whose properties cover the entire range from insulators to semiconductors to metals. Most metal oxides are abundant and accessible at moderate cost. Metal oxides are widely investigated as channel materials in transistors, including electrolyte-gated transistors, where the charge carrier density can be modulated by orders of magnitude upon application of relatively low electrical bias (2 V). Electrolyte gating offers the opportunity to envisage new applications in flexible and printed electronics as well as to improve our current understanding of fundamental processes in electronic materials, e.g. insulator/metal transitions. In this work, we employ photolithographically patterned TiO2 films as channels for electrolyte-gated transistors. TiO2 stands out for its biocompatibility and wide use in sensing, electrochromics, photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We fabricated TiO2 electrolyte-gated transistors using an original unconventional parylene-based patterning technique. By using a combination of electrochemical and charge carrier transport measurements we demonstrated that patterning improves the performance of electrolyte-gated TiO2 transistors with respect to their unpatterned counterparts. Patterned electrolyte-gated (EG) TiO2 transistors show threshold voltages of about 0.9 V, ON/OFF ratios as high as 1 × 10(5), and electron mobility above 1 cm(2)/(V s).

  13. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  14. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  15. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  16. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte

  17. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I. Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte. 58 references.

  18. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I - Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte.

  19. Towards Versatile and Sustainable Hydrogen Production through Electrocatalytic Water Splitting: Electrolyte Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-10

    Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. Electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible, and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances under which the water splitting reaction is conducted, the required solution conditions, such as the identity and molarity of ions, may significantly differ. Quantitative understanding of such electrolyte properties on electrolysis performance is effective to facilitate the development of efficient electrocatalytic systems. The electrolyte can directly participate in reaction schemes (kinetics), affect electrode stability, and/or indirectly impact the performance by influencing the concentration overpotential (mass transport). This review aims to guide fine-tuning of the electrolyte properties, or electrolyte engineering, for (photo)electrochemical water splitting reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Heavy-water extraction from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeRoy, R.L.; Hammerli, M.; Butler, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy water may be produced from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams using a combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process. The method comprises contacting feed water in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas originating partly from a non-electrolytic hydrogen stream and partly from an electrolytic hydrogen stream, so as to enrich the feed water with the deuterium extracted from both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic hydrogen gas, and passing the deuterium water to an electrolyser wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed through the catalyst column. (L.L.)