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Sample records for echocardiographic strain imaging

  1. Echocardiographic Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging for Rapid Cardiovascular Phenotyping in Mice

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    Bauer, Michael; Cheng, Susan; Jain, Mohit; Ngoy, Soeun; Theodoropoulos, Catherine; Trujillo, Anna; Lin, Fen-Chiung; Liao, Ronglih

    2012-01-01

    Rationale High-sensitivity in vivo phenotyping of cardiac function is essential for evaluating genes of interest and novel therapies in small animal models of cardiovascular disease. Transthoracic echocardiography is the principal method currently used for assessing cardiac structure and function; however, standard echocardiographic techniques are relatively insensitive to early or subtle changes in cardiac performance, particularly in mice. Objective To develop and validate an echocardiographic strain imaging methodology for sensitive and rapid cardiac phenotyping in small animal models. Methods and Results Herein, we describe a modified echocardiographic technique that utilizes speckle-tracking based strain analysis for the non-invasive evaluation of cardiac performance in adult mice. This method is found to be rapid, reproducible, and highly sensitive in assessing both regional and global left ventricular (LV) function. Compared to conventional echocardiographic measures of LV structure and function, peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were able to detect changes in adult mouse hearts at an earlier time point following myocardial infarction (post-MI) and predicted the later development of adverse LV remodeling. Moreover, speckle-tracking based strain analysis was able to clearly identify subtle improvement in LV function that occurred early in response to standard post-MI cardiac therapy. Conclusions Our results highlight the utility of speckle-tracking based strain imaging for detecting discrete functional alterations in mouse models of cardiovascular disease in an efficient and comprehensive manner. Echocardiography speckle-tracking based strain analysis represents a method for relatively high-throughput and sensitive cardiac phenotyping, particularly in evaluating emerging cardiac agents and therapies in mice. PMID:21372284

  2. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial strain.

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    Gorcsan, John; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2011-09-27

    Echocardiographic strain imaging, also known as deformation imaging, has been developed as a means to objectively quantify regional myocardial function. First introduced as post-processing of tissue Doppler imaging velocity converted to strain and strain rate, strain imaging has more recently also been derived from digital speckle tracking analysis. Strain imaging has been used to gain greater understanding into the pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia and infarction, primary diseases of the myocardium, and the effects of valvular disease on myocardial function, and to advance our understanding of diastolic function. Strain imaging has also been used to quantify abnormalities in the timing of mechanical activation for heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization pacing therapy. Further advances, such as 3-dimensional speckle tracking strain imaging, have emerged to provide even greater insight. Strain imaging has become established as a robust research tool and has great potential to play many roles in routine clinical practice to advance the care of the cardiovascular patient. This perspective reviews the physiology of myocardial strain, the technical features of strain imaging using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, their strengths and weaknesses, and the state-of-the-art present and potential future clinical applications.

  3. Early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patient using strain and strain rate echocardiographic imaging

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    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus deteriorate both LV systolic and diastolic performance. Strain and strain rate by tissue Doppler Imaging is superior to conventional Doppler in early detection and evaluation of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

  4. Optimisation of coronary vascular territorial 3D echocardiographic strain imaging using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Fuchs, A; Weeke, P;

    2016-01-01

    Current echocardiographic assessments of coronary vascular territories use the 17-segment model and are based on general assumptions of coronary vascular distribution. Fusion of 3D echocardiography (3DE) with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) derived coronary anatomy may provide a more acc...

  5. Echocardiographic strain imaging to assess early and late consequences of sarcomere mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Carlsen, Christian; Thune, Jens Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    preclinical (G+/LVH-), 40 overt (G+/LVH+) subjects with HCM, and 38 mutation (-) normal control relatives. All subjects had normal left ventricular ejection fraction. In preclinical HCM, global and regional peak systolic strain (epsilon(sys)) and longitudinal systolic strain rate were not significantly......BACKGROUND: Genetic testing identifies sarcomere mutation carriers (G+) before clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), allowing characterization of initial disease manifestations. Previous studies demonstrated that impaired relaxation develops before left ventricular hypertrophy...... (LVH). The precise impact of sarcomere mutations on systolic function in early and late disease is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comprehensive echocardiography with strain imaging was performed on 146 genotyped individuals with mutations in 5 sarcomere genes. Contractile parameters were compared in 68...

  6. Effects of exercise training on systo-diastolic ventricular dysfunction in patients with hypertension: an echocardiographic study with tissue velocity and strain imaging evaluation.

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    Leggio, Massimo; Mazza, Andrea; Cruciani, Giancarlo; Sgorbini, Luca; Pugliese, Marco; Bendini, Maria Grazia; Severi, Paolo; Jesi, Anna Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of detailed data regarding the effect of exercise training in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on left and right ventricular morphologic and functional parameters by means of conventional echocardiography and sensitive new echocardiographic techniques including tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging, that were performed in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients at baseline and at the end of a specific exercise training protocol for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We selected 116 pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who completed the exercise training protocol. All patients underwent a clinical history and examination; transthoracic echocardiography and exercise testing were performed at baseline and at the end of the exercise training protocol. Conventional echocardiography revealed a mild degree of diastolic dysfunction without significant differences or variations from baseline to the end of the exercise training protocol. In contrast, tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging measurements demonstrated and highlighted the positive influence of exercise training: for both left and right ventricle myocardial early peak diastolic velocities (Em), the ratio of myocardial early-late peak diastolic velocity (Em/Am), myocardial peak systolic velocities (Sm) and peak strain and strain rate values significantly increased at the end of the exercise training protocol, suggesting a relationship between exercise capacity and both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function. Our study, by means of newer more sensitive echocardiographic techniques, clearly demonstrated the positive impact of exercise training on both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function, in terms of adjunctive subclinical improvement, in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients.

  7. Interference of breast implants with echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation

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    Movahed Mohammad-Reza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography is one of the most important diagnostic testing in cardiology. The presence of a breast implant overlying heart can cause significant impairment of the echocardiographic acoustic window. Breast implants are increasing in popularity in the USA and the Federal Drug and Food Administration (FDA just approved silicone implants again. In this review, the impact of silicone breast implant on the echocardiographic image acquisition and interpretation is discussed.

  8. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

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    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  9. Image-based temporal alignment of echocardiographic sequences

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    Danudibroto, Adriyana; Bersvendsen, Jørn; Mirea, Oana; Gerard, Olivier; D'hooge, Jan; Samset, Eigil

    2016-04-01

    Temporal alignment of echocardiographic sequences enables fair comparisons of multiple cardiac sequences by showing corresponding frames at given time points in the cardiac cycle. It is also essential for spatial registration of echo volumes where several acquisitions are combined for enhancement of image quality or forming larger field of view. In this study, three different image-based temporal alignment methods were investigated. First, a method based on dynamic time warping (DTW). Second, a spline-based method that optimized the similarity between temporal characteristic curves of the cardiac cycle using 1D cubic B-spline interpolation. Third, a method based on the spline-based method with piecewise modification. These methods were tested on in-vivo data sets of 19 echo sequences. For each sequence, the mitral valve opening (MVO) time was manually annotated. The results showed that the average MVO timing error for all methods are well under the time resolution of the sequences.

  10. Longitudinal two dimensional strain rate imaging is superior to tissue Doppler imaging in predicting echocardiographic response in cardiac resynchronization therapy%二维斑点追踪显像技术预测心脏再同步治疗的疗效

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    史浩颖; 舒先红; 汪芳; 陈灏珠; 刘少稳

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of longitudinal strain and strain rate imaging by two dimensional speckle tracking in predicting echocardiographic response under cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT),in comparison with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods Fifty patients suffering from heart failure,who received CRT,were selected. TDI and two dimensional speckle tracking ima ging in addition to standard echocardiography were performed prior to CRT. The average value of peak longitu dinal strain in 12 left ventricular (LV) segments (Strain-12), the standard deviation of time to peak longitudinal strain in 12 LV segments (Tstrain-SD) and the standard deviation of time to the end of longitudinal systolic strain rate in 6 basal LV segments (Tsr-SD) were calculated. Patients were classified as echocardiographic re sponders if the LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) was reduced > 15% compared with baseline volumes. Re sults No significant difference was seen in baseline Ts-SD,Strain-12 and Tstrain-SD between nonresponders and responders. However, the Tsr-SD was much higher in responders than nonresponders[ (95. 9 ±33. 0)% vs (64. 8 ±39. 6)%,P15%或左心室射血分数(LVEF)绝对值增加>5%的患者.结果 CRT有效组起搏前左心室射血前时间显著长于无效组[(146.0±34.5)ms对(123.5±32.0)ms,P0.05),而CRT有效组的应变率结束时间标准差(Tsr-SD)显著高于无效组(P0.05),而CRT有效组的左心室12节段纵轴反向应变总和(Pstrain-12)显著高于无效组[(12.5±7.9)%对(7.1±8.4)%,P<0.05].将140.5 ms作为截点值,左心室射血前时间预测超声心动图有效的敏感性和特异性分别为63%和79%,将70.7 ms作为截点值,Tsr-SD预测CRT有效的敏感性和特异性分别为73%和65%.结论 常规超声心动图参数中仅左心室射血前时间能预测CRT疗效,二维斑点追踪显像技术的部分参数预测CRT疗效优于组织多普勒.

  11. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

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    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process.

  12. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Oana Mirea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications.

  13. Speckle echocardiographic left atrial strain and stiffness index as predictors of maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion for atrial fibrillation: a prospective study

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    Shaikh Amir Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic left atrial (LA strain parameters have been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF in prior studies. Our goal was to determine if strain measures [peak systolic longitudinal strain (LAS and stiffness index (LASt] changed after cardioversion (CV; and their relation to AF recurrence. Methods and results 46 participants with persistent AF and 41 age-matched participants with no AF were recruited. LAS and LASt were measured before and immediately after CV using 2D speckle tracking imaging (2DSI. Maintenance of sinus rhythm was assessed over a 6-month follow up. Mean LAS was lower, and mean LASt higher, in participants with AF before CV as compared to control group (11.9 ± 1.0 vs 35.7 ± 1.7, p Conclusions LAS and LASt differed between participants with and without AF, irrespective of the rhythm at the time of echocardiographic assessment. Baseline LAS and LASt were not associated with AF recurrence. However, change in LAS after CV may be a useful predictor of recurrent arrhythmia.

  14. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

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    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress {sup 99m}Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest {sup 123}I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in {sup 123}I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by {sup 123}I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  15. Myocardial Strain and Strain Rate Imaging: Comparison between Doppler Derived Strain Imaging and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

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    Anita Sadeghpour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional myocardial function has been traditionally assessed by visual estimation (1. Echocardiographic strain imaging which is known as deformation imaging, has been emerged as a quantitative technique to accurately estimate regional myocardial function and contractility. Currently, strain imaging has been regarded as a research tool in the most echocardiography laboratories. However, in recent years, strain imaging has gain momentum in daily clinical practice (2. The following two techniques have dominated the research arena of echocardiography: (1 Doppler based tissue velocity measurements, frequently referred to tissue Doppler or myocardial Doppler, and (2 speckle tracking on the basis of displacement measurements (3. Over the past two decades, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI and Doppler –derived strain (S and strain rate (SR imaging were introduced to quantify regional myocardial function. However, Doppler–derived strain variables faced criticisms, with regard to the angle dependency, noise interference, and substantial intraobserver and interobserver variability. The angle dependency is the major weakness of Doppler based methodology; however, it has the advantage of online measurements of velocities and time intervals with excellent temporal resolution, which is essential for the assessment of ischemia (4. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE or Non Doppler 2D strain echocardiography is a relatively new, largely angle-independent technique that analyzes motion by tracking natural acoustic reflections and interference patterns within an ultrasonic window. The image-processing algorithm tracks elements with approximately 20 to 40 pixels containing stable patterns and are described as ‘‘speckles’’ or ‘‘fingerprints’’. The speckles seen in grayscale B-mode (2D images are tracked consecutively frame to frame (5, 6. Assessment of 2D strain by STE is a semiautomatic method that requires definition of the myocardium

  16. Photothermal strain imaging

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    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  17. Temporal Super Resolution Enhancement of Echocardiographic Images Based on Sparse Representation.

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    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Haddadi, Farzan; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh; Shojaeifard, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    A challenging issue for echocardiographic image interpretation is the accurate analysis of small transient motions of myocardium and valves during real-time visualization. A higher frame rate video may reduce this difficulty, and temporal super resolution (TSR) is useful for illustrating the fast-moving structures. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework that optimizes TSR enhancement of echocardiographic images by utilizing temporal information and sparse representation. The goal of this method is to increase the frame rate of echocardiographic videos, and therefore enable more accurate analyses of moving structures. For the proposed method, we first derived temporal information by extracting intensity variation time curves (IVTCs) assessed for each pixel. We then designed both low-resolution and high-resolution overcomplete dictionaries based on prior knowledge of the temporal signals and a set of prespecified known functions. The IVTCs can then be described as linear combinations of a few prototype atoms in the low-resolution dictionary. We used the Bayesian compressive sensing (BCS) sparse recovery algorithm to find the sparse coefficients of the signals. We extracted the sparse coefficients and the corresponding active atoms in the low-resolution dictionary to construct new sparse coefficients corresponding to the high-resolution dictionary. Using the estimated atoms and the high-resolution dictionary, a new IVTC with more samples was constructed. Finally, by placing the new IVTC signals in the original IVTC positions, we were able to reconstruct the original echocardiography video with more frames. The proposed method does not require training of low-resolution and high-resolution dictionaries, nor does it require motion estimation; it does not blur fast-moving objects, and does not have blocking artifacts.

  18. Cardiac strain findings in children with latent rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening.

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    Beaton, Andrea; Richards, Hedda; Ploutz, Michelle; Gaur, Lasya; Aliku, Twalib; Lwabi, Peter; Ensing, Greg; Sable, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Identification of patients with latent rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography presents a unique opportunity to prevent disease progression. Myocardial strain is a more sensitive indicator of cardiac performance than traditional measures of systolic function. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities in myocardial strain may be present in children with latent rheumatic heart disease. Standard echocardiography images with electrocardiogram gating were obtained from Ugandan children found to have latent rheumatic heart disease as well as control subjects. Traditional echocardiography measures of systolic function were obtained, and offline global longitudinal strain analysis was performed. Comparison between groups was performed using strain as a continuous (Mann-Whitney U-test) and categorical (cut-off 5th percentile for age) variable. Our study included 14 subjects with definite rheumatic heart disease, 13 with borderline rheumatic heart disease, and 112 control subjects. None of the subjects had abnormal left ventricular size or ejection fraction. Global longitudinal strain was lower than the 5th percentile in 44% of the subjects with any rheumatic heart disease (p=0.002 versus controls) and 57% of the subjects with definite rheumatic heart disease (p=0.03). The mean absolute strain values were significantly lower when comparing subjects with any rheumatic heart disease with controls (20.4±3.95 versus 22.4±4.35, p=0.025) and subjects with definite rheumatic heart disease with controls (19.9±4.25 versus 22.4±4.35, p=0.033). Global longitudinal strain is decreased in subjects with rheumatic heart disease in the absence of abnormal systolic function. Larger studies with longer-term follow-up are required to determine whether there is a role for strain to help better understand the pathophysiology of latent rheumatic heart disease.

  19. Fractional order integration and fuzzy logic based filter for denoising of echocardiographic image.

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    Saadia, Ayesha; Rashdi, Adnan

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound is widely used for imaging due to its cost effectiveness and safety feature. However, ultrasound images are inherently corrupted with speckle noise which severely affects the quality of these images and create difficulty for physicians in diagnosis. To get maximum benefit from ultrasound imaging, image denoising is an essential requirement. To perform image denoising, a two stage methodology using fuzzy weighted mean and fractional integration filter has been proposed in this research work. In stage-1, image pixels are processed by applying a 3 × 3 window around each pixel and fuzzy logic is used to assign weights to the pixels in each window, replacing central pixel of the window with weighted mean of all neighboring pixels present in the same window. Noise suppression is achieved by assigning weights to the pixels while preserving edges and other important features of an image. In stage-2, the resultant image is further improved by fractional order integration filter. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been analyzed for standard test images artificially corrupted with speckle noise and real ultrasound B-mode images. Results of the proposed technique have been compared with different state-of-the-art techniques including Lsmv, Wiener, Geometric filter, Bilateral, Non-local means, Wavelet, Perona et al., Total variation (TV), Global Adaptive Fractional Integral Algorithm (GAFIA) and Improved Fractional Order Differential (IFD) model. Comparison has been done on quantitative and qualitative basis. For quantitative analysis different metrics like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Speckle Suppression Index (SSI), Structural Similarity (SSIM), Edge Preservation Index (β) and Correlation Coefficient (ρ) have been used. Simulations have been done using Matlab. Simulation results of artificially corrupted standard test images and two real Echocardiographic images reveal that the proposed method outperforms existing image denoising techniques

  20. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

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    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  1. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

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    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  2. Myocardial Motion Estimation: An Evaluation of Optical Flow Computation Techniques on Echocardiographic Images

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    Slamet Riyadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of image processing technique for cardiac motion analysis has been an active research in the past decade. The estimation of myocardial motion eases the cardiologist in diagnosing cardiac abnormalities. In term of movement analysis, optical flow is the most popular technique that has been used by researchers. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of three optical flow computation techniques to estimate the myocardial motion using echocardiographic images. The three techniquesare the global smoothness method (GSM, the local smoothness method (LSM and warping technique (WT. Optical flow field is computed based on healthy cardiac video on parasternal short axes view. These techniques look promising since the optical flow fields can be utilized to estimate the myocardial movement and comply with its true movement. The performances of each technique in terms of the direction, homogeneity and computing time, are also discussed.

  3. An edge-preserving algorithm of joint image restoration and volume reconstruction for rotation-scanning 4D echocardiographic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qiang; YANG Xin

    2006-01-01

    A statistical algorithm for the reconstruction from time sequence echocardiographic images is proposed in this paper.The ability to jointly restore the images and reconstruct the 3D images without blurring the boundary is the main innovation of this algorithm. First, a Bayesian model based on MAP-MRF is used to reconstruct 3D volume, and extended to deal with the images acquired by rotation scanning method. Then, the spatiotemporal nature of ultrasound images is taken into account for the parameter of energy function, which makes this statistical model anisotropic. Hence not only can this method reconstruct 3D ultrasound images, but also remove the speckle noise anisotropically. Finally, we illustrate the experiments of our method on the synthetic and medical images and compare it with the isotropic reconstruction method.

  4. Automated segmentation and geometrical modeling of the tricuspid aortic valve in 3D echocardiographic images.

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    Pouch, Alison M; Wang, Hongzhi; Takabe, Manabu; Jackson, Benjamin M; Sehgal, Chandra M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The aortic valve has been described with variable anatomical definitions, and the consistency of 2D manual measurement of valve dimensions in medical image data has been questionable. Given the importance of image-based morphological assessment in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of aortic valve disease, there is considerable need to develop a standardized framework for 3D valve segmentation and shape representation. Towards this goal, this work integrates template-based medial modeling and multi-atlas label fusion techniques to automatically delineate and quantitatively describe aortic leaflet geometry in 3D echocardiographic (3DE) images, a challenging task that has been explored only to a limited extent. The method makes use of expert knowledge of aortic leaflet image appearance, generates segmentations with consistent topology, and establishes a shape-based coordinate system on the aortic leaflets that enables standardized automated measurements. In this study, the algorithm is evaluated on 11 3DE images of normal human aortic leaflets acquired at mid systole. The clinical relevance of the method is its ability to capture leaflet geometry in 3DE image data with minimal user interaction while producing consistent measurements of 3D aortic leaflet geometry.

  5. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricle Torsion by Tissue Doppler and Velocity Vector Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ojaghi-Haghighi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Left ventricular (LV twist is believed to store potential energy and plays an important role in generating diastolic suction. Recent advances in echocardiography techniques have allowed quantification of LV twist. The aim of the present study was to compare LV twist and torsion in healthy human subjects determined by velocity vector imaging (VVI and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI at rest. Materials and Methods All volunteers (72 healthy subjects underwent complete echocardiographic study and LV torsional parameters were assessed using VVI or TDI methods. LV rotation at apical and basal short-axis levels was calculated throughout cardiac cycle and LV twist was defined as net difference between rotation angles of the two levels. The LV torsion was calculated as the LV twist divided by the LV end-diastolic length. Results Twist degree was significantly lower in the VVI group than the TDI group (11.4±2.4º vs.14.1±3.0º, p

  6. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  7. Early Cardiac Dysfunction in the Type 1 Diabetic Heart Using Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Danielle L.; Nichols, Cody E.; Croston, Tara L.; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Petrone, Ashley B.; Lewis, Sara E.; Thapa, Dharendra; Long, Dustin M.; Dick, Gregory M.; Hollander, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced sensitivity in echocardiographic analyses may allow for early detection of changes in cardiac function beyond the detection limits of conventional echocardiographic analyses, particularly in a small animal model. The goal of this study was to compare conventional echocardiographic measurements and speckle-tracking based strain imaging analyses in a small animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conventional analyses revealed differences in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume in diabetic animals relative to controls at 6-weeks post-diabetic onset. In contrast, when assessing short- and long-axis speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic mice showed changes in average systolic radial strain, radial strain rate, radial displacement, and radial velocity, as well as decreased circumferential and longitudinal strain rate, as early as 1-week post-diabetic onset and persisting throughout the diabetic study. Further, we performed regional analyses for the LV and found that the free wall region was affected in both the short- and long-axis when assessing radial dimension parameters. These changes began 1-week post-diabetic onset and remained throughout the progression of the disease. These findings demonstrate the use of speckle-tracking based strain as an approach to elucidate cardiac dysfunction from a global perspective, identifying left ventricular cardiac regions affected during the progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus earlier than contractile changes detected by conventional echocardiographic measurements. PMID:26654913

  8. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode: Normal Values and Association with Established Echocardiographic and Invasive Measures of Systolic and Diastolic Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Biering-Sørensen

    Full Text Available To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI M-mode through the mitral valve (MV. Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI and the conventional method of obtaining MPI (MPIConv, with established echocardiographic and invasive measures of systolic and diastolic function.In a large community based population study (n = 974, where all are free of any cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac time intervals, including isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT, isovolumic contraction time (IVCT, and ejection time (ET were obtained by TDI M-mode through the MV. IVCT/ET, IVRT/ET and the MPI ((IVRT+IVCT/ET were calculated. We also included a validation population (n = 44 of patients who underwent left heart catheterization and had the MPITDI and MPIConv measured.IVRT, IVRT/ET and MPI all increased significantly with increasing age in both genders (p<0.001 for all. IVCT, ET, IVRT/ET, and MPI differed significantly between males and females, displaying that women, in general exhibit better cardiac function. MPITDI was significantly associated with invasive (dP/dt max and echocardiographic measures of systolic (LVEF, global longitudinal strain and global strainrate s and diastolic function (e', global strainrate e(p<0.05 for all, whereas MPIConv was significantly associated with LVEF, e' and global strainrate e (p<0.05 for all.Normal values of cardiac time intervals differed between genders and deteriorated with increasing age. The MPITDI (but not MPIConv is associated with most invasive and established echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function.

  9. The Value of Conventional Echocardiographic and Tissue Doppler Imaging in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Mingxing XIE; Xinfang WANG; Yali YANG; Junhong HUANG; Ming CHENG; Feixiang XIANG; Qing LU

    2008-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiographic characteristics of 17 cases of cardiac amyloidosis (CA),a rare disease in China, were analyzed in order to improve the understanding of the disease. Seventeen cases of biopsy-proven CA, admitted to Wuhan Union Hospital from June 1994 to September 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty normal volunteers served as control group. Left atrial and ventricular functions and mitral inflow velocity were measured by two-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiography, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived peak systolic wall motion velocities (Sv), peak early diastolic wall motion velocities (Ev), and peak late diastolic wall motion (Av) were measured at the septunm. Lateral, inferior and anterior comers of mitral annulus from the apical 4- and 2 chamber views. Compared with the control group, the interventricular septal thickness (IVSd), the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWd), right ventricular transverse diameter (RVTDd) near the end of diastole and the interauricular septum thickness (IASs), left atrial anteroposterior diameter (LAADs), right atrial transverse diameter (RATDs) near the end of systole were increased significantly (all P<0.05) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased (P<0.05) in the CA group.Compared with the control group, Sv, Ev at each wall and Av at almost all walls were significantly decreased in the CA group. In the CA group, Myocardial echoes of interventricular septum and free wall of left ventricle were enhanced evidently and distributed unevenly. The echoes presented as ground glass-like images, with some spotty hyper echoes. Both atria were enlarged, and LVEF decreased, with diastolic function impaired, and mild-moderate hydropericardium found in the CA group. It was concluded that echocardiography was a relatively sensitive and highly specific non-invasive method for the diagnosis of CA.

  10. Echocardiographic anatomy of the mitral valve: a critical appraisal of 2-dimensional imaging protocols with a 3-dimensional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Hess, Philip E; Matyal, Robina; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Wang, Angela; Qazi, Aisha; Panzica, Peter J; Lerner, Adam B; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    To highlight the limitations of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic mitral valve (MV) examination methodologies, which do not account for patient-specific transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) probe adjustments made during an actual clinical perioperative TEE examination. Institutional quality-improvement project. Tertiary care hospital. Attending anesthesiologists certified by the National Board of Echocardiography. Using the technique of multiplanar reformatting with 3-dimensional (3D) data, ambiguous 2D images of the MV were generated, which resembled standard midesophageal 2D views. Based on the 3D image, the MV scallops visualized in each 2D image were recognized exactly by the position of the scan plane. Twenty-three such 2D MV images were created in a presentation from the 3D datasets. Anesthesia staff members (n = 13) were invited to view the presentation based on the 2D images only and asked to identify the MV scallops. Their responses were scored as correct or incorrect based on the 3D image. The overall accuracy was 30.4% in identifying the MV scallops. The transcommissural view was identified correctly >90% of the time. The accuracy of the identification of A1, A3, P1, and P3 scallops was <50%. The accuracy of the identification of A2P2 scallops was ≥50%. In the absence of information on TEE probe adjustments performed to acquire a specific MV image, it is possible to misidentify the scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  12. Two-dimensional longitudinal strain for the assessment of the left ventricular systolic function as compared with conventional echocardiographic methods in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczek, Robert; Krzesiński, Paweł; Krzywicki, Paweł; Smurzyński, Paweł; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular (LV) function is one of the most important elements of diagnosis in patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. A low LV ejection fraction (LVEF) is a strong and independent predictor of CV events. Traditionally, echocardiography characterises the LV systolic function by the estimation of LVEF with use of the Simpson method, supported by the wall motion score index (WMSI). Speckle tracking imaging is a new method of LV function imaging based on the estimation of longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS), by tracing of the automatically detected myocardial speckles. To evaluate the usefulness of global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) and regional longitudinal peak systolic strain (r-LPSS) in LV systolic function assessment and to compare LPSS with conventional parameters such as LVEF, WMSI and regional wall motion score index (r-WMSI). The study was performed in a group of 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (mean age 63.6 ± 12.2 years). The LVEF, WMSI, r-WMSI were estimated by echocardiography (VIVID 7 Dimension, GE Healthcare, USA). Moreover, LPSS (GLPSS and r-LPSS) with use of automated function imaging (AFI) were also estimated. In the study group mean LVEF was 43.1 ± 12.7%, mean WMSI: 1.68 ± 0.52, and GLPSS: -13.8 ± 5.6%. A very strong linear correlation between the conventional and new parameters was observed - for GLPSS and LVEF: r = -0.86 (p < 0.00001), for GLPSS and WMSI: r = 0.88 (p < 0.00001). The results of the regional myocardial contractility assessment (r-LPSS and r-WMSI) were also in agreement, especially for LV anterior wall (r = 0.87, p < 0.00001). These results suggest a considerable usefulness of LPSS - a new method of echocardiographical imaging - in the estimation of global and regional LV function in patients with acute coronary syndrome and its agreement with conventional parameters such as LVEF and WMSI.

  13. 22. Comparison of conventional echocardiographic parameters of rv systolic function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shamsan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging is considered the gold standard for quantification of RV size and function. Multiple 2D Echocardiography (echo parameters are recommended for quantification of systolic RV function including Fractional Area Change (FAC%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE and Tissue Doppler velocity (TDI of tricuspid annulus. The aim of our study was to compare the conventional 2-D echocardiographic parameters of RV systolic function with CMR derived RVEF and stroke volume (SV. The echo and cardiac magnetic parameters to assess the right ventricular function are different. Consecutive patients referred to CMR for RV assessment from January 2011 to December 2014 were screened. 69 patients with CMR and adequate echo were selected. 20 subjects with normal CMR were enrolled as a control group. Quantitative 2-D echo measures were compared with CMR RVEF (% and SV (ml. The comparison was made using linear correlation for the echo variables with CMR variables. The mean age of patients was 38.2 + 5.4 (51% females were enrolled. 84.1% of patients had normal RVEF by CMR. In patients, FAC% but not TAPSE or annular TDI, correlated with CMR derived RVEF (R = 0.45, p = 0.0001 with fair agreement (kappa 0.43. However, FAC% did not correlate with CMR RV stroke volume. In contrast, in normal subjects, TAPSE had the best correlation with CMR derived RVEF (R = 0.67, p = 0.0001. In patients, CMR reclassified RV function assessed by FAC% in 11 (16%. 6 (8% patients who had abnormal RV function by FAC% were reclassified as normal while 5 (7% with normal RV function by FAC% were reclassified as abnormal. In normal subjects, however, only one with abnormal RV function by TAPSE was reclassified as normal by CMR. The current quantitative 2-D echo parameters of RV systolic function assessment correlate poorly with CMR measured RVEF and SV and behave differently in comparison with CMR in patients with normal and

  14. Echocardiographic image tracker with a speckle adaptive noise reduction filter for the automatic measurement of the left atrial volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Kenya; Chono, Tomoaki; Tabata, Tomotsugu; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Sata, Masataka

    2014-05-01

    Since tracking accuracy in left atrial (LA) images decreases due to low image quality around the LA in the apical view, a practical tracking method for LA images has not yet been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess an accurate and high-speed LA volume tracking (LAVT) method for the automatic measurement of LA volume (LAV) curves. We used three approved protocols in this study: (i) LAV curves were measured by LAVT on computer-simulated images; (ii) in 20 healthy volunteers, we assessed the feasibility and accuracy of this method compared with expert's measurements; and (iii) echocardiography and multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging were performed on the same day in 20 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. On computer-simulated images, mean absolute percentage LAVT error in one cardiac cycle was 3% in filtered images and 16% in original images. In 20 healthy volunteers, there are strong correlations between LAVT and the expert's LA measurements (LA maximum volume; R = 0.93, P images with 20 patients, an excellent correlation was obtained between LAVs using echocardiography and MDCT (R = 0.98, P mean) and narrow limits of agreement (+15% of the mean). The mean time required for the LAVT analysis was 1.8 min, for the MDCT analysis was 35.8 min, and for the manual echocardiographic analysis was 14.0 min. This LAVT method is fast, valid, accurate, and reproducible for determining LAV in both simulated images and the clinical setting.

  15. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction in the type 1 diabetic heart using speckle-tracking based strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Danielle L; Nichols, Cody E; Croston, Tara L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Petrone, Ashley B; Lewis, Sara E; Thapa, Dharendra; Long, Dustin M; Dick, Gregory M; Hollander, John M

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced sensitivity in echocardiographic analyses may allow for early detection of changes in cardiac function beyond the detection limits of conventional echocardiographic analyses, particularly in a small animal model. The goal of this study was to compare conventional echocardiographic measurements and speckle-tracking based strain imaging analyses in a small animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conventional analyses revealed differences in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume in diabetic animals relative to controls at 6-weeks post-diabetic onset. In contrast, when assessing short- and long-axis speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic mice showed changes in average systolic radial strain, radial strain rate, radial displacement, and radial velocity, as well as decreased circumferential and longitudinal strain rate, as early as 1-week post-diabetic onset and persisting throughout the diabetic study. Further, we performed regional analyses for the LV and found that the free wall region was affected in both the short- and long-axis when assessing radial dimension parameters. These changes began 1-week post-diabetic onset and remained throughout the progression of the disease. These findings demonstrate the use of speckle-tracking based strain as an approach to elucidate cardiac dysfunction from a global perspective, identifying left ventricular cardiac regions affected during the progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus earlier than contractile changes detected by conventional echocardiographic measurements.

  16. Potential pitfalls of strain rate imaging: angle dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, P. L.; Greenberg, N. L.; Drinko, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Strain Rate Imaging (SRI) is a new echocardiographic technique that allows for the real-time determination of myocardial SR, which may be used for the early and accurate detection of coronary artery disease. We sought to study whether SR is affected by scan line alignment in a computer simulation and an in vivo experiment. Through the computer simulation and the in vivo experiment we generated and validated safe scanning sectors within the ultrasound scan sector and showed that while SRI will be an extremely valuable tool in detecting coronary artery disease there are potential pitfalls for the unwary clinician. Only after accounting for these affects due to angle dependency, can clinicians utilize SRI's potential as a valuable tool in detecting coronary artery disease.

  17. Correlation based 3-D segmentation of the left ventricle in pediatric echocardiographic images using radio-frequency data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Maartje M; Lopata, Richard G P; Huisman, H J; Thijssen, Johan M; Kapusta, Livia; de Korte, Chris L

    2011-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis of heart disease might be substantially supported by automated segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3-D) echographic images. Because of the poor echogenicity contrast between blood and myocardial tissue in some regions and the inherent speckle noise, automated analysis of these images is challenging. A priori knowledge on the shape of the heart cannot always be relied on, e.g., in children with congenital heart disease, segmentation should be based on the echo features solely. The objective of this study was to investigate the merit of using temporal cross-correlation of radio-frequency (RF) data for automated segmentation of 3-D echocardiographic images. Maximum temporal cross-correlation (MCC) values were determined locally from the RF-data using an iterative 3-D technique. MCC values as well as a combination of MCC values and adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data were used as an additional, external force in a deformable model approach to segment the endocardial surface and were tested against manually segmented surfaces. Results on 3-D full volume images (Philips, iE33) of 10 healthy children demonstrate that MCC values derived from the RF signal yield a useful parameter to distinguish between blood and myocardium in regions with low echogenicity contrast and incorporation of MCC improves the segmentation results significantly. Further investigation of the MCC over the whole cardiac cycle is required to exploit the full benefit of it for automated segmentation.

  18. Novel echocardiographic prognostic markers for cardiac tamponade in patients with large malignant pericardial effusions: A paradigm shift from flow to tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, George; Samaras, Antonios; Ziakas, Antonios; Kikas, Petros; Thomaidis, Adina; Drosos, Ioannis; Giannakoulas, George; Karvounis, Haralambos; Konstantinides, Stavros; Tziakas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    With this study, we sought to investigate the prognostic value of echocardiographic tissue imaging markers in predicting tamponade among patients with large malignant pericardial effusion compared to routinely used echocardiographic signs. A total of 96 consecutive patients with large malignant pericardial effusion, not in clinical cardiac tamponade, underwent an echocardiographic examination and were prospectively assessed for 1 month. Clinically evident cardiac tamponade was considered as the study endpoint. The prognostic performance of tricuspid valve annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak systolic annular velocity at the lateral margin of the tricuspid valve annulus (STV ) was assessed and compared to routinely used imaging signs. During follow-up, 37 patients (39%) developed clinically evident cardiac tamponade. TAPSE (area under the curve [AUC] 0.958) and STV (AUC 0.948) had excellent predictive accuracy for tamponade. Multivariate analysis showed that TAPSE (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.03; 95% CI 1.60-5.73, P=.001) and STV (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.05-1.29, P=.005) remained independent significant predictors of cardiac tamponade. Reclassification analysis and decision curve analysis showed additive prognostic value and adjunct clinical benefit of these markers when added to a recently published triage pericardiocentesis score. Echocardiographic tissue imaging markers such as TAPSE and STV are characterized by an excellent prognostic ability for development of cardiac tamponade and better prognostic value compared to routine echocardiographic signs in patients with large malignant pericardial effusion. Incorporating these markers to a recent triage pericardiocentesis score resulted in additional prognostic value and increased clinical benefit. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  20. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-48 STRAIN IMAGING USING TERAHERTZ WAVES AND METAMATERIALS Henry O. Everitt and Martin S...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Henry O. Everitt, Martin S...technique to measure strain in opaque objects. Experiments were conducted utilizing metamaterials on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets to produce

  1. Automated classification of patients with coronary artery disease using grayscale features from left ventricle echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Krishnananda, N; Ranjan, Shetty; Umesh, Pai; Suri, Jasjit S

    2013-12-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), caused by the buildup of plaque on the inside of the coronary arteries, has a high mortality rate. To efficiently detect this condition from echocardiography images, with lesser inter-observer variability and visual interpretation errors, computer based data mining techniques may be exploited. We have developed and presented one such technique in this paper for the classification of normal and CAD affected cases. A multitude of grayscale features (fractal dimension, entropies based on the higher order spectra, features based on image texture and local binary patterns, and wavelet based features) were extracted from echocardiography images belonging to a huge database of 400 normal cases and 400 CAD patients. Only the features that had good discriminating capability were selected using t-test. Several combinations of the resultant significant features were used to evaluate many supervised classifiers to find the combination that presents a good accuracy. We observed that the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) classifier trained with a feature subset made up of nine significant features presented the highest accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 100%. We have also developed a novel, highly discriminative HeartIndex, which is a single number that is calculated from the combination of the features, in order to objectively classify the images from either of the two classes. Such an index allows for an easier implementation of the technique for automated CAD detection in the computers in hospitals and clinics.

  2. A Novel Mathematical/Numerical Formula for Assessing Right Ventricular Torsion Using Echocardiographic Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the ventricular torsional parameters have received special attention because of their significant role in the ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Right ventricular (RV) rotational deformation is a sensitive index for RV performance but difficult to measure. Having assumed RV as a conic shape, the present study serves a novel mathematical formula of right ventricular rotation that uses velocity vector imaging (VVI) for quantifying RV.

  3. Analysis of motion tracking in echocardiographic image sequences: influence of system geometry and point-spread function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touil, Basma; Basarab, Adrian; Delachartre, Philippe; Bernard, Olivier; Friboulet, Denis

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on motion tracking in echocardiographic ultrasound images. The difficulty of this task is related to the fact that echographic image formation induces decorrelation between the underlying motion of tissue and the observed speckle motion. Since Meunier's seminal work, this phenomenon has been investigated in many simulation studies as part of speckle tracking or optical flow-based motion estimation techniques. Most of these studies modeled image formation using a linear convolution approach, where the system point-spread function (PSF) was spatially invariant and the probe geometry was linear. While these assumptions are valid over a small spatial area, they constitute an oversimplification when a complete image is considered. Indeed, echocardiographic acquisition geometry relies on sectorial probes and the system PSF is not perfectly invariant, even if dynamic focusing is performed. This study investigated the influence of sectorial geometry and spatially varying PSF on speckle tracking. This was done by simulating a typical 64 elements, cardiac probe operating at 3.5 MHz frequency, using the simulation software Field II. This simulation first allowed quantification of the decorrelation induced by the system between two images when simple motion such as translation or incompressible deformation was applied. We then quantified the influence of decorrelation on speckle tracking accuracy using a conventional block matching (BM) algorithm and a bilinear deformable block matching (BDBM) algorithm. In echocardiography, motion estimation is usually performed on reconstructed images where the initial sectorial (i.e., polar) data are interpolated on a cartesian grid. We therefore studied the influence of sectorial acquisition geometry, by performing block matching on cartesian and polar data. Simulation results show that decorrelation is spatially variant and depends on the position of the region where motion takes place relative to the probe. Previous

  4. Three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of biventricular false tendons mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Ugur; Demirkol, Sait; Celik, Turgay; Balta, Sevket; Yokusoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricle, with variable clinical manifestations and morphologic and hemodynamic abnormalities. False tendons (FTs) are discrete, fibromuscular structures of varying length and thickness that tranverse either left and right ventricular cavities. Left and right ventricular FTs were giving a false impression of HCM. Misdiagnosis of HCM can lead to undue anxiety, unnecessary medication, and further evaluation. Three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography is additive to conventional two-dimensional imaging in these patients in terms of 3D perspective and anatomically correct examination. We present a 32-year-old male who was misdiagnosed as asymetrical septal hypertrophy.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2330 - Echocardiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An echocardiograph is a device that uses ultrasonic energy to create images of cardiovascular structures. It includes phased arrays and two-dimensional scanners. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. Correlations Between Echocardiographic Systolic and Diastolic Function with Cardiac Catheterization in Biventricular Congenital Heart Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorlik, H; Stiver, C; Khan, S; Miao, Y; Holzer, R; Cheatham, J P; Cua, C L

    2016-04-01

    Newer echocardiographic techniques may allow for more accurate assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. Adult studies have correlated these echocardiographic measurements with invasive data, but minimal data exist in the pediatric congenital heart population. Purpose of this study was to evaluate which echocardiographic measurements correlated best with LV systolic and diastolic catheterization parameters. Patients with two-ventricle physiology who underwent simultaneous echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization were included. Images were obtained in the four-chamber view. LV systolic echocardiographic data included ejection fraction, displacement, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) s' wave, global longitudinal strain, and strain rate (SR) s' wave. Diastolic echocardiographic data included mitral E and A waves, TDI e' and a' waves, and SRe' and SRa' waves. E/TDI e', TDI e'/TDI a', E/SRe', and SRe'/SRa' ratios were also calculated. Catheterization dP/dt was used as a marker for systolic function, and LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) was used as a marker for diastolic function. Correlations of the echocardiographic and catheterization values were performed using Pearson correlation. Twenty-nine patients were included (14 females, 15 males). Median age at catheterization was 3.4 years (0.04-17.4 years). dP/dt was 1258 ± 353 mmHg/s, and LVEDP was 10.8 ± 2.4 mmHg. There were no significant correlations between catheterization dP/dt and systolic echocardiographic parameters. LVEDP correlated significantly with SRe' (r = -0.4, p = 0.03), SRa' (r = -0.4, p = 0.03), and E/SRe' (r = 0.5, p = 0.004). In pediatric congenital heart patients, catheterization dP/dt did not correlate with echocardiographic measurements of LV systolic function. Further studies are needed to determine which echocardiographic parameter best describes LV systolic function in this population. Strain rate analysis significantly correlated with LVEDP. Strain rate analysis should be considered as an

  7. Left ventricular function in professional football players evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging and strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümüklü, Mustafa Murat; Etikan, Ilker; Cinar, Cahide Soydaş

    2008-01-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI) and Strain Myocardial Imaging(SI) are new tools in the evaluation systolic and diastolic myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and SI findings in professional football players and age adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Transthoracic echocardiography, M-mode, 2-D measurements, Doppler derived mitral-tricuspid annular velocities, reconstructed spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler velocities, strain and strain rate imaging of seven different myocardial regions were obtained from 24 professional football players and age, sex and weight adjusted 20 controls. Age, body surface area, blood pressure and heart rate were comparable between 2 groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal TDI peak early diastolic(e) velocity(0.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.04 m/s, P velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.02 m/s, P football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left ventricle and left atrium and improvement in left ventricle diastolic function which can be detected by TDI. Strain rate imaging may be a new tool to define subtle change in systolic left ventricular function in "athletes heart" which cannot be determined in standard echocardiographic parameters.

  8. Reference values for myocardial two-dimensional strain echocardiography in a healthy pediatric and young adult cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, K.A.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Barends, M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Feuth, T.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The accurate evaluation of intrinsic myocardial contractility in children with or without congenital heart disease (CHD) has turned out to be a challenge. Two-dimensional strain echocardiographic (2DSTE) imaging or two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic imaging appears to hol

  9. Improved interobserver variability and accuracy of echocardiographic visual left ventricular ejection fraction assessment through a self-directed learning program using cardiac magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Popović, Zoran B; Flamm, Scott D; Dahiya, Arun; Grimm, Richard A; Marwick, Thomas H

    2013-11-01

    Although not recommended in isolation, visual estimation of echocardiographic ejection fraction (EF) is widely applied to confirm quantitative EF. However, interobserver variability for EF estimation has been reported to be as high as 14%. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-directed education could improve the accuracy and interobserver variability of visual estimation of EF and whether a multireader estimate improves measurement precision. Thirty-one participants provided single-point EF estimates for 30 echocardiograms with a spectrum of EFs, image quality, and clinical contexts in patients undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) within 48 hours. Participants received their own case-by-case variance from CMR EF, and the 10 cases with the largest reader variability were discussed along with corresponding CMR images. Self-directed learning was undertaken by side-by-side review of echocardiographic and CMR images. Two months later, 20 new cases were shown to the same 31 participants, using the same methodology. The baseline interobserver variability of ±0.120 improved to ±0.097 after the intervention. EF misclassification (defined as ±0.05 of CMR EF) was reduced from 56% to 47% (P self-directed intervention modestly decreased interobserver variability and improved the accuracy of EF measurements. Combined physician-sonographer EF reporting improved the precision of EF estimates. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of global longitudinal strain using standardized myocardial deformation imaging: a modality independent software approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Johannes H; Keller, Marius G P; Aurich, Matthias; Sander, Yannick; Andre, Florian; Giusca, Sorin; Aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Seitz, Sebastian; Galuschky, Christian; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Mereles, Derliz; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial deformation measurement is superior to left ventricular ejection fraction in identifying early changes in myocardial contractility and prediction of cardiovascular outcome. The lack of standardization hinders its clinical implementation. The aim of the study is to investigate a novel standardized deformation imaging approach based on the feature tracking algorithm for the assessment of global longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) in echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). 70 subjects undergoing CMR were consecutively investigated with echocardiography within a median time of 30 min. GLS and GCS were analyzed with a post-processing software incorporating the same standardized algorithm for both modalities. Global strain was defined as the relative shortening of the whole endocardial contour length and calculated according to the strain formula. Mean GLS values were -16.2 ± 5.3 and -17.3 ± 5.3 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GLS did not differ significantly between the two imaging modalities, which showed strong correlation (r = 0.86), a small bias (-1.1 %) and narrow 95 % limits of agreement (LOA ± 5.4 %). Mean GCS values were -17.9 ± 6.3 and -24.4 ± 7.8 % for echocardiography and CMR, respectively. GCS was significantly underestimated by echocardiography (p windows in echocardiography. GCS assessment revealed only a strong correlation (r = 0.87) when echocardiographic image quality was good. No significant differences for GLS between two different echocardiographic vendors could be detected. Quantitative assessment of GLS using a standardized software algorithm allows the direct comparison of values acquired irrespective of the imaging modality. GLS may, therefore, serve as a reliable parameter for the assessment of global left ventricular function in clinical routine besides standard evaluation of the ejection fraction.

  11. Value of 4D-strain imaging echocardiography in detecting left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with aortic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-chao; LI He-zhi; LI Chang-mao; CHEN Ou-di; FEI Hong-wen; LIN Qiong-wen

    2016-01-01

    Background The myocyte dysfunction may be present in aortic stenosis (AS) patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).Early aortic valve replacement (AVR) can reverse the LV hypertrophy and improve LV systolic performance and clinical outcome.Strain imaging has demonstrated to be the most appropriate method to evaluate LV myocardial contractility.However,4D-strain imaging echocardiography for the detection of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in AS patients with preserved LVEF is seldom studied.Methods We prospectively enrolled 30 consecutive moderate to severe AS patients with preserved LVEF,and 30 healthy controls.Conventional echocardiography and 4D-strain imaging echocardiography were undergone in two groups.The 4D strain echocardiographic analyses were undertaken by using 4D Auto LVQ software.Results Compared with the healthy controls,the moderate to severe AS patients with preserved LVEF had significantly decreased global radial strain (GRS),global longitudinal strain (GLS),global area strain (GAS) and 4D strain (P < 0.05),had significantly increased left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (P < 0.05),and had lower global circumferential strain (GCS) (P > 0.05).Conclusions Impaired LV myocardial contractility exists in moderate to severe AS patients,although LVEF is preserved.4D-strain imaging echocardiography can detect early left ventricular dysfunction in AS patients with preserved LVEF.

  12. Postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction and new echocardiographic signs in aorta to left ventricular tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Zeinaloo, Ali Akbar

    2013-04-01

    We report postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction in a neonate undergoing successful neonatal surgery for type II aorta to left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) associated with a large patent ductus arteriosus, floppy and extremely redundant anterior mitral leaflet, right coronary artery arising directly from the tunnel, and severe left ventricular noncompaction. We also described 2 novel echocardiographic findings in ALVT including "triple wavy line sign" on M-mode echocardiography which disappeared 1 month after operation and "abnormally increased left ventricular posterior wall motion" on M-mode of standard parasternal long-axis view on color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) that also normalized postoperatively. We showed that proper definition of endocardial border is extremely important in strain and strain rate imaging in the context of left ventricular noncompaction. Preoperative longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly decreased in comparison to radial strain and strain rate. Circumferential strain and strain rate were normal. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) echocardiograph in mockup rack in JSC's Bldg 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) life sciences laboratory equipment (LSLE) echocardiograph is documented in the JSC Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Displayed on the echocardiograph monitor is a heart image. The echocardiograph equipment is located in Rack 6 and will be used in conjunction with Experiment No. 294 Cardiovascular Adaptation to Zero Gravity during the STS-40 SLS-1 mission.

  14. Left ventricular 12 segmental strain imaging predicts response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ying-xue; Jae K.Oh; YANG Yan-zong; Yong-mei Cha

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) exposes the need for better patient selection criteria for CRT.This study aimed to identify echocardiographic parameters that would predict the response to CRT.Methods Forty-five consecutive patients receiving CRT-D implantation for heart failure (HF) were included in this prospective study.New York Heart Association (NYHA) class,6-minute walk distance,electrograph character,and multi echocardiographic parameters,especially in strain patterns,were measured and compared before and six months after CRT in the responder and non-responder groups.Response to CRT was defined as a decrease in left ventricular endsystolic volume (LVESV) of 15% or more at 6-month follow up.Results Twenty-two (48.9%) patients demonstrated a response to CRT at 6-month follow-up.Significant improvement in NYHA class (P <0.01),left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (P <0.01),and 6-minute walk distance (P <0.01) was shown in this group.Although there was an interventricular mechanical delay determined by the difference between left and right ventricular pre-ejection intervals ((42.87±19.64) ms vs.(29.43±18.19) ms,P=0.02),the standard deviation of time to peak myocardial strain among 12 basal,mid and apical segments (Tε-SD) ((119.97±43.32) ms vs.(86.62±36.86) ms,P=0.01) and the non-ischemic etiology (P=0.03) were significantly higher in responders than non-responders,only the Tε-SD (OR=1.02,95% Cl=1.01-1.04,P=0.02) proved to be a favorable predictor of CRT response after multivariate Logistic regression analysis.Conclusion The left ventricular 12 segmental strain imaging is a promising echocardiographic parameter for predicting CRT response.

  15. Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Agreement between Different Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Techniques for the Assessment of Longitudinal Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Left ventricular (LV longitudinal deformation can be assessed with new echocardiographic techniques like triplane echocardiography (3PE and four-dimensional echocardiography (4DE. We aimed to assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and agreement between these different speckle-tracking techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation. Methods. 101 consecutive subjects underwent echocardiographic examination. 2D cine loops from the apical views, a triplane view, and an LV 4D full volume were acquired in all subjects. LV longitudinal strain was obtained for each imaging modality. Results. 2DE analysis of LV strain was feasible in 90/101 subjects, 3PE strain in 89/101, and 4DE strain in 90/101. The mean value of 2DE and 3PE longitudinal strains was significantly higher with respect to 4DE. The relationship between 2DE and 3PE derived strains (r=0.782 was significantly higher (z=3.72, P<0.001 than that between 2DE and 4DE (r=0.429 and that between 3PE and 4DE (r=0.510; z=3.09, P=0.001. The mean bias between 2DE and 4DE strains was -6.61±7.31% while -6.42±6.81% between 3PE and 4DE strains; the bias between 2DE and 3PE strain was of 0.21±4.16%. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were acceptable among the techniques. Conclusions. Echocardiographic techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation are not interchangeable, and further studies are needed to assess specific reference values.

  16. Speckle-Tracking Strain Imaging Identifies Alterations in Left Atrial Mechanics With General Anesthesia and Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Anderson-Dam, John; McCabe, Melissa; Hall, Michael; Mazor, Einat; Mahajan, Aman

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to use speckle-tracking strain imaging to evaluate the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) on left atrial (LA) mechanics. The authors hypothesized that GA and PPV would be associated with a decrease in LA strain. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of GA and PPV on traditional Doppler-derived measures of LA function and Doppler echocardiographic grade of diastolic function. A prospective observational study. A university hospital. Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at baseline and under GA with PPV. Changes in LA function associated with GA and PPV were assessed using LA speckle-tracking strain imaging. A reduction was observed in LA peak longitudinal strain (24% v 18%, pSpeckle-tracking strain imaging of the left atrium demonstrated that GA and PPV had a significant impact on LA mechanics by decreasing strain measures of LA preload, with a lesser effect on LA contractility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative effects of harmonic echocardiographic imaging on endocardial edge definition and side-lobe artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. N.; Yazbek, N.; Garcia, M. J.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging is a new ultrasonographic technique that is designed to improve image quality by exploiting the spontaneous generation of higher frequencies as ultrasound propagates through tissue. We studied 51 difficult-to-image patients with blinded side-by-side cineloop evaluation of endocardial border definition by harmonic versus fundamental imaging. In addition, quantitative intensities from cavity versus wall were compared for harmonic versus fundamental imaging. Harmonic imaging improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation over fundamental imaging (superior: harmonic = 71.1%, fundamental = 18.7%; similar: 10.2%; P Quantitative analysis of 100 wall/cavity combinations demonstrated brighter wall segments and more strikingly darker cavities during harmonic imaging (cavity intensity on a 0 to 255 scale: fundamental = 15.6 +/- 8.6; harmonic = 6.0 +/- 5.3; P <.0001), which led to enhanced contrast between the wall and cavity (1.89 versus 1.19, P <.0001). Harmonic imaging reduces side-lobe artifacts, resulting in a darker cavity and brighter walls, thereby improving image contrast and endocardial delineation.

  18. Diastolic abnormalities detected by velocity vector imaging in the presence of coronary ischemia: A pilot stress echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Edward Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Significant diastolic abnormalities were detected using a semi-automated VVI analysis in the poststress recovery period. A prospective study is now required in a larger number of patients to correlate the development of diastolic strain abnormalities with extent and location of CAD.

  19. Right ventricular dysfunction in patients with Brugada-like electrocardiography: a two dimensional strain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata Kazuya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel blockers augment ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads in patients undergoing Brugada-type electrocardiography (ECG. However, their effect on echocardiographic features is not known. We address this by assessing global and regional ventricular function using conventional Doppler and two- dimensional (2D speckle tracking techniques. Methods Thirty-one patients with Brugada-type ECG were studied. A pure sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide, was used to provoke an ECG response. The percentage longitudinal systolic myocardial strain at the base of both the right ventricular (RV free wall and the interventricular septum wall was measured using 2D speckle tracking. Left ventricular (LV and RV myocardial performance (TEI indices were also measured. Results The pilsicainide challenge provoked a positive ECG response in 13 patients (inducible group. In the inducible group, longitudinal strain was significantly reduced only at the RV (-27.3 ± 5.4% vs -22.1 ± 3.6%, P P P Conclusions Temporal and spatial analysis using the TEI index and 2D strain imaging revealed the deterioration of global ventricular function associated with conduction disturbance and RV regional function in patients with Brugada-type ECG and coved type ST elevation due to administration of a sodium channel blocker.

  20. Cardiac dysfunction assessed by echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is an independent predictor of mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) detects left ventricular dysfunction in patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction, but the prognostic significance of left ventricular dysfunction by TDI in the general population is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the Copenhagen City...

  1. Subclinical Cardiotoxicity Detected by Strain Rate Imaging up to 14 months After Breast Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Katrien, E-mail: katrien.erven@uzleuven.be [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Iridium Cancer Network, Antwerp (Belgium); Florian, Anca [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Institute of Emergency for Cardiovascular Diseases, UMF “Carol Davila,” Bucharest (Romania); Slagmolen, Pieter [Medical Image Computing (ESAT/PSI), University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); IBBT-KU Leuven Future Health Department, Leuven (Belgium); Sweldens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Jurcut, Ruxandra [Institute of Emergency for Cardiovascular Diseases, UMF “Carol Davila,” Bucharest (Romania); Wildiers, Hans [Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Voigt, Jens-Uwe [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new echocardiographic modality that enables accurate measurement of regional myocardial function. We investigated the role of SRI and troponin I (TnI) in the detection of subclinical radiation therapy (RT)-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This study prospectively included 75 women (51 left-sided and 24 right-sided) receiving adjuvant RT to the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Sequential echocardiographs with SRI were obtained before RT, immediately after RT, and 8 and 14 months after RT. TnI levels were measured on the first and last day of RT. Results: Mean heart and left ventricle (LV) doses were both 9 ± 4 Gy for the left-sided patients and 4 ± 4 Gy and 1 ± 0.4 Gy, respectively, for the right-sided patients. A decrease in strain was observed at all post-RT time points for left-sided patients (−17.5% ± 1.9% immediately after RT, −16.6% ± 1.4% at 8 months, and −17.7% ± 1.9% at 14 months vs −19.4% ± 2.4% before RT, P<.01) but not for right-sided patients. When we considered left-sided patients only, the highest mean dose was given to the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall (25 ± 14 Gy) and the lowest to the inferior LV wall (3 ± 3 Gy). Strain of the anterior wall was reduced after RT (−16.6% ± 2.3% immediately after RT, −16% ± 2.6% at 8 months, and −16.8% ± 3% at 14 months vs −19% ± 3.5% before RT, P<.05), whereas strain of the inferior wall showed no significant change. No changes were observed with conventional echocardiography. Furthermore, mean TnI levels for the left-sided patients were significantly elevated after RT compared with before RT, whereas TnI levels of the right-sided patients remained unaffected. Conclusions: In contrast to conventional echocardiography, SRI detected a regional, subclinical decline in cardiac function up to 14 months after breast RT. It remains to be determined whether these changes are related to clinical

  2. Segment-orientated analysis of two-dimensional strain and strain rate as assessed by velocity vector imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Butz, Corinna N. Lang, Marc van Bracht, Magnus W. Prull, Hakan Yeni, Petra Maagh, Gunnar Plehn, Axel Meissner, Hans-Joachim Trappe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Strain rate imaging techniques have been proposed for the detection of ischemic or viable myocardium in coronary artery disease, which is still a challenge in clinical cardiology. This retrospective comparative study analyzed regional left ventricular function and scaring with two-dimensional strain (2DS in the first 4 to 10 days after acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI.Methods and results: The study population consisted of 32 AMI patients with an LAD occlusion and successful reperfusion. The assessment of peak systolic 2DS and peak systolic strain rate (SR was performed segment-oriented with the angle-independent speckle tracking algorithm Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI. The infarcted, adjacent and non-infarcted segments were revealed by late enhancement MRI (LE-MRI, which was used as reference for the comparison with 2DS. The infarcted segments showed a significant decrease of tissue velocities, 2DS and SR in comparison to the non-affected segments.Conclusion: 2DS and SR as assessed by VVI seem to be a suitable approach for echocardiographic quantification of global and regional myocardial function as well as a promising tool for multimodal risk stratification after anterior AMI.

  3. Global longitudinal strain and global circumferential strain by speckle-tracking echocardiography and feature-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Toshinari; Saha, Samir K; Delgado-Montero, Antonia; Ludwig, Daniel R; Onishi, Tetsuari; Schelbert, Erik B; Schwartzman, David; Gorcsan, John

    2015-05-01

    Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) is a routine clinical standard to assess cardiac function. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) have emerged as important LV functional measures. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of GLS and GCS by speckle-tracking echocardiography and featuring-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to CMR EF as a standard of reference in the same patients. A total of 73 consecutive patients aged 55 ± 15 years clinically referred for both CMR and echocardiography (EF range, 8%-78%) were studied. Routine steady-state free precession CMR images were prospectively analyzed offline using feature-tracking software for LV GLS, GCS, volumes, and EF. GLS was averaged from three standard longitudinal views and GCS from the mid-LV short-axis plane. Echocardiographic speckle-tracking was used from the similar imaging planes for GLS, GCS, LV volumes, and EF. Feature-tracking CMR strain was closely correlated with speckle-tracking strain in the same patients: GLS, r = -0.87; GCS, r = -0.92 (P tracking CMR were significantly correlated with standard manual tracing of multiple CMR short-axis images (r = 0.97, r = 0.98, and r = 0.97, P tracking were closely correlated with standard CMR EF: r = -0.85 and r = -0.95, respectively (P tracking CMR analysis was a rapid means to obtain myocardial strain similar to speckle-tracking echocardiography. GLS and GCS were closely correlated with CMR EF in this patient series and may play a role in the clinical assessment of LV function. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of echocardiographic (US volumetry with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging in transfusion dependent thalassemia major (TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsis Efstathios

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in survival in patients with thalassemia major (TM the most common cause of death is cardiac disease. Regular cardiac follow-up is imperative in order to identify and reverse pathology. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR and Echocardiography (US are applied in parallel to TM patients for cardiac evaluation and ongoing monitoring. A comparison between mutual features would be useful in order to assess the accuracy and reliability of the two methods, with a particular focus on routine US application. TM's special attributes offer an excellent opportunity for cardiac imaging research that has universal general purpose applications. Methods 135 TM patients underwent US (Teichholz's M-mode formula – rapidly accessible means of measuring volumes and ejection fraction and CMR volumetry. Paired-samples t-test, Passing & Badlock regression and Bland & Altman plot were used while comparing the common parameters between the CMR and the US. Results We found that the US volumes were underestimated, especially the end-diastolic volume (p Conclusion In cases where cardiac wall movement abnormalities are absent, the US Teichholz's M-mode formula for volume measurements, though less sophisticated in comparison to the high resolution CMR technique, offers an adequate ejection fraction estimation for routine use, especially when monitoring gross alterations in cardiac function over time, and is easy to perform.

  5. Utility of echocardiographic tissue synchronization imaging to redirect left ventricular epicardial lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ye; LI Zhi-an; HE Yi-hua; ZHANG Hai-bo; MENG Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular pacing has demonstrated cardiac function improvement for treating congestive heart failure (HF).It has been documented that the placement of the left ventricular lead at the longest contraction delay segment has the optimal CRT benefit.This study described follow-up to surgical techniques for CRT as a viable alternative for patients with heart failure.Methods Between April 2007 and June 2012,a total of 14 consecutive heart failure patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class Ⅲ-Ⅳ underwent left ventricular epicardial lead placements via surgical approach.There were eight males and six females,aged 36 to 79 years ((59.6±9.2) years).The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)was (33.6±7.4)%.All patients were treated with left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony and underwent left ventricular epicardial lead placements via a surgical approach.Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography were used to assess changes in left heart function and dyssynchronic parameters.Also,echo was used to select the best site for left ventricular epicardial lead placement.Results Left ventricular epicardial leads were successfully implanted in the posterior or lateral epicardial wall without serious complications in all patients.All patients had reduction in NYHA score from Ⅲ-Ⅳ preoperatively to Ⅱ-Ⅲ postoperatively.The left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) decreased from (67.9±12.7) mm to (61.2±7.1) mm (P<0.05),and LVEF increased from (33.6±7.4)% to (42.2±8.8)% (P<0.05).Left ventricular intraventricular dyssynchrony index decreased from (148.4±31.6) ms to (57.3±23.8) ms (P<0.05).Conclusions Minimally invasive surgical placement of the left ventricular epicardial lead is feasible,safe,and efficient.TDI can guide the epicardial lead placement to the ideal target location.

  6. 应变/应变率成像技术评价冠心病慢性心力衰竭患者左心房功能%Strain and Strain Rate Imaging for Evaluating Left Atrial Function in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure Secondary to Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging are new technologies used to evaluate myocardial function.Strain and strain rate derived from either tissue Doppler imaging ( TDI ) or two - dimensional speckle tracking have a high sensitivity for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction.Strain and strain rate imaging are used to evaluate left atrial local function of patients with chronic heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease.Left atrial local dysfunction of patients with chronic heart failure can be detected by strain and strain rate imaging in patients without other echocardiographic features of cardiac diastolic function compromise.This article reviews left atrial function, concepts and imaging characteristics of strain and strain rate imaging for evaluating left atrial function, limitations of these technologies, and development prospects.%超声心动图应变和应变率成像是一种评估心肌功能的新技术.源于组织多普勒和二维斑点跟踪的应变和应变率对及早发现心肌功能障碍具有很高的敏感性,可应用于评价冠心病慢性心力衰竭患者左心房的局部功能.应变率成像能够在左心室舒张功能尚无明显改变的情况下,早期发现慢性心力衰竭患者左心房局部功能的异常.现对左心房的功能及其评价价值,应变和应变率的基本概念、成像特点、对左心房功能的评价以及其存在的局限性和发展前景进行简要阐述.

  7. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol......Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared...... with morphological identification and rDNA sequence data, and for each class all strains were of the same identity. With all three techniques each strain - except one - was identified as the same species. These strains belonged to Trichoderma atroviride (nine strains), Trichoderma viride (three strains), Trichoderma...... harzianum (10 strains), Trichoderma citrinoviride (12 strains), and Trichoderma longibrachiatum (nine strains). The odd strain was identified as Trichoderma hamatum by morphology and rDNA sequencing. but not by image analysis as no reference strains of this species were included. It is concluded...

  8. Comparison of echocardiographic findings in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas

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    Narin Nasıroglu Imga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs are usually discovered incidentally after imaging unrelated to adrenal glands. We aimed to evaluate standard risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis and echocardiographic changes in patients with nonfunctioning AIs and compare them with normal subjects. We evaluated 70 patients diagnosed with AIs and 51 healthy controls. Mean levels were determined for HbA1c, LDL, uric acid, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and these values were found to be significantly higher in the patients than the controls. The mean left atrial diameter, interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, E-wave deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time, and the median ratio of the early transmittal flow velocity to the early diastolic tissue velocity (E/Em were higher in patients with AIs compared to controls. The mitral annular early diastolic velocity was lower in patients with AIs. The mean aortic diastolic diameter, stiffness index (SI, and aortic strain were higher, and aortic distensibility was lower in the patients. The mean right ventricular diameter, right atrial major-axis diameter, and right atrial minor-axis diameter were statistically higher in the patient group than the controls. A negative correlation was found between the NLR and aortic strain and aortic distensibility, while a positive correction was found between the NLR and SI. We found altered left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV echocardiographic findings in patients with AIs without known cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness was also increased. These changes may be related to an increase in cardiovascular risk factors in AI patients.

  9. Early Detection of Regional and Global Left Ventricular Myocardial Function Using Strain and Strain-rate Imaging in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Wang; Qi-Wei Sun; Dan Wu; Ming-Wu Yang; Rong-Juan Li; Bo Jiang; Jiao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Strain and strain-rate imaging (SRI) have been found clinically useful in the assessment of cardiac systolic and diastolic function as well as providing new insights in deciphering cardiac physiology and mechanics in cardiomyopathies,and identifying early subclinical changes in various pathologies.The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional and global left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in metabolic syndrome (MS) with SRI so that we can provide more myocardial small lesions in patients with MS,which is robust and reliable basis for early detection of LV function.Methods:Thirty-nine adults with MS were enrolled in the study.There was a control group of 39 healthy adults.In addition to classic echocardiographic assessment of LV global functional changes,SRI was used to evaluate regional and global LV function.Including:Peak systolic strain (S),peak systolic strain-rate (SR-s),peak diastolic strain-rate (SR-e).Results:There were no statistically significant differences between MS and controls in all traditional parameters of LV systolic function.On the other hand,significant differences were observed between MS and the control group in most of the parameters of S,SR-s,SR-e in regional LV function.Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that S and SR significantly were negatively correlated with blood pressure,waist circumference,fasting plasma glucose,uric acid,suggesting that risk factories were relevant to regional systolic dysfunction.Conclusion:In MS with normal LV ejection fraction,there was regional myocardial dysfunction,risk factors contributed to the impairment of systolic and diastolic function of the regional myocardium.Assessment of myocardial function using SRI could be more accurate in MS patient evaluation than conventional echocardiography alone.

  10. Early Detection of Regional and Global Left Ventricular Myocardial Function Using Strain and Strain-rate Imaging in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strain and strain-rate imaging (SRI have been found clinically useful in the assessment of cardiac systolic and diastolic function as well as providing new insights in deciphering cardiac physiology and mechanics in cardiomyopathies, and identifying early subclinical changes in various pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional and global left ventricular (LV myocardial function in metabolic syndrome (MS with SRI so that we can provide more myocardial small lesions in patients with MS, which is robust and reliable basis for early detection of LV function. Methods: Thirty-nine adults with MS were enrolled in the study. There was a control group of 39 healthy adults. In addition to classic echocardiographic assessment of LV global functional changes, SRI was used to evaluate regional and global LV function. Including: Peak systolic strain (S, peak systolic strain-rate (SR-s, peak diastolic strain-rate (SR-e. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between MS and controls in all traditional parameters of LV systolic function. On the other hand, significant differences were observed between MS and the control group in most of the parameters of S, SR-s, SR-e in regional LV function. Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that S and SR significantly were negatively correlated with blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, uric acid, suggesting that risk factories were relevant to regional systolic dysfunction. Conclusion: In MS with normal LV ejection fraction, there was regional myocardial dysfunction, risk factors contributed to the impairment of systolic and diastolic function of the regional myocardium. Assessment of myocardial function using SRI could be more accurate in MS patient evaluation than conventional echocardiography alone.

  11. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.P.; Nillesen, M.M.; Verrijp, C.N.; Singh, S.K.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Wetten, H.B. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Kapusta, L.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to

  12. Mitral valve repair: an echocardiographic review: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve before and immediately after repair is crucial to the immediate and long-term outcome. Prior to mitral valve repair, echocardiographic imaging helps determine the feasibility and method of repair. After the repair, echocardiographic imaging displays the new baseline anatomy, assesses function, and determines whether or not further management is necessary. Three-dimensional imaging has improved the assessment of the mitral valve and facilitates communication with the surgeon by providing the surgeon with an image that he/she might see upon opening up the atrium. Further advancements in imaging will continue to improve the understanding of the function and dysfunction of the mitral valve both before and after repair. This information will improve treatment options, timing of invasive therapies, and advancements of repair techniques to yield better short- and long-term patient outcomes. The purpose of this review was to connect the echocardiographic evaluation with the surgical procedure. Bridging the pre- and post-CPB imaging with the surgical procedure allows a greater understanding of mitral valve repair.

  13. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  14. Strain Mapping in Metals Using Ultrasonic Array Speckle Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, A. I.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The full-field non-destructive measurement of internal displacement and strain fields is of interest in many engineering applications. This paper describes an approach to measuring internal displacements and strains in metals which uses the correlation of ultrasonic speckle images of the internal structure of the material. This has the key advantage over optical surface displacement and strain measurement techniques in that internal information can be obtained. Experiments are described which use a 1-D ultrasonic array to map 2-D displacement fields for uniform translation and uniaxial tension of a metallic bar. The full matrix of transmit-receive signals from the array was post-processed to generate speckle images using a Fourier-domain imaging algorithm. Block-search cross-correlation was used to find the displacements of small sub-images corresponding to regions within the bar. Potential applications include characterising crack networks and creep damage detection.

  15. Differentiation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis from other causes of ventricular wall thickening by two-dimensional strain imaging echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing Ping; Stewart, William J; Yang, Xing Sheng; Donnell, Robert O; Leon, Angel R; Felner, Joel M; Thomas, James D; Merlino, John D

    2009-02-01

    Hypertension is the most common cause of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, multiple causes can lead to LV hypertrophy, each of which has different histological and mechanical properties. To assess the value of a novel speckle-tracking echocardiographic measurement of myocardial strain and strain rate in defining the mechanical properties of LV hypertrophy, 20 patients with asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 24 patients with secondary LV hypertrophy, 12 patients with biopsy-proved confirmed cardiac amyloidosis, and 22 age-matched healthy asymptomatic volunteers were studied. Patients with amyloidosis had severe diastolic dysfunction, and myocardial deformation was significantly decreased. The new technique allowed cardiac amyloid to be easily differentiated from the other categories. In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, there was segmental myocardium dysfunction as assessed by strain imaging. LV global systolic velocity and radial displacement were higher, and abnormal relaxation was more frequent, in the group with secondary LV hypertrophy than in normal controls. In conclusion, the observations from strain parameters derived from speckle tracking were consistent with the known underlying pathology of each condition, which speaks to the value of strain imaging. Cardiac amyloid profoundly alters all strain parameters, and analysis of these parameters could aid in the diagnosis.

  16. Imaging longitudinal cardiac strain on short-axis images using 3D HARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Nael F.; Sampath, Smita; Prince, Jerry L.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring longitudinal strain of the heart using harmonic phase magnetic resonance imaging (HARP-MRI). The heart is tagged using 1-1 SPAMM at end-diastole with tagging surfaces parallel to the imaging plane. Two image sequences are acquired for a short-axis slice with two different encodings in the direction orthogonal to the imaging plane. A method to compute a sequence of longitudinal strain estimates from this data is described.

  17. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  18. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  19. Endocardial Boundary Detection in Echocardiographic Images with an Improved Fast Marching Method%心超图中心内膜边缘检测改进的快速行进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严加勇; 庄天戈

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study a new computerized automatic method for endocardial boundary estimation and tracking in sequential echocardiographic images. Method Through analyzing the existing problems of the traditional fast marching method, the contour energy conception of the active contour model was introduced to improve the traditional fast marching mathematical model. Result The improved mathematical model was applied to sequential echocardiographic images and the experimental results showed that endocardial boundary can be accurately detected. Conclusion The introduction of contour energy conception enhances the stability and effectiveness while keeping the convergence velocity of the fast marching algorithm.%目的探讨一种对心超图中心脏内膜边缘进行检测的自动化方法.方法根据对传统快速行进算法中存在问题的分析研究,引入活动轮廓线模型中轮廓线能量概念以改进传统快速行进算法的数学模型.结果将改进的快速行进模型应用于心超图像中心脏内膜边缘检测,实验结果表明该方法能够准确地检测、跟踪出心脏内膜边缘. 结论轮廓线能量概念的引入提高了快速行进算法的稳定性和有效性,而且几乎不影响算法的收敛速度.

  20. A digital network for long-distance echocardiographic image and data transmission in clinical trials: the CEDIM (Carnitina, Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata, Infarto Miocardico) study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, S; D'Ambrosio, G; Scrutinio, D; Marangelli, V; Boni, L; Rizzon, P

    1993-01-01

    A special computer network has been specifically designed and realized to connect 36 Italian cardiological institutions to a central core laboratory. This network, which has been created to run the CEDIM Multicenter Trial (effects of L-carnitine on left ventricular function in patients with myocardial infarction assessed by digital echocardiography), enables automatic verification, via computer, 24 hours a day, of patient eligibility criteria, randomization, transmission, and filing of real-time left ventricular echocardiographic examinations. All the investigators participating in the CEDIM trial underwent several training courses as well as dummy run procedures to achieve optimal performance of all the operational procedures required for the network to function smoothly and correctly. This paper describes the aims of this special network, its technical characteristics, and the investigator training and dummy run procedures.

  1. The Peak Pairs algorithm for strain mapping from HRTEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Pedro L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: pedro.galindo@uca.es; Kret, Slawomir [Institute of Physics, PAS, AL. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez, Ana M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Laval, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, Paris (France); Yanez, Andres; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Strain mapping is defined as a numerical image-processing technique that measures the local shifts of image details around a crystal defect with respect to the ideal, defect-free, positions in the bulk. Algorithms to map elastic strains from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images may be classified into two categories: those based on the detection of peaks of intensity in real space and the Geometric Phase approach, calculated in Fourier space. In this paper, we discuss both categories and propose an alternative real space algorithm (Peak Pairs) based on the detection of pairs of intensity maxima in an affine transformed space dependent on the reference area. In spite of the fact that it is a real space approach, the Peak Pairs algorithm exhibits good behaviour at heavily distorted defect cores, e.g. interfaces and dislocations. Quantitative results are reported from experiments to determine local strain in different types of semiconductor heterostructures.

  2. A fast and accurate method for echocardiography strain rate imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima; Hajebi, Nima; Nambakhsh, Mohammad Saleh

    2009-02-01

    Recently Strain and strain rate imaging have proved their superiority with respect to classical motion estimation methods in myocardial evaluation as a novel technique for quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Here in this paper, we propose a novel strain rate imaging algorithm using a new optical flow technique which is more rapid and accurate than the previous correlation-based methods. The new method presumes a spatiotemporal constancy of intensity and Magnitude of the image. Moreover the method makes use of the spline moment in a multiresolution approach. Moreover cardiac central point is obtained using a combination of center of mass and endocardial tracking. It is proved that the proposed method helps overcome the intensity variations of ultrasound texture while preserving the ability of motion estimation technique for different motions and orientations. Evaluation is performed on simulated, phantom (a contractile rubber balloon) and real sequences and proves that this technique is more accurate and faster than the previous methods.

  3. Dual-phase cardiac diffusion tensor imaging with strain correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Stoeck

    Full Text Available In this work we present a dual-phase diffusion tensor imaging (DTI technique that incorporates a correction scheme for the cardiac material strain, based on 3D myocardial tagging.In vivo dual-phase cardiac DTI with a stimulated echo approach and 3D tagging was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. The time course of material strain was estimated from the tagging data and used to correct for strain effects in the diffusion weighted acquisition. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, helix, transverse and sheet angles were calculated and compared between systole and diastole, with and without strain correction. Data acquired at the systolic sweet spot, where the effects of strain are eliminated, served as a reference.The impact of strain correction on helix angle was small. However, large differences were observed in the transverse and sheet angle values, with and without strain correction. The standard deviation of systolic transverse angles was significantly reduced from 35.9±3.9° to 27.8°±3.5° (p<0.001 upon strain-correction indicating more coherent fiber tracks after correction. Myocyte aggregate structure was aligned more longitudinally in systole compared to diastole as reflected by an increased transmural range of helix angles (71.8°±3.9° systole vs. 55.6°±5.6°, p<0.001 diastole. While diastolic sheet angle histograms had dominant counts at high sheet angle values, systolic histograms showed lower sheet angle values indicating a reorientation of myocyte sheets during contraction.An approach for dual-phase cardiac DTI with correction for material strain has been successfully implemented. This technique allows assessing dynamic changes in myofiber architecture between systole and diastole, and emphasizes the need for strain correction when sheet architecture in the heart is imaged with a stimulated echo approach.

  4. Fusion of morphological data obtained by coronary computed tomography angiography with quantitative echocardiographic data on regional myocardial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, Piotr; Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Wdowiak-Okrojek, Katarzyna; Szymczyk, Ewa; Skurski, Adam; Napieralski, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marek; Szymczyk, Konrad; Kasprzak, Jarosław D

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fusion of morphological data obtained by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with functional data from resting and stress echocardiography could potentially provide additional information compared to examination results analyzed separately and increase the diagnostic and prognostic value of non-invasive imaging in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Using vendor-independent software developed in our institution, we aimed to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of 3D fusion of morphological CCTA data with echocardiographic data regarding regional myocardial function. Thirty patients with suspected CAD underwent CCTA and resting transthoracic echocardiography. From CCTA we obtained 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries and left ventricle (LV). Offline speckle-tracking analysis of the echocardiographic images provided parametric maps depicting myocardial longitudinal strain in 17 segments of the LV. Using our software, 3 independent investigators fused echocardiographic maps with CCTA reconstruc-tions in all patients. Based on the obtained fused models, each segment of the LV was assigned to one of the major coronary artery branches. Mean time necessary for data fusion was 65 ± 7 s. Complete agreement between independent investigators in assignment of LV segments to coronary branches was obtained in 94% of the segments. The average coefficient of agreement (kappa) between the investigators was 0.950 and the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.9329 (95% CI 0.9227-0.9420). Three-dimensional fusion of morphological CCTA data with quantitative echocardiographic data on regional myocardial function is feasible and allows highly repro-ducible assignment of myocardial segments to coronary artery branches.

  5. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol...

  6. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  7. Echocardiographic quantification of systolic function during atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Dons, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    It is often difficult to provide an exact echocardiographic measure of left ventricular systolic function in patients with atrial fibrillation, partly because of the varying cycle length affecting pre and afterload and partly because of the increased heart rate often accompanying this arrhythmia....... We sought to elucidate two points: whether it would be possible to correct for the cyclic variance in systolic output, and if global longitudinal strain is preferable to the left ventricular ejection fraction at evaluating systolic function during atrial fibrillation....

  8. The repeatability and characteristics of right ventricular longitudinal strain imaging by speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, T; Nakamura, K; Osuga, T; Yokoyama, N; Khoirun, N; Morishita, K; Sasaki, N; Ohta, H; Takiguchi, M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the repeatability and characteristics of echocardiographic indices of the right ventricular (RV) function derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography. Fourteen laboratory Beagles and 103 privately owned dogs without cardiac disease were involved in this study. Right ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, and a strain-related index for assessing RV dyssynchrony derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography were obtained by two different observers using five Beagles. Within-day, between-day, and interobserver coefficients of variation and the intraclass correlation coefficient of speckle-tracking echocardiography indices were determined. Both speckle-tracking echocardiography and conventional indices of RV function, including the peak velocity of systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, fractional area change, and the Tei index, were obtained from 14 Beagles and 103 privately owned dogs. Relationships between echocardiographic indices and the body weight, heart rate, age, and sex were estimated by regression analysis. Speckle-tracking echocardiographic indices showed good within-day repeatability, between-day and interobserver repeatability were moderate to good. In large dogs, RV longitudinal strain, strain rate, and fractional area change were significantly decreased, while the index of RV dyssynchrony, systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, and the Tei index were increased. All speckle-tracking and conventional echocardiographic indices were correlated with the body weight. The speckle-tracking echocardiography indices were highly repeatable and body weight affected speckle-tracking echocardiography indices in dogs. Further studies are needed to apply speckle-tracking echocardiography indices in dogs with cardiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Type 1 Gaucher's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Koželj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is predominate opinion among physicians managing type 1 Gauchers' disease (GD that cardiac involvement is not an issue in these patients. In order to follow this hypothesis, we prospectively investigated 15 adult imiglucerase-treated type 1 GD patients by echocardiography, Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. This was a case-controlled study with 18 matched healthy volunteers. The obtained data was correlated with the levels of NT-proBNP (brain natriuretic peptide. None of the GD patients had clinical signs of heart disease. In 3 of the 15 patients, we observed echocardiographic signs of aortic and mitral valve calcification. The left ventricular systolic function was within normal limits. Compared to the control group, there was no statistically significant difference observed in the most sensitive indices of left ventricular diastolic function, parameter Em (P=.095, and E/Em ratio (P=.097, as demonstrated by tissue Doppler echocardiography. However, there was a positive correlation between the E/Em ratio and NT-proBNP plasma levels (P=.009. In conclusion, the prospective echocardiographic study of type 1 GD patients did not validate any left ventricular dysfunction. But, the E/Em ratio showed a strong statistical correlation with the most sensitive indicators of heart failure, NT-proBNP. Research on larger groups of patients and the usage of even more sensitive methods as strain-rate imaging will be necessary to confirm eventual myocardial involvement in GD patients.

  10. Elastography and strain rate imaging of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havre, R., E-mail: roald.flesland.havre@helse-bergen.no [National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Gilja, O.H. [National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2014-03-15

    Ultrasound based elastography of the gastrointestinal tract may be a useful approach to improved tissue characterisation. Distinguishing malignant lesions from benign may be one useful application. Monitoring of inflammatory bowel lesions for degree of inflammation or fibrosis would be another clinically useful tool. The anatomy of the bowel, however, raises many challenges for strain or shear wave imaging due to thin structures, non-constant boundary conditions and intrinsic contractility. Pathological lesions tend to increase bowel wall thickness and may ease elastography imaging. Very few studies have addressed issues of bowel wall elastography so far, and both inflammatory and neoplastic lesions seem to increase tissue hardness in the bowel wall.

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasound strain imaging of skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbertse, K.; Sprengers, A. M. J.; Nillesen, M. M.; Hansen, H. H. G.; Lopata, R. G. P.; Verdonschot, N.; de Korte, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a multi-dimensional strain estimation method is presented to assess local relative deformation in three orthogonal directions in 3D space of skeletal muscles during voluntary contractions. A rigid translation and compressive deformation of a block phantom, that mimics muscle contraction, is used as experimental validation of the 3D technique and to compare its performance with respect to a 2D based technique. Axial, lateral and (in case of 3D) elevational displacements are estimated using a cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. After transformation of the displacements to a Cartesian coordinate system, strain is derived using a least-squares strain estimator. The performance of both methods is compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated displacements with the calculated theoretical displacements of the phantom experiments. We observe that the 3D technique delivers more accurate displacement estimations compared to the 2D technique, especially in the translation experiment where out-of-plane motion hampers the 2D technique. In vivo application of the 3D technique in the musculus vastus intermedius shows good resemblance between measured strain and the force pattern. Similarity of the strain curves of repetitive measurements indicates the reproducibility of voluntary contractions. These results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a valuable imaging tool to quantify complex tissue motion, especially when there is motion in three directions, which results in out-of-plane errors for 2D techniques.

  12. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter N T; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-11-07

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques-low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)-are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool.

  13. Can echocardiographic particle image velocimetry correctly detect motion patterns as they occur in blood inside heart chambers? A validation study using moving phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To validate Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV Methods High fidelity string and rotating phantoms moving with different speed patterns were imaged with different high-end ultrasound systems at varying insonation angles and frame rates. Images were analyzed for velocity and direction and for complex motion patterns of blood flow with dedicated software. Post-processing was done with MATLAB-based tools (Dflow, JUV, University Leuven. Results Velocity estimation was accurate up to a velocity of 42 cm/s (r = 0.99, p  Conclusion Echo-PIV appears feasible. Velocity estimates are accurate, but the maximal detectable velocity depends strongly on acquisition parameters. Direction estimation works sufficiently, even at higher velocities. Echo-PIV appears to be a promising technical approach to investigate flow patterns by echocardiography.

  14. Spectral pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging lateral-to-septal delay fails to predict clinical or echocardiographic outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.I.I. Soliman (Osama Ibrahim Ibrahim); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A. Nemes (Attila); K. Caliskan (Kadir); W.B. Vletter (Wim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: The current study sought to assess if pre-implantation lateral-to-septal delay (LSD) ≥60 ms assessed by spectral pulsed-wave myocardial tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) could predict successful long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results Sixt

  15. Spectral pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging lateral-to-septal delay fails to predict clinical or echocardiographic outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.I.I. Soliman (Osama Ibrahim Ibrahim); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A. Nemes (Attila); K. Caliskan (Kadir); W.B. Vletter (Wim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: The current study sought to assess if pre-implantation lateral-to-septal delay (LSD) ≥60 ms assessed by spectral pulsed-wave myocardial tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) could predict successful long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results

  16. Spectral pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging lateral-to-septal delay fails to predict clinical or echocardiographic outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.I.I. Soliman (Osama Ibrahim Ibrahim); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A. Nemes (Attila); K. Caliskan (Kadir); W.B. Vletter (Wim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: The current study sought to assess if pre-implantation lateral-to-septal delay (LSD) ≥60 ms assessed by spectral pulsed-wave myocardial tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) could predict successful long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results Sixt

  17. Performance Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Direct Strain Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasios Iliopoulos; John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson

    2013-01-01

    Direct Strain Imaging accomplishes full field measurement of the strain tensor on the surface of a deforming body, by utilizing arbitrarily oriented engineering strain measurements originating from digital imaging. In this paper an evaluation of the method’s performance with respect to its operating parameter space is presented along with a preliminary...

  18. Improved myocardial strain measured by strain-encoded magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shintaro; Kimura, Fumiko; Osman, Nael; Sugi, Keiki; Tanno, Jun; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Shiono, Ayako; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2013-11-01

    A woman aged 64 years with cardiac sarcoidosis responded favourably to corticosteroid therapy in terms of recovered longitudinal myocardial strain, as evaluated by strain-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (SENC-MRI). In contrast, circumferential myocardial strain and late gadolinium enhancement demonstrated minimal improvement, suggesting relatively advanced pathology of the myocardial middle layer. We propose SENC-MRI as a marker of disease at an early stage of cardiac sarcoidosis.

  19. Prognostic value of strain and strain rate in the prediction of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bigdelu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common dysrhythmia postoperatively after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Myocardial strain and strain-rate imaging is used for the assessment of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF as a new echocardiographic method. Methods: PubMed and Scopus were searched thoroughly using the following search terms: (strain and strain rate AND (atrial fibrillation OR AF on March 2015 to find English articles in which the strain and strain-rate echocardiographic imaging had been used for the evaluation of AF in patients undergone CABG. Full text of the relevant papers was fully reviewed for data extraction.Result: Of overall 6 articles found in PubMed, 10 records found in Scopus and 4 articles found through reference list search, only 6 papers fully met the inclusion criteria for further assessment and data extraction. The results of strain and strain-rate assessment showed that in total of 542 patients undergoing CABG, POAF occurred in 106 patients. Studies showed that the reduction of left atrial (LA strain rate is correlated with AF. Consistently, the results of present review showed that LA strain and strain-rate in patients who developed AF postoperatively after CABG are significantly reduced, suggesting that strain and strain-rate could be a predictor of POAF.Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, strain and strain-rate is a suitable and accurate echocardiographic technique in the assessment of left atrial function , and it might be helpful to detect the patients who are at high risk of POAF.

  20. 速度向量成像评价正常成人右心室应变和应变率%Quantitative analysis of strain and strain rate of right ventricular in normal subjects by velocity vector imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海军; 智光; 张晓娟; 周肖; 徐勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 应用速度向量成像定量分析正常成人右室心肌应变和应变率.方法 选取健康成人32例,在心尖四腔观测量右室游离壁和室间隔右室面基底段、中间段、心尖段6个节段的应变和应变率收缩期峰值,Simpson法测量右室容量及射血分数.结果 Simpson法及速度向量成像法测量的正常右室射血分数高度相关(r=0.91,P<0.01),右室游离壁基底段和中间段的应变、应变率均高于心尖段(P<0.05).二者的应变和应变率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),室间隔右室面的应变和应变率也有相同的规律,右室游离壁基底段和中间段的应变和应变率高于相应室间隔节段(P<0.05),右室游离壁心尖段和室间隔心尖段的应变和应变率无明显差异,右室的应变和应变率和年龄无明显的相关性.结论 速度向量成像技术可以准确定量评估右室室壁应变和应变率.%Objective To investigate strain and strain rate of right ventricular(RV)based on twodimensional image by velocity vector imaging in normal subjects.Methods Thirty-two healthy adults were rolled in this study.Echocardiographic images in 4 chamber view were analyzed by conventional manual tracing for volumes and ejection fractions,which were also measured by velocity vector imaging.Myocardial velocity,strain rate,and strain were determined at the basal,mid,and apical segments of the RV free wall and ventricular septum by velocity vector imaging.Results RV ejection fractions obtained with manual tracing correlated strongly with the same indexes obtained by velocity vector imaging method in all subjects(r=0.91,P<0.01).The strain and strain rate value of middle segment and basal segment in RV free wall were higher than those of apical segment.There were same trend in ventricular septal.The strain and strain rate of middle segment and basal segment in RV free wall were higher than those of homologous segments in ventricular septal,but the indexes

  1. Detailed Evaluation of Five 3D Speckle Tracking Algorithms Using Synthetic Echocardiographic Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Martino; Heyde, Brecht; Queiros, Sandro; Cygan, Szymon; Zontak, Maria; Somphone, Oudom; Bernard, Olivier; Sermesant, Maxime; Delingette, Herve; Barbosa, Daniel; De Craene, Mathieu; ODonnell, Matthew; Dhooge, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A plethora of techniques for cardiac deformation imaging with 3D ultrasound, typically referred to as 3D speckle tracking techniques, are available from academia and industry. Although the benefits of single methods over alternative ones have been reported in separate publications, the intrinsic differences in the data and definitions used makes it hard to compare the relative performance of different solutions. To address this issue, we have recently proposed a framework to simulate realistic 3D echocardiographic recordings and used it to generate a common set of ground-truth data for 3D speckle tracking algorithms, which was made available online. The aim of this study was therefore to use the newly developed database to contrast non-commercial speckle tracking solutions from research groups with leading expertise in the field. The five techniques involved cover the most representative families of existing approaches, namely block-matching, radio-frequency tracking, optical flow and elastic image registration. The techniques were contrasted in terms of tracking and strain accuracy. The feasibility of the obtained strain measurements to diagnose pathology was also tested for ischemia and dyssynchrony.

  2. Tissue Doppler imaging is a sensitive echocardiographic technique to detect subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, David; Sinkovic, Andreja; Naji, Franjo

    2016-04-22

    Subclinical left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been demonstrated in type 2 diabetes mellitus and evidence indicates impaired LV diastolic function in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in assessment of global LV and RV function in T1DM patients. A detailed two-dimensional, pulsed wave Doppler and pulsed wave TDI analysis was performed in 53 normotensive middle-aged T1DM patients and compared to healthy controls. In T1DM patients TDI analysis revealed reduced mean mitral septal and lateral E' velocities as well as reduced mean tricuspid E˙t velocity compared to healthy controls (E'sept 8.89 ± 1.89 cm/s vs. 11.50 ± 2.41 cm/s, p < 0.001; E'lat 12.29 ± 2.58 cm/s vs.15.30 ± 2.95 cm/s, p < 0,001; E't 13.56 ± 2.91 cm/s vs. 15.60 ± 2.99 cm/s, p = 0.001). Mean ratios E/E'sept, E/E'lat and E/E't were significantly higher in diabetics with cutoff value of 7.4 for E/E'sept and 3.4 for E/E't, differentiating diabetics with LV and RV diastolic impairement from matched healthy controls (sensitivity 76.5 %, specificity 73.8 % for E/E'sept and sensitivity 72.1 %, specificity 66.7 % for E/E't). Myocardial acceleration during isovolumetric contraction (IVA) measured at the septal mitral (LV IVA) and lateral tricuspid annulus (RV IVA) was the only parameter indicating reduced contractility of both ventricles in diabetics compared to controls (LV IVA 230.70 ± 61.26 cm/s(2) vs. 283.32 ± 59.74 cm/s(2), p < 0,001; RV IVA 275.48 ± 68.08 cm/s(2) vs. 316.86 ± 80.95 cm/s(2), p = 0.011). LV IVA had better diagnostic accuracy than RV IVA to predict early contractile impairement in T1DM patients (area under the curve 0.758, p < 0.001 for LV IVA and 0.648, p = 0.017 for RV IVA). TDI is essential to detect subclinical diastolic deterioration of both ventricles in T1DM patients. TDI-derived IVA might be useful to assess early systolic alterations of both ventricles in T1DM patients.

  3. Left ventricular dysfunction measured by tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging in hypertensive adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Ahn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function may occur early in systemic hypertension. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI-derived tissue velocity and strain rate are new parameters for assessing diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study is to determine whether TDI and strain rate imaging (SRI would improve the ability to recognize early impaired diastolic and systolic functions compared with conventional echocardiography in hypertensive adolescents. Methods : We included 38 hypertensive patients with systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Ejection fraction and myocardial performance index (MPI were estimated by conventional echocardiography. Peak systolic myocardial velocity, early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em, and peak late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am were obtained by using TDI and SRI. Results : In the hypertensive group, interventricular septal thickness was significantly increased on M-mode echocardiography. Em/Am was significantly decreased at the mitral valve annulus. Among hypertensive subjects, the E strain rate at basal, mid, and apex was significantly decreased. Systolic strain was significantly decreased at the septum in the hypertensive group. Conclusion : Strain rate might be a useful new parameter for the quantification of both regional and global LV functions and could be used in long-term follow up in hypertensive patients. Early identification by SRI of subjects at risk for hypertensive and ventricular dysfunction may help to stratify risk and guide therapy. Further studies, including serial assessment of LV structure and function in a larger number of adolescents with hypertension, is necessary.

  4. Strain-sensitive upconversion for imaging biological forces (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Alice; Wisser, Michael; Lin, Yu; Narayan, Tarun; Krieg, Michael; Atre, Ashwin; Goodman, Miriam; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all diseases can be traced back to abnormal mechanotransduction, but few sensors can reliably measure biologically-relevant forces in vivo. Here, we investigate sub-25nm lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles as novel optical force probes, which provide several biocompatible features: sharp emission peaks with near infrared illumination, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and photostability. To increase force sensitivity, we include d-metal doping in the nanoparticles; the d-metal siphons energy from the lanthanide ions with an efficiency that varies with pressure. We synthesize cubic-phase NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles doped with 0-5% Mn2+ and compress them in a hydrostatic environment using a diamond anvil cell. When illuminated at 980nm, the nanoparticles show sharp emission peaks centered at wavelengths of 522nm, 545nm, and 660nm. In 20nN increments, up to 700nN, the ratio of the red-to-green peaks in 0% Mn-doped nanoparticles increases by nearly 30%, resulting in a perceived color change from orange to red. In contrast, the 1% Mn-doped samples exhibit little color change but a large 40% decrease in upconversion intensity. In both cases, the red-to-green ratio varies linearly with strain and the optical properties are recoverable upon release. We further use atomic force microscopy to characterize optical responses at lower, pico-Newton to nano-Newton forces. To demonstrate in vivo imaging capabilities, we incubate C. elegans with nanoparticles dispersed in buffer solution (5mg/mL concentration) and image forces involved in digestion using confocal microscopy. Our nanoparticles provide a platform for the first, non-genetically-encoded in vivo force sensors, and we describe routes to increase their sensitivity to the single-pN range.

  5. Echocardiographic approach to cardiac tamponade in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanny, Peter; Colreavy, Frances

    2016-12-24

    Cardiac tamponade should be considered in a critically ill patient in whom the cause of haemodynamic shock is unclear. When considering tamponade, transthoracic echocardiography plays an essential role and is the initial investigation of choice. Diagnostic sensitivity of transthoracic echocardiography is dependent on image quality, and in some cases a transoesophageal approach may be required to confirm the diagnosis. Knowledge of the pathophysiology and echocardiographic features of cardiac tamponade are essential for the practicing Intensivist. This review presents an approach to the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac tamponade in critically ill patients.

  6. Clinical and echocardiographic predictors of mortality in chagasic cardiomyopathy - systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodoval de Barros Pereira Júnior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of death risk in Chagas cardiomyopathy still constitute a challenge due to the diversity of manifestations, which determine the importance of using echocardiography, tissue Doppler and biomarkers. To evaluate, within a systematic review, clinical and echocardiographic profiles of patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, which may be related to worse prognosis and major mortality risk. To perform the systematic review, we used Medline (via PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases to identify 82 articles published from 1991 to 2012, with the following descriptors: echocardiography, mortality and Chagas disease. We selected 31 original articles, involving diagnostic and prognostic methods. The importance of Chagas disease has increased due to its emergence in Europe and United States, but most evidence came from Brazil. Among the predictors of worse prognosis and higher mortality risk are morphological and functional alterations in the left and right ventricles, evaluated by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler, as well as the increase in brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I concentrations. Recently, the evaluations of dyssynchrony, dysautonomia, as well as strain, strain rate and myocardial twisting were added to the diagnostic arsenal for the early differentiation of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Developments in imaging and biochemical diagnostic procedures have enabled more detailed cardiac evaluations, which demonstrate the early involvement of both ventricles, allowing a more accurate assessment of the mortality risk in Chagas disease.

  7. Evaluation of Longitudinal Right Ventricular Mechanical Dyssynchrony before and Early after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Strain Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Parsaee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The right ventricular (RV dyssynchrony has not been studied extensively and the existing literature has established the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT on the left ventricular (LV dyssynchrony, but there is a dearth of data on the effect of CRT on the forgotten ventricle. We sought to evaluate the presence of mechanical right ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with systolic heart failure, selected for CRT, and track the changes early afterward utilizing the longitudinal strain analysis.Methods: Thirty-six patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, candidated for CRT, were enrolled in this study. Mechanical dyssynchrony was assessed using tissue Doppler echocardiography. The time interval between the onset of the QRS to the peak systolic longitudinal strain at the RV free wall and the septum was obtained. The RV mechanical delay was calculated as the absolute value of the difference in the time-to-peak measurements between the RV and septum. The RV dyssynchrony was defined as the calculated delay in strain imaging, which was ± 2 SD above the mean value for the control subjects (20 cases. The RV function was evaluated using the RV fractional area change (RVFAC, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, and peak systolic strain values of the RV free wall. Four to 7 days after CRT implantation, echocardiographic reevaluations were done.Results: The calculated cut-off value for the RV dyssynchrony was 41.5 msec, according to which the pre-CRT analysis specified two patient groups: Group 1 (16 cases with RV dyssynchrony and Group 2 (20 patients without RV dyssynchrony. Significant improvement in the RV dyssynchrony was noted in Group 1 after CRT (30 ± 28.9 msec vs. 68.8 ± 21 msec; p value < 0.01 vs. 14 ± 10 msec vs. 19 ± 16.5 msec; p value = 0.18 respectively. A significant correlation was found between the severity of the RV dyssynchrony and peak systolic strain in the RV free wall (r = -0

  8. Echocardiographic agreement in the diagnostic evaluation for infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Selton-Suty, Christine; Tong, Steven Y C

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography is essential for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis (IE). However, the reproducibility for the echocardiographic assessment of variables relevant to IE is unknown. Objectives of this study were: (1) To define the reproducibility for IE echocardiographic variab...

  9. Echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricle in the current era: Application in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Sridhar; Wu, Geru; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-08-22

    The right ventricle has unique structural and functional characteristics. It is now well recognized that the so-called forgotten ventricle is a key player in cardiovascular physiology. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that demonstrates right ventricular dysfunction as an important marker of morbidity and mortality in several commonly encountered clinical situations such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, right ventricular myocardial infarction, and adult congenital heart disease. In contrast to the left ventricle, echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function is more challenging as volume estimations are not possible without the use of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. Guidelines on chamber quantification provide a standardized approach to assessment of the right ventricle. The technique and limitations of each of the parameters for RV size and function need to be fully understood. In this era of multimodality imaging, echocardiography continues to remain a useful tool for the initial assessment and follow-up of patients with right heart pathology. Several novel approaches such as 3D and strain imaging of the right ventricle have expanded the usefulness of this indispensable modality. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Artifacts reduction in strain maps of tagged magnetic resonance imaging using harmonic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daolei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a noninvasive technique for examining myocardial function and deformation. Tagged MRI can also be used in quasistatic MR elastography to acquire strain maps of other biological soft tissues. Harmonic phase (HARP provides automatic and rapid analysis of tagged MR images for the quantification and visualization of myocardial strain. We propose a new artifact reduction method in strain maps. Image intensity of the DC component is estimated and subtracted from spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM tagged MR images. DC peak interference in harmonic phase extraction is greatly reduced after DC component subtraction. The proposed method is validated using both simulated and MR acquired tagged images. Strain maps are obtained with better accuracy and smoothness after DC component subtraction.

  11. Experimental study on strain distribution of ionic polymer-metal composite actuator using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongguang; Xiong, Ke; Wang, Man; Bian, Kan; Zhu, Kongjun

    2017-02-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) cantilever actuators demonstrate significant bending deformation upon application of excitation voltage across the electrodes. In this paper a cantilever beam shaped IPMC actuator with platinum (Pt) electrodes is fabricated to investigate the micro-scale lateral deformation behavior under DC voltages using a digital microscope to measure the deformation. The digital image correlation (DIC) method is utilized to analyze the displacement and strain fields of the sample. The experimental results indicate that the longitudinal normal strain is linearly distributed along the thickness direction and the strain gradient is approximately exponential with excitation voltage. The amplitude of the transverse strain is bigger than the longitudinal strain, and the strains are also found to decrease along the length direction of the IPMC cantilever actuator. The longitudinal and transverse normal strains of the IPMC actuator under DC voltages are compressive strains due to water loss effect in the air.

  12. Echocardiographic versus histologic findings in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Han, Jiancheng; Chen, Jian; Nixon, J V Ian

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study attempted to establish the prevalence of multiple-valve involvement in Marfan syndrome and to compare echocardiographic with histopathologic findings in Marfan patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery. We reviewed echocardiograms of 73 Marfan patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 2004 through October 2009. Tissue histology was available for comparison in 29 patients. Among the 73 patients, 66 underwent aortic valve replacement or the Bentall procedure. Histologic findings were available in 29 patients, all of whom had myxomatous degeneration. Of 63 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 had thickened aortic valves. The echocardiographic findings in 18 patients with mitral involvement included mitral prolapse in 15. Of 11 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 underwent mitral valve repair and 7 mitral valve replacement. Histologic findings among mitral valve replacement patients showed thickened valve tissue and myxomatous degeneration. Tricuspid involvement was seen echocardiographically in 8 patients, all of whom had tricuspid prolapse. Two patients had severe tricuspid regurgitation, and both underwent repair. Both mitral and tricuspid involvement were seen echocardiographically in 7 patients. Among the 73 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for Marfan syndrome, 66 had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, although their valves manifested few histologic changes. Eighteen patients had mitral involvement (moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, prolapse, or both), and 8 had tricuspid involvement. Mitral valves were most frequently found to have histologic changes, but the tricuspid valve was invariably involved.

  13. Myocardial strain imaging: how useful is it in clinical decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiseth, Otto A; Torp, Hans; Opdahl, Anders; Haugaa, Kristina H; Urheim, Stig

    2016-04-14

    Myocardial strain is a principle for quantification of left ventricular (LV) function which is now feasible with speckle-tracking echocardiography. The best evaluated strain parameter is global longitudinal strain (GLS) which is more sensitive than left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as a measure of systolic function, and may be used to identify sub-clinical LV dysfunction in cardiomyopathies. Furthermore, GLS is recommended as routine measurement in patients undergoing chemotherapy to detect reduction in LV function prior to fall in LVEF. Intersegmental variability in timing of peak myocardial strain has been proposed as predictor of risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Strain imaging may be applied to guide placement of the LV pacing lead in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy. Strain may also be used to diagnose myocardial ischaemia, but the technology is not sufficiently standardized to be recommended as a general tool for this purpose. Peak systolic left atrial strain is a promising supplementary index of LV filling pressure. The strain imaging methodology is still undergoing development, and further clinical trials are needed to determine if clinical decisions based on strain imaging result in better outcome. With this important limitation in mind, strain may be applied clinically as a supplementary diagnostic method.

  14. Two-dimensional myocardial deformation in coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A case report of a serial echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ming-Jui; Ko, Ta; Liang, Chung-Yu; Kao, Yu-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Although transient reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction is characteristic of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, little is known about the time-course changes of myocardial deformation in coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We retrospectively analyzed the time-course changes in left ventricle, right ventricle, and left atrium strain values in a patient with coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We found that not only left ventricular strain but also left atrial strain was abnormal during acute Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to coronary vasospasm. Right ventricular free wall strain was normal. Coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. A serial echocardiographic study. The left ventricular strain was still subnormal despite a normalized left ventricular ejection fraction 2 months later. The left atrial strain was normal when the left ventricular ejection fraction normalized. From this limited experience, it is suggested that echocardiographic myocardial deformation analysis can provide more information than the standard ejection fraction in evaluating myocardial contractile function.

  15. Noninvasive myocardial strain measurement by speckle tracking echocardiography: validation against sonomicrometry and tagged magnetic resonance imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amundsen, Brage H; Helle-Valle, Thomas; Edvardsen, Thor; Torp, Hans; Crosby, Jonas; Lyseggen, Erik; Støylen, Asbjørn; Ihlen, Halfdan; Lima, João A C; Smiseth, Otto A; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) as a method for angle-independent measurement of regional myocardial strain, using sonomicrometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  16. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  17. Standardized echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in normal adult zebrafish and heart disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louis W.; Huttner, Inken G.; Santiago, Celine F.; Kesteven, Scott H.; Yu, Ze-Yan; Feneley, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular model organism in cardiovascular research. Major insights into cardiac developmental processes have been gained by studies of embryonic zebrafish. However, the utility of zebrafish for modeling adult-onset heart disease has been limited by a lack of robust methods for in vivo evaluation of cardiac function. We established a physiological protocol for underwater zebrafish echocardiography using high frequency ultrasound, and evaluated its reliability in detecting altered cardiac function in two disease models. Serial assessment of cardiac function was performed in wild-type zebrafish aged 3 to 12 months and the effects of anesthetic agents, age, sex and background strain were evaluated. There was a varying extent of bradycardia and ventricular contractile impairment with different anesthetic drugs and doses, with tricaine 0.75 mmol l−1 having a relatively more favorable profile. When compared with males, female fish were larger and had more measurement variability. Although age-related increments in ventricular chamber size were greater in females than males, there were no sex differences when data were normalized to body size. Systolic ventricular function was similar in both sexes at all time points, but differences in diastolic function were evident from 6 months onwards. Wild-type fish of both sexes showed a reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular diastolic filling. Echocardiographic evaluation of adult zebrafish with diphtheria toxin-induced myocarditis or anemia-induced volume overload accurately identified ventricular dilation and altered contraction, with suites of B-mode, ventricular strain, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler indices showing concordant changes indicative of myocardial hypocontractility or hypercontractility, respectively. Repeatability, intra-observer and inter-observer correlations for echocardiographic measurements were high. We demonstrate that high

  18. Impact of lens distortions on strain measurements obtained with 2D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, P.; Van Paepegem, W.; Coppieters, S.; De Baere, I.; Wang, Y.; Debruyne, D.

    2013-05-01

    The determination of strain fields based on displacements obtained via digital image correlation (DIC) at the micro-strain level (≤1000 μm/m) is still a cumbersome task. In particular when high-strain gradients are involved, e.g. in composite materials with multidirectional fibre reinforcement, uncertainties in the experimental setup and errors in the derivation of the displacement fields can substantially hamper the strain identification process. In this contribution, the aim is to investigate the impact of lens distortions on strain measurements. To this purpose, we first perform pure rigid body motion experiments, revealing the importance of precise correction of lens distortions. Next, a uni-axial tensile test on a textile composite with spatially varying high strain gradients is performed, resulting in very accurately determined strains along the fibers of the material.

  19. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  20. Hemodynamic device-based optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy: concordance with systematic echocardiographic assessment of AV and VV intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mário M Oliveira, Luisa M Branco, Ana Galrinho, Nogueira da Silva, Pedro S Cunha, Bruno Valente, Joana Feliciano, Ricardo Pimenta, Ana Sofia Delgado, Rui Cruz Ferreira Santa Marta Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal Background: Inappropriate settings of atrioventricular (AV and ventriculo-ventricular (VV intervals can be one of the factors impacting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. Optimal concordance of AV and VV intervals between echocardiographic-based assessment and a device-based automatic programming with a hemodynamic sensor was investigated, together with left ventricle (LV reverse remodeling after 6 months of regular automatic device-based optimization.Methods: We evaluated blindly 30 systematic echocardiographic examinations during 6 months in 17 patients (12 men, 64±10 years, in sinus rhythm and New York Heart Association class III; 76% with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, LV ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%, QRS 130 milliseconds and LV dyssynchrony implanted with the SonRtip lead and a cardioverter-defibrillator device. Dyssynchrony (AV, VV, or intraventricular was evaluated by an experienced operator blinded to the device programming, using conventional echocardiography, tissue synchronization imaging, tissue Doppler imaging, radial strain, and 3D echocardiography.Results: Either no AV or VV dyssynchrony (n=11; 36.7% or a slight septal or lateral delay (n=13; 43.3% was found in most echocardiography examinations (80%. AV or VV dyssynchrony requiring further optimization was identified in one-fifth of the examinations (20%. At 6 months, 76.5% patients were responders with LV reverse remodeling, of which 69% were super-responders (LVEF >40%. A statistically significant increase in LVEF was observed between baseline and 6 months post implant (P<0.01. One patient died from non-cardiac causes.Conclusion: Concordance between echocardiographic methods and device-based hemodynamic sensor optimization was found in most

  1. Speckle tracking and speckle content based composite strain imaging for solid and fluid filled lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Md Shifat-E; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2017-02-01

    Strain imaging though for solid lesions provides an effective way for determining their pathologic condition by displaying the tissue stiffness contrast, for fluid filled lesions such an imaging is yet an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel speckle content based strain imaging technique for visualization and classification of fluid filled lesions in elastography after automatic identification of the presence of fluid filled lesions. Speckle content based strain, defined as a function of speckle density based on the relationship between strain and speckle density, gives an indirect strain value for fluid filled lesions. To measure the speckle density of the fluid filled lesions, two new criteria based on oscillation count of the windowed radio frequency signal and local variance of the normalized B-mode image are used. An improved speckle tracking technique is also proposed for strain imaging of the solid lesions and background. A wavelet-based integration technique is then proposed for combining the strain images from these two techniques for visualizing both the solid and fluid filled lesions from a common framework. The final output of our algorithm is a high quality composite strain image which can effectively visualize both solid and fluid filled breast lesions in addition to the speckle content of the fluid filled lesions for their discrimination. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using the in vivo patient data and compared with recently reported techniques. The results show that both the solid and fluid filled lesions can be better visualized using our technique and the fluid filled lesions can be classified with good accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Echocardiographic Findings in Cirrhotic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seidian

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular abnormalities have been reported in liver cirrhosis (LC. In these patients, cardiac symptoms and physical signs occur as the liver functions worsen. Cirrhosis is associated with hyper dynamic circulation and beta-adrenergic system changes responsible for the cardiovascular abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to explore the echocardiographic findings in cirrhotic patients. Methods: A total of 90 patients (63 men, 27 women with imaging or biopsy-proven cirrhosis of various etiologies without any known cardiac dysfunction were included in the study. Ninety healthy persons of the same age and sex were enrolled as the control group. Cirrhotic patients and controls were investigated by echocardiography. Left ventricle diastolic function (E/A ratio, systolic function (ejection fraction, and wall thickness (left ventricle posterior wall thickness + interventricular septum thickness along with left and right ventricular dimensions were evaluated. Results: Right & left atrium and ventricle diameters were enlarged in 3 cirrhotic patients and the E/A ratio was decreased in class C patients (0.9 ± 0.2 as compared to class B and A (1.3 ± 0.4 and controls (1.3± 1 (P value < 0.05. The left ventricular end diastolic volumes were increased in 3 cirrhotic patients(5.9+/- 0.3(normal 3.5-4.7 cm. The estimated ejection fraction was decreased in39 cirrhotic patients; 28 patients with ascites (35 -47% as compared to 11 patients without ascites (40-48% and controls (50-75% (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Liver cirrhosis is associated with enlarged left cardiac chambers, but wall thickness and right ventricle functions and diameters are normal. LV Diastolic dysfunction and decreased ejection fraction are evident in cirrhotic patients with ascites in class C children. This demonstration of diastolic dysfunction together with the dilated left cardiac chambers suggests that the patients indeed have cardiac abnormalities. Cardiovascular

  3. New echocardiographic insights in short QT syndrome: More than a channelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frea, Simone; Giustetto, Carla; Capriolo, Michele; Scrocco, Chiara; Fornengo, Cristina; Benedetto, Sara; Bianchi, Francesca; Pidello, Stefano; Morello, Mara; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a congenital ion channel disease characterized by an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Little is known about the possibility that accelerated repolarization alters mechanical function in SQTS. The study investigated the presence of left ventricular dysfunction and mechanical dispersion, assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), and their correlation with QT interval duration and genetics. Fifteen SQTS patients (7 with HERG and 3 with KCNQ1 mutation) were studied. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. When compared to the control group, SQTS patients showed reduced left ventricular contraction (global longitudinal strain: -16.0% ± 3.4% vs -22.6% ± 1.7%, P < .001; myocardial performance index 0.59 ± 0.17 vs 0.34 ± 0.08, P < .001) and a higher incidence of ejection fraction <55% (odds ratio 11, 95% confidence interval 1.045-374, P = .04). Mechanical dispersion assessed by TDI (P < .01) and STE (P < .001) was higher in the SQTS group than in controls; each parameter showed a significant inverse correlation with QT interval but not with QT dispersion. This study showed that in SQTS systolic function may also be affected. SQTS patients presented a significant dispersion of myocardial contraction. TDI and STE could become part of the evaluation of this rare disease. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Myocardial strain assessment by cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using non-rigid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadok, Yossi; Friedman, Zvi; Haluska, Brian A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Adam, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate a novel post-processing method for assessment of longitudinal mid-myocardial strain in standard cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging sequences. Cine CMR imaging and tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) were performed in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 15 healthy volunteers served as control group. A second group of 37 post-AMI patients underwent both cine CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR exams. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was performed in 36 of these patients. Cine CMR, TMRI and STE were analyzed to obtain longitudinal strain. LGE-CMR datasets were analyzed to evaluate scar extent. Comparison of peak systolic strain (PSS) measured from CMR and TMRI yielded a strong correlation (r=0.86, pcine CMR data. The method was found to be highly correlated with strain measurements obtained by TMRI and STE. This tool allows accurate discrimination between different transmurality states of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Strain Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohong; Chen, Yongdong; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an important medical imaging tool for characterization of lesions. In this paper, we present a wireless and near real-time 3D ultrasound strain imaging system. It uses a 3D translating device to control a commercial linear ultrasound transducer to collect pre-compression and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signal frames. The RF frames are wirelessly transferred to a high-performance server via a local area network (LAN). A dynamic programming strain estimation algorithm is implemented with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the server to calculate the strain image after receiving a pre-compression RF frame and a post-compression RF frame at the same position. Each strain image is inserted into a strain volume which can be rendered in near real-time. We take full advantage of the translating device to precisely control the probe movement and compression. The GPU-based parallel computing techniques are designed to reduce the computation time. Phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate strain volumes with good quality and display an incrementally reconstructed volume image in near real-time.

  6. [Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of scimitar syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Játiva-Chávez, Silvio; Muñoz-Castellanos, Luis; Zamora-González, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Seven patients with scimitar syndrome underwent retrospective clinical and echocardiographic examination. The findings were: respiratory infection with dyspnea on moderate exercise in 90%, scimitar sign in four (57%), dextrocardia in five (71%), and interatrial septal defect in five (71%), one of whom had patent ductus arteriosus. Overall, two patients had patent ductus arteriosus: one also had aortic coarctation and the other, a bicuspid aortic valve. Dilation of the right cavities was found in five (71%) and blunt edge in five (71%). In two patients, anomalous drainage was into the right atrium; in another two, into the inferior vena cava; and in three, towards the junction of the right atrium and the inferior vena cava. In three patients, drainage was obstructed. Six patients with cardiac abnormalities proceeded to surgery. Scimitar syndrome is a rare entity. In the large majority of patients (86%), diagnosis and follow-up can be performed echocardiographically.

  7. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    B. Haji Moradi; K. Fatahi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping) is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided ...

  8. Echocardiographic evaluation during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Medianeira Schifelbain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables can change during weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in cardiac function, using Doppler echocardiogram, in critical patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation, using two different weaning methods: pressure support ventilation and T-tube; and comparing patient subgroups: success vs. failure in weaning. METHODS: Randomized crossover clinical trial including patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and considered ready for weaning. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation, electrocardiogram and Doppler echocardiogram findings were analyzed at baseline and after 30 min in pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Pressure support ventilation vs. T-tube and weaning success vs. failure were compared using ANOVA and Student's t-test. The level of significance was p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-four adult patients were evaluated. Seven patients failed at the first weaning attempt. No echocardiographic or electrocardiographic differences were observed between pressure support ventilation and T-tube. Weaning failure patients presented increases in left atrium, intraventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and diameter of left ventricle and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time. Successfully weaned patients had higher levels of oxygenation. CONCLUSION: No differences were observed between Doppler echocardiographic variables and electrocardiographic and other cardiorespiratory variables during pressure support ventilation and T-tube. However cardiac structures were smaller, isovolumetric relaxation time was larger, and oxygenation level was greater in successfully weaned patients

  9. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  10. Radial and longitudinal strain and strain rate assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Tidholm, A.; Nägga, K.M.;

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function using conventional echocardiographic methods is difficult in mitral regurgitation (MR) owing to altered hemodynamic loading conditions. Newer methods such as speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) provide assessment of LV strain (St) and strain rates ...

  11. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  12. Spatial registration of echocardiographic and positron emission tomographic heart studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, A. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Rizzo, G. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Pepi, M. [Centro Cardiologico, Fondazione I. Monzino, Milan (Italy); Landoni, C. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Rossetti, C. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Lucignani, G. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Bartorelli, A. [Centro Cardiologico, Fondazione I. Monzino, Milan (Italy); Fazio, F. [INB CNR, Inst. H.S. Raffaele, Univ. of Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    A method has been developed to match corresponding heart regions from functional echocardiographic (Echo) and metabolic fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies in individual patients. Echo and PET images are spatially correlated by determining homologous anatomical landmarks (the two papillary muscles and the inferior junction of the right ventricle), identifiable in images obtained by both acquisition modalities. Echo-PET image registration is first performed in the plane identified by the three landmarks, using a rigid rotate-translate scale model. The registration parameters are then used to transform the whole PET volume. This allows a consistent Echo-PET regional analysis, according to a segmental subdivision of the heart. The technique was tested on patients. The overlay of Echo and PET registered images proved the reliability of realignment of the three markers and a good spatial correlation of myocardial walls. This approach to image registration could be applied to other acquisition modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission tomography), provided that the three anatomical landmarks are visualized. (orig.)

  13. Interobserver, intraobserver and intrapatient reliability scores of myocardial strain imaging with 2-d echocardiography in patients treated with anthracyclines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Weijers, G.; Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Pourier, M.S.; Feuth, A.B.; Korte, C.L. de; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kapusta, L.

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial strain imaging with 2-D echocardiography is a relatively new noninvasive method to assess myocardial deformation. To determine the interobserver, intraobserver and intrapatient reliability scores, we evaluated myocardial strain measurements of 10 asymptomatic survivors of childhood cancer

  14. In Situ 3D Imaging of Catalysis Induced Strain in Gold Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Sasikumar, Kiran; Kim, Jong Woo; Harder, Ross; Maxey, Evan; Clark, Jesse N.; Narayanan, Badri; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Ferrier, Nicola; Mulvaney, Paul; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Shpyrko, Oleg G.

    2016-08-04

    Multielectron transfer processes are crucially important in energy and biological science but require favorable catalysts to achieve fast kinetics. Nanostructuring catalysts can dramatically improve their properties, which can be difficult to understand due to strain- and size-dependent thermodynamics, the influence of defects, and substrate-dependent activities. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of single gold nanoparticles during catalysis of ascorbic acid decomposition using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (BCDI). Local strains were measured in single nanoparticles and modeled using reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. RMD reveals the pathway for local strain generation in the gold lattice: chemisorption of hydroxyl ions. FEA reveals that the RMD results are transferable to the nanocrystal sizes studied in the experiment. Our study probes the strain-activity connection and opens a powerful avenue for theoretical and experimental studies of nanocrystal catalysis.

  15. Measurement of Strain in the Left Ventricle during Diastole withcine-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2005-07-20

    The assessment of regional heart wall motion (local strain) can localize ischemic myocardial disease, evaluate myocardial viability and identify impaired cardiac function due to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. The objectives of this research were to develop and validate a technique known as Hyperelastic Warping for the measurement of local strains in the left ventricle from clinical cine-MRI image datasets. The technique uses differences in image intensities between template (reference) and target (loaded) image datasets to generate a body force that deforms a finite element (FE) representation of the template so that it registers with the target image. To validate the technique, MRI image datasets representing two deformation states of a left ventricle were created such that the deformation map between the states represented in the images was known. A beginning diastoliccine-MRI image dataset from a normal human subject was defined as the template. A second image dataset (target) was created by mapping the template image using the deformation results obtained from a forward FE model of diastolic filling. Fiber stretch and strain predictions from Hyperelastic Warping showed good agreement with those of the forward solution. The technique had low sensitivity to changes in material parameters, with the exception of changes in bulk modulus of the material. The use of an isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model in the Warping analyses degraded the predictions of fiber stretch. Results were unaffected by simulated noise down to an SNR of 4.0. This study demonstrates that Warping in conjunction with cine-MRI imaging can be used to determine local ventricular strains during diastole.

  16. 3-D ultrasonic strain imaging based on a linear scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Bo; Ye, Pengfei; Chen, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a 3-D strain imaging method based on a freehand linear scanning mode. We designed a linear sliding track with a position sensor and a height-adjustable holder to constrain the movement of an ultrasound probe in a freehand manner. When moving the probe along the sliding track, the corresponding positional measures for the probe are transmitted via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth in real time. In a single examination, the probe is scanned in two sweeps in which the height of the probe is adjusted by the holder to collect the pre- and postcompression radio-frequency echoes, respectively. To generate a 3-D strain image, a volume cubic in which the voxels denote relative strains for tissues is defined according to the range of the two sweeps. With respect to the post-compression frames, several slices in the volume are determined and the pre-compression frames are re-sampled to precisely correspond to the post-compression frames. Thereby, a strain estimation method based on minimizing a cost function using dynamic programming is used to obtain the 2-D strain image for each pair of frames from the re-sampled pre-compression sweep and the post-compression sweep, respectively. A software system is developed for volume reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of the 3-D strain images. The experimental results show that high-quality 3-D strain images of phantom and human tissues can be generated by the proposed method, indicating that the proposed system can be applied for real clinical applications (e.g., musculoskeletal assessments).

  17. Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Bie, B. X. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Ran, X. X.; Qi, M. L., E-mail: qiml@whut.edu.cn [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Parab, N.; Sun, J. Z.; Liao, H. J.; Hudspeth, M. C.; Claus, B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Material Science Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gong, X. L., E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation.

  18. Accreditation Status and Geographic Location of Outpatient Echocardiographic Testing Facilities Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The VALUE-ECHO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Yi, Li; Marinovic Gutierrez, Carolina; Di Tullio, Marco R; Farrell, Mary Beth; Burgess, Pamela; Gornik, Heather L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Needleman, Laurence; Orsinelli, David; Robison, Susana; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-08

    Accreditation of echocardiographic testing facilities by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is supported by the American College of Cardiology and American Society of Echocardiography. However, limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of echocardiographic facilities in the United States. Our study aimed to identify (1) the proportion of outpatient echocardiography facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries that are IAC accredited, (2) their geographic distribution, and (3) variations in procedure type and volume by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE-ECHO (Value of Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation-Echocardiography) study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities performing outpatient echocardiography in the 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outpatient limited data set (100% sample) and their geographic distribution using geocoding in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Among 4573 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for echocardiographic testing in 2013, 99.6% (n = 4554) were IAC accredited (99.7% in the 50 US states and 86.2% in Puerto Rico). The proportion IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities varied by region, with 98.7%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 86.2% of facilities accredited in the Northeast, South, Midwest, West, and Puerto Rico, respectively (P facilities. Most procedures (90.9%) were transthoracic echocardiograms, of which 99.7% were conducted in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Almost all outpatient echocardiographic facilities billed by Medicare are IAC accredited. This accreditation rate is substantially higher than previously reported for US outpatient vascular testing facilities (13% IAC accredited). The uniformity of imaging and interpretation protocols from a single accrediting body is important to facilitate optimal cardiovascular care. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Strain and displacement controls by fibre bragg grating and digital image correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    the test based on measurements performed directly on the test specimen. In this paper, fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are used to control a test. The FBG sensors offer the possibility of measuring strains inside the specimen, while the DIC system measures strains...... and displacement on the surface of the specimen. In this paper, a three-point bending test is used to demonstrate the functionality of a control loop, where the FBG and DIC signals are used as control channels. The FBG strain control was capable of controlling the test within an error tolerance of 20 μm m-1...

  20. Stably luminescent Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains for use in bioluminescent imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Plaut

    Full Text Available In vivo bioluminescent imaging permits the visualization of bacteria in live animals, allowing researchers to monitor, both temporally and spatially, the progression of infection in each animal. We sought to engineer stably luminescent clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, with the goal of using such strains in mouse models. The gram-positive shuttle vector pMAD was used as the backbone for an integration plasmid. A chloramphenicol resistance gene, a modified lux operon from Photorhabdus luminescens, and approximately 650 bp of homology to the chromosome of the USA300 S. aureus strain NRS384 were added, generating plasmid pRP1195. Electroporation into strain RN4220 followed by temperature shift led to integration of pRP1195 into the chromosome. The integrated plasmid was transferred to clinical strains by phage transduction. Luminescent strains displayed no in vitro growth defects. Moreover, luminescence was stable in vitro after three rounds of subculture over 48 hours of growth in the absence of antibiotics. Mice were infected with a luminescent strain of NRS384 in skin and intravenous models. In a mouse skin model, luminescent bacteria were present in lesions that formed and cleared over the course of several days, and in an intravenous model, bacteria inoculated in the mouse tail vein were observed spreading to multiple tissues. No statistically significant difference in virulence was observed between NRS384 and the luminescent strain in either infection model. These preliminary data suggest that this luminescent USA300 strain is suitable for use in mouse models. Similar strains were engineered using other sequenced clinical strains. Because these strains are stably luminescent, they should prove useful in animal models of infection.

  1. [Echocardiographic longitudinal, radial, circumferential and rotational synchronization disturbance in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Leyla Elif

    2010-02-01

    Several echocardiographic methods have been proposed to assist patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Color-coded tissue Doppler is one of the most promising methods to quantify mechanical dyssynchrony. However, tissue Doppler data are affected by Doppler angle of incidence and tethering or translational motion. Furthermore tissue Doppler based modalities are good for longitudinal motion analysis but limited in other directions of wall motion such as radial, circumferential, and rotational. Speckle tracking is a more recent technique that allows accurate calculation of regional radial and circumferential strain as well as regional rotation for dyssynchrony analysis. Although no ideal echocardiographic method exists that integrates regional dyssynchrony data in all contraction directions as yet, technical refinements and advances in understanding of pathophysiology will help to improve the study of mechanical dyssynchrony.

  2. Effect of temporal acquisition parameters on image quality of strain time constant elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sanjay; Varghese, Joshua; Chaudhry, Anuj; Righetti, Raffaella

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound methods to image the time constant (TC) of elastographic tissue parameters have been recently developed. Elastographic TC images from creep or stress relaxation tests have been shown to provide information on the viscoelastic and poroelastic behavior of tissues. However, the effect of temporal ultrasonic acquisition parameters and input noise on the image quality of the resultant strain TC elastograms has not been fully investigated yet. Understanding such effects could have important implications for clinical applications of these novel techniques. This work reports a simulation study aimed at investigating the effects of varying windows of observation, acquisition frame rate, and strain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the image quality of elastographic TC estimates. A pilot experimental study was used to corroborate the simulation results in specific testing conditions. The results of this work suggest that the total acquisition time necessary for accurate strain TC estimates has a linear dependence to the underlying strain TC (as estimated from the theoretical strain-vs.-time curve). The results also indicate that it might be possible to make accurate estimates of the elastographic TC (within 10% error) using windows of observation as small as 20% of the underlying TC, provided sufficiently fast acquisition rates (>100 Hz for typical acquisition depths). The limited experimental data reported in this study statistically confirm the simulation trends, proving that the proposed model can be used as upper bound guidance for the correct execution of the experiments.

  3. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

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    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  4. Echocardiographic findings in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdel GaffarA; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz A; ALjahlan, Mohammad A; Al-Homood, Ibrahim A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to determine the association between echocardiographic findings and serology. This is a prospective cross-sectional study where 50 patients with confirmed diagnoses of SLE were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics. Clinical and serological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of lupus was done in all patients. Fifty SLE patients, 46 (92%) females and 4 (8%) males, were recruited. Anti-double-stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA), anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β2-glycoproteins were positive in 52.1, 32.6, 13.3, and 15.6%, respectively. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation in 16 patients (32%), pericardial effusion in16 patients (32%), aortic regurgitation in five patients (10%), and tricuspid regurgitation in 10 patients (20%). Eleven patients had left ventricular hypertrophy (22%), and eight patients had ventricular systolic dysfunction (16%). Only four patients had ventricular diastolic dysfunction (8%). A significant association between mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation and positive anti-dsDNA (p lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β 2 glycoprotein antibodies were also associated with mitral valve regurgitation (p values 0.044, 0.006, and 0.023), respectively. Active disease assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was found to be associated with increased risk of mitral valvular leaflet thickening (p value 0.028). Performing regular transthoracic echocardiogram in asymptomatic SLE patients is important for early detection and appropriate treatment of cardiac lesions. Clinically quiescent but serologically active disease and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were associated with structural heart abnormalities.

  5. Echocardiographic screening results in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, M.E.; Cramer, M.J.; Brouha, M.E.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Prokop, M.; Doevendans, P.A.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Feringa, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    We sought to examine the frequency of abnormal echocardiographic findings in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In a retrospective cohort study, we included all patients with known tuberous sclerosis complex who had been sent to our cardiology department for echocardiographic screening from 1

  6. Heart wall motion analysis by dynamic 3D strain rate imaging from tissue Doppler echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastenteufel, Mark; Wolf, Ivo; de Simone, Raffaele; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-04-01

    The knowledge about the complex three-dimensional (3D) heart wall motion pattern, particular in the left ventricle, provides valuable information about potential malfunctions, e.g., myocardial ischemia. Nowadays, echocardiography (cardiac ultrasound) is the predominant technique for evaluation of cardiac function. Beside morphology, tissue velocities can be obtained by Doppler techniques (tissue Doppler imaging, TDI). Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new technique to diagnose heart vitality. It provides information about the contraction ability of the myocardium. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is still the most important clinical method for estimation of morphology and function. Two-dimensional methods leads to a lack of information due to the three-dimensional overall nature of the heart movement. Due to this complex three-dimensional motion pattern of the heart, the knowledge about velocity and strain rate distribution over the whole ventricle can provide more valuable diagnostic information about motion disorders. For the assessment of intracardiac blood flow three-dimensional color Doppler has already shown its clinical utility. We have developed methods to produce strain rate images by means of 3D tissue Doppler echocardiography. The tissue Doppler and strain rate images can be visualized and quantified by different methods. The methods are integrated into an interactively usable software environment, making them available in clinical everyday life. Our software provides the physician with a valuable tool for diagnosis of heart wall motion.

  7. Myocardial Strain Imaging with High-Performance Adaptive Dynamic Grid Interpolation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhui Bu,; Makoto Yamakawa,; Tsuyoshi Shiina,

    2010-07-01

    The accurate assessment of local myocardial strain is important for diagnosing ischemic heart diseases because decreased myocardial motion often appears in the early stage. Calculating the spatial derivation of displacement is a necessary step in the strain calculation, but the numerical calculation is extremely sensitive to noise. Commonly used smoothing methods are the moving-average and median filters; however, these methods have a trade-off between spatial resolution and accuracy. A novel smoothing/fitting method is proposed for overcoming this problem. In this method, the detected displacement vectors are discretized at mesh nodes, and virtual springs are connected between adjacent nodes. By controlling the elasticity of the virtual springs, misdetected displacements are fitted without the above problem. Further improvements can be achieved by applying a Kalman filter for position tracking, and then calculating the strain from the accumulated displacement vectors. From the simulation results, we conclude that the proposed method improves the accuracy and spatial resolution of the strain images.

  8. Four-wave dark-field electron holography for imaging strain fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, T.; Hÿtch, M.

    2016-06-01

    Strain characterization by transmission electron microscopy is an active area of research especially for microelectronics applications. Two-wave dark-field electron holography (DFEH) was previously introduced as a reliable strain mapping technique. Here, DFEH with four electron waves was investigated in order to image equi-displacement lines as amplitude modulations of the holographic fringes. Two perpendicular electrostatic biprisms are used to interfere three reference waves diffracted by a substrate and one object wave diffracted by an epitaxially strained region. This technique provides a different way to represent the displacement field. It might be helpful to obtain information about the strain state during in situ experiments. A dummy p-MOSFET device with embedded SiGe source and drain is used for experimental demonstration.

  9. Early assessment of percutaneous coronary interventions for chronic total occlusions analyzed by novel echocardiographic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Successful revascularization of chronic total occlusions has been associated with improved left ventricular systolic function, reduced anginal symptoms, increased exercise capacity, and increased survival. This study was conducted to determine the impact of revascularization in chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function using novel echocardiographic techniques. METHODS: A total of 129 patients with chronic total occlusion who underwent revascularization between April 2011 and November 2012 were included in this study. Echocardiographic assessments with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography were performed before the procedure and one month after the procedure. The left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular volumes, and three-dimensional systolic dyssynchrony index were quantified. RESULTS: An immediate procedural success was obtained in 118 patients (91.5%. There were no acute or subacute stent thromboses during follow-up. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased (p<0.001, while the left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes significantly decreased (p = 0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. The three-dimensional systolic dyssynchrony index also decreased significantly (p<0.001. The global longitudinal strain showed a significant increase after successful revascularization (p<0.001. An increase in the global longitudinal strain was correlated with an increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.27, p = 0.02. The patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% displayed a greater improvement in the global longitudinal strain, and the patients with diabetes showed less improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Using novel echocardiographic techniques, our results showed that restoring the coronary blood flow in chronic total occlusion patients reduces the left ventricular volumes and improves the left ventricular

  10. In-situ strain localization analysis in low density transformation-twinning induced plasticity steel using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M.; Yadegari-Dehnavi, M. R.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Basu, R.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of deformation temperature on the strain localization has been evaluated by an adapted digital image correlation (DIC) technique during tensile deformation. The progress of strain localization was traced by the corresponding strain maps. The electron backscatter diffraction analysis and tint etching technique were utilized to determine the impact of martensitic transformation and deformation twinning on the strain localization in both elastic and plastic regimes. In elastic regime the narrow strain bands which are aligned perpendicular to the tension direction were observed in temperature range of 25 to 180 °C due to the stress-assisted epsilon martensite. The strain bands were disappeared by increasing the temperature to 300 °C and reappeared at 400 °C due to the stress-assisted deformation twinning. In plastic regime strain localization continued at 25 °C and 180 °C due to the strain-induced alfa-martensite and deformation twinning, respectively. The intensity of plastic strain localization was increased by increasing the strain due to the enhancement of martensite and twin volume fraction. The plastic strain showed more homogeneity at 300 °C due to the lack of both strain-induced martensite and deformation twinning. Effect of deformation mechanism by changing temperature on strain localization is investigated by digital image correlation. EBSD technique is served to validate deformation mechanism as well as microstructural evolution. Strain induced martensite as well as deformation twinning is activated in the present steel affecting strain localization.

  11. Reduced global longitudinal strain in association to increased left ventricular mass in patients with aortic valve stenosis and normal ejection fraction: a hybrid study combining echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffold Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased muscle mass index of the left ventricle (LVMi is an independent predictor for the development of symptoms in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS. While the onset of clinical symptoms and left ventricular systolic dysfunction determines a poor prognosis, the standard echocardiographic evaluation of LV dysfunction, only based on measurements of the LV ejection fraction (EF, may be insufficient for an early assessment of imminent heart failure. Contrary, 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DS seems to be superior in detecting subtle changes in myocardial function. The aim of the study was to assess these LV function deteriorations with global longitudinal strain (GLS analysis and the relations to LVMi in patients with AS and normal EF. Methods 50 patients with moderate to severe AS and 31 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiography, including 2DS imaging. LVMi measures were performed with magnetic resonance imaging in 38 patients with AS and indexed for body surface area. Results The total group of patients with AST showed a GLS of -15,2 ± 3,6% while the control group reached -19,5 ± 2,7% (p Conclusions In conclusion, increased LVMi is reflected in abnormalities of GLS and the proportion of GLS impairment depends on the extent of LV hypertrophy. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of LVMi and GLS might be useful to identify patients at high risk for transition into heart failure who would benefit from aortic valve replacement irrespectively of LV EF.

  12. Analysis of 2-d ultrasound cardiac strain imaging using joint probability density functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal de-correlation artifacts resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bi-modal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a 2-D multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The effect of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions and a comparison of radio frequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a 3-D finite element cardiac model and five healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrates that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal-to-noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 λ by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radio frequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250 Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate, which appears to be sufficient for radio frequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly affect the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated, with a smaller effect on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radio frequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level 2-D

  13. Carbon nanotube thin film strain sensor models assembled using nano- and micro-scale imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; Loh, Kenneth J.; Yang, Yuan-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterial-based thin films, particularly those based on carbon nanotubes (CNT), have brought forth tremendous opportunities for designing next-generation strain sensors. However, their strain sensing properties can vary depending on fabrication method, post-processing treatment, and types of CNTs and polymers employed. The objective of this study was to derive a CNT-based thin film strain sensor model using inputs from nano-/micro-scale experimental measurements of nanotube physical properties. This study began with fabricating ultra-low-concentration CNT-polymer thin films, followed by imaging them using atomic force microscopy. Image processing was employed for characterizing CNT dispersed shapes, lengths, and other physical attributes, and results were used for building five different types of thin film percolation-based models. Numerical simulations were conducted to assess how the morphology of dispersed CNTs in its 2D matrix affected bulk film electrical and electromechanical (strain sensing) properties. The simulation results showed that CNT morphology had a significant impact on strain sensing performance.

  14. Carbon nanotube thin film strain sensor models assembled using nano- and micro-scale imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; Loh, Kenneth J.; Yang, Yuan-Sen

    2017-07-01

    Nanomaterial-based thin films, particularly those based on carbon nanotubes (CNT), have brought forth tremendous opportunities for designing next-generation strain sensors. However, their strain sensing properties can vary depending on fabrication method, post-processing treatment, and types of CNTs and polymers employed. The objective of this study was to derive a CNT-based thin film strain sensor model using inputs from nano-/micro-scale experimental measurements of nanotube physical properties. This study began with fabricating ultra-low-concentration CNT-polymer thin films, followed by imaging them using atomic force microscopy. Image processing was employed for characterizing CNT dispersed shapes, lengths, and other physical attributes, and results were used for building five different types of thin film percolation-based models. Numerical simulations were conducted to assess how the morphology of dispersed CNTs in its 2D matrix affected bulk film electrical and electromechanical (strain sensing) properties. The simulation results showed that CNT morphology had a significant impact on strain sensing performance.

  15. Diagnostic Value of Strain Rate Imaging by Tissue Doppler in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

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    Hasan Mahfood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strain Rate Imaging (SRI is a new diagnostic technique. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of SRI in detection and localization of coronary lesions in patients with chest pain, but without apparent wall motion abnormalities. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 91 patients with suspicion of stable angina or unstable angina selected through simple random sampling. SRI was done using Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI prior to coronary angiography. All the patients had normal electrocardiograms and normal wall motion in echocardiography. Longitudinal strain was obtained for 18 segments in the Left Ventricle (LV. Then, peak longitudinal systolic strain (εsys, post systolic shortening, and its characteristics were assessed in normal and abnormal segments. Significant coronary lesion was considered if stenosis was above 70%. Results: The results showed that 40 patients with heterogeneous strains and 2 patients with constant strains had significant coronary stenosis. Besides, 31 patients with constant strains and 18 ones with heterogeneous strains had normal or minimal coronary lesions. Moreover, εsys was lower in ischemic than in normal segments (P < 0.001. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis for εsys yielded the following results: Area Under Curve (AUC = 0.86 [95% CI (0.84 - 0.88]. Additionally, the cutoff point of -11.4 had the highest sensitivity and specificity (69.55% and 87.23%, respectively. The gold standard for ROC analysis was the catheter result. Furthermore, post systolic shortening was found more in ischemic compared to normal segments (64.5% vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001. The magnitudes of εpss, εpss/εsys (PSI, and εpss/εmax were significantly larger (P < 0.001 and T εpss was longer (P < 0.001 in ischemic segments. Conclusions: SRI is a new non-invasive diagnostic tool that could be used for detecting coronary stenosis in patients with chest pain, but without apparent wall

  16. Enhancement of strain measurement accuracy using optical extensometer by application of dual-reflector imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feipeng; Bai, Pengxiang; Shi, Hongjian; Jiang, Zhencheng; Lei, Dong; He, Xiaoyuan

    2016-06-01

    At present, the accuracy of strain measurement using a common optical extensometer with 2D digital image correlation is not sufficient for experimental applications due to the effect of out-of-plane motion. Therefore, this paper proposes a dual-reflector imaging method to improve the accuracy of strain measurement when using a common optical extensometer, with which the front and rear surfaces of a specimen can be simultaneously recorded in the sensor plane of a digital camera. By averaging the strain in two optical extensometers formed on the front and rear surfaces of a specimen, the effect of any slight out-of-plane motion can be eliminated and therefore the strain measurement accuracy can also be improved. Uniaxial tensile tests with an Al-alloy specimen, including static loading and continuous loading, were conducted to validate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method. The strain measurement results obtained with the proposed method and those obtained with an electrical-resistance strain gauge were found to be in good agreement. The average errors of the proposed method for the two continuous loading tests were found to be 8  ±  10 μɛ and  -6  ±  8 μɛ. Given that no correction sheet or compensation specimen is required, the proposed method is easy to implement and thus especially suitable for determining the mechanical properties of brittle materials due to the high level of accuracy with which strain can be measured.

  17. Echocardiographic differences between preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, A T; Castro, J M

    2014-08-01

    Peripartum heart failure due to preeclampsia or peripartum cardiomyopathy represents a significant global health issue. Transthoracic echocardiography enables differentiation of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, commonly observed in women with preeclampsia, from that with peripartum cardiomyopathy in which a reduced ejection fraction is more common. An understanding of the different definitions and diagnostic features of these two diseases, as well as accurate characterisation of the haemodynamics in preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy, allows clinicians to manage these conditions appropriately. This article outlines the echocardiographic differences between preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy, the likely mechanisms for heart failure in preeclampsia and the relevance of these differences to clinicians in relation to prevention and treatment. It also emphasises the importance of disease definitions as a key framework for the more consistent classification of the two diseases.

  18. Three-dimensional elastic image registration based on strain energy minimization: application to prostate magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Arola, Dwayne D; Roys, Steve; Gullapalli, Rao P

    2011-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in conjunction with an endorectal coil is currently the clinical standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer because of the increased sensitivity and specificity of this approach. However, imaging in this manner provides images and spectra of the prostate in the deformed state because of the insertion of the endorectal coil. Such deformation may lead to uncertainties in the localization of prostate cancer during therapy. We propose a novel 3-D elastic registration procedure that is based on the minimization of a physically motivated strain energy function that requires the identification of similar features (points, curves, or surfaces) in the source and target images. The Gauss-Seidel method was used in the numerical implementation of the registration algorithm. The registration procedure was validated on synthetic digital images, MR images from prostate phantom, and MR images obtained on patients. The registration error, assessed by averaging the displacement of a fiducial landmark in the target to its corresponding point in the registered image, was 0.2 ± 0.1 pixels on synthetic images. On the prostate phantom and patient data, the registration errors were 1.0 ± 0.6 pixels (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) and 1.8 ± 0.7 pixels (1.1 ± 0.4 mm), respectively. Registration also improved image similarity (normalized cross-correlation) from 0.72 ± 0.10 to 0.96 ± 0.03 on patient data. Registration results on digital images, phantom, and prostate data in vivo demonstrate that the registration procedure can be used to significantly improve both the accuracy of localized therapies such as brachytherapy or external beam therapy and can be valuable in the longitudinal follow-up of patients after therapy.

  19. Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Abnormalities in Chronic Alcoholics

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    H.D. Attar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is most commonly abused drug worldwide. It has been shown to produce toxic effects in almost every organ system in the body. Many of these medical conditions can be attributed to direct effects of alcohol whereas others are indirect sequelae that may result from nutritional deficiencies or predisposition to trauma. Alcohol consumption has been associated with a variety of cardio vascular disorders this study was thus undertaken to know the Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic abnormalities in asymptomatic chronic alcoholic patients. Materials and Methods: 50 Patients attending the out-patient clinic & who were admitted in Al Ameen Medical College Hospital and District hospital, Bijapur were selected for the study. It was a prospective study design subjects in age group 20-40, having history of chronic alcoholism as defined, for more than 5 years were evaluated by electrocardiography and echocardiography. Patients with known diabetics, hypertensive and cardiovascular disorders were excluded from the study group. Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients of chronic alcoholism is 37% in our study. Most common ECG changes are sinus tachycardia (18%, and Non specific ST-T changes (9%. Most common 2D ECHO changes was increased posterior wall thickness (11% and followed by increased interventricular septum thickness and decreased ejection fraction (<40%. The prevalence of cardio vascular abnormalities are more with increased duration of alcohol consumption and also high in advanced age group. Conclusions: This study confirms that many electrocardiographic as well as echocardiographic changes occur prior to symptomatic cardiac disorders established to be caused by chronic alcohol intake such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy .which probably are early indictors of ongoing effects of alcohol and are reversible during the early stages detected by non invasive investigations like Electrocardiography and

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Myocardial Strain After Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Kenneth; McComb, Christie; Auger, Daniel A; Epstein, Frederick H; Berry, Colin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a clinically relevant, disease-based perspective on myocardial strain imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging uniquely integrates myocardial function with pathology. Therefore, this review focuses on strain imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance. We have specifically considered the relationships between left ventricular (LV) strain, infarct pathologies, and their associations with prognosis. A comprehensive literature review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Publications were identified that (1) described the relationship between strain and infarct pathologies, (2) assessed the relationship between strain and subsequent LV outcomes, and (3) assessed the relationship between strain and health outcomes. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, circumferential strain predicts the recovery of LV systolic function in the longer term. The prognostic value of longitudinal strain is less certain. Strain differentiates between infarcted versus noninfarcted myocardium, even in patients with stable ischemic heart disease with preserved LV ejection fraction. Strain recovery is impaired in infarcted segments with intramyocardial hemorrhage or microvascular obstruction. There are practical limitations to measuring strain with cardiac magnetic resonance in the acute setting, and knowledge gaps, including the lack of data showing incremental value in clinical practice. Critically, studies of cardiac magnetic resonance strain imaging in patients with ischemic heart disease have been limited by sample size and design. Strain imaging has potential as a tool to assess for early or subclinical changes in LV function, and strain is now being included as a surrogate measure of outcome in therapeutic trials. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Whole-field thickness strain measurement using multiple camera digital image correlation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junrui; Xie, Xin; Yang, Guobiao; Zhang, Boyang; Siebert, Thorsten; Yang, Lianxiang.

    2017-03-01

    Three Dimensional digital image correlation(3D-DIC) has been widely used by industry, especially for strain measurement. The traditional 3D-DIC system can accurately obtain the whole-field 3D deformation. However, the conventional 3D-DIC system can only acquire the displacement field on a single surface, thus lacking information in the depth direction. Therefore, the strain in the thickness direction cannot be measured. In recent years, multiple camera DIC (multi-camera DIC) systems have become a new research topic, which provides much more measurement possibility compared to the conventional 3D-DIC system. In this paper, a multi-camera DIC system used to measure the whole-field thickness strain is introduced in detail. Four cameras are used in the system. two of them are placed at the front side of the object, and the other two cameras are placed at the back side. Each pair of cameras constitutes a sub stereo-vision system and measures the whole-field 3D deformation on one side of the object. A special calibration plate is used to calibrate the system, and the information from these two subsystems is linked by the calibration result. Whole-field thickness strain can be measured using the information obtained from both sides of the object. Additionally, the major and minor strain on the object surface are obtained simultaneously, and a whole-field quasi 3D strain history is acquired. The theory derivation for the system, experimental process, and application of determining the thinning strain limit based on the obtained whole-field thickness strain history are introduced in detail.

  2. Pre-Peak and Post-Peak Rock Strain Characteristics During Uniaxial Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact optical method for strain measurement applying three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) in uniaxial compression is presented. A series of monotonic uniaxial compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions on Hawkesbury sandstone specimens were conducted. A prescribed constant lateral-strain rate to control the applied axial load in a closed-loop system allowed capturing the complete stress-strain behaviour of the rock, i.e. the pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain regimes. 3D DIC uses two digital cameras to acquire images of the undeformed and deformed shape of an object to perform image analysis and provides deformation and motion measurements. Observations showed that 3D DIC provides strains free from bedding error in contrast to strains from LVDT. Erroneous measurements due to the compliance of the compressive machine are also eliminated. Furthermore, by 3D DIC technique relatively large strains developed in the post-peak regime, in particular within localised zones, difficult to capture by bonded strain gauges, can be measured in a straight forward manner. Field of strains and eventual strain localisation in the rock surface were analysed by 3D DIC method, coupled with the respective stress levels in the rock. Field strain development in the rock samples, both in axial and shear strain domains suggested that strain localisation takes place progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. It is accelerated, otherwise, in post-peak regime associated with the increasing rate of strength degradation. The results show that a major failure plane, due to strain localisation, becomes noticeable only long after the peak stress took place. In addition, post-peak stress-strain behaviour was observed to be either in a form of localised strain in a shearing zone or inelastic unloading outside of the shearing zone.

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF RIGHT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION IN ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT USING ULTRASOUND-BASED STRAIN RATE IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-chun; SUN Kun; ZHANG Yu-qi; HUANG Mei-rong; GAO Wei; ZHANG Zhi-fang; SHEN Rong; CHEN Shu-bao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the validation of ultrasound-based strain rate imaging in the quantitative assessment of right ventricular (RV) function in atrial septal defect (ASD). Methods Tissue Doppler images (TDI) of RV longitudinal and short axes were recorded from the apical 4-chamber view and the subcostal short-axis view in 18 normal controls, 28 children with ASD and 14 children after Amplazter closure of ASD respectively. Peak systolic velocities (V), peak systolic strain rates (SR), peak systolic strains (S) at the basal segment, middle segment of RV lateral wall and the basal septum from the longitudinal axis, the middle segment of RV free wall from the short axis were quantitatively measured using QLAB TM tissue velocity quantification software system respectively. Peak dp/dt from the RV isovolumic contraction determined during the right cardiac catheterization in 28 ASD patients was used as the gold standard of RV contractility. Peak systolic indices were compared against max dp/dt by linear correlation. Results Peak systolic indices at the basal and middle segments of RV lateral wall from the longitudinal axis increased significantly in 28 ASD patients.Peak systolic indices at the basal septum also increased in patient group, but not significantly. Significant decreases in peak systolic indices at the basal and middle segments of RV lateral wall were observed after the Amplatzer closure in 14 ASD patients. There was no significant difference at the middle segment of RV free wall from the short axis between patient group and normal control. A strong correlation was found between max dp/dt and peak systolic indices at the basal and middle segments of RV lateral wall (P<0.05). Conclusion Ultrasound-based strain rate imaging can assess quantitatively RV function in CHD. Peak systolic strains determined at the basal and middle segments of RV lateral wall are strong noninvasive indices of RV contractility.

  4. Low temperature magnetic imaging of strained multiferroic EuTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanan; Wu, Weida; Freeland, J. W.; Ryan, P.; Kim, J. W.; Ke, X.; Schiffer, P.; Lee, J. H.; Schlom, D. G.; Fennie, C. J.

    2010-03-01

    It has been predicted that the competition between paraelectric antiferromagnetic state and ferroelectric ferromagnetic state in perovskite EuTiO3 can be tuned by epitaxial strain.footnotetextC.J. Fennie and K.M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 267602 (2006). Tensile-strained EuTiO3 thin films grown on DyScO3 (110) substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy are confirmed to be ferromagnetic at low temperature by magnetometry and magneto-capacitance. Here we present magnetic imaging of EuTiO3/DyScO3 thin film using low temperature magnetic force microscopy (LT-MFM). Temperature dependence of MFM contrast confirms the ferromagnetic ground state. The magnetic field dependence of MFM images will be discussed in conjunction with magnetometry and magneto-capacitance measurements.

  5. Comprehensive echocardiographic assessment of biventricular function in the rabbit, animal model in cardiovascular research: feasibility and normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara Roldan; Pieles, Guido; Hui, Wei; Ishii, Ryo; Slorach, Cameron; Friedberg, Mark K

    2017-08-24

    Quantification of cardiac structure and function is central in cardiovascular research. Rabbits are valuable research models of cardiovascular human disease; however, there is little normal data available. The aim of this study was to investigate feasibility and provide normal values for comprehensive echocardiographic assessment of biventricular function in rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits underwent trans-thoracic echocardiography using a general electric (GE) Vivid 7/E9 system with a 10 MHz transducer, under light sedation, to evaluate biventricular function and dimensions. Images for two-dimensional, M-mode, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking strain echocardiography were acquired and analysed. 55 male rabbits (sized matched with a newborn human baby) were studied, mean weight was 2.9 ± 0.23 kg. Adequate images were obtained in 90% for the left ventricle (LV) and 80% for the right ventricle (RV). Two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain was feasible in 60%. Average heart rate was 248 ± 36 beats per minute; LV ejection faction 72 ± 8.0; RV fractional area change 45.9 ± 9.0%; RV myocardial performance index 0.39 ± 0.35; tricuspid annular planar systolic excursion 0.60 ± 0.24 cm. LV TDI parameters were S' 8.6 ± 3.1 cm/s; E' 12.0 ± 4.46 cm/s. RV TDI parameters were S' 10.49 ± 3.18; E' 14.95 ± 4.64 cm/s. LV and RV global peak systolic longitudinal strain were -17 ± 5 and -22 ± 8%, respectively. Comprehensive investigation of biventricular dimensions and function by echocardiography is feasible in the rabbit. Apical views and strain imaging have lower feasibility. Normal values of LV and RV functional parameters are with comparable values to human children. Animal cardiovascular research is key to develop new goals in clinical practice.

  6. High-throughput screening of high Monascus pigment-producing strain based on digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Meng-lei; Wang, Lan; Yang, Zhi-xia; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2016-04-01

    This work proposed a new method which applied image processing and support vector machine (SVM) for screening of mold strains. Taking Monascus as example, morphological characteristics of Monascus colony were quantified by image processing. And the association between the characteristics and pigment production capability was determined by SVM. On this basis, a highly automated screening strategy was achieved. The accuracy of the proposed strategy is 80.6 %, which is compatible with the existing methods (81.1 % for microplate and 85.4 % for flask). Meanwhile, the screening of 500 colonies only takes 20-30 min, which is the highest rate among all published results. By applying this automated method, 13 strains with high-predicted production were obtained and the best one produced as 2.8-fold (226 U/mL) of pigment and 1.9-fold (51 mg/L) of lovastatin compared with the parent strain. The current study provides us with an effective and promising method for strain improvement.

  7. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Function in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy by Tissue Strain Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Runqing; XIE Mingxing; WANG Xinfang; L(U) Qing

    2006-01-01

    The value of tissue strain imaging (SI) in regional myocardial systolic anddiastolic function assessment was studied. In 18 patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 20 age-matched healthy subjects, regional myocardial longitudinal peak systolic strain in eject time (represented by εet) was measured at basal, mid and apical segments of septal, lateral and posterior walls of the left ventricle (LV) and compared between groups. εet had no significant difference between segments in control group (P>0.05), which displayed a decreasing trend from basal segments to apical ones. εet in the HCM group was significantly decreased (P<0. 05) as compared with that in the healthy group. In the HCM group, εet in the midseptum was significantly less than at the basal and apical septum, and was also less than at the rest LV walls in the same group (P<0.01). The systolic reversed εet was noticed in 35 % of the hypertrophic segments in HCM group. Significantly negative correlation existed between the absolute value of εet and wall thickness in the midseptum (r=- 0.83). The post-systolic strain(PSS) segment number the and amplitudes in healthy group were significantly less than those in HCM group (P<0.05). Both regional myocardial systolic and diastolic functions were impaired in hypertrophic or non-hypertrophic segments in patients with the HCM, especially in hypertrophic segments. Strain imaging technique is a sensitive and accura tool in myocardial dysfunction assessment.

  8. Displacement and strain field assessment of PDMS using digital image correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, B; Ribeiro, J. E.; Lopes, H.; martins, p; M. A. P. Vaz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this work is the characterization of the hyper-elastic mechanical behaviour of PDMS. The special specimens of PDMS (Sylgard® 184) were tested in a bi-axial tensile machine. The displacement and strain fields were measured using a commercial digital image correlation system (ARAMIS of GOM) during the tensile test. The experimental measurements are compared with numerical simulations, which use the most popular algorithms of constitutive models to characterize the hyper-elastic...

  9. Displacement and strain field assessment of PDMS using digital image correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, B; Ribeiro, J. E.; Lopes, H.; martins, p; M. A. P. Vaz; Gomes, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to characterize the hyper-elastic mechanical behaviour of PDMS. For that, were made-up special specimens of PDMS (Sylgard® 184) for test them in bi-axial tensile machine. During the tensile test was used a commercial digital image correlation system (ARAMIS of GOM) to obtain de displacement and strain fields. These measurements are compared with numerical simulations which uses the more popular algorithms of constitutive models.

  10. Echocardiographic measurement of cart horses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Turner Giannico

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the horses’ performance during the exercise, their hearts adapt to the variations on metabolic activity, resulting in muscular adaptation. Thus, echocardiography allows to assess on both eventual adaptations of heart tissue and impairment of the ability to pump blood. Little is yet known about echocardiography in cart horses, whose general conditions of health and treatment are often inappropriate to the type of exercise they are submitted to. The goal of this study was to establish echocardiographic numbers for cart horses. Nineteen mongrel horses were submitted for echocardiographic examination, and values of the distance from E point (maximum opening mitral valve to the interventricular septum; diameter of left ventricle cavity, interventricular septum thickness and thickness of left ventricle free wall during systole and diastole, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were obtained by M-mode. In the 2D images, diameter of the aortic valve and left atrium were evaluated, and their relationship. The velocities of the blood flow were evaluated in aorta and pulmonary artery and the mitral valve by means of Doppler, and possible insufficiency was detected through the color Doppler. Mean values for echocardiographic parameters were established considering 19 traction horses that worked pulling cart loads. There were no significant values that indicated either an inappropriate cardiac remodeling, a left ventricular dysfunction – with consequent decrease in exercises performance – or diseases that affect the animal’s performance at work.

  11. Strain measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pediatric cancer survivors: validation of feature tracking against harmonic phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jimmy C. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Connelly, James A. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Lili [University of Michigan, Department of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Left ventricular strain may be a more sensitive marker of left ventricular dysfunction than ejection fraction in pediatric cancer survivors after anthracycline therapy, but there is limited validation of strain measurement by feature tracking on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images. To compare left ventricular circumferential and radial strain by feature tracking vs. harmonic phase imaging analysis (HARP) in pediatric cancer survivors. Twenty-six patients (20.2 ± 5.6 years old) underwent cardiovascular MR at least 5 years after completing anthracycline therapy. Circumferential and radial strain were measured at the base, midventricle and apex from short-axis myocardial tagged images by HARP, and from steady-state free precession images by feature tracking. Left ventricular ejection fraction more closely correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = -0.63, P = 0.0005) than by HARP (r = -0.39, P = 0.05). Midventricular circumferential strain did not significantly differ by feature tracking or HARP (-20.8 ± 3.4 vs. -19.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.07), with acceptable limits of agreement. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking strongly correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Radial strain by feature tracking had poor agreement with HARP, particularly at higher values of radial strain. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was excellent for feature tracking circumferential strain, but reproducibility was poor for feature tracking radial strain. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking is a reliable and reproducible measure of myocardial deformation in patients status post anthracycline therapy, while radial strain measurements are unreliable. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential relation to long-term outcomes. (orig.)

  12. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel J; Rush, John E; deLaforcade, Armelle M; Shaw, Scott P

    2012-06-01

    To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats. 30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination. All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration. All 4 thromboelastography variables had Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.

  13. Factors associated with, and echocardiographic findings of heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with, and echocardiographic findings of heart failure among HIV infected patients at a tertiary health care facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... In multivariate analysis male gender (OR 4.03), low education (OR 4.91), ...

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiographic virtual endoscopy for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Sun, Kun; Yu, Jianguo; Chen, Binjin; Chen, Guozhen; Hong, Wenjing; Yao, Liping; Wu, Lanping

    2010-12-01

    Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a new post-processing method that uses volumetric data sets to simulate the tracks of a "conventional" flexible endoscope. However, almost all studies of this method have involved virtual visualizations of the cardiovascular structures applied to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) datasets. This paper introduces a novel visualization method called the "three-dimensional echocardiographic intracardiac endoscopic simulation system (3DE IESS)", which uses 3D echocardiographic images in a virtual reality (VR) environment to diagnose congenital heart disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of VE in the evaluation of congenital heart disease in children and its accuracy compared with 2DE. Three experienced pediatric cardiologists blinded to the patients' diagnoses separately reviewed 40 two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) datasets and 40 corresponding VE datasets and judged whether abnormal intracardiac anatomy was present in terms of a five-point scale (1 = definitely absent; 2 = probably absent; 3 = cannot be determined; 4 = probably present; and 5 = definitely present). Compared with clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of VE was 98.7% for ASD, 92.4% for VSD, 92.6% for TOF, and 94% for DORV, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of VE was significantly higher than that of 2DE for TOF and DORV except for ASD and VSD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for VE was closer to the optimal performance point than was the ROC curve for 2DE. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for VE and 0.93 for 2DE. Kappa values (range, 0.73-0.79) for VE and 2DE indicated substantial agreement. 3D echocardiographic VE can enhance our understanding of intracardiac structures and facilitate the evaluation of congenital heart disease.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging detects significant sex differences in human myocardial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lina M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology responsible for the significant outcome disparities between men and women with cardiac disease is largely unknown. Further investigation into basic cardiac physiological differences between the sexes is needed. This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis to search for sex-based differences in regional myocardial contractile function. Methods End-systolic strain (circumferential, longitudinal, and radial was interpolated from MRI-based radiofrequency tissue tagging grid point displacements in each of 60 normal adult volunteers (32 females. Results The average global left ventricular (LV strain among normal female volunteers (n = 32 was significantly larger in absolute value (functionally better than in normal male volunteers (n = 28 in both the circumferential direction (Male/Female = -0.19 ± 0.02 vs. -0.21 ± 0.02; p = 0.025 and longitudinal direction (Male/Female = -0.14 ± 0.03 vs. -0.16 ± 0.02; p = 0.007. Conclusions The finding of significantly larger circumferential and longitudinal LV strain among normal female volunteers suggests that baseline contractile differences between the sexes may contribute to the well-recognized divergence in cardiovascular disease outcomes. Further work is needed in order to determine the pathologic changes that occur in LV strain between women and men with the onset of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Fluorescence and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to characterize yeast strains by autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, H.; Goldys, E. M.; Ma, J.

    2006-02-01

    We characterised populations of wild type baking and brewing yeast cells using intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime microscopy, in order to obtain quantitative identifiers of different strains. The cell autofluorescence was excited at 405 nm and observed within 440-540 nm range where strong cell to cell variability was observed. The images were analyzed using customised public domain software, which provided information on cell size, intensity and texture-related features. In light of significant diversity of the data, statistical methods were utilized to assess the validity of the proposed quantitative identifiers for strain differentiation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to confirm that empirical distribution functions for size, intensity and entropy for different strains were statistically different. These characteristics were followed with culture age of 24, 48 and 72 h, (the latter corresponding to a stationary growth phase) and size, and to some extent entropy, were found to be independent of age. The fluorescence intensity presented a distinctive evolution with age, different for each of the examined strains. The lifetime analysis revealed a short decay time component of 1.4 ns and a second, longer one with the average value of 3.5 ns and a broad distribution. High variability of lifetime values within cells was observed however a lifetime texture feature in the studied strains was statistically different.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging characterization of circumferential and longitudinal strain under various coronary interventions in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; SA; Suhail; Mark; W; Wilson; Steven; W; Hetts; Maythem; Saeed

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare the acute changes in circumferential and longitudinal strain after exposing a coronary artery to various interventions in swine.METHODS:Percutaneous balloon angioplasty catheter was guided to location aid device(LAD)under X-ray fluoroscopy to create different patterns of ischemic insults.Pigs(n=32)were equally divided into 4 groups:controls,90 min LAD occlusion/reperfusion,LAD microembolization,and combined LAD occlusion/microembolization/reperfusion.Three days after interventions,cine,tagged and viability magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)were acquired to measure and compare left and right circumferential strain,longitudinal strain and myocardial viability,respectively.Measurements were obtained using HARP and semi-automated threshold method and statistically analyzed using unpaired t-test.Myocardial and vascular damage was characterized microscopically.RESULTS:Coronary microemboli caused greater impairment in l left ventricular(LV)circumferential strain and dyssynchrony than LAD occlusion/reperfusion despite the significant difference in the extent of myocardial damage.Microemboli also caused significant decrease in peak systolic strain rate of remote myocardium and LV dyssynchrony.Cine MRI demonstrated the interaction between LV and right ventricular(RV)at 3 d after interventions.Compensatory increase in RV free wall longitudinal strain was seen in response to all interventions.Viability MRI,histochemical staining and microscopy revealed different patterns of myocardial damage and microvascular obstruction.CONCLUSION:Cine MRI revealed subtle changes in LV strain caused by various ischemic insults.It also demonstrated the interaction between the right and left ventricles after coronary interventions.Coronary microemboli with and without acute myocardial infarction(AMI)cause complex myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction that is not replicated in solely AMI.

  18. Strain Analysis of Stretched Tourmaline Crystals Using ImageJ, Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbyshell, H.

    2012-12-01

    This poster describes an undergraduate structural geology lab exercise utilizing the Mohr's circle diagram for finite strain, constructed using measurements obtained from stretched tourmaline crystals. A small building housing HVAC equipment at the south end of West Chester University's Recitation Hall (itself made of serpentinite) is constructed of early-Cambrian Chickies Quartzite. Stretched tourmaline crystals, with segments joined by fibrous quartz, are visible on many surfaces (presumably originally bedding). While the original orientation of any stone is unknown, these rocks provide an opportunity for a short field exercise during a two-hour lab period and a great base for conducting strain analysis. It is always fun to ask how many in the class have ever noticed the tourmaline (few have). Students take photos using their cell phones or cameras. Since strain is a ratio the absolute size of the tourmaline crystals is immaterial. Nonetheless, this is a good opportunity to remind students of the importance of including a scale in their photographs. The photos are opened in ImageJ and the line tool is used to determine the original and final lengths of selected crystals. Students calculate strain parameters using Microsoft Excel. Then, we use Adobe Illustrator or the drafting capabilities of Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 to follow Ramsay and Huber's techniques using a Mohr's circle construction to determine the finite strain ellipse. If a stretching direction can be estimated, elongation of two crystals is all that is required to determine the strain ratio. If no stretching direction is apparent, three crystals are required for a more complicated analysis that allows for determination of the stretching direction, as well as the strain ratio.

  19. Myocardial Strain Imaging Based on Two-Dimensional Displacement Vector Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The abnormalities of myocardial wall motion caused by changes in wall stiffness often appear in the early stage of ischemic heart disease. Since the myocardium exhibits complex and large motion, a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) assessment of stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis. Although a 3D assessment is ultimately required, as a stepped approach for practical use, we propose novel methods for tracking the 2D motion using a one-dimensional (1D) phased array and for assessing myocardial malfunction by visualizing the invariant of a strain tensor. The feasibilities of the proposed methods were evaluated by numerically simulating the short-axis imaging of a 3D myocardial model. This model includes a hard infarction located between 1 and 3 o’clock, which is difficult to detect by conventional tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging, and the motions of the model were assigned by referring to actual myocardial motion. These results revealed that the proposed imaging methods clearly depicted the hard infarction area which conventional imaging could not detect.

  20. Fast myocardial strain estimation from 3D ultrasound through elastic image registration with analytic regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bidisha; Heyde, Brecht; Alessandrini, Martino; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Image registration techniques using free-form deformation models have shown promising results for 3D myocardial strain estimation from ultrasound. However, the use of this technique has mostly been limited to research institutes due to the high computational demand, which is primarily due to the computational load of the regularization term ensuring spatially smooth cardiac strain estimates. Indeed, this term typically requires evaluating derivatives of the transformation field numerically in each voxel of the image during every iteration of the optimization process. In this paper, we replace this time-consuming step with a closed-form solution directly associated with the transformation field resulting in a speed up factor of ~10-60,000, for a typical 3D B-mode image of 2503 and 5003 voxels, depending upon the size and the parametrization of the transformation field. The performance of the numeric and the analytic solutions was contrasted by computing tracking and strain accuracy on two realistic synthetic 3D cardiac ultrasound sequences, mimicking two ischemic motion patterns. Mean and standard deviation of the displacement errors over the cardiac cycle for the numeric and analytic solutions were 0.68+/-0.40 mm and 0.75+/-0.43 mm respectively. Correlations for the radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain components at end-systole were 0.89, 0.83 and 0.95 versus 0.90, 0.88 and 0.92 for the numeric and analytic regularization respectively. The analytic solution matched the performance of the numeric solution as no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found when expressed in terms of bias or limits-of-agreement.

  1. Pilot study of 3D image correlation photogrammetry to assess strain and deformation of mouthguard materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Mendel, Deborah A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the use of 3D image correlation photogrammetry (3DIC) in comparing strain characteristics of three commercially available mouthguard materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. 3DIC was used to measure strain and deformation on the surface of a mouthguard and a resin model. A computed tomographic scan of a maxilla of a patient was used to fabricate a resin test model. Three mouthguard materials were tested: conventional ethylene vinyl acetate; Proform TM, a thermoplastic material; and Polyshok TM, an EVA product containing polyurethane. Three mouthguards of each of the three materials were fabricated and fitted to the acrylic model for testing. A speckle pattern was applied to the external surfaces of each of the mouthguards. Static mechanical tests using a servohydraulic load frame at 10, 25, and 50 pounds of force were applied to the mouthguards while on the resin model. Strains were measured in both the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes using (3DIC). Measured strains were analysed by 4-way anova. For all three materials tested, the difference in strain between two measured directions (X and Y) was found to be statistically significant for all regions evaluated. The analysis indicated that each direction, region, and load was involved in a statistically significant effect (P materials. Differences in strains in two directions were found to be significant for the materials studied (P materials in the actual form of a mouthguard. Materials, along with larger sample sizes, may improve confidence levels of the results. Further testing is indicated before clinical claims can be made. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  3. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  4. A simple experimental procedure to quantify image noise in the context of strain measurements at the microscale using DIC and SEM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornert M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Image noise is an important factor that influences the accuracy of strain field measurements by means of digital image correlation and scanning electron microscope (SEM imaging. We propose a new model to quantify the SEM image noise, which extends the classical photon noise model by taking into account the brightness setup in SEM imaging. Furthermore, we apply this model to investigate the impact of different SEM setting parameters on image noise, such as detector, dwell time, spot size, and pressure in the SEM chamber in the context of low vacuum imaging.

  5. Mouse Reporter Strain for Noninvasive Bioluminescent Imaging of Cells that have Undergone Cre-Mediated Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Safran

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditional alleles containing LoxP recombination sites, in conjunction with Cre recombinase delivered by a variety of means, allows for spatial and temporal control of gene expression in mouse models. Here we describe a mouse strain in which a luciferase (Luc cDNA, preceded by a LoxP-stop-LoxP (L-S-L cassette, was introduced into the ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 locus. Mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from this strain expressed luciferase after Cre-mediated recombination in vitro. ROSA26 L-S-L-Luc/+ mice expressed luciferase in a diffuse or liver-restricted pattern, as determined by noninvasive, bioluminescent imaging, when crossed to transgenic mice in which Cre was under the control of a zygotically expressed (EIIA-Cre, or a liver-restricted (albumin-Cre, promoter, respectively. Organ-specific luciferase expression was also seen after intraparenchymal administration of an adenovirus encoding Cre. The ROSA26 L-S-L-Luc/+ strain should be useful for characterizing Cre mouse strains and for following the fate of cells that have undergone Cre-mediated recombination in vivo.

  6. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Hsu, MD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  7. In-plane displacement and strain measurements using a camera phone and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2014-05-01

    In-plane displacement and strain measurements of planar objects by processing the digital images captured by a camera phone using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed in this paper. As a convenient communication tool for everyday use, the principal advantages of a camera phone are its low cost, easy accessibility, and compactness. However, when used as a two-dimensional DIC system for mechanical metrology, the assumed imaging model of a camera phone may be slightly altered during the measurement process due to camera misalignment, imperfect loading, sample deformation, and temperature variations of the camera phone, which can produce appreciable errors in the measured displacements. In order to obtain accurate DIC measurements using a camera phone, the virtual displacements caused by these issues are first identified using an unstrained compensating specimen and then corrected by means of a parametric model. The proposed technique is first verified using in-plane translation and out-of-plane translation tests. Then, it is validated through a determination of the tensile strains and elastic properties of an aluminum specimen. Results of the present study show that accurate DIC measurements can be conducted using a common camera phone provided that an adequate correction is employed.

  8. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhyun Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scanning moiré fringe (SMF imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi2 source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of ds at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing dl (ds ∼ ndl, n = 2, 3, 4, 5. The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  9. Added clinical value of applying myocardial deformation imaging to assess right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalskis, Vladislavs; Peluso, Diletta; Jagodzinski, Annika; Sinning, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Right heart dysfunction has been found to be a strong prognostic factor predicting adverse outcome in various cardiopulmonary diseases. Conventional echocardiographic measurements can be limited by geometrical assumptions and impaired reproducibility. Speckle tracking-derived strain provides a robust quantification of right ventricular function. It explicitly evaluates myocardial deformation, as opposed to tissue Doppler-derived strain, which is computed from tissue velocity gradients. Right ventricular longitudinal strain provides a sensitive tool for detecting right ventricular dysfunction, even at subclinical levels. Moreover, the longitudinal strain can be applied for prognostic stratification of patients with pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and congestive heart failure. Speckle tracking-derived right atrial strain, right ventricular longitudinal strain-derived mechanical dyssynchrony, and three-dimensional echocardiography-derived strain are emerging imaging parameters and methods. Their application in research is paving the way for their clinical use. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Contour tracking in echocardiographic sequences via sparse representation and dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojie; Dione, Donald P; Compas, Colin B; Papademetris, Xenophon; Lin, Ben A; Bregasi, Alda; Sinusas, Albert J; Staib, Lawrence H; Duncan, James S

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamical appearance model based on sparse representation and dictionary learning for tracking both endocardial and epicardial contours of the left ventricle in echocardiographic sequences. Instead of learning offline spatiotemporal priors from databases, we exploit the inherent spatiotemporal coherence of individual data to constraint cardiac contour estimation. The contour tracker is initialized with a manual tracing of the first frame. It employs multiscale sparse representation of local image appearance and learns online multiscale appearance dictionaries in a boosting framework as the image sequence is segmented frame-by-frame sequentially. The weights of multiscale appearance dictionaries are optimized automatically. Our region-based level set segmentation integrates a spectrum of complementary multilevel information including intensity, multiscale local appearance, and dynamical shape prediction. The approach is validated on twenty-six 4D canine echocardiographic images acquired from both healthy and post-infarct canines. The segmentation results agree well with expert manual tracings. The ejection fraction estimates also show good agreement with manual results. Advantages of our approach are demonstrated by comparisons with a conventional pure intensity model, a registration-based contour tracker, and a state-of-the-art database-dependent offline dynamical shape model. We also demonstrate the feasibility of clinical application by applying the method to four 4D human data sets.

  11. Clinical validation of different echocardiographic motion pictures expert group-4 algorythms and compression levels for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Paolo; Alimento, Marina; Berna, Giovanni; Cavoretto, Dario; Celeste, Fabrizio; Muratori, Manuela; Guazzi, Maurizio D

    2004-01-01

    Tele-echocardiography is not widely used because of lengthy transmission times when using standard Motion Pictures Expert Groups (MPEG)-2 lossy compression algorythms, unless expensive high bandwidth lines are used. We sought to validate the newer MPEG-4 algorythms to allow further reduction in echocardiographic motion video file size. Four cardiologists expert in echocardiography read blindly 165 randomized uncompressed and compressed 2D and color Doppler normal and pathologic motion images. One Digital Video and 3 MPEG-4 compression algorythms were tested, the latter at 3 decreasing compression quality levels (100%, 65% and 40%). Mean diagnostic and image quality scores were computed for each file and compared across the 3 compression levels using uncompressed files as controls. File dimensions decreased from a range of uncompressed 12-83 MB to MPEG-4 0.03-2.3 MB. All algorythms showed mean scores that were not significantly different from uncompressed source, except the MPEG-4 DivX algorythm at the highest selected compression (40%, p=.002). These data support the use of MPEG-4 compression to reduce echocardiographic motion image size for transmission purposes, allowing cost reduction through use of low bandwidth lines.

  12. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ∼ 3 s and ∼ 9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0

  13. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P.; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ˜3 s and ˜9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p TSI had a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90%, respectively. The area

  14. Small-strain measurement in bridge connections using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as a vital tool to help civil engineers improve the safety, maintainability, and reliability of critical structures and assists infrastructure owners with timely information for the continued safe and economic operation of their structure. SHM involves implementing a strategy that identifies and characterizes damage or undesirable performance in engineering structures. The goal of this research project was to determine the smallest strains measurable using standard digital image correlation (DIC) based SHM equipment. This practical investigation that had strong ties to the industry was motivated by damage observed in a real-world bridge, which was initially undetected. Its early detection would have led to reduced repair costs. To accomplish the aforementioned goal, tests were performed on a laboratory specimen that replicated a steel beam-to-column connection of the concerned bridge, involving progressively loading it in a manner in which it was loaded in the actual bridge, while simultaneously measuring the strains that developed in it using the aforementioned DIC-based equipment and software. Under the controlled conditions in the laboratory, the minimum resolution of the state-of-the-art system used in this investigation was determined. Due to the challenges faced in making these small-strain measurements even under highly controlled laboratory conditions, it was concluded that it is currently unrealistic to use the existing DIC technology in a real-world situation to measure strains as small as those that would need to be measured to detect the onset of damage in bridge connections. More work needs to be done in this area.

  15. Characteristics of myocardial postsystolic shortening in patients with coronary artery disease assessed by strain rate imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; QIU Qiong; ZHANG Hui-zhong; XIA Jin-xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a marker of myocardial dysfunction. Strain rate imaging (SRI)is a novel ultrasonic technique, allowing reliable and noninvasive measurement of myocardial deformation.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of myocardial longitudinal PSS by SRI in ischemic and infarct myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease, and to explore its clinical applicability.Methods Eleven patients with angina pectoris, 21 patients with myocardial infarction and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Apical four-, three- and two-chamber views were displayed; and septal, lateral, anteroseptal,posterior, anterior and inferior walls of the left ventricle were scanned, respectively. PSS strain (εpss), the ratio of εpss and systolic strain (εpss/εsys), the ratio of εpss and maximum strain (εpss/εmax) and the duration of PSS (Tpss) in ischemic, infarct and normal myocardium were analyzed.Results PSS was found more frequent in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with the normal segments (39%vs 22% and 56% vs 22%, respectively; both P<0.01). It was even more frequent in the infarct segments than in the ischemic segments (56% vs 39%, P<0.01). The absolute magnitude of εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were significantly larger and Tpss significantly longer in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with that in the normal myocardium (P<0.01).εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were even larger and Tpss even longer in the infarct than in the ischemic segments (P<0.01).Conclusions PSS is a common and important feature of the ischemic and infarct myocardium. εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss as measured by SRI may be promising markers for the quantitative assessment of regional myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss may be helpful in differentiating infarct from ischemic myocardium.

  16. Echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular septal defect haemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ventricular septal defect (VSD is an opening in the interventricular septum. 30-50% of patients with congenital heart disease have VSD. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the dependence of the left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVD, left ventricular systolic dimension (LVS, shortening fraction (SF, left atrium (LA, pulmonary artery truncus (TPA on the body surface and compare their values among experimental, control and a group of healthy children. Values of maximal systolic gradient pressure (Pvsd of VSD were compared with children from one experimental and control group. Method Children were divided into three groups: experimental (32 children with VSD that were to go to surgery, control (20 children with VSD who did not require surgery and 40 healthy children. Measurements of LVD, LVS, SF, LA, TPA were performed in accordance to recommendations of the American Echocardiographic Association. The value of Pvsd was calculated from the maximal flow velocity (V in VSD using the following formula: Pvsd=4xVІ (mm Hg. Results For children from the experimental group, the relationship between the body surface and the variability of the LVD was explained with 56.85%, LVS with 66.15%, SF with 4.9%, TPA with 58.92%. For children from the control group, the relationship between the body surface and the variability of LVD was explained with 88.8%, LVS with 72.5%, SF with 0.42%, PA with 58.92%. For healthy children, the relationship between the body surface and the variabilitiy of the LVD was explained with 88.8%, LVS with 88.78%, SF with 5.25% and PA with 84.75%. There was a significant statistical difference between average values of Pvsd in the experimental and control group (p<0.02. Conclusion The presence of the large VSD has an influence on the enlargement of LVD, LVS, SF, TPA. The enlargement of the size of the pulmonary artery depends on the presence of VSD and there is a direct variation in the magnitude of the shunt

  17. Echocardiographic Assessment of Preload Responsiveness in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Levitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid challenges are considered the cornerstone of resuscitation in critically ill patients. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that only about 50% of hemodynamically unstable patients are volume responsive. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that excess fluid resuscitation is associated with increased mortality. It therefore becomes vital to assess a patient's fluid responsiveness prior to embarking on fluid loading. Static pressure (CVP, PAOP and echocardiographic (IVC diameter, LVEDA parameters fails to predict volume responsiveness. However, a number of dynamic echocardiographic parameters which are based on changes in vena-caval dimensions or cardiac function induce by positive pressure ventilation or passive leg raising appear to be highly predictive of volume responsiveness.

  18. Two-dimentional speckle tracking strain imaging in the assessment of myocardial diastolic function in patients with stable angina pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Farokhnejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is caused mainly by obstruction of coronary arteries. The ischemic assessment through echocardiography is dependent on wall motion abnormality detection during systole. In patients with ischemic heart disease the diastolic function is impaired before systolic function and measurement of regional diastolic dysfunction if possible will be most sensitive for assessment of obstructed coronary artery region. This study was designed to determine whether regional left ventricular delayed relaxation diagnosis could be detected with strain imaging derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease.Methods: All the articles reviewed were obtained using MEDLINE & ScienceDirect (up to October 2014. All data extracted by speckle tracking echocardiography. The index which is used is strain imaging diastolic index which is calculated as: (A-B A×100  . A is the amount of strain at the time Aortic value closure and B is the amount of strain in first one-third point of diastolic duration.Result: Four articles were reviewed. Three articles assessed patients with echocardiography at rest and one with stress echocardiography. All articles showed the coronary artery tracking with significant stenosis is possible by regional deformation analysis through two-dimensional strain.Discussion: The usage of strain images obtained through two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for the quantitation assessment of regional dysfunction in ischemic heart disease. Regional LV delayed relaxation diagnosis with strain imaging is a reliable method after treadmill stress test.Conclusion:  Strain imaging is reasonable for evaluation of ischemia as a low cost noninvasive test with high accuracy.

  19. Application of digital image correlation to full-field measurement of shrinkage strain of dental composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ying LI; Andrew LAU; Alex S.L.FOK

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:Polymerization shrinkage of dental composites remains a major concern in restorative dentistry because it can lead to micro-cracking of the tooth and debonding at the tooth-restoration interface.The aim of this study was to measure the full-field polymerization shrinkage of dental composites using the optical digital image correlation (DIC) method and to evaluate how the measurement is influenced by the factors in experiment setup and image analysis.Methods:Four commercial dental composites,Premise Dentine,Z100,Z250 and Tetric EvoCeram,were tested.Composite was first placed into a slot mould to form a bar specimen with rectangular-section of 4 mm×2 mm,followed by the surface painting to create irregular speckles.Curing was then applied at one end of the specimen while the other part were covered against curing light for simulating the clinical curing condition of composite in dental cavity.The painted surface was recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera before and after curing.Subsequently,the volumetric shrinkage of the specimen was calculated with specialist DIC software based on image cross correlation.In addition,a few factors that may influence the measuring accuracy,including the subset window size,speckle size,illumination light and specimen length,were also evaluated.Results:The volumetric shrinkage of the specimen generally decreases with increasing distance from the irradiated surface with a conspicuous exception being the composite Premise Dentine as its maximum shrinkage occurred at a subsurface distance of about 1 mm instead of the irradiated surface.Zl00 had the greatest maximum shrinkage strain,followed by Z250,Tetric EvoCeram and then Premise Dentine.Larger subset window size made the shrinkage strain contour smoother.But the cost was that some details in the heterogeneity of the material were lost.Very small subset window size resulted in a lot of noise in the data,making it difficult to discern the general pattern in the strain

  20. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  1. In situ study of annealing-induced strain relaxation in diamond nanoparticles using Bragg coherent diffraction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Hruszkewycz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We observed changes in morphology and internal strain state of commercial diamond nanocrystals during high-temperature annealing. Three nanodiamonds were measured with Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging, yielding three-dimensional strain-sensitive images as a function of time/temperature. Up to temperatures of 800 °C, crystals with Gaussian strain distributions with a full-width-at-half-maximum of less than 8×10−4 were largely unchanged, and annealing-induced strain relaxation was observed in a nanodiamond with maximum lattice distortions above this threshold. X-ray measurements found changes in nanodiamond morphology at temperatures above 600 °C that are consistent with graphitization of the surface, a result verified with ensemble Raman measurements.

  2. Echocardiographic evaluation of aorto-iliac occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczynski, Grzegorz; Szmigielski, Cezary; Kaczynska, Anna; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Kuch-Wocial, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    Several studies demonstrated feasibility of visual assessment of the common femoral artery Doppler waveform, in an indirect evaluation of aorto-iliac segment stenosis. Patients with cardiac diseases referred for echocardiography often have coexistent arterial pathology. Since many of them are potential candidates for endovascular procedures, we decided to study, whether echocardiography can be useful for detection of aorto-iliac occlusive disease. We evaluated 92 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm or peripheral artery occlusive disease, referred from the vascular surgery department for cardiac evaluation before surgery. At the end of an echocardiographic examination, evaluation of flow in the distal external iliac arteries with an echocardiographic probe was performed. The Doppler waveform was classified into normal--with early diastolic flow reversal or abnormal--without early diastolic flow reversal. Echocardiographic results were compared in a blinded fashion with reports from computed tomography angiography. Overall there were 58 iliac segments with significant (≥70%) area stenosis or occlusion and 126 iliac segments without significant disease on computed tomography angiography. Abnormal Doppler waveform was found in 56 out of 58 abnormal iliac segments-sensitivity 97%, and normal waveform was found in 106 out of 126 normal iliac segments-specificity 84%. Positive predictive value of abnormal Doppler waveform for significant iliac disease was 74%, and negative predicting value was 98%. Detection of significant stenoses in aorto-iliac segments is feasible with echocardiography. Further studies are necessary to evaluate its potential utility in a population of patients with cardiac disease referred for echocardiographic study.

  3. [Echocardiographic diagnosis of the right tri-atrial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano Reyes, C; Attie, F; Guadalajara, J F; Buendía, A; Muñoz-Castellanos, L

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the two-dimensional echocardiographic features of a case of cor triatriatum dexter. In this situation the right atrium is divided by a membrane in two chambers. Considering the anatomic characteristics of this case we added a new type in the classical classification proposed by Doucette et al.

  4. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Casares, Alejandro; Cesar, Sergi; Brunet-Garcia, Laia; Sanchez-de-Toledo, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Pericardial effusion (PEff) is defined by an increase in the physiological amount of fluid within the pericardial space. It can appear following different medical conditions, mainly related to inflammation and cardiac surgery. Cardiac tamponade is a critical condition that occurs after sudden and/or excessive accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space that restricts appropriate filling of the cardiac chambers disturbing normal hemodynamics and ultimately causing hypotension and cardiac arrest. It is, therefore, a life-threatening condition that must be diagnosed as soon as possible for correct treatment and management. Echocardiographic evaluation of PEff is paramount for timely and appropriate diagnosis and management. A structured echocardiographic approach including two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic evaluation assessing (i) quantity and quality of pericardial fluid, (ii) collapse of cardiac chambers, (iii) respiratory variation of the ventricular diameters, (iv) inferior vena cava collapsibility, and (v) flow patterns in atrioventricular valves should give the bedside clinician the necessary information to appropriately manage PEff. Here, we review these key echocardiographic signs that will ensure an appropriate assessment of a patient with PEff and/or cardiac tamponade. PMID:28484689

  5. Can echocardiographic findings predict falls in older persons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The European and American guidelines state the need for echocardiography in patients with syncope. 50% of older adults with syncope present with a fall. Nonetheless, up to now no data have been published addressing echocardiographic abnormalities in older fallers. Method and

  6. Evaluation of cardiac dyssynchrony with longitudinal strain analysis in 4-chamber cine MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakubo, Masateru, E-mail: masateru@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kumazawa, Seiji, E-mail: s_kmzw@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Chishaki, Akiko S., E-mail: chishaki@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Mukai, Yasushi, E-mail: y_mukai@cardiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakamura, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yas-nkmr@r-tec.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Morishita, Junji, E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku Fukuoka-city, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical performance of evaluation of cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony with longitudinal strain analysis using four-chamber (4CH) cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled 73 chronic heart failure patients (41 men, 32 women; mean age, 57 years, NYHA 2, 3, and 4) who underwent a cardiac MRI in the present study. The left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD) and interventricular dyssynchrony (IVD) indices were calculated by longitudinal strain analysis using 4CH cine MRI. The LVD and IVD indices were compared by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test between the patients with indication for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) (n = 13) and without indication for CRT (n = 60), with LGE (n = 40) and without LGE (n = 27), the CRT responders (n = 8) and non-responders (n = 6), respectively. Results: LVD in the patients with indication for CRT were significantly longer than those without indication for CRT (LVD: 92 ± 65 vs. 28 ± 40 ms, P < .01). LVD and IVD were significantly longer in the patients with LGE than those without LGE (LVD: 54 ± 58 vs. 21 ± 30 ms, P < .01 and IVD: 51 ± 39 vs. 23 ± 34 ms, P < .01). LVD and IVD in the CRT responders were significantly longer than the CRT non-responders (LVD: 126 ± 55 vs. 62 ± 55 ms, P < .01 and IVD: 96 ± 39 vs. 52 ± 40 ms, P < .05). Conclusion: Longitudinal strain analysis with 4CH cine MRI could be useful for clinical examination in the evaluation of cardiac mechanical dyssynchrony.

  7. Strain distribution in the intervertebral disc under unconfined compression and tension load by the optimized digital image correlation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Tai-Yong; Yang, Xiu-Ping; Li, Kun; Gao, Li-Lan; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Guo, Yue-Hong

    2014-05-01

    The unconfined compression and tension experiments of the intervertebral disc were conducted by applying an optimized digital image correlation technique, and the internal strain distribution was analysed for the disc. It was found that the axial strain values of different positions increased obviously with the increase in loads, while inner annulus fibrosus and posterior annulus fibrosus experienced higher axial strains than the outer annulus fibrosus and anterior annulus fibrosus. Deep annulus fibrosus exhibited higher compressive and tensile axial strains than superficial annulus fibrosus for the anterior region, while there was an opposite result for the posterior region. It was noted that all samples demonstrated a nonlinear stress-strain profile in the process of deforming, and an elastic region was shown once the sample was deformed beyond its toe region.

  8. A novel anesthesia regime enables neurofunctional studies and imaging genetics across mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinovic, Marija M; Hankov, Georges; Schroeter, Aileen; Bruns, Andreas; Rudin, Markus; von Kienlin, Markus; Künnecke, Basil; Mueggler, Thomas

    2016-04-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revolutionized neuroscience by opening a unique window that allows neurocircuitry function and pathological alterations to be probed non-invasively across brain disorders. Here we report a novel sustainable anesthesia procedure for small animal neuroimaging that overcomes shortcomings of anesthetics commonly used in rodent fMRI. The significantly improved preservation of cerebrovascular dynamics enhances sensitivity to neural activity changes for which it serves as a proxy in fMRI readouts. Excellent cross-species/strain applicability provides coherence among preclinical findings and is expected to improve translation to clinical fMRI investigations. The novel anesthesia procedure based on the GABAergic anesthetic etomidate was extensively validated in fMRI studies conducted in a range of genetically engineered rodent models of autism and strains commonly used for transgenic manipulations. Etomidate proved effective, yielded long-term stable physiology with basal cerebral blood flow of ~0.5 ml/g/min and full recovery. Cerebrovascular responsiveness of up to 180% was maintained as demonstrated with perfusion- and BOLD-based fMRI upon hypercapnic, pharmacological and sensory stimulation. Hence, etomidate lends itself as an anesthetic-of-choice for translational neuroimaging studies across rodent models of brain disorders.

  9. Evaluation of ventricular dysfunction using semi-automatic longitudinal strain analysis of four-chamber cine MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Masateru; Nagao, Michinobu; Kumazawa, Seiji; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Chishaki, Akiko S; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi; Morishita, Junji

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ventricular dysfunction using the longitudinal strain analysis in 4-chamber (4CH) cine MR imaging, and to investigate the agreement between the semi-automatic and manual measurements in the analysis. Fifty-two consecutive patients with ischemic, or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and repaired tetralogy of Fallot who underwent cardiac MR examination incorporating cine MR imaging were retrospectively enrolled. The LV and RV longitudinal strain values were obtained by semi-automatically and manually. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff of the minimum longitudinal strain value for the detection of patients with cardiac dysfunction. The correlations between manual and semi-automatic measurements for LV and RV walls were analyzed by Pearson coefficient analysis. ROC analysis demonstrated the optimal cut-off of the minimum longitudinal strain values (εL_min) for diagnoses the LV and RV dysfunction at a high accuracy (LV εL_min = -7.8 %: area under the curve, 0.89; sensitivity, 83 %; specificity, 91 %, RV εL_min = -15.7 %: area under the curve, 0.82; sensitivity, 92 %; specificity, 68 %). Excellent correlations between manual and semi-automatic measurements for LV and RV free wall were observed (LV, r = 0.97, p cine MR imaging can evaluate LV and RV dysfunction with simply and easy measurements. The strain analysis could have extensive application in cardiac imaging for various clinical cases.

  10. Microstructural characterization of in situ MXCT images of high density foams under large strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gleiman, Seth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marks, Trevor G [UCSB; Milstein, Fredrick [UCSB

    2009-01-01

    [5]. The above equations relate important foam properties to the relative-density of the foam; however, there exists a gap in the understanding of how the foam microstructure affects the mechanical response of the foam. This is due in large part to the difficulty of characterizing foam structures in 3D, especially foams of high relative-density. Most elastomeric foams are manufactured by the introduction of a gas into a cross-linking polymer. The developing foam microstructure has a complex dependence on the polymer viscosity and rate of polymerization, resulting in a randomly arranged pore structure with a large distribution of pore sizes. One approach is to characterize foam microstructures solely in terms of the cross-sectional shape and vector arrangement of the strut matrix, since it is this matrix that supports the stresses upon loading of the foam; yet as the density of a foam is increased, the very definition of what constitutes a strut brakes down. Another, perhaps easier to visualize, characterization of foam microstructure can come from a description of the pore shape and arrangement. Given the random nature of the microstructures of blown foam, both approaches are useful and valid. This paper describes our work aimed at linking the mechanical response and microstructural evolution of high relative-density foam as it undergoes large deformation. This work consists of several inter-related parts, including (i) measuring the compressive stress-strain response, as illustrated in Fig. 1, (ii) obtaining in situ micro X-ray computed tomography (MXCT) images of high relative-density foams undergoing large strains, and (iii) developing mathematical, computer aided, methodologies to perform image analysis and calculations of parameters that characterize the pores and struts. By using MXCT, a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal structure of materials, we are able to observe, internally, individual struts and pores as they undergo large deformation. Here

  11. 组织多普勒应变成像评价无心肌梗死的冠心病患者左心室收缩功能变化%Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases and without Myocardial Infarction by Strain Imaging Based on Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟霞; 周宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery diseases who had no myocardial infarc-tion history by strain imaging based on tissue Doppler imaging (TDD. Methods: Color-coded tissue Doppler echocardiography was performed in 25 healthy subjects and 26 patients with coronary artery diseases and without myocardial infarction. The short-axis views at basal,middle and apical levels were recorded. The mean peak values of strain were measured using Philips Q-Lab 7. 1 workshop. Results; The mean peak value in the group of coronary artery disease was significantly lower than that in the control group[(-42. 3 ± 9. 3) % vs. (-28. 8 ± 10. 3) %,P<0. 01],while other conventional echocardiographic parameters showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Strain imaging based on TDI can be used to assess myocardial function even when there is no obvious change in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with coronary artery diseases.%目的:应用组织多普勒(tissue Doppler imaging,TDI)应变成像技术评价无心肌梗死史的冠心病患者左心室收缩功能的变化.方法:对既往均无心肌梗死史的25例健康志愿者(对照组)和26例经冠状动脉造影证实冠心痛的患者(冠心病组)进行TDI应变分析.分别得出每例研究对象的平均左心室应变峰值.结果:冠心病组和对照组的年龄、心率以及经常规超声心动图Simpson法测量的左室射血分数(left ventricular ejection fraction,LVEF)的差异均无统计意义(P>0.05),但冠心病组的平均左心室应变峰值显著低于对照组[(-42.3±9.3)%比(-28.8±10.3)%,P<0.01].结论:TDI应变峰值能敏感地反映左室功能不全的亚临床信息,有助于心血管疾病的早期诊断.

  12. Non-destructive method for strain imaging in an individual GaN nanorod by confocal Raman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, S.; Sopanen, M.

    2016-11-01

    GaN based layer structures on highly lattice mismatched substrates are widely used for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Top down etched, GaN based nanorod structures are mainly studied due to their more effective strain relaxation. The previous measurements on the strain state of these structures have been performed either on single detached nanorods or on ensembles of nanorods still on the substrate. Here we demonstrate a technique based on confocal Raman scattering spectroscopy to probe the strain state of a single GaN nanorod still on the original substrate non-destructively. Both lateral and depth resolved imaging is achieved close to the diffraction limit of light. We observe that a GaN nanorod on the substrate is compressively strained throughout. The strain decreases from the base of the nanorod towards the top surface, but the top surface is still compressively strained. The detached GaN nanorod is less compressively strained overall, and the strain relaxes from the center towards all the edges.

  13. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  14. Comparative echocardiographic studies in leading canoe-kayak and handball sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanády, M; Gruber, N

    1984-01-01

    Echocardiographic data on 21 top-grade kayak- canoeists and 16 top-grade handball players are compared. While the end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters as well as end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes did not appreciably differ, the posterior wall and particularly the interventricular septum both in diastole and systole were significantly thicker in kayak- canoeists than in handball players. Also the left ventricular mass was considerably greater in the former group. The differences were even more striking when the parameters in question were calculated in relation to 1 kg body weight, 1 m-2 height and 1 m2 body surface area. Since the members of both groups were competitors at international level, it can be assumed that the differences are due to the different degree of strain placed on the heart in these sports.

  15. Dynamical Segmentation of the Left Ventricle in Echocardiographic Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    illnesses. REFERENCES [1] M.S.A.S. “Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social . Anuario Epidemiológico y Estadística Vital”. Venezuela. 1995. [2] Torrealba...Torrealba V., Hernández L., Acuña M., Montilla G., Bosnjak A., Roux C. “Interpolación Espacial de Imágenes Médicas 3D basada en movimiento ”. Avances

  16. Myocardial oedema in acute myocarditis detected by echocardiographic 2D myocardial deformation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Nielsen, Jan Møller; Kim, W Y;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The clinical diagnosis of acute myocarditis is based on symptoms, electrocardiography, elevated myocardial necrosis biomarkers, and echocardiography. Often, conventional echocardiography reveals no obvious changes in global cardiac function and therefore has limited diagnostic value....... Myocardial deformation imaging by echocardiography is an evolving method used to characterize quantitatively longitudinal systolic function, which may be affected in acute myocarditis. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of echocardiographic deformation imaging of the left ventricle in patients...... with diagnosed acute myocarditis in whom cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) evaluation was performed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 28 consecutive patients (mean age 32 ± 13 years) with CMR-verified diagnosis of acute myocarditis according to the Lake Louise criteria. Cardiac function was evaluated...

  17. The echocardiographic paradox index in patients with a repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Song, Jinyoung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Jang, So-Ick; Kim, Yang-Min

    2014-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) volume is very important for pulmonary valve replacement after the total correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), and we attempted to identify a convenient echocardiographic index that is well correlated with the volumetric data obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients who underwent cardiac MRI and echocardiography at Sejong General Hospital for evaluating pulmonary regurgitation after TOF total correction were included. The paradox index is the amount of paradoxical motion of the interventricular septum on the short-axis echocardiographic view. The paradox index was compared to several cardiac MRI indices. Fifty-four patients were included. The paradox index for all patients was 1.22 ± 0.12 (1.06-1.67), and the index of the operation group was significantly higher than that of the non-operation group (1.26 ± 1.12 vs 1.16 ± 1.12, P = 0.009). The paradox index was well correlated with the RV systolic and diastolic volumes, as measured by cardiac MRI (P = 0.002 and 0.003). Using a simple linear regression analysis, a paradox index of 1.24 corresponded to a RV diastolic volume of 160 ml/m(2). The paradox index could help to indicate the time for an MRI analysis of the RV volume in patients after TOF total correction.

  18. Echocardiographic Assessment of Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: A Diagnostic Challenge of an Emerging Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşşin; Gilliland, Yvonne E; Lavie, Carl J; Ramee, Stephen J; Parrino, Patrick E; Bates, Michael; Shah, Sangeeta; Cash, Michael E; Dinshaw, Homeyar; Qamruddin, Salima

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is characterized by decreased mitral valve (MV) orifice area and increased transmitral pressure gradient due to chronic noninflammatory degeneration and subsequent calcification of the fibrous mitral annulus and the MV leaflets. The "true" prevalence of DMS in the general population is unknown. DMS predominantly affects elderly individuals, many of whom have multiple other comorbidities. Transcatheter MV replacement techniques, although their long-term outcomes are yet to be tested, have been gaining popularity and may emerge as more effective and relatively safer treatment option for patients with DMS. Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of DMS and related hemodynamic abnormalities such as increased transmitral pressure gradient and pulmonary arterial pressure. Classic echocardiographic techniques used for evaluation of mitral stenosis (pressure half time, proximal isovelocity surface area, continuity equation, and MV area planimetry) lack validation for DMS. Direct planimetry with 3-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler is a reasonable technique for determining MV area in DMS. Cardiac computed tomography is an essential tool for planning potential interventions or surgeries for DMS. This article reviews the current concepts on mitral annular calcification and its role in DMS. We then discuss the epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis, mechanisms, and echocardiographic assessment of DMS.

  19. Quantification of Regional Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease by Strain Rate Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To detect and compare the systolic strain rate (SR) and strain in the infarct and ischemic myocardiu mby strain rate imaging ( SRI), in order to explore the clinical value of SRI in evaluating regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Methods Patients with coronary artery disease were divided into angina pectoris ( 11 cases) and myocardial infarction (21 cases) groups. Twenty age-matched normal subjects served as the control group. Septal, lateral, anterior, inferior, anteroseptal and posterior walls of the left ventricle were respectively scanned using color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Then SR and strain curves were derived from TDI for basal, middle and apical segments of each wall.SRI parameters were: Systolic SR ( Srsys), systolic strain (εsys) and maximum strain (εmax). Results Compared with normal segments, Srsys, εsys and εmax decreased significantly in the infarct and ischemic segments ( P < 0.01 ). Compared with ischemic segments, Srsys, εsys and εmax decreased significantly in the infarct segments ( P <0.05 ). Conclusions Srsys, εsys and εmax measured by SRI can be used to quantitatively analyze regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease, and aid in differentiating infarct from ischemic myocardium.

  20. Feature tracking measurement of dyssynchrony from cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine acquisitions: comparison with echocardiographic speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Toshinari; Saha, Samir K; Ludwig, Daniel R; Onishi, Tetsuari; Marek, Josef J; Cavalcante, João L; Schelbert, Erik B; Schwartzman, David; Gorcsan, John

    2013-10-17

    Analysis of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony may provide incremental prognostic information regarding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response in addition to QRS width alone. Our objective was to quantify LV dyssynchrony using feature tracking post processing of routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine acquisitions (FT-CMR) in comparison to speckle tracking echocardiography. We studied 72 consecutive patients who had both steady-state free precession CMR and echocardiography. Mid-LV short axis CMR cines were analyzed using FT-CMR software and compared with echocardiographic speckle tracking radial dyssynchrony (time difference between the anteroseptal and posterior wall peak strain). Radial dyssynchrony analysis was possible by FT-CMR in all patients, and in 67 (93%) by echocardiography. Dyssynchrony by FT-CMR and speckle tracking showed limits of agreement of strain delays of ± 84 ms. These were large (up to 100% or more) relative to the small mean delays measured in more synchronous patients, but acceptable (mainly 200 ms. Radial dyssynchrony was significantly greater in wide QRS patients than narrow QRS patients by both FT-CMR (radial strain delay 230 ± 94 vs. 77 ± 92* ms) and speckle tracking (radial strain delay 242 ± 101 vs. 75 ± 88* ms, all *p speckle tracking echocardiography. The clinical usefulness of the method, for example in predicting prognosis in CRT patients, remains to be investigated.

  1. A method for stereoscopic strain analysis of the right ventricle by digital image correlation during coronary bypass surgery: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirow, Nikolas; Hokka, Mikko; Nagel, Horst; Irqsusi, Marc; Moosdorf, Rainer G; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani; Vogt, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative cardiosurgical management of volume therapy remains one of the challenging tasks in cases of patients with severe heart disease. Early detection of congestive cardiac failure prevents subsequent low output and worse outcome. An effective method for controlling extracorporeal circulation is created by developing a non-invasive intraoperative method for right ventricular strain analysis through digital image contrast correlation.

  2. A novel segmentation method to identify left ventricular infarction in short-axis composite strain-encoded magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algohary, Ahmad O.; Metwally, Muhammad K.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.; Kandil, Ahmed H.; Osman, Nael F.

    2011-03-01

    Composite Strain Encoding (CSENC) is a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique for simultaneously acquiring cardiac functional and viability images. It combines the use of Delayed Enhancement (DE) and the Strain Encoding (SENC) imaging techniques to identify the infracted (dead) tissue and to image the myocardial deformation inside the heart muscle. In this work, a new unsupervised segmentation method is proposed to identify infarcted left ventricular tissue in the images provided by CSENC MRI. The proposed method is based on the sequential application of Bayesian classifier, Otsu's thresholding, morphological opening, radial sweep boundary tracing and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. This method is tested on images of twelve patients with and without myocardial infarction (MI) and on simulated heart images with various levels of superimposed noise. The resulting clustered images are compared with those marked up by an expert cardiologist who assisted in validating results coming from the proposed method. Infarcted myocardium is correctly identified using the proposed method with high levels of accuracy and precision.

  3. Circumferential 2D-strain imaging for the prediction of long term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT leads to hemodynamic and clinical improvement in heart failure patients. The established methods to evaluate myocardial asynchrony analyze longitudinal and radial myocardial function. This study evaluates the new method of circumferential 2D-strain imaging in the prediction of the long-term response to CRT. Methods and results 38 heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, QRS > 120 ms, LVEF Conclusion There is a significant decrease in the circumferential 2D-strain derived delays after CRT, indicating that resynchronization induces improvement in all three dimensions of myocardial contraction. However, the resulting predictive values of 2D strain delays are not superior to longitudinal and radial 2D-strain or TDI delays.

  4. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  5. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  6. [The value of area strain imaging diastolic index for predicting left anterior descending severe stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tuantuan; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Jinling; Song, Hongning; Guo, Juan; Guo, Ruiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the value of locating and defining severe stenosis of left anterior descending (LAD) with area strain imaging diastolic indexes (ASI-DI) derived from three dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI). A total of 92 suspected coronary heart disease patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 50% and without regional wall motion abnormality, who underwent echocardiography before coronary angiography in our department from July 2012 to April 2014, were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into three groups by the level of LAD stenosis: severe stenosis group (≥ 75%, n = 36), mild to moderate stenosis group (1%-74%, n = 22) and control group (without coronary artery stenosis, n = 34). Global peak systolic area strain (GPSAS), global ASI-DI (GASI-DI), and ASI-DI of the regional myocardial segments with blood supplied by LAD were measured. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were obtained between ASI-DI and stenosis level of LAD to locate and to find out the optimal segment and cutoff values. There was no significant difference of GPSAS among serious stenosis group, mild and moderate stenosis group and control group ((-25.2 ± 6.2) % vs. (-20.3 ± 6.6) % vs. (-21.3 ± 8.6) %, P = 0.159). GASI-DI was significantly lower in severe stenosis group than in mild to moderate stenosis group and control group ((-34.3 ± 14.7) vs. (-48.1 ± 13.3) % vs. (-59.4 ± 12.2) %, both P stenosis group and control group (P = 0.217). The optimal cutoff values of ASI-DI were 40.3% and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.829 in the base anterior segment for detecting proximal severe stenosis of LAD (sensitivity 0.967, specificity 0.651), 38.3% and 0.843 in the middle anteroseptum for detecting mid-distal sever stenosis of LAD (sensitivity 0.967, specificity 0.651). Patients with severe LAD stenosis can be screened by ASI-DI among patients with LVEF ≥ 50% and without regional wall motion abnormality. The ASI-DI of base anterior segment and

  7. Doppler-derived strain and strain rate imaging assessment of right ventricular systolic function in adults late after tetralogy of Fallot repair: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghpour, Anita; Kyavar, Majid; Madadi, Shabnam; Ebrahimi, Leili; Khajali, Zahra; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Today, we are faced with an increasing number of patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation (PR) late after TOF repair. The right ventricular (RV) volumes and function are among the most important factors influencing clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard method for the quantitative assessment of the RV function; it is, however, expensive for routine clinical follow-up and sometimes is contraindicated. We sought to evaluate the RV systolic function via CMR and compare it with Doppler-derived strain(S) and strain rate (SR) imaging in patients with repaired TOF. In an observational cross-sectional study, 70 patients (22 women, mean age=22±4.9 years) late after TOF repair with severe PR were evaluated. Peak systolic strain and SR in the basal, mid, and apical segments of RV free wall (RVFW) were measured and compared with the RV function measured in the short-axis cine MR. Associations between RVEF and S/SR, investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Significant association was observed between RV function and mean S of all the three segments of the RVFW segments [OR (CI95%): 1.17 (1.05-1.31)]. Association between RV function and mean SR of all the three segments of the RVFW segments was borderline significant [OR (CI95%): 1.7 (0.97-2.93)]. There was a significant correlation between the Doppler-derived mean strain of RVFW and the RV function measured by CMR in adults late after TOF repair. These quantitative methods improved the assessment of the RV function and served as an additional method to follow up patients with contraindications to CMR.

  8. Echocardiographic findings in patients with spontaneous CSF leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Allen L; Rimoin, David L; Pariani, Mitchel; Schievink, Wouter I; Reinstein, Eyal

    2014-10-01

    The presence of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are not well-documented in the literature, as cardiovascular evaluation is not generally pursued if a patient does not exhibit additional clinical features suggesting an inherited connective tissue disorder. We aimed to assess this association, enrolling a consecutive group of 50 patients referred for spinal CSF leak consultation. Through echocardiographic evaluation and detailed medical history, we estimate that up to 20% of patients presenting with a spontaneous CSF leak may have some type of cardiovascular abnormality. Further, the increase in prevalence of aortic dilatation in our cohort was statistically significant in comparison to the estimated population prevalence. This supports a clinical basis for echocardiographic screening of these individuals for cardiovascular manifestations that may have otherwise gone unnoticed or evolved into a more severe manifestation.

  9. Echocardiographic effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine in chinchillas ( Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph; Stepien, Rebecca L

    2017-02-01

    Alpha2-agonist anesthetic combinations are often used in rodent anesthesia but no information about their effects on cardiac function in chinchillas exists. The purpose of this study was to utilize echocardiography to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in chinchillas. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in eight adult chinchillas under manual restraint and following dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg) and ketamine (4 mg/kg) administration. Dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia resulted in a significantly decreased heart rate, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and flow velocity across the aortic and pulmonic valves, and significantly increased left ventricular internal diameter in systole. The observed changes in echocardiographic parameters are similar to those previously reported in chinchillas anesthetized with isoflurane.

  10. Clinical and echocardiographic features of aorto-atrial fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthasubramaniam Karthik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aorto-atrial fistulas (AAF are rare but important pathophysiologic conditions of the aorta and have varied presentations such as acute pulmonary edema, chronic heart failure and incidental detection of the fistula. A variety of mechanisms such as aortic dissection, endocarditis with pseudoaneurysm formation, post surgical scenarios or trauma may precipitate the fistula formation. With increasing survival of patients, particularly following complex aortic reconstructive surgeries and redo valve surgeries, recognition of this complication, its clinical features and echocardiographic diagnosis is important. Since physical exam in this condition may be misleading, echocardiography serves as the cornerstone for diagnosis. The case below illustrates aorto-left atrial fistula formation following redo aortic valve surgery with slowly progressive symptoms of heart failure. A brief review of the existing literature of this entity is presented including emphasis on echocardiographic diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Correlação e concordância entre medidas ecocardiográficas obtidas durante o exame no ecocardiógrafo com medidas de imagens digitalizadas: estudo transversal Correlation and concordance between echocardiographic measurements obtained during echocardiography and digitized image measurements: transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Bulhões Hatem

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação e concordância entre medidas ecocardiográficas das dimensões cardíacas, obtidas através do aplicativo Echo off-line (programa para obtenção de medidas de imagens digitalizadas em estação de trabalho dedicada, com as realizadas convencionalmente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, contemporâneo, sendo randomizados 56 pacientes. Através do programa Echo off-line foram mensuradas as medidas ao modo M e 2D ao nível dos ventrículos, do átrio esquerdo e da aorta. Estas medidas foram comparadas às realizadas por outro profissional, através do teste de correlação de Pearson (r, com alfa crítico de 0,05 e pela análise de concordância (Bland e Altman. RESULTADOS: As mensurações realizadas no sistema Echo off-line demonstraram r de 0,85 a 0,98. A análise de concordância mostrou que, para a maioria das medidas, a diferença média entre os métodos foi aproximadamente zero. A variação de valores absolutos não apresentou, em média, significância clínica. O aplicativo Echo off-line permite uma redução de, aproximadamente, 30% no tempo para realização das medidas. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstrou a acurácia do programa Echo off-line para mensurar as dimensões cardíacas em estação de trabalho dedicada, podendo ser utilizado rotineiramente nos laboratórios de ecocardiografia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation and concordance between the measurements of echocardiographic analysis of cardiac dimensions obtained through the Echo off-line applicative (software for obtaining digitized image measurements in a dedicated workstation available to public domain, and those obtained through the conventional method. METHOD: Transversal contemporary study, of 56 randomized patients whose images were obtained during examina-tions. The measurements of the M mode and 2D, were done in the ventricles, left atrium, and aorta by the Echo off-line program. These measurements were compared to those obtained

  12. Cardiac echinococcosis--a rare echocardiographic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, S. B.; Katyal, V. K.; Jagdish

    1997-01-01

    A 30 year old female admitted for evaluation of left chest pain was suspected to have multiple cardiac hydatid cysts. The diagnosis was established by cross sectional echocardiography and computed tomography, supported by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for echinococcosis. Medical therapy altered the echopattern of the cysts but failed to reduce cystic masses. Surgery was advocated but refused by the patient. Images PMID:9155623

  13. A comparison between brachial and echocardiographic systolic time intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available Systolic time interval (STI is an established noninvasive technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Brachial STIs can be automatically determined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI-form device. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether the STIs measured from ABI-form device can represent those measured from echocardiography and to compare the diagnostic values of brachial and echocardiographic STIs in the prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <50%. A total of 849 patients were included in the study. Brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP and brachial ejection time (bET were measured using an ABI-form device and pre-ejection period (PEP and ejection time (ET were measured from echocardiography. Agreement was assessed by correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot. Brachial STIs had a significant correlation with echocardiographic STIs (r = 0.644, P<0.001 for bPEP and PEP; r  = 0.850, P<0.001 for bET and ET; r = 0.708, P<0.001 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The disagreement between brachial and echocardiographic STIs (brachial STIs minus echocardiographic STIs was 28.55 ms for bPEP and PEP, -4.15 ms for bET and ET and -0.11 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The areas under the curve for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET in the prediction of LVEF <50% were 0.771 and 0.765, respectively. Brachial STIs were good alternatives to STIs obtained from echocardiography and also helpful in prediction of LVEF <50%. Brachial STIs automatically obtained from an ABI-form device may be helpful for evaluation of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  14. Echocardiographic assessment and percutaneous closure of multiple atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timperley Jonathan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atrial septal defect closure is now routinely performed using a percutaneous approach under echocardiographic guidance. Centrally located, secundum defects are ideal for device closure but there is considerable morphological variation in size and location of the defects. A small proportion of atrial septal defects may have multiple fenestrations and these are often considered unsuitable for device closure. We report three cases of multiple atrial septal defects successfully closed with two Amplatzer septal occluders.

  15. Echocardiographic evaluation of coronary arteries in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Grace; Miller, Michelle S

    2015-12-01

    Among populations of patients with the congenital heart disease, there is considerable diversity in the anatomy of the coronary arteries. Understanding these anatomical differences is vitally important in directing interventions and surgical repair. In this report, the authors describe the echocardiographic evaluation of the variants of coronary artery anatomy in the following lesions: transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, double-inlet left ventricle, common arterial trunk, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle.

  16. Echocardiographic Findings in Power Athletes Abusing Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Hajimoradi, Behzad; Kazerani, Hashem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs. Methods Body builder athletes with continuous prac...

  17. Echocardiographic pattern of acquired heart diseases in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Effiong Ekpe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acquired heart diseases (AHDs are present from childhood to old age, and the frequency of pathology differs according to age and the geographical region of the patients. The aim of this study was to document the echocardiographic patterns of AHDs in our setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of echocardiographic diagnosis of AHD was done for age, sex, and echocardiographic pattern. Results: There were 190 diagnoses in the 163 patients with 27 patients having a double diagnosis, consisting of 88 (54% males and 75 (46% females. The mean age was 50.4 years (age range 9-85 years. Ten types of acquired heart pathologies were identified and they included hypertensive heart disease in 49.47%, rheumatic heart disease in 26.32%, cardiomyopathy in 11.05%, endomyocardial fibrosis in 4.74%, and pericarditis in 3.68%. Others were cor pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension, intracardiac thrombi, left atrial myxoma and degenerative heart disease which accounted for the remaining 4.74%. Conclusion: This study identifies 10 types of AHDs among the study population. The huge impact of hypertensive heart disease and rheumatic heart disease is a big indicator pointing to the existence of a sub-optimal level of healthcare in the country.

  18. Echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular function in congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiu-fai Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aims to provide an overview of conventional and novel indices used in clinical and research arenas for evaluation of right ventricular (RV) function in congenital heart diseases with a dual-chambered circulation.Data sources Articles cited in this review were selected using PubMed search of publications in English with no date limits.The search terms included "echocardiography","right ventricle","RV function","cardiac function",and "congenital heart disease".Key references were also searched for additional publications.Study selection Articles related to description of echocardiographic techniques in the evaluation of subpulmonary or systemic RV function and their applications in congenital cardiac malformations were retrieved and reviewed.Results Three approaches have been used to evaluate subpulmonary and systemic RV function:(1) assessment of changes in RV size in the cardiac cycle,(2) determination of Doppler-derived velocities and systolic and diastolic time intervals,and (3) quantification of myocardial velocities and deformation.Conclusions Conventional and novel echocardiographic techniques enable the evaluation of subpulmonary and systemic RV function.Novel echocardiographic techniques have further allowed quantification of RV volumes and direct interrogation of myocardial deformation.These new techniques show promise in a more comprehensive evaluation beyond "eye-bailing" of RV function in the growing population of adolescent and adult congenital heart patients.

  19. Speckle-Tracking Echocardiographic Measures of Right Ventricular Function Correlate With Improvement in Exercise Function After Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shahryar M; Hijazi, Ziyad M; Fahey, John T; Rhodes, John F; Kar, Saibal; Makkar, Raj; Mullen, Michael; Cao, Qi-Ling; Shirali, Girish S

    2015-09-01

    Speckle-tracking echocardiographic (STE) measures of right ventricular (RV) function appear to improve after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI). Measures of exercise function, such as ventilatory efficiency (the minute ventilation [VE]/carbon dioxide production [VCO2] slope), have been shown to be prognostic of mortality in patients who may require TPVI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between STE measures of RV function and changes in VE/VCO2 after TPVI. Speckle-tracking echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and 6 months after TPVI in 24 patients from four centers. Conventional echocardiographic measures of RV function were also assessed. Echocardiographic and exercise stress test results were interpreted by single blinded observers at separate core laboratories. All patients demonstrated relief of pulmonary regurgitation and stenosis after TPVI. Improvements in RV longitudinal strain (-16.9 ± 3.5% vs -19.7 ± 4.3%, P rate (-0.9 ± 0.4 vs. -1.2 ± 0.4 s(-1), P exercise changes were found. On multivariate regression, the change in VE/VCO2 was independently associated with change in RV longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (P change in VE/VCO2 after TPVI (r = -0.60, P < .001). STE measures of RV function appear to hold the potential for use as predictors of improved outcomes in patients requiring TPVI. Future studies should directly assess the prognostic significance of STE measures of RV function in this population. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Large area and depth-profiling dislocation imaging and strain analysis in Si/SiGe/Si heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zuo, Daniel; Kim, Seongwon; Mabon, James; Sardela, Mauro; Wen, Jianguo; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate the combined use of large area depth-profiling dislocation imaging and quantitative composition and strain measurement for a strained Si/SiGe/Si sample based on nondestructive techniques of electron beam-induced current (EBIC) and X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM). Depth and improved spatial resolution is achieved for dislocation imaging in EBIC by using different electron beam energies at a low temperature of ~7 K. Images recorded clearly show dislocations distributed in three regions of the sample: deep dislocation networks concentrated in the "strained" SiGe region, shallow misfit dislocations at the top Si/SiGe interface, and threading dislocations connecting the two regions. Dislocation densities at the top of the sample can be measured directly from the EBIC results. XRD RSM reveals separated peaks, allowing a quantitative measurement of composition and strain corresponding to different layers of different composition ratios. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy cross-section analysis clearly shows the individual composition layers and the dislocation lines in the layers, which supports the EBIC and XRD RSM results.

  1. Improving full-cardiac cycle strain estimation from tagged CMR by accurate modeling of 3D image appearance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Nitzken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR image analysis, we propose a 3D (2D space + 1D time energy minimization framework, based on learning first- and second-order visual appearance models from voxel intensities. The former model approximates the marginal empirical distribution of intensities with two linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG. The second-order model considers an image of a sample from a translation–rotation invariant 3D Markov–Gibbs random field (MGRF with multiple pairwise spatiotemporal interactions within and between adjacent temporal frames. Abilities of the framework to accurately recover noise-corrupted strain slopes were experimentally evaluated and validated on 3D geometric phantoms and independently on in vivo data. In multiple noise and motion conditions, the proposed method outperformed comparative image filtering in restoring strain curves and reliably improved HARP strain tracking during the entirety of the cardiac cycle. According to these results, our framework can augment popular spectral domain techniques, such as HARP, by optimizing the spectral domain characteristics and thereby providing more reliable estimates of strain parameters.

  2. Left ventricular myocardial strain by three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy subjects: reference values and analysis of their physiologic and technical determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraru, Denisa; Cucchini, Umberto; Mihăilă, Sorina; Miglioranza, Marcelo Haertel; Aruta, Patrizia; Cavalli, Giacomo; Cecchetto, Antonella; Padayattil-Josè, Seena; Peluso, Diletta; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P

    2014-08-01

    Despite growing interest in applying three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) to measure left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation in various diseases, normative values for 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic parameters and the effects of demographic, hemodynamic, and technical factors on these values are unknown. In 265 healthy volunteers (age range, 18-76; 57% women), longitudinal strain (3DLε), circumferential strain (3DCε), radial strain (3DRε), and area strain (3DAε) were measured by using vendor-specific (Vsp) 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic equipment. LV strain was also measured by using Vsp two-dimensional (2D) and vendor-independent 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic software packages, for comparison. Reference values (lower limit of normality) for Vsp 3D STE were -17% to -21% (-15%) for 3DLε, -17% to -20% (-14%) for 3DCε, -31% to -36% (-26%) for 3DAε, and 47% to 59% (38%) for 3DRε. Three-dimensional longitudinal strain decreased, whereas 3DCε increased, with aging (P < .003), with different trends in men and women. Men had lower 3DLε, 3DRε, 3DAε, and 2D longitudinal strain than women (P < .02). LV 3D strain parameters were also influenced by LV volumes and mass, image quality, and temporal resolution (P < .02). Reference values obtained by Vsp 2D STE were -20% to -23% (-18%) for 2D longitudinal strain, -20% to -24% (-17%) for 2D circumferential strain, and 39% to 54% (28%) for 2D radial strain (P < .001 vs Vsp 3D STE). Significantly different 3DCε and 3DRε values were obtained with vendor-independent versus Vsp 3D STE (P < .001). In healthy subjects, reference values of LV 3D strain parameters were significantly influenced by demographic, cardiac, and technical factors. Limits of normality of LV strain by Vsp 3D STE should not be used interchangeably with Vsp 2D STE or with Vin 3D STE software. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of tissue mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on the performance of a cross-correlation-based ultrasound strain imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The anisotropic mechanical properties (mechanical anisotropy) and view-dependent ultrasonic backscattering (acoustic anisotropy) of striated muscle due to the underlying myofiber arrangement have been well documented, but whether they impact on ultrasound strain imaging (USI) techniques remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the performance of a cross-correlation-based two-dimensional (2D) USI method in anisotropic media under controlled quasi-static compression in silico and in vitro. First, synthetic pre- and post-deformed 2D radiofrequency images of anisotropic phantoms were simulated in two scenarios to examine the individual effect of the mechanical and acoustic anisotropies on strain estimation. In the first scenario, the phantom was defined to be transversely isotropic with the scatterer amplitudes following a zero-mean Gaussian distribution, while in the second scenario, the phantom was defined to be mechanically isotropic with Gaussian distributed scatterer amplitudes correlated along the principal directions of pre-defined fibers. These two anisotropies were then jointly incorporated into the ultrasound image simulation model with additional depth-dependent attenuation. Three imaging planes—the fiber plane with the fiber direction perpendicular to the ultrasound beam (TISperp_fb), the fiber plane with the fiber direction parallel to the beam (TISpara), and the transverse fiber plane (TISperp_cfb)—were studied. The absolute relative error (ARE) of the lateral strain estimates in TISperp_fb (20.99  ±  15.65%) was much higher than that in TISperp_cfb (4.14  ±  3.17%). The ARE in TISpara was unavailable owing to the large spatial extent of false peaks. The effect of tissue anisotropy on the performance of the 2D USI was further confirmed in an in vitro porcine skeletal muscle phantom. The best in-plane strain quality was again shown in TISperp_cfb (elastographic signal-to-noise ratio, or SNRe:  >25 d

  4. Assessment of Left Ventricular Longitudinal Regional Myocardial Systolic Function by Strain Imaging Echocardiography in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yani; DENG Youbin; LI Xiulan; CHANG Qing; LU Yongping; LI Chunlei

    2005-01-01

    To assess the left ventricular longitudinal regional myocardial systolic function by strain imaging (SI) echocardiography and to study the relationship between regional myocardial systolic function and left ventricular structure in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). SI echocardiography were performed in 18 patients with HCM and 17 healthy subjects. For each wall,regional myocardial systolic strain was analyzed at the basal, mid, and apical level respectively.And the peak systolic strain was measured. Our results showed that the patients with HCM had reduced peak systolic strain at almost each segment of different walls when compared with healthy subjects. There was significant correlation between the mid-septum peak systolic strain and the thickness of IVS, so was the correlation between the mid-septum peak systolic strain and the IVS to LVPW thickness ratio. This study demonstrated that the left ventricular longitudinal regional myocardial systolic function was abnormal in HCM, and this kind of abnormalities existed extensively in hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic cardiac segments. The degrees of left ventricle hypertrophy and asymmetry are related to the myocardial regional systolic function in HCM.

  5. Right ventricular strain in heart failure: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Morris, Daniel A; Burkhardt, Franziska; Baudisch, Ana; Haßfeld, Sabine; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burket

    2017-06-29

    The number of studies demonstrating the importance of right ventricular remodelling in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases has increased in the past two decades. Speckle-tracking imaging provides new variables that give comprehensive information about right ventricular function and mechanics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of right ventricular mechanics in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases for studies published from January 2000 to December 2016 in the English language using the following keywords: "right ventricle"; "strain"; "speckle tracking"; "heart failure with reduced ejection fraction"; and "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Investigations showed that right ventricular dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction. The number of studies investigating right ventricular strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is constantly increasing, whereas data on right ventricular mechanics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. Given the high feasibility, accuracy and clinical implications of right ventricular strain in the population with heart failure, it is of great importance to try to include the evaluation of right ventricular strain as a regular part of each echocardiographic examination in patients with heart failure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish right ventricular strain as a standard variable for decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The LSLE echocardiograph - Commercial hardware aboard Spacelab. [Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment Echocardiograph, a commercial 77020AC Ultrasound Imaging System modified to meet NASA's spacecraft standards, is described. The assembly consists of four models: display and control, scanner, scan converter, and physioamplifiers. Four separate processors communicate over an IEE-488 bus, and the system has more than 6000 individual components on 35 printed circuit cards. Three levels of self test are provided: a short test during power up, a basic test initiated by a front panel switch, and interactive tests for specific routines. Default mode operation further enhances reliability. Modifications of the original system include the replacement of ac power supplies with dc to dc converters, a slide-out keyboard (to prevent accidental operation), Teflon insulated wire, and additional shielding for the ultrasound transducer cable.

  7. Nonconvective Forces: A Critical and Often Ignored Component in the Echocardiographic Assessment of Transvalvular Pressure Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Firstenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is routinely used to assess ventricular and valvular function, particularly in patients with known or suspected cardiac disease and who have evidence of hemodynamic compromise. A cornerstone to the use of echocardiographic imaging is not only the qualitative assessment, but also the quantitative Doppler-derived velocity characteristics of intracardiac blood flow. While simplified equations, such as the modified Bernoulli equation, are used to estimate intracardiac pressure gradients based upon Doppler velocity data, these modified equations are based upon assumptions of the varying contributions of the different forces that contribute to blood flow. Unfortunately, the assumptions can result in significant miscalculations in determining a gradient if not completely understood or they are misapplied. We briefly summarize the principles of fluid dynamics that are used clinically with some of the inherent limitations of routine broad application of the simplified Bernoulli equation.

  8. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    OpenAIRE

    M.B.Gugjoo; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body we...

  9. Multiple Unfavorable Echocardiographic Findings in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Are Associated with Increased In-Hospital Events and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Okura, Hiroyuki; Matsue, Yuya; Tamada, Tomoko; Imai, Koichiro; Yamada, Ryotaro; Kume, Teruyoshi; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Various unfavorable echocardiographic findings other than apical ballooning, such as right ventricular involvement, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and left ventricular thrombus, occur in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Occasionally, these findings are observed simultaneously in a single patient. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of patients with multiple unfavorable echocardiographic findings in takotsubo cardiomyopathy and their associations with adverse outcomes. The echocardiographic images of 113 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (mean age, 72.7 ± 11.4 years; 29 men) were retrospectively reviewed. According to the number of unfavorable echocardiographic findings, patients were classified into a low-risk group (zero or one finding), an intermediate-risk group (two findings), and a high-risk group (three or more findings). In-hospital events were defined as a composite of acute heart failure, shock, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and in-hospital death. Apical ballooning, right ventricular involvement, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and left ventricular thrombus were observed in 92 (81.4%), 21 (18.6%), 17 (15.0%), 11 (9.7%), and three (2.7%) patients, respectively. There were 77 (68.1%), 25 (22.1%), and 11 (9.7%) patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that being in the high-risk group had a significant association with in-hospital events (odds ratio, 8.74, P = .003) and death (odds ratio, 16.9; P = .027) compared with being in the low-risk group. Net reclassification improvement indicated that adding this risk group classification to known clinical factors that are associated with adverse outcomes could yield incremental information regarding patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with in-hospital events (net reclassification improvement, 0.59; P = .002). Multiple unfavorable

  10. Digital image correlation analysis of local strain fields on Ti6Al4V manufactured by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Joakim, E-mail: Joakim.karlsson@sp.se [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden); Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sjögren, Torsten [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden); Snis, Anders [Arcam AB, Krokslätts fabriker 27 A, SE-431 37, Mölndal (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lausmaa, Jukka [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, SE-501 15, Borås (Sweden)

    2014-11-17

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing as it is often called, build parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. A common concern, regardless of the specific additive manufacturing technique used, is the risk of inadequate fusion between the adjacent layers which in turn may cause inferior mechanical properties. In this work, the local strain properties of titanium parts produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM{sup ®}) were studied in order to gain information about the quality of fusion of the stock powder material used in the process. By using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) the strain fields in the individual layers were analyzed, as well as the global strain behavior of the bulk material. The results show that fully solid titanium parts manufactured by EBM are homogenous and do not experience local deformation behavior, neither on local nor on a global level.

  11. Young's modulus imaging based on axial and lateral strain estimation from ultrasound data using a clinical linear probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ghada; Vray, Didier; Liebgott, Herve; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Basset, Olivier

    2005-04-01

    Strain imaging is useful for visualizing information related to tissue stiffness. However, strain is a parameter that depends on the boundary conditions, tissue connectivity and geometry. As a result, tissue hardness cannot be quantitatively evaluated from the strain distribution. Therefore, reconstruction of the elastic modulus (Young's Modulus) distribution has been investigated for quantitative evaluation of tissue hardness. A method has been recently proposed [NITT 00] to calculate locally the Young's modulus of tissues from the estimations of 3D displacement field within the medium. This approach requires a specific annular ultrasonic probe. The aim of our work, based on Nitta's approach, is to build a Young modulus mapping using clinical ultrasonic equipment. Results from finite-element simulations and a physical phantom are presented.

  12. Noninvasive Localization of Accessory Pathways in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Strain Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noninvasive techniques for the localization of the accessory pathways (APs might help guide mapping procedures and ablation techniques. We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of strain imaging for the localization of the APs in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.Methods: We prospectively studied 25 patients (mean age = 32 ± 17 years, 58.3% men with evidence of pre-excitation on electrocardiography (ECG. Electromechanical interval was defined as the time difference between the onset of delta wave and the onset of regional myocardial contraction. Time differences between the onset of delta wave (δ and the onset of regional myocardial contraction (δ-So, peak systolic motion (δ-Sm, regional strain (δ-ε, peak strain (δ-εp, and peak strain rate (δ-SRp were measured.Results: There was a significant difference between time to onset of delta wave to onset of peak systolic motion (mean ± SD in the AP location (A and normal segments (B versus that in the normal volunteers (C [A: (57.08 ± 23.88 msec vs. B: (75.20 ± 14.75  vs. C: (72.9 0 ± 11.16; p value (A vs. B = 0.004 and p value (A vs. C = 0.18] and [A: (49.17 ± 35.79 vs. B: (67.60 ± 14.51 vs. C: (67.40 ± 6.06 msec; p value ( A vs. B < 0.001 and  p value (A vs. C = 0.12, respectively].Conclusion: Our study showed that strain imaging parameters [(δ-So and (δ-Strain] are superior to the ECG in the localization of the APs (84% vs. 76%.

  13. Evaluation of structural change and local strain distribution in polymers comparatively imaged by FFSA and OCT techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiss-Holzinger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical material testing combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT allows for the first time the immediate detection of inner structural changes along with a qualitative observation of the local strain distribution in surface near bulk regions of semitransparent and translucent specimens. In addition to a 3D full field strain analysis (FFSA system based on digital image correlation (DIC, a customized spectral domain OCT system operating at 1550 nm was applied for investigation. Exemplified by tensile testing of elastomer particle filled polypropylene specimens, local dissimilarity evaluation of the OCT images was performed. The results show the high potential of OCT to provide complementary information to DIC-based FFSA, like to identify processes influencing the remaining life of advanced commodity plastics such as the start and progress of yielding, identification of the yielding point, localization of the necking front and the development of small scale voids as in the case of matrix crazing.

  14. Resimulation of noise: a precision estimator for least square error curve-fitting tested for axial strain time constant imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S P; Righetti, R

    2015-05-07

    Recent elastography techniques focus on imaging information on properties of materials which can be modeled as viscoelastic or poroelastic. These techniques often require the fitting of temporal strain data, acquired from either a creep or stress-relaxation experiment to a mathematical model using least square error (LSE) parameter estimation. It is known that the strain versus time relationships for tissues undergoing creep compression have a non-linear relationship. In non-linear cases, devising a measure of estimate reliability can be challenging. In this article, we have developed and tested a method to provide non linear LSE parameter estimate reliability: which we called Resimulation of Noise (RoN). RoN provides a measure of reliability by estimating the spread of parameter estimates from a single experiment realization. We have tested RoN specifically for the case of axial strain time constant parameter estimation in poroelastic media. Our tests show that the RoN estimated precision has a linear relationship to the actual precision of the LSE estimator. We have also compared results from the RoN derived measure of reliability against a commonly used reliability measure: the correlation coefficient (CorrCoeff). Our results show that CorrCoeff is a poor measure of estimate reliability for non-linear LSE parameter estimation. While the RoN is specifically tested only for axial strain time constant imaging, a general algorithm is provided for use in all LSE parameter estimation.

  15. Relationship of the total atrial conduction time to subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation and echocardiographic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftal Murat Bakirci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the total atrial conduction time and its relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation and echocardiographic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 54.5±9.6 years; 57.6% male and 80 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated. The total atrial conduction time was measured by tissue-Doppler imaging and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. RESULTS: The total atrial conduction time was significantly longer in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus than in the control group (131.7±23.6 vs. 113.1±21.3, p<0.001. The patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly increased carotid intima-media thicknesses, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels than those of the controls. The total atrial conduction time was positively correlated with the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, carotid intima-media thickness and left atrial volume index and negatively correlated with the early diastolic velocity (Em, Em/late diastolic velocity (Am ratio and global peak left atrial longitudinal strain. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, carotid intima-media thickness and global peak left atrial longitudinal strain were independent predictors of the total atrial conduction time. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammation may represent a mechanism related to prolonged total atrial conduction time and that prolonged total atrial conduction time and impaired left atrial myocardial deformation may be represent early subclinical cardiac involvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Fully automatic left ventricular myocardial strain estimation in 2D short-axis tagged magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Heyde, Brecht; Engvall, Jan; 'hooge, Jan D.; Vilaça, João L.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death and frequently result in local myocardial dysfunction. Among the numerous imaging modalities available to detect these dysfunctional regions, cardiac deformation imaging through tagged magnetic resonance imaging (t-MRI) has been an attractive approach. Nevertheless, fully automatic analysis of these data sets is still challenging. In this work, we present a fully automatic framework to estimate left ventricular myocardial deformation from t-MRI. This strategy performs automatic myocardial segmentation based on B-spline explicit active surfaces, which are initialized using an annular model. A non-rigid image-registration technique is then used to assess myocardial deformation. Three experiments were set up to validate the proposed framework using a clinical database of 75 patients. First, automatic segmentation accuracy was evaluated by comparing against manual delineations at one specific cardiac phase. The proposed solution showed an average perpendicular distance error of 2.35  ±  1.21 mm and 2.27  ±  1.02 mm for the endo- and epicardium, respectively. Second, starting from either manual or automatic segmentation, myocardial tracking was performed and the resulting strain curves were compared. It is shown that the automatic segmentation adds negligible differences during the strain-estimation stage, corroborating its accuracy. Finally, segmental strain was compared with scar tissue extent determined by delay-enhanced MRI. The results proved that both strain components were able to distinguish between normal and infarct regions. Overall, the proposed framework was shown to be accurate, robust, and attractive for clinical practice, as it overcomes several limitations of a manual analysis.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Right Atrial Function by Strain Imaging in Adult Patients with Totally Corrected Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Alizadehasl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrial function could be affected by many cardiac disorders. Recently Strain imaging has been employed for the assessment of atrial function in several disorders involving atria.Objectives: We aimed to measure the right atrial function by this method in adult patients with surgically corrected Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF.Patients and Method: Forty six adult patients with TOF who underwent total correction surgery in childhood and had severe pulmonary regurgitation and fulfilled the criteria of ACC/AHA guideline for PVR enrolled. The control group included 50 healthy adults with matched age and sex. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed on both groups which myocardial velocities and strain imaging indices were obtained from their RA free wall.Results: The myocardial velocities and deformational indices of RA free wall were significantly compromised in TOF patients compared with normal subjects. There was no correlation between RA function data measured by strain imaging and RV volume measured in CMR.Conclusions: In light of our findings, we concluded that RA function is severely diminished in adult patients with TOF. It would play an important role in pathophysiological process of the right sided heart failure in these patients

  18. Measurement of high temperature full-field strain up to 2000 °C using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Chenghai; Jin, Hua; Meng, Songhe; Zhang, Yumin; Xie, Weihua

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the deformation and strain at elevated temperature is a critical factor for the stability of aerodynamic shape, and an important consideration for the thermal protection system design. However, accurate measurement of deformation and strain at high temperatures is a challenge. Here, we present a measurement study for full-field strain mapping up to 2000 °C using digital image correlation (DIC) method, which mainly depends on the quality of speckle patterns on the specimen surface. In our study, the strain values are analyzed by DIC method while specimens are heated using a large electric current. Improvements in filtering and speckling allow the measured temperatures using this method to reach 2000 °C. We confirmed the validity of this method by comparison of measured Young’s modulus values with reference data for Inconel 718 Ni-based superalloy and graphite at different temperatures. Additionally, the full-field strain and Young’s modulus were demonstrated for a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon (C/C) composite uniaxial tensile specimen at 2000 °C.

  19. A Comparison between Quantitative Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy and Strain Echocardiography as Indicators of Ventricular Functions in Patients with Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacavus, Seyhan; Celik, Ahmet; Tutus, Ahmet; Kula, Mustafa; Oguzhan, Abdurrahman; Ozdogru, Ibrahim; Kalay, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the strain echocardiographic and scintigraphic parameters for evaluating of the left ventricular (LV) functions in patients with anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-four patients (male/female: 36/18; mean age 62 ± 13 years) with anterior MI were prospectively enrolled. All patients were performed gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) and echocardiography (EC). GSPECT data were processed and analyzed using 4D-MSPECT (4DM, Invia Medical Imaging Solutions, Ann Arbor, MI, USA). The echocardiographic strain (S) and strain rate (SR) values were calculated. The results obtained by these techniques were compared each other. A total of 918 segments of LV wall were evaluated. In all patients, 385 segments were automatically scored as normokinetic, 206 as hypokinetic, 122 as akinetic, 205 as dyskinetic and 300 as normal thickening, 348 as decrease thickening and 270 as no thickening. The means of S and SR values in thickening and motion score groups according to GSPECT were statistically different from each other (P < 0.001). There was a negative significant correlation between LV wall thickening sum score and S and SR and between LV wall motion sum score and S and SR (P < 0.001). There was a good correlation between GSPECT and echocardiographic LV-ejection fraction (r = 0.7, P < 0.001). GSPECT and strain EC are similar in quantitative grading of the severity of regional and global myocardial dysfunction in patients with anterior MI and these techniques provide valuable diagnostic information. PMID:25538490

  20. Right Ventricular Strain, Torsion, and Dyssynchrony in Healthy Subjects using 3D Spiral Cine DENSE Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suever, Jonathan; Wehner, Gregory; Jing, Linyuan; Powell, David; Hamlet, Sean; Grabau, Jonathan; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Andres, Kristin; Haggerty, Christopher; Fornwalt, Brandon

    2016-12-29

    Mechanics of the left ventricle (LV) are important indicators of cardiac function. The role of right ventricular (RV) mechanics is largely unknown due to the technical limitations of imaging its thin wall and complex geometry and motion. By combining 3D Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) with a post-processing pipeline that includes a local coordinate system, it is possible to quantify RV strain, torsion, and synchrony. In this study, we sought to characterize RV mechanics in 50 healthy individuals and compare these values to their LV counterparts. For each cardiac frame, 3D displacements were fit to continuous and differentiable radial basis functions, allowing for the computation of the 3D Cartesian Lagrangian strain tensor at any myocardial point. The geometry of the RV was extracted via a surface fit to manually delineated endocardial contours. Throughout the RV, a local coordinate system was used to transform from a Cartesian strain tensor to a polar strain tensor. It was then possible to compute peak RV torsion as well as peak longitudinal and circumferential strain. A comparable analysis was performed for the LV. Dyssynchrony was computed from the standard deviation of regional activation times. Global circumferential strain was comparable between the RV and LV (-18.0% for both) while longitudinal strain was greater in the RV (-18.1% vs. -15.7%). RV torsion was comparable to LV torsion (6.2 vs. 7.1 degrees, respectively). Regional activation times indicated that the RV contracted later but more synchronously than the LV. 3D spiral cine DENSE combined with a post-processing pipeline that includes a local coordinate system can resolve both the complex geometry and 3D motion of the RV.

  1. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Systolic Dysfunction: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasso Julio Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF often coexist in a deleterious cycle. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and AF treated with radiofrequency (RF ablation. Methods: Patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF <50%] and AF refractory to drug therapy underwent stepwise RF ablation in the same session with pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of AF nests and of residual atrial tachycardia, named "background tachycardia". Clinical (NYHA functional class and echocardiographic (EF, left atrial diameter data were compared (McNemar test and t test before and after ablation. Results: 31 patients (6 women, 25 men, aged 37 to 77 years (mean, 59.8±10.6, underwent RF ablation. The etiology was mainly idiopathic (19 p, 61%. During a mean follow-up of 20.3±17 months, 24 patients (77% were in sinus rhythm, 11 (35% being on amiodarone. Eight patients (26% underwent more than one procedure (6 underwent 2 procedures, and 2 underwent 3 procedures. Significant NYHA functional class improvement was observed (pre-ablation: 2.23±0.56; postablation: 1.13±0.35; p<0.0001. The echocardiographic outcome also showed significant ventricular function improvement (EF pre: 44.68%±6.02%, post: 59%±13.2%, p=0.0005 and a significant left atrial diameter reduction (pre: 46.61±7.3 mm; post: 43.59±6.6 mm; p=0.026. No major complications occurred. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AF ablation in patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction is a safe and highly effective procedure. Arrhythmia control has a great impact on ventricular function recovery and functional class improvement.

  2. Echocardiographic parameters of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Hayley Weston; Dennis, Patricia; Devlin, William; Meehan, Tom; Kutinsky, Ilana

    2011-12-01

    A total of 163 echocardiographic studies on western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were submitted for evaluation; 140 from 99 animals were suitable for analysis. Of these, 81 studies (42 studies from 35 males ranging in age from 11-41+ yr and 39 studies from 31 females ranging in age from 11-41+ yr) are reported here. Three studies from 3 females and 56 studies from 30 males were excluded from this report due to cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac parameters measured were aortic root (Ao Rt) diameter and left atrial (L atrium) size. Left ventricular (LV) measurements included left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVID(s)) and diastole (LVID(d)) as well as diastolic septal (IVS) and posterior wall thickness (LVPW). Values considered to be normal in females > 11 yr of age were: Ao Rt 60%. The data from male gorillas show a separation in animals based on three cardiac parameters: systolic function, LV cavity size, and LV wall thickness. Male gorillas > 11 yr of age fall into two groups; unaffected and affected. Unaffected animals are defined as those with no echocardiographic abnormalities and a consistent Ao Rt of 58%. The affected group consisted of male gorillas that exhibited changes in echocardiographic parameters representing the presence of cardiovascular disease. The results determined in this database, gathered from data collected from 1999-2009, suggest a sex-based difference between males and females with predominantly males demonstrating evidence of cardiac disease. The most striking finding seen in this study is that of progressive LV hypertrophy and depressed LV EF in affected adult male gorillas.

  3. Association Between Echocardiography Laboratory Accreditation and the Quality of Imaging and Reporting for Valvular Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Tsang, Michael Y; Ayoub, Chadi; Padang, Ratnasari; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Tucker, Stephen F; Cassidy, Cynthia S; Bremer, Merri; Kane, Garvan C; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-08-01

    It is presumed that echocardiographic laboratory accreditation leads to improved quality, but there are few data. We sought to compare the quality of echocardiographic examinations performed at accredited versus nonaccredited laboratories for the evaluation of valvular heart disease. We enrolled 335 consecutive valvular heart disease subjects who underwent echocardiography at our institution and an external accredited or nonaccredited institution within 6 months. Completeness and quality of echocardiographic reports and images were assessed by investigators blinded to the external laboratory accreditation status and echocardiographic results. Compared with nonaccredited laboratories, accredited sites more frequently reported patient sex (94% versus 78%; Pheart disease. Future quality improvement initiatives should highlight the importance of high-quality color Doppler imaging and echocardiographic quantification to improve the accuracy, reproducibility, and quality of echocardiographic studies for valvular heart disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Regional Myocardial Systolic Function in the Early Stage of Acute Myocardial Infarction by Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We sought to evaluate the impact of different therapeutic strategies on longitudinal regional myocardial systolic function in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction using strain rate imaging.Methods: A total of 38 patients (34 males, with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI were evaluated. Our patients were divided into 3 groups according to the kind of therapy. The mean age of the patients was 55 ± 9.4 years (range: 39- 75 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in the patients was 41 ± 10.7%. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was performed in 10 patients. Sixteen patients were treated by thrombolytic therapy using streptokinase (SK and 12 were followed-up conservatively. All patients underwent a comprehensive echocardiography study including SR imaging within 3- 5 days after AMI. The parameters measured included peak systolic strain (peakε and strain rate (SRs, end-systolic strain (εes, post systolic shortening (PSS, time to peak systolic strain rate (tSRs, time to end of shortening (teSRs, post systolic strain (PSε, post-systolic strain index (PSI, PSS ratio (PSS/ εMax and peak postsystolic strain rate (SRPSS. Results: There was not any association either between WMSI and tå (P=0.4, or MI location and PSS ratio (P=0.13. But there was an inverse relationship between WMSI and mean SRS, especially when WMSI was more pronounced. A significant relationship was found between tε and teSRs with the kind of therapy (shorter in PCI group (P= 0.04. Using a simple linear regression model, no association was found between PSS ratio and SRs (â=0.056, P =0.70, PSI and teSRs (β= -0.772, P=0.12. Simple linear regression model showed a weak but significant relationship between PSI and Median tε (β = -0.851, P =0.04; r =0.33.Conclusion: Our study showed that PCI resulted in early recovery of regional systolic function of infarcted myocardium during the early stage of acute myocardial infarction.

  5. Strain-rate sensitivity of foam materials: A numerical study using 3D image-based finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to

  6. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  7. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrepancy between echocardiographic and patient-reported health status response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; van 't Sant, Jetske; Cramer, Maarten J;

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree of agreement between echocardiographic and patient-reported health status response to CRT 6 months after implantation, and evaluated the differences in pre-implantation characteristics of patients with concordant and discordant echocardiographic and health st...

  9. Direct imaging of defect formation in strained organic flexible electronics by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Tobias; Travaglini, Lorenzo; Lai, Stefano; Patruno, Luca; de Miranda, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa; Cosseddu, Piero; Fraboni, Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The development of new materials and devices for flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. Scanning Kelvin-Probe Microscopy (SKPM) is a unique technique for nanoelectronic investigations as it combines non-invasive measurement of surface topography and surface electrical potential. Here we show that SKPM in non-contact mode is feasible on deformed flexible samples and allows to identify strain induced electronic defects. As an example we apply the technique to investigate the strain response of organic thin film transistors containing TIPS-pentacene patterned on polymer foils. Controlled surface strain is induced in the semiconducting layer by bending the transistor substrate. The amount of local strain is quantified by a mathematical model describing the bending mechanics. We find that the step-wise reduction of device performance at critical bending radii is caused by the formation of nano-cracks in the microcrystal morphology of the TIPS-pentacene film. The cracks are easily identified due to the abrupt variation in SKPM surface potential caused by a local increase in resistance. Importantly, the strong surface adhesion of microcrystals to the elastic dielectric allows to maintain a conductive path also after fracture thus providing the opportunity to attenuate strain effects.

  10. Usefulness of ultrasonic strain measurement-based mechanical properties imaging technique: toward realization of short time diagnosis/treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Wakabayashi, Gou; Tanabe, Minoru

    2003-06-01

    For various soft tissues (e.g., liver, breast, etc.), we are developing the ultrasonic strain measurement-based mechanical properties (shear modulus, visco-shear modulus, etc.) reconstruction/imaging technique. To clarify the limitation of our quantitative reconstruction/imaging technique as a diagnostic tool for differentiating malignancies, together with improving the spatial resolution and the dynamic range we are collecting the clinical reconstruction image data. Furthermore, we are applying our technique as a monitoring technique for the effectiveness of chemical therapy (e.g., anticancer drug, ethanol, etc.), thermal therapy (e.g., micro, and rf electromagnetic wave, HIFU, LASER, etc.), and cryotherapy. As soft tissues are deformed in 3-D space due to externally situated quasi-static and/or low frequency mechanical sources, multidimensional signal processing improves strain measurement accuracy and reduces inhomogeneity-dependent modulus reconstruction artifacts. These have been verified by us through simulations and phantom/animal in vitro experiments. Briefly, here we discuss the limitations of low dimensional signal processing. Moreover, we exhibit the superiority both on differential diagnosis for these human in vivo malignancies and monitoring for these therapies of our quasi-real time imaging (using conventional US equipment) to conventional B-mode imaging. Our technique is available as a clinical visualization technique both for diagnosis and treatment, and monitored mechanical properties data can also be effectively utilized as the measure for controlling the therapy, i.e., the exposure energy, the foci, the exposure interval, etc. In the near future, suitable combination of various simple and low-invasive therapy techniques with our imaging technique will open up a new clinical style allowing diagnosis and the subsequently immediate treatment. This must substantially reduce the total medical expenses.

  11. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and function in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Heather L; Escalera, Robert B; Patel, Sonali S; Wedemeyer, Elesa W; Volk, Kenneth A; Lohr, Jamie L; Reinking, Benjamin E

    2010-04-01

    Advances using Xenopus as a model permit valuable inquiries into cardiac development from embryo to adult. Noninvasive methods are needed to study cardiac function longitudinally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of echocardiographic studies in Xenopus and establish normative data of adult cardiac structure and function. Doppler and 2D echocardiograms and electrocardiograms were acquired from adult Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis. Frogs were exposed to either isoflurane or tricaine to discern the effect of sedating agents on cardiac function. Cardiac dimensions, morphology, flow velocities, and electrophysiologic intervals were measured and evaluated by using bivariate and regression analyses. Normal cardiac dimensions relative to body weight and species were established by echocardiography. Normal conduction intervals were determined by electrocardiography and did not vary by body weight or species. Anesthetic agent did not affect ejection fraction or flow velocity but did alter the QRS duration and QT interval. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies in Xenopus provide information about cardiac anatomy and physiology and can readily be used for longitudinal analyses of developmental inquiries. Body weight, species, and anesthetic agent are factors that should be considered in experimental design and analyses.

  12. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  13. Balloon atrial septostomy under echocardiographic guide: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Meraji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure in pediatric cardiology. Nowadays, most patients in need of the procedure have acceptable outcomes after surgical repair. Thus, it is important to perform this procedure as safe as possible. By performing early arterial switch operation and prostaglandin infusion, the rate of balloon atrial septostomy has markedly decreased. However, not all centers performing early arterial switch repairs have abandoned atrial septostomy, even in patients who respond favorably to prostaglandin infusion.Case presentation: In total, eight 1- to 15-day old term neonates admitted in Shahid Rajaee Heart Center in Tehran, Iran from October 2009 to February 2011, with congenital heart diseases were scheduled for balloon atrial septostomy. In six cases the procedure was done exclusively under echocardiographic guidance and in two cases with the help of fluoroscopy. Success was defined as the creation of an atrial septal defect with a diameter equal to or more than 5 mm and ample mobility of its margins.Results: Male sex was predominant (87% and the mean age of the neonates was six days. The diagnosis in all cases was simple transposition of great arteries. The procedure was successful in all patients with any cardiovascular complication.Conclusion: Balloon atrial septostomy is an emergent procedure that can be done safely and effectively under echocardiographic guidance. According to the feasibility of this technique it could be performed fast, safe and effective at bedside, avoiding patient transportation to hemodynamic laboratory or referral center.

  14. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-06-27

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  15. Strain Library Imaging Protocol for high-throughput, automated single-cell microscopy of large bacterial collections arrayed on multiwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Handuo; Colavin, Alexandre; Lee, Timothy K; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2017-02-01

    Single-cell microscopy is a powerful tool for studying gene functions using strain libraries, but it suffers from throughput limitations. Here we describe the Strain Library Imaging Protocol (SLIP), which is a high-throughput, automated microscopy workflow for large strain collections that requires minimal user involvement. SLIP involves transferring arrayed bacterial cultures from multiwell plates onto large agar pads using inexpensive replicator pins and automatically imaging the resulting single cells. The acquired images are subsequently reviewed and analyzed by custom MATLAB scripts that segment single-cell contours and extract quantitative metrics. SLIP yields rich data sets on cell morphology and gene expression that illustrate the function of certain genes and the connections among strains in a library. For a library arrayed on 96-well plates, image acquisition can be completed within 4 min per plate.

  16. Measurement of Strain in Cardiac Myocytes at Micrometer Scale Based on Rapid Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Non-Rigid Image Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, J; Li, Hui; Sachse, Frank B

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of cell shortening is an important technique for assessment of physiology and pathophysiology of cardiac myocytes. Many types of heart disease are associated with decreased myocyte shortening, which is commonly caused by structural and functional remodeling. Here, we present a new approach for local measurement of 2-dimensional strain within cells at high spatial resolution. The approach applies non-rigid image registration to quantify local displacements and Cauchy strain in images of cells undergoing contraction. We extensively evaluated the approach using synthetic cell images and image sequences from rapid scanning confocal microscopy of fluorescently labeled isolated myocytes from the left ventricle of normal and diseased canine heart. Application of the approach yielded a comprehensive description of cellular strain including novel measurements of transverse strain and spatial heterogeneity of strain. Quantitative comparison with manual measurements of strain in image sequences indicated reliability of the developed approach. We suggest that the developed approach provides researchers with a novel tool to investigate contractility of cardiac myocytes at subcellular scale. In contrast to previously introduced methods for measuring cell shorting, the developed approach provides comprehensive information on the spatio-temporal distribution of 2-dimensional strain at micrometer scale.

  17. Hybrid tip-enhanced nano-spectroscopy and -imaging of monolayer WSe2 with local strain control

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Kravtsov, Vasily; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-01

    Many classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as potential platforms for novel electronic and optical devices. However, the physical properties are strongly influenced by nanoscale heterogeneities in the form of edges, grain boundaries, and nucleation sites. Using combined tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) and photoluminescence (TEPL) nano-spectroscopy and -imaging, we study the associated effects on the excitonic properties in monolayer WSe2 grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD). With <15 nm spatial resolution we resolve nonlocal nanoscale correlations of PL spectral intensity and shifts with crystal edges and internal twin boundaries associated with the expected exciton diffusion length. Through an active atomic force tip interaction we can control the crystal strain on the nanoscale, and tune the local bandgap in reversible (up to 24 meV shift) and irreversible (up to 48 meV shift) fashion. This allows us to distinguish the effect of strain from the dominant influence of defects on t...

  18. Differential strain patterns of the human Achilles tendon determined in vivo with freehand three-dimensional ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Trewartha, Grant; McGuigan, M Polly; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2013-02-15

    The human Achilles tendon (AT) has often been considered to act as a single elastic structure in series with the muscles of the triceps surae. As such it has been commonly modelled as a Hookean spring of uniform stiffness. However, the free AT and the proximal AT have distinctly different structures that lend themselves to different elastic properties. This study aimed to use three-dimensional freehand ultrasound imaging to determine whether the proximal AT and the free AT exhibit different elastic behaviour during sub-maximal, fixed-end contractions of the triceps surae. Six male and five female participants (mean ± s.d. age=27 ± 5 years) performed fixed position contractions of the plantar-flexors on an isokinetic dynamometer at 50% of their maximum voluntary contraction in this position. Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was used to reconstruct the free-tendon and proximal AT at rest and during contraction. The free-tendon exhibited significantly (P=0.03) greater longitudinal strain (5.2 ± 1.7%) than the proximal AT (2.6 ± 2.0%). The lesser longitudinal strain of the proximal AT was linked to the fact that it exhibited considerable transverse (orthogonal to the longitudinal direction) strains (5.0 ± 4%). The transverse strain of the proximal AT is likely due to the triceps surae muscles bulging upon contraction, and thus the level of bulging may influence the elastic behaviour of the proximal AT. This might have implications for the understanding of triceps surae muscle-tendon interaction during locomotion, tendon injury mechanics and previous measurements of AT elastic properties.

  19. SALSA-A new instrument for strain imaging in engineering materials and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirling, Thilo [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, F-38042 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: pirling@ill.fr; Bruno, Giovanni [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Withers, Philip J. [Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-10

    Residual stresses are very hard to predict and if undetected can lead to premature failure or unexpected behaviour of engineering materials or components. This paper describes the operation of a new residual strain-mapping instrument, Strain Analyser for Large and Small scale engineering Applications (SALSA), recently commissioned at the public user facility, the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. A unique feature of this neutron diffraction instrument is the sample manipulator, which is the first of its kind, allowing precise scanning of large and heavy (<500 kg) samples along any trajectory involving translations, tilts and rotations. Other notable features of the instrument are also described.

  20. Feasibility and reference values of left atrial longitudinal strain imaging by two-dimensional speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Matteo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of speckle tracking in the assessment of left atrial (LA deformation dynamics is not established. We sought to determine the feasibility and reference ranges of LA longitudinal strain indices measured by speckle tracking in a population of normal subjects. Methods In 60 healthy individuals, peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS and time to peak longitudinal strain (TPLS were measured using a 12-segment model for the left atrium. Values were obtained by averaging all segments (global PALS and TPLS and by separately averaging segments measured in the two apical views (4- and 2-chamber average PALS and TPLS. Results Adequate tracking quality was achieved in 97% of segments analyzed. Inter and intra-observer variability coefficients of measurements ranged between 2.9% and 5.4%. Global PALS was 42.2 ± 6.1% (5–95° percentile range 32.2–53.2%, and global TPLS was 368 ± 30 ms (5–95° percentile range 323–430 ms. The 2-chamber average PALS was slightly higher than the 4-chamber average PALS (44.3 ± 6.0% vs 40.1 ± 7.9%, p Conclusion Speckle tracking is a feasible technique for the assessment of longitudinal myocardial LA deformation. Reference ranges of strain indices were reported.

  1. Morphometric differentiation between camel and sheep strains of Echinococcus granulosus using computer image analysis system (CIAS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza Mowlavi; Mitra Salehi; Mohammadreza Eshraghian; Mohammad Bagher Rokni; Majid Fasihi-Harandi; Ehsan Mohajeran; Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find importance of morphometric criterion of larval rostellar hook of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and the easy and reliable method for distinguish sheep and camel strains in epidemiologic studies. Methods:Larval rostellar hooks (n=1860) of 31 camel and sheep isolates in Iran, which already had been characterized by PCR, were carefully processed by computerized imagime analysis system (CIAS) and acquired data about rostellar hooks were analyzed using software SPSS. Results:Measurement analysis of rostellar hooks [mean length (24.23±3.12) μm] indicated that length of the large hook was a remarkable parameter for strain differentiation. Data analysis demonstrated that CIAS could be used as a reliable tool to distinguish camel from sheep strains with high sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (91.5%). Conclusions:CIAS as a specific, sensitive, economic, fast, and reliable means might be used for differentiation of E. granulosus strains. Although perimeter and area were measured by digital technology, they were not shown as discriminative criterion as total hook length did.

  2. Systolic and diastolic cardiac function in acromegaly. An echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, G; Cappelli, B; Diricatti, G; Mininni, S; Vono, M C; Gensini, G F

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the existence of primary acromegalic cardiomyopathy different from the cardiovascular complications often associated with acromegaly. Thirty-four acromegalic patients, referred to our non-invasive laboratory and divided into two groups on the basis of the presence of hypertension, underwent echocardiographic studies. A control group of 34 subjects individually matched with the patients for age, sex, and blood pressure values was also studied. To evaluate cardiac function during exercise, the normotensive acromegalics, the control group, and a group of 9 athletes with left ventricular mass comparable to that of the acromegalic subjects underwent a handgrip test. Cardiac mass was increased in all patients; hypertensive patients had a greater increase than normotensive patients (144.9 +/- 38 vs 120.9 +/- 20.8 g/m, p cardiac hypertrophy caused by GH hyperincretion does not improve acromegalic heart activity: diastolic function, although normal at rest, appears deficient during isometric exercise.

  3. Preliminary clinical study of left ventricular myocardial strain in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy by three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Fengxia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is the most common cardiomyopathy worldwide, with significant mortality. Correct evaluation of the patient's myocardial function has important clinical significance in the diagnosis, therapeutic effect assessment and prognosis in non-ischemic DCM patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STE for assessment of the left ventricular myocardial strain in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods Apical full-volume images were acquired from 65 patients with non-ischemic DCM (DCM group and 59 age-matched normal controls (NC group, respectively. The following parameters were measured by 3D-STE: the peak systolic radial strain (RS, circumferential strain (CS, longitudinal strain (LS of each segment. Then all the parameters were compared between the two groups. Results The peak systolic strain in different planes had certain regularities in normal groups, radial strain (RS was the largest in the mid region, the smallest in the apical region, while circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS increased from the basal to the apical region. In contrast, the regularity could not be applied to the DCM group. RS, CS, LS were significantly decreased in DCM group as compared with NC group (P Conclusions 3D-STE is a reliable tool for evaluation of left ventricular myocardial strain in patients with non-ischemic DCM, with huge advantage in clinical application.

  4. Can echocardiographic findings predict falls in older persons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van der Velde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The European and American guidelines state the need for echocardiography in patients with syncope. 50% of older adults with syncope present with a fall. Nonetheless, up to now no data have been published addressing echocardiographic abnormalities in older fallers. METHOD AND FINDINGS: In order to determine the association between echocardiographic abnormalities and falls in older adults, we performed a prospective cohort study, in which 215 new consecutive referrals (age 77.4, SD 6.0 of a geriatric outpatient clinic of a Dutch university hospital were included. During the previous year, 139 had experienced a fall. At baseline, all patients underwent routine two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Falls were recorded during a three-month follow-up. Multivariate adjustment for confounders was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model. 55 patients (26% fell at least once during follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio of a fall during follow-up was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08-1.71 for pulmonary hypertension, 1.66 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.89 for mitral regurgitation, 2.41 (95% CI, 1.32 to 4.37 for tricuspid regurgitation and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.01 for pulmonary regurgitation. For aortic regurgitation the risk of a fall was also increased, but non-significantly (hazard ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 0.85 to 2.92]. Trend analysis of the severity of the different regurgitations showed a significant relationship for mitral, tricuspid and pulmonary valve regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Echo (Doppler cardiography can be useful in order to identify risk indicators for falling. Presence of pulmonary hypertension or regurgitation of mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary valves was associated with a higher fall risk. Our study indicates that the diagnostic work-up for falls in older adults might be improved by adding an echo (Doppler cardiogram in selected groups.

  5. Standardization of the two-dimensional transcoelomic echocardiographic examination in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Stern, J; Gustavsen, K A; Griffiths, L G

    2016-06-01

    To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Sixteen central bearded dragons. Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative strain analysis in analogue modelling experiments: insights from X-ray computed tomography and tomographic image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Wieneke, B.

    2009-04-01

    The combination of scaled analogue modelling experiments, advanced research in analogue material mechanics (Lohrmann et al. 2003, Panien et al. 2006), X-ray computed tomography and new high-resolution deformation monitoring techniques (2D/3D Digital Image Correlation) is a new powerful tool not only to examine the evolution and interaction of faulting in analogue models, but also to evaluate relevant controlling factors such as mechanics, sedimentation, erosion and climate. This is of particular interest for applied problems in the energy sector (e.g., structurally complex reservoirs, LG & CO2 underground storage) because the results are essential for geological and seismic interpretation as well as for more realistically constrained fault/fracture simulations and reservoir characterisation. X-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis has been successfully applied to analogue models since the late 1980s. This technique permits visualisation of the interior of an analogue model without destroying it. Technological improvements have resulted in more powerful X-ray CT scanners that allow periodic acquisition of volumetric data sets thus making it possible to follow the 3-D evolution of the model structures with time (e.g. Schreurs et al., 2002, 2003). Optical strain monitoring (Digital Image Correlation, DIC) in analogue experiments (Adam et al., 2005) represents an important advance in quantitative physical modelling and in helping to understand non-linear rock deformation processes. Optical non-intrusive 2D/3D strain and surface flow analysis by DIC is a new methodology in physical modelling that enables the complete quantification of localised and distributed model deformation. The increase in spatial/temporal strain data resolution of several orders of magnitude makes physical modelling - used for decades to visualize the kinematic processes of geological deformation processes - a unique research tool to determine what fundamental physical processes control tectonic

  7. The tissue velocity imaging and strain rate imaging in the assessment of interatrial electromechanical conduction in patients with sick sinus syndrome before and after pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Hu, Jianqun

    2011-05-01

    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and strain rate imaging (SRI) were recently introduced to quantify myocardial mechanical activity in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy. To clear whether atrial-demand-based (AAI) (R) atrial pacing can fully simulate the electromechanical conduction of physiological state and to clarify which one is more appropriate for the assessment of electromechanical activity of the heart between TVI and SRI, 30 normal subjects and 31 patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) before and after AAI(R) pacemaker implantation (PI) were investigated in this study. The results showed that the time intervals (ms), P-SRa assessed by SRI (not P-Va assessed by TVI) prolonged step by step from the lateral wall of the right atrium (RA), the interatrial septum (IAS) and the left atrium (LA) in normal subjects(5.01±0.62, 17.05±3.54 and 45.09±12.26, pIAS and LA in patients with SSS before PI (p>0.05), and they were significant longer than those of normal subjects (pIAS to LA. At the same time, the peak velocities and the peak strain rates during atrial contraction also returned to normal values from lower levels. These data suggested that AAI(R) atrial pacing can successfully reverse the abnormal interatrial electromechanical conduction in patients with SSS, and SRI is more appropriate for the assessment of the electromechanical activity of atrial wall than TVI.

  8. Subclinical Cardiac Dysfunction Detected by Strain Imaging During Breast Irradiation With Persistent Changes 6 Weeks After Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Queenie [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hee, Leia; Batumalai, Vikneswary [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Allman, Christine [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); MacDonald, Peter [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); St. Vincent' s Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Lonergan, Denise [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Liza, E-mail: l.thomas@unsw.edu.au [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 2-dimensional strain imaging (SI) for the detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction during and after radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty women with left-sided breast cancer, undergoing only adjuvant RT to the left chest, were prospectively recruited. Standard echocardiography and SI were performed at baseline, during RT, and 6 weeks after RT. Strain (S) and strain rate (Sr) parameters were measured in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial planes. Correlation of change in global longitudinal strain (GLS % and Δ change) and the volume of heart receiving 30 Gy (V30) and mean heart dose (MHD) were examined. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged; however, longitudinal systolic S and Sr and radial S were significantly reduced during RT and remained reduced at 6 weeks after treatment [longitudinal S (%) −20.44 ± 2.66 baseline vs −18.60 ± 2.70* during RT vs −18.34 ± 2.86* at 6 weeks after RT; longitudinal Sr (s{sup −1}) −1.19 ± 0.21 vs −1.06 ± 0.18* vs −1.06 ± 0.16*; radial S (%) 56.66 ± 18.57 vs 46.93 ± 14.56* vs 49.22 ± 15.81*; *P<.05 vs baseline]. Diastolic Sr were only reduced 6 weeks after RT [longitudinal E Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.47 ± 0.32 vs 1.29 ± 0.27*; longitudinal A Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.19 ± 0.31 vs 1.03 ± 0.24*; *P<.05 vs baseline], whereas circumferential strain was preserved throughout. A modest correlation between S and Sr and V30 and MHD was observed (GLS Δ change and V30 ρ = 0.314, P=.05; GLS % change and V30 ρ = 0.288, P=.076; GLS Δ change and MHD ρ = 0.348, P=.03; GLS % change and MHD ρ = 0.346, P=.031). Conclusions: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction was detected by 2-dimensional SI during RT, with changes persisting 6 weeks after treatment, though long-term effects remain unknown. Additionally, a modest correlation between strain reduction and radiation dose was observed.

  9. Filter-based compounded delay estimation with application to strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul; Liu, Dong

    2011-10-01

    Ultrasonic wave interference produces local fluctuations in both the envelope, known as speckle, and phase of echoes. Furthermore, such fluctuations are correlated in space, and subsequent motion estimation from the envelope and/or phase signal produces patterned, correlated errors. Compounding, or combining information from multiple decorrelated looks, reduces such effects. We propose using a filter bank to create multiple looks to produce a compounded motion estimate. In particular, filtering in the lateral direction is shown to preserve delay estimation accuracy in the filtered sub-bands while creating decorrelation between sub-bands at the expense of some lateral resolution. For Gaussian apodization, we explicitly compute the induced signal decorrelation produced by Gabor filters. Furthermore, it is shown that lateral filtering is approximately equivalent to steering, in which filtered sub-bands correspond to signals extracted from shifted sub-apertures. Field II simulation of a point spread function verifies this claim. We use phase zero and its variants as displacement estimators for our compounded result. A simplified deformation model is used to provide computer simulations of deforming an elastic phantom. Simulations demonstrate root mean square error (RMSE) reduction in both displacement and strain of the compounded result over conventional and its laterally blurred versions. Then we apply the methods to experimental data using a commercial elastic phantom, demonstrating an improvement in strain SNR.

  10. "Porcelain heart" cardiomyopathy secondary to hyperparathyroidism: radiographic, echocardiographic, and cardiac CT appearances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Freeman, James

    2010-11-01

    We report the radiographic, echocardiographic and cardiac CT appearances of \\'porcelain heart\\' in an 85-year-old woman who presented with progressive heart failure. The extensive myocardial calcification was secondary to hyperparathyroidism with renal failure.

  11. "Porcelain heart" cardiomyopathy secondary to hyperparathyroidism: radiographic, echocardiographic, and cardiac CT appearances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Freeman, James

    2012-02-01

    We report the radiographic, echocardiographic and cardiac CT appearances of \\'porcelain heart\\' in an 85-year-old woman who presented with progressive heart failure. The extensive myocardial calcification was secondary to hyperparathyroidism with renal failure.

  12. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony – A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El Missiri

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is to present a simplified, step-wise approach for the assessment of LVMD which can be easily followed and performed by echocardiographers to produce reliable, reproducible results for the assessment of LVMD.

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS OF CLINICALLY HEALTHY FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Trevor J; Estrada, Amara H; Sosa, Ivan S; Powell, Melanie; Lamb, Kenneth E; Ball, Ray L; de Wit, Martine; Walsh, Mike T

    2015-06-01

    A standardized echocardiographic technique was recently established for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). There are no available published data on normal echocardiographic parameters in any Sirenian species. The purpose of this study was to report reference parameters for various echocardiographic measurements. These parameters are intended to serve as a comparison for future research into the prevalence of cardiac diseases in the manatee and to aid in diagnosing animals with suspected cardiac disease in rehabilitation facilities. Annual health assessments of free-ranging manatees in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, and pre-release health assessments of rehabilitated manatees at Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo permitted comparison of echocardiographic measurements in adult (n=14), subadult (n=7), and calf (n=8) animals under manual restraint.

  14. Echocardiographic Follow-up of Robotic Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation due to Degenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Robotic MV repair for MR due to degenerative disease is associated with a low rate of recurrent MR, and a significant improvement in MR grade, LAD, and LVEDD, but a significant decrease in LVEF at echocardiographic follow-up.

  15. Advanced imaging in valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Although echocardiography remains the mainstay imaging technique for the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), innovations in noninvasive imaging in the past few years have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of VHD, early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and advanced prognostic assessment. The severity grading of valve dysfunction has been refined with the use of Doppler echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and CT imaging. LV ejection fraction remains an important criterion when deciding whether patients should be referred for surgery. However, echocardiographic strain imaging can now detect impaired LV systolic function before LV ejection fraction reduces, thus provoking the debate on whether patients with severe VHD should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage (before symptom onset). Impaired LV strain correlates with the amount of myocardial fibrosis detected with CMR techniques. Furthermore, accumulating data show that the extent of fibrosis associated with severe VHD has important prognostic implications. The present Review focuses on using these novel imaging modalities to assess pathophysiology, early LV dysfunction, and prognosis of major VHDs, including aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and aortic regurgitation.

  16. The influence of angle of insonation and target depth on speckle-tracking strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsha, Daniel; Risum, Niels; Rajagopal, Sudarshan;

    2015-01-01

    strain analysis. Interangle reproducibility was significantly decreased compared with intraobserver reproducibility in the septal single-window comparison. Target depth assessment demonstrated a systematic bias between the near-field and far-field segments. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographically derived LPS...... interangle reproducibility on the basis of one standard and one alternative image acquisition relative to intraobserver reproducibility of two standard views of the same left ventricular segments. A single-window comparison was used to evaluated septal LPS: standard apical four-chamber versus right...... and alternative window comparisons was lower than the interangle difference in global LPS (-1.0 ± 0.1% vs -2.1 ± 2.4%). Intraobserver reproducibility was significantly higher than interangle reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9 vs 0.29, P segmental...

  17. Echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis: 12 cases and a review of published reports

    OpenAIRE

    Donal, E.; Abgueguen, P; Coisne, D.; Gouello, J; McFadden, E; Allal, J.; Corbi, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the specific echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis.
DESIGN—Retrospective review of the case records of patients with confirmed candida endocarditis.
SETTING—Cases referred to three French university centres over an eight year period were studied.
DESIGN—12 patients with confirmed Candida species endocarditis infection were identified. The transthoracic (n = 12) and transoesophageal (n = 12) echocardiographic appearances were compared with the surgica...

  18. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the blood stream in children with morphological heart lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, José

    1982-01-01

    textabstractEchocardiography is well estabished as a valuable method for detecting specific lesions and is useful for obtaining information which is helpful in the management of many patients with congenital and acquired abnormalities of the heart and great vessels (1-9). However, conventional M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiographic techniques are not always diagnostic since some acquired and congenital cardiac disorders result in nonspecific echocardiographic findings (10-11). Range gat...

  19. Image Correlation Pattern Optimization for Micro-Scale In-Situ Strain Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Cannon, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is a function of three primary ingredients: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Development of the first two (i.e. image acquisition techniques and image correlation algorithms) has led to widespread use of DIC; however, fewer developments have been focused on the third ingredient. Typically, subjects of DIC images are mechanical specimens with either a natural surface pattern or a pattern applied to the surface. Research in the area of DIC patterns has primarily been aimed at identifying which surface patterns are best suited for DIC, by comparing patterns to each other. Because the easiest and most widespread methods of applying patterns have a high degree of randomness associated with them (e.g., airbrush, spray paint, particle decoration, etc.), less effort has been spent on exact construction of ideal patterns. With the development of patterning techniques such as microstamping and lithography, patterns can be applied to a specimen pixel by pixel from a patterned image. In these cases, especially because the patterns are reused many times, an optimal pattern is sought such that error introduced into DIC from the pattern is minimized. DIC consists of tracking the motion of an array of nodes from a reference image to a deformed image. Every pixel in the images has an associated intensity (grayscale) value, with discretization depending on the bit depth of the image. Because individual pixel matching by intensity value yields a non-unique scale-dependent problem, subsets around each node are used for identification. A correlation criteria is used to find the best match of a particular subset of a reference image within a deformed image. The reader is referred to references for enumerations of typical correlation criteria. As illustrated by Schreier and Sutton and Lu and Cary systematic errors can be introduced by representing the underlying deformation with under

  20. Application of Image Measurement and Continuum Mechanics to the Direct Measurement of Two-Dimensional Finite Strain in a Complex Fibro-Porous Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Paul; Loughran, Jeff

    This paper outlines a computational procedure that has been implemented for the direct measurement of finite material strains from digital images taken of a material surface during plane-strain process experiments. The selection of both hardware and software components of the image processing system is presented, and the numerical procedures developed for measuring the 2D material deformations are described. The algorithms are presented with respect to two-roll milling of sugar cane bagasse, a complex fibro-porous material that undergoes large strains during processing to extract the sucrose-rich liquid. Elaborations are made in regard to numerical developments for other forms of experimentation, algorithm calibrations and measurement improvements. Finite 2D strain results are shown for both confined uniaxial compression and two-roll milling experiments.

  1. Echocardiographic evaluation of external iliac artery Doppler waveform in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczynski, Grzegorz; Szmigielski, Cezary; Kaczynska, Anna; Kuch-Wocial, Agnieszka

    2014-04-01

    Visual interpretation of the Doppler waveform in the common femoral or distal external iliac artery (EIA) was reported to be useful in screening for proximal peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with lower limb ischemia. Commonly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for echocardiography have coexistent arterial pathology. Therefore, we decided to study whether echocardiographic evaluation of the distal EIA flow can be useful for detection of PAOD in patients with CAD. We studied 150 consecutive patients (pts) with CAD referred for echocardiography. At the end of an echocardiographic examination, evaluation of the flow in the distal EIA with an echocardiographic probe was performed. The Doppler waveform was classified as normal-with early diastolic flow reversal or abnormal-without early diastolic flow reversal. Echocardiographic findings were compared in a blinded fashion with the results of the ankle brachial index measurements (ABI). Based on the ABI ≤ 0.9, peripheral artery disease was diagnosed in 54 pts (36%) and abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform was found in 27 pts (18%). Sensitivity of abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform in predicting PAOD was 48%, specificity 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) 96%, and negative predictive value 77%. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is common in patients with CAD referred for echocardiographic study. Echocardiographic assessment of distal EIA Doppler waveform has low sensitivity, but high specificity and high PPV in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  2. Shear strain determination of the polymer polydimethysiloxane (PMDS) using digital image correlation in different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Nunes, L C S [Laboratorio de Mecanica Teorica e Aplicada, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Brazil, Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a digital image correlation (DIC) method is used in order to analyze the adhesive shear modulus of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) submitted to different loads and temperatures. This is an optical-numerical full-field surface displacement measurement method. It is based on a comparison between two images of a specimen coated by a random speckled pattern in the undeformed and in the deformed states. A single lap joint testing is performed. This is a standard test specimen for characterizing adhesive properties and it is considered the simplest form of adhesive joints. For the single lap joint specimen, steel adherends are bonded using a flexible rubber elastic polymer (PDMS), which is a commercially available silicone elastic rubber.

  3. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Vijay P. Singh; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can b...

  4. Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergot Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity to the right ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TRV/TVI rvot was presented as a reliable non-invasive method of estimating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Studies using this technique in patients with moderate to high PVR are scarce. Left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TVI lvot can be easier to measure than TVI rvot, especially in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH with significant anatomical modifications of the right structures. Aims We wanted to determine whether the TRV/TVI rvot and TRV/TVI lvot ratios would form a reliable non-invasive tool to estimate PVR in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe pulmonary vascular disease. Methods Doppler echocardiographic examination and right heart catheterisation were performed in 37 patients. Invasive PVR was compared with TRV/TVI rvot and TRV/TVI lvot ratios using regression analysis. Two equations were modelled and the results compared with invasive measurements using the Bland-Altman analysis. Using receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, a cut-off value for the two ratios was generated. Results Correlation coefficients between invasive PVR and TRV/TVI rvot then TRV/TVI lvot were respectively 0.76 and 0.74. Two new equations were found but the Bland-Altman analysis showed wide standard deviations (respectively 3.8 and 3.9 Wood units. A TRV/TVI rvot then TRV/TVI lvot ratio cut-off value of 0.14 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 57% for the first and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 57% for the second to determine PVR > 2 Wood units. Conclusion Echocardiography is useful for the screening of patients with pulmonary hypertension and PVR > 2 WU. It remains disappointing for accurate assessment of high PVR. TVI lvot may be an alternative to TVI rvot for patients for whom accurate TVI rvot measurement is not possible.

  5. Ultrasound Strain Imaging Using Subband Processing%子带技术在超声弹性成像中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉; 刘东权

    2012-01-01

    为了降低超声弹性成像噪声,提出将超声回波射频信号分割成几个子频带信号,然后分别对每个子频带信号进行应变估计得到子应变图像,最后将这些子应变图像叠加平均起来得到一个复合后的应变图像。先在理论上描述了该子带方法,然后在一个商用的超声弹性成像系统上,在一个仿真人体组织的弹性成像模型上测试和验证该方法的有效性,实验结果表明该子带方法可以提高应变图像质量,弹性信噪比提高了18%左右,对比噪声比提高了42%左右。%The subband processing was applied to ultrasound strain imaging to reduce strain noise.The echo radio frequency signal was separated into several frequency bands by subband filters.The strains of each subband were estimated and then all sub strain images were averaged to produce a compounded strain image.This approach was tested in a commercial strain imaging system by scanning a tissue-mimicking phantom.The experimental results demonstrated that the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio of strain image can be increased up to 18% and 42% by using subband processing,respectively.

  6. In vivo Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Transgenic and Gene-Targeted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoit, B D; Walsh, R A

    1997-05-01

    Manipulation of the mammalian genome with transgenic and gene-targeting techniques is a powerful method for unambiguously identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac development and function. Although the small size of the mouse heart and the rapid heart rates encountered have limited echocardiographic assessment of the murine heart in the past, the use of sophisticated transducers operating at a high frequency results in highly reliable and reproducible image quality. M-mode echocardiography has been shown to provide a good correlation with gravimetrically determined left ventricular mass (LV) and to estimate accurately LV dimensions and systolic function. Doppler interrogation of transvalvular flows permits assessment of global LV systolic and diastolic function independent of ventricular geometry. Linear stress-shortening relations can be determined in the adult mouse with the use of pharmacologically induced changes in systemic arterial pressure, and these relations are capable of detecting changes in myocardial contractility in vivo, relatively independent of loading conditions. The present review focuses on the current advantages and limitations of M-mode and Doppler echocardiography to evaluate cardiac function in mice. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:129-134). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. Comparison of echocardiographic parameters to assess right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hirohisa; Abe, Shichiro; Hirose, Suguru; Waku, Ryutaro; Masuyama, Taiki; Sakuma, Masashi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Taguchi, Isao; Inoue, Teruo; Tei, Chuwa

    2017-05-19

    Although measurement of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) may be relevant for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and/or prognosis in patients with pulmonary hypertension, RVEF obtained by echocardiography has limited accuracy. In contrast, radionuclide and/or magnetic resonance imaging can measure RVEF more reliably. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RVEF measured by radionuclide angiography and the echocardiographic parameters that are recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography as representative of right heart function. There were 23 study participants with pulmonary hypertension who underwent radionuclide angiography and 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography (n = 30 measurements). RVEF measured by radionuclide angiography correlated with right ventricular Tei index (RV Tei index) measured by Doppler echocardiography (r = -0.601, P right ventricular function parameters (r = -0.644, P < 0.005). The RV Tei index measured by Doppler echocardiography may be an acceptable surrogate marker of RVEF in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Time dependence of mesoscopic strain distribution for triaxial woven carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under creep loading measured by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Jun; Nagayama, Hideo; Yoneyama, Satoru; Aoki, Takahira

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the time dependence of the mesoscopic strain of a triaxial woven carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under creep loading measured using digital image correlation (DIC). Two types of DIC techniques were employed for the measurement: conventional subset DIC and mesh DIC. Static tensile and creep tests were carried out, and the time dependence of the mesoscopic strain distribution was investigated by applying these techniques. The ultimate failure of this material is dominated by inter-bundle decohesion caused by relative rigid rotation and relating shear stress. Therefore, these were focused on in the present study. During the creep tests, the fiber directional strain, shear strain, and rotation were monitored using the DIC, and the mechanism for the increase in the specimen's macro-strain over time was investigated based on the results obtained by the DIC measurement.

  9. High-grade video compression of echocardiographic studies: a multicenter validation study of selected motion pictures expert groups (MPEG)-4 algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Paolo; Alimento, Marina; Berna, Giovanni; Celeste, Fabrizio; Gentile, Francesco; Mantero, Antonio; Montericcio, Vincenzo; Muratori, Manuela

    2007-05-01

    Large files produced by standard compression algorithms slow down spread of digital and tele-echocardiography. We validated echocardiographic video high-grade compression with the new Motion Pictures Expert Groups (MPEG)-4 algorithms with a multicenter study. Seven expert cardiologists blindly scored (5-point scale) 165 uncompressed and compressed 2-dimensional and color Doppler video clips, based on combined diagnostic content and image quality (uncompressed files as references). One digital video and 3 MPEG-4 algorithms (WM9, MV2, and DivX) were used, the latter at 3 compression levels (0%, 35%, and 60%). Compressed file sizes decreased from 12 to 83 MB to 0.03 to 2.3 MB (1:1051-1:26 reduction ratios). Mean SD of differences was 0.81 for intraobserver variability (uncompressed and digital video files). Compared with uncompressed files, only the DivX mean score at 35% (P = .04) and 60% (P = .001) compression was significantly reduced. At subcategory analysis, these differences were still significant for gray-scale and fundamental imaging but not for color or second harmonic tissue imaging. Original image quality, session sequence, compression grade, and bitrate were all independent determinants of mean score. Our study supports use of MPEG-4 algorithms to greatly reduce echocardiographic file sizes, thus facilitating archiving and transmission. Quality evaluation studies should account for the many independent variables that affect image quality grading.

  10. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-09-20

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strain imaging of a LiCoO2 cathode in a Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Osaka, Ryuma; Butsugan, Kenta; Takata, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have been recognized as promising devices for a sustainable society. Layered LiCoO2 and graphite are commonly used as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. When charging and discharging, Li-ions are extracted or inserted into the interlayers, which causes changes in volume. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) can allow high resolution imaging of these volume changes, which enables us to investigate Li-ion migration without destruction. We observed volume changes in the LiCoO2 cathode using SPM and successfully imaged the distribution of the volume changes corresponding to the LiCoO2 particles. Volume changes in the interspace were significantly larger than those in the particles. The large volume changes are caused by electrolyte flux induced by changes in concentration of Li ions. The volume changes were greatly reduced when the electrolyte dried out. The dry-out and infiltration of electrolyte between the LiCoO2 particles and the current collector spread out with the procedure of degradation of the batteries. The boundaries between the dry-out and infiltration regions acted as barriers of electrolyte flux.

  12. Making three-dimensional echocardiography more tangible: a workflow for three-dimensional printing with echocardiographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Mashari MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is a rapidly evolving technology with several potential applications in the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease. Recently, 3D printing (i.e. rapid prototyping derived from 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE has become possible. Due to the multiple steps involved and the specific equipment required for each step, it might be difficult to start implementing echocardiography-derived 3D printing in a clinical setting. In this review, we provide an overview of this process, including its logistics and organization of tools and materials, 3D TEE image acquisition strategies, data export, format conversion, segmentation, and printing. Generation of patient-specific models of cardiac anatomy from echocardiographic data is a feasible, practical application of 3D printing technology.

  13. 肥厚型心肌病右室功能的二维应变成像研究%The evaluation of right ventricular function of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using two dimensional strain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权欣; 李慧; 郭继鸿; 朱天刚; 江勇; 朱振辉; 王浩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess RV myocardial function in patients with hypertension (H-LVH) using two dimensional strain imaging prospectively. Methods One hundred and thirty-six individuals were enrolled into this study ,divided into 3 groups :hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n= 53) , hypertrophy secondary to hypertension (n = 36 ) and normal controls (n = 47 ). Echocardiographic parameters were measured ,including right ventricular basal dimension tracing from 4-chamber view , fractional area change (FAC) ,tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ,wall thickness of interventricular septum (IVST ) and left ventricular posterior wall (PWT ) ,left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd) ,left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ,right ventricle regional and global longitudinal strain derived from two-dimensional strain imaging were compared between groups. Results The wall thickness of HCM group was significantly higher than H-LVH group and control group ,whereas LVIDd was smaller ( P 0.05). Right ventricular diameters were smaller in HCM groups than H-LVH and control groups (all P< 0.05).Significance difference of regional and global strain existed between HCM group and the other 2 groups (P< 0.01).Cut-off value of global strain was - 9.75%to diagnose right ventricular functional remodeling in HCM ( P = 0.027 ). Conclusions Two-dimensional strain is superior to traditional echo parameters. Right ventricular remodeling is prone to present in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than hypertensive hypertrophy.%目的:应用二维应变成像定量评价肥厚型心肌病(HCM )患者的右室局部及整体应变,与高血压性左室肥厚(H-LVH)及健康人进行对比研究。方法前瞻性纳入2015年5月至2016年4月的136例患者,分为3组:HCM 53例,H-LVH 36例,正常对照47例。测量检测右心功能指标,包括右室基底段横径、右室面积变化率、三尖瓣环收缩期位移、三尖瓣环组织收缩峰值速度、右室局

  14. Measurement of Full Field Strains in Filament Wound Composite Tubes Under Axial Compressive Loading by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    McNeill , S. R. Determination of Displacements Using an Improved Digital Image Correlation Method. Computer Vision August 1983. 13 12. Bruck, H. A... McNeill , S. R.; Russell, S. S.; Sutton, M. A. Use of Digital Image Correlation for Determination of Displacements and Strains. Non-Destructive...Evaluation for Aerospace Requirements, 1989. 13. Sutton, M. A.; McNeill , S. R.; Helm, J. D.; Schreier, H. Full-field Non-Contacting Measurement of

  15. Fast 2-D ultrasound strain imaging: the benefits of using a GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzenga, Tim; Gaburov, Evghenii; Vermin, Willem; Menssen, Jan; de Korte, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of tissue can be accurately estimated from radio-frequency ultrasound data using a 2-dimensional normalized cross correlation (NCC)-based algorithm. This procedure, however, is very computationally time-consuming. A major time reduction can be achieved by parallelizing the numerous computations of NCC. In this paper, two approaches for parallelization have been investigated: the OpenMP interface on a multi-CPU system and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The performance of the OpenMP and GPU approaches were compared with a conventional Matlab implementation of NCC. The OpenMP approach with 8 threads achieved a maximum speed-up factor of 132 on the computing of NCC, whereas the GPU approach on an Nvidia Tesla K20 achieved a maximum speed-up factor of 376. Neither parallelization approach resulted in a significant loss in image quality of the elastograms. Parallelization of the NCC computations using the GPU, therefore, significantly reduces the computation time and increases the frame rate for motion estimation.

  16. Myocardial Damage Detected by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Extracardiac Sarcoidosis: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Takashi; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging via the differences in myocardial deformation in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis who showed no structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Forty-five patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with abnormal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, including ventricular arrhythmias, heart block, regional wall motion abnormalities, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, were excluded. Ten age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited as a control group. Comprehensive echocardiography and DE magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain were consecutively assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic software in a 16-segment model of the left ventricle in accordance to the presence (DE+) or absence (DE-) of DE. Among the 45 patients, 36 segments in 13 patients showed DE. DE+ segments had lower peak circumferential strain than DE- and control segments (-14 ± 5% vs -28 ± 7% vs -30 ± 7%, P speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by DE magnetic resonance imaging in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of 2D strain in the early identification of left ventricular dysfunction and in the risk stratification of systemic sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusmà Piccione Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune chronic disease characterized by diffuse fibrosis involving several organs, including heart. Aim of our study was to analyze left ventricular (LV myocardial deformation, by use of 2D strain, in asymptomatic SSc patients with normal LV ejection fraction. Methods We enrolled 29 SSc patients (28 female, 65±4 years and 30 controls (23 female, 64±2 years. Echocardiographic study with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI and 2D strain analysis was performed; moreover, patients were submitted to a two-year follow-up for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Results Standard echocardiographic parameters and TDI velocities were comparable between groups. LV longitudinal (LS and circumferential (CS strains were lower in patients than in controls (−13.1±4.8 vs −22.6±4.1, p vs −20.4±5.6, p = 0.001, whereas radial strain (RS was comparable between groups; moreover, a significant correlation of LS and CS with serum levels of Scl-70 antibodies was found (r = 0.74, p = 0.001; r = 0.53, p = 0.025. In addition, patients with cardiovascular events during follow-up showed a greater impairment of LS and CS (−10.3±2.5 vs −14.4±4.1, p = 0.015; -14.2±3.1 vs −20.1±1.6, p = 0.048 and higher values of Scl-70 antibodies serum levels (p = 0.047. Conclusion The impairment of LV function, often subclinical, worsens prognosis of SSc patients, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular complications. 2D strain, allowing the early detection of LV abnormalities and the identification of patients at greater cardiovascular risk, may be a useful tool in order to provide a more accurate management of SSc patients.

  18. 系统性红斑狼疮患者左心功能的应变和应变率研究%Study of strain and strain rate imaging in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁皓; 贾涛; 朱梅; 冯娟; 张楠; 郭振伟; 牟慧珺; 杨明; 郭文彬

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis value of the tissue strain imaging in myocardial dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Sixty-two patients and sixty controls underwent conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Peak strain and strain rate value during systolic and diastolic phases as well as E/A, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) were measured in both SLE and the control groups. Results ①E/A,LVFS and LVEF did not differ between SLE patients and controls( P >0.05). The systolic peak strain and strain rate of SLE patients were lower than those of controls but without significant differences( P >0.05). ②The diastolic peak strain and strain rate of SLE patients were significantly lower than those of controls (P <0.01). ③ The diastolic peak strain and strain rate of antiheart antibody (AHA) positive patients were significantly lower than those of negative ones( P <0.05). Conclusions Strain and strain rate combining with AHA can sensitively detect myocardial dysfunction of SLE.%目的 探讨应变和应变率显像评价系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者左心功能的临床应用价值.方法 60例正常人与62例SLE患者均接受常规超声及组织多普勒检测,获取二尖瓣血流E/A值、左室短轴缩短率(LVFS)、左室射血分数(LVEF)及左室心肌的收缩期及舒张期峰值应变和应变率.结果 ①SLE组和正常对照组E/A值、LVFS及LVEF无明显差异(P>0.05);SLE组心肌的收缩期应变、应变率峰值低于正常对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).②SLE组舒张期应变率峰值低于正常对照组且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).③SLE组抗心肌抗体(AHA)阳性者心肌舒张期应变率峰值低于AHA阴性者(P<0.05).结论 应变及应变率与AHA结合可以敏感检测SLE患者左心功能的早期损害.

  19. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U

    1986-10-01

    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effects of isoflurane on echocardiographic parameters in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; De-Nardi, Andrigo B; Brito, Fábio L C; Nunes, Newton; Camacho, Aparecido A

    2008-05-01

    To study the echocardiographic effects of isoflurane at an end-tidal concentration approximating 1.0 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in healthy unpremedicated dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Sixteen mature mongrel dogs of either sex weighing 11.06 +/- 2.72 kg. After performing a baseline echocardiogram in the awake animal, anesthesia was induced with increasing inspired concentrations of isoflurane via a face mask until tracheal intubation was possible. Following intubation, the end-tidal concentration was decreased to 1.4% for the rest of the anesthetic period. Serial echocardiograms were recorded at 25, 40, and 55 minutes after the end-tidal concentration was reached. No changes were observed in heart rate. However, significant decreases were seen in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (Mean maximal change: 13.8%), interventricular septal thickness during systole (15.2%), interventricular septal thickening fraction (72.2%), left ventricular free wall thickening fraction (63.5%), ejection fraction (39.9%), and fractional shortening (46.7%). In addition, peak flow velocities across mitral, pulmonic, and aortic valves were significantly lower than baseline values. Decreases were also observed in end-diastolic left ventricular volume index (approximately 32.1% from the awake value), stroke index (58.2%), and cardiac index (55.3%) when compared with awake measurements. and clinical relevance Our results indicate that 1 x MAC isoflurane caused significant myocardial depression in healthy dogs. These changes in myocardial function need to be considered carefully when isoflurane is to be used in dogs with poor cardiovascular reserve.

  1. Effect of out-of-plane specimen movement on the accuracy of the smallest specimen strain measurable using the digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Joel; Desai, Niranjan

    2017-04-01

    This investigation determined the smallest strain accurately measurable by a state-of-the-art digital image correlation (DIC) - based tool used in structural health monitoring, in a specimen subjected to out-of-plane movement, building upon a study that concluded that out-of-plane specimen movement results in noise in DIC-based strain measurements. This study was motivated by initially undetected damage at low strains in connections of a real-world bridge, whose detection would have prevented its propagation, resulting in lower repair costs. The smallest strains accurately measurable using the state-of-the-art DIC tool, over a range of specimen out-of-plane displacement amplitudes, were determined.

  2. Echocardiographic assessment of age-associated changes in systolic and diastolic function of the female F344 rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluyt, Marvin O; Converso, Kimber; Hwang, Hyun Seok; Mikkor, Agdas; Russell, Mark W

    2004-02-01

    Aging is associated with hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart. Advances in echocardiographic assessment have made it possible to follow changes in cardiac function in a serial, noninvasive manner. The purpose was to determine whether there is echocardiographic evidence of age-associated changes in chamber dimensions and systolic and diastolic properties of the female Fischer 344 (F344) rat heart. On the basis of previous invasive studies, it was predicted that echocardiographic assessment would detect age-associated changes in indexes of systolic and diastolic function. Rats were sedated with 1.5% isoflurane and placed in the supine position. Two-dimensional images and two-dimensionally guided M-mode, Doppler M mode, Doppler tissue, and pulsed-wave Doppler recordings were obtained from the parasternal long axis, parasternal short axis, and/or apical four-chamber views as per convention by using a 15-MHz linear array or 8-MHz phased-array transducer or a GE S10-MHz phased-array transducer. Compared with young adult 4-mo-old rats, there is a significant decrement in the resting systolic function of the LV in 30-mo-old female F344 rats as evidenced by declines in LV ejection fraction (80 +/- 9 vs. 89 +/- 5%; mean +/- SD), fractional shortening (43 +/- 9 vs. 54 +/- 8%) and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (2.43 +/- 0.53 vs. 2.99 +/- 0.50 circ/s). Evidence for age-associated differences in diastolic function included an increase in isovolumic relaxation time (25.0 +/- 7.6 vs. 17.2 +/- 4.4 ms) and decreases in the tissue Doppler peak E waves at the septal annulus and at the lateral annulus of the mitral valve. The modest changes in systolic and diastolic LV function that occur with advancing age in the female F344 rat are likely to reduce the capacity of the heart to respond to hemodynamic challenges.

  3. Automatic extraction of disease-specific features from Doppler images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Mehdi; Parajuli, Nripesh; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2017-03-01

    Flow Doppler imaging is widely used by clinicians to detect diseases of the valves. In particular, continuous wave (CW) Doppler mode scan is routinely done during echocardiography and shows Doppler signal traces over multiple heart cycles. Traditionally, echocardiographers have manually traced such velocity envelopes to extract measurements such as decay time and pressure gradient which are then matched to normal and abnormal values based on clinical guidelines. In this paper, we present a fully automatic approach to deriving these measurements for aortic stenosis retrospectively from echocardiography videos. Comparison of our method with measurements made by echocardiographers shows large agreement as well as identification of new cases missed by echocardiographers.

  4. Noninvasive 2-dimensional monitoring of strain in the detrusor muscle in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms using ultrasound strain imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idzenga, T.; Farag, F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Feitz, W.; Korte, C.L. de

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pressure flow studies and filling cystometry are currently the standard diagnostic urodynamic tests for lower urinary tract symptoms. A noninvasive ultrasound based method for 2-dimensional monitoring of deformation (or strain) in the detrusor muscle may provide insight into detrusor muscle

  5. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop age-, sex-, and ethnic-appropriate normative reference ranges for standard echocardiographic measurements of the left heart by combining echocardiographic measurements obtained from adult volunteers without clinical cardiovascular disease or significant cardiovascular risk factors...

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs: electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation, in Malinalco, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Vieyra SD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Díaz González-Vieyra1, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán2, Ángel H Sandoval-Trujillo3, Juan C Vázquez-Chagoyán1, Humberto G Monroy-Salazar1, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego11Research Center of Advanced Studies in Animal Health, Veterinary Husbandry School, 2Medical and Ambiental Microbiology, Research Center of Advanced Studies in Health Science, School of Medicine, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca, Mexico; 3Department of Biological Systems, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Xochimilco, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an important public health problem in Latin America. Dogs are considered a risk factor for human Chagas disease, a sentinel for T. cruzi infection in endemic regions and an animal model to study pathological aspects of the disease. The potential use of dogs as indicators of human cardiac pathogenicity of local T. cruzi strains has been studied insufficiently. We studied electrocardiographic (EKG and echocardiographic (ECG alteration frequencies observed in an open population of dogs in Malinalco, Mexico, and determined if such frequencies were statistically associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Animals (n = 139 were clinically examined and owners were asked to answer a questionnaire about dogs’ living conditions. Two commercial serological tests (IHA, ELISA were conducted to detect anti-T. cruzi serum antibodies. Significant differences between seropositive and seronegative animals in cardiomyopathic frequencies were detected through EKG and ECG (P < 0.05. Thirty dogs (21.58% were serologically positive to anti-T. cruzi antibodies (to ELISA and IHA assays, of which nine (30% had EKG and/or ECG alterations. From the remaining 104 (78.42% seronegative animals, five (4.5% had EKG and/or ECG abnormalities. Our data support the hypothesis that most EKG and ECG alterations found in dogs from Malinalco could be associated with T. cruzi infection. Considering the dog as a

  7. Echocardiographic and clinical outcomes of central versus noncentral percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of degenerative mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Franzen, Olaf; Winter, Reidar;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical and echocardiographic results of MitraClip implantation in noncentral degenerative mitral regurgitation (dMR) compared with central dMR.......This study aimed to assess the clinical and echocardiographic results of MitraClip implantation in noncentral degenerative mitral regurgitation (dMR) compared with central dMR....

  8. Quantification of green fluorescent protein by in vivo imaging, PCR, and flow cytometry: comparison of transgenic strains and relevance for fetal cell microchimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Yutaka; Tao, Kai; Bianchi, Diana W; Giel-Moloney, Maryann; Leiter, Andrew B; Johnson, Kirby L

    2008-02-01

    Animal models are increasingly being used for the assessment of fetal cell microchimerism in maternal tissue. We wished to determine the optimal transgenic mouse strain and analytic technique to facilitate the detection of rare transgenic microchimeric fetal cells amongst a large number of maternal wild-type cells. We evaluated two strains of mice transgenic for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP): a commercially available, commonly used strain (C57BL/6-Tg(ACTB-EGFP)10sb/J) (CAG) and a newly created strain (ROSA26-EGFP) using three different techniques: in vivo and ex vivo fluorescent imaging (for whole body and dissected organs, respectively), PCR amplification of gfp, and flow cytometry (FCM). By fluorescent imaging, organs from CAG mice were 10-fold brighter than organs from ROSA26-EGFP mice (P PCR, more transgene from CAG mice was detected compared to ROSA26-EGFP mice (P = 0.04). By FCM, ROSA26-EGFP cell fluorescence was more uniform than CAG cells. A greater proportion of cells from ROSA26-EGFP organs were positive for EGFP than cells from CAG organs, but CAG mice had a greater proportion of cells with the brightest fluorescent intensity. Each transgenic strain possesses characteristics that make it useful under specific experimental circumstances. The CAG mouse model is preferable when experiments require brighter cells, whereas ROSA26-EGFP is more appropriate when uniform or ubiquitous expression is more important than brightness. Investigators must carefully select the transgenic strain most suited to the experimental design to obtain the most consistent and reproducible data. In vivo imaging allows for phenotypic evaluation of whole animals and intact organs; however, we did not evaluate its utility for the detection of rare, fetal microchimeric cells in the maternal organs. Finally, while PCR amplification of a paternally inherited transgene does allow for the quantitative determination of rare microchimeric cells, FCM allows for both

  9. Design procedures for Strain Hardening Cement Composites (SHCC) and measurement of their shear properties by mechanical and 2-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Karan

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was studied and design procedures are prepared by employing yield line theory and integrating it with simplified tri-linear model developed in Arizona State University by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Intrinsic material property of moment-curvature response for SHCC was used to derive the relationship between applied load and deflection in a two-step process involving the limit state analysis and kinematically admissible displacements. For application of SHCC in structures such as shear walls, tensile and shear properties are necessary for design. Lot of research has already been done to study the tensile properties and therefore shear property study was undertaken to prepare a design guide. Shear response of textile reinforced concrete was investigated based on picture frame shear test method. The effects of orientation, volume of cement paste per layer, planar cross-section and volume fraction of textiles were investigated. Pultrusion was used for the production of textile reinforced concrete. It is an automated set-up with low equipment cost which provides uniform production and smooth final surface of the TRC. A 3-D optical non-contacting deformation measurement technique of digital image correlation (DIC) was used to conduct the image analysis on the shear samples by means of tracking the displacement field through comparison between the reference image and deformed images. DIC successfully obtained full-field strain distribution, displacement and strain versus time responses, demonstrated the bonding mechanism from perspective of strain field, and gave a relation between shear angle and shear strain.

  10. Dynamic quantitative echocardiographic evaluation of mitral regurgitation in the operating department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Alejandro; Soulière, Vicky; Denault, André Y; Bouchard, Denis; Couture, Pierre; Pellerin, Michel; Carrier, Michel; Levesque, Sylvie; Ducharme, Anique; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2006-02-01

    Hemodynamic modifications induced by general anesthesia could lead to underestimation of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity in the operating department and potentially serious consequences. The intraoperative severity of MR was prospectively compared with the preoperative baseline evaluation using dynamic quantitative transesophageal echocardiography in 25 patients who were stable with MR 2/4 or greater undergoing coronary bypass, mitral valve operation, or both. Significant changes in the severity of MR using transesophageal echocardiographic criteria occurred after the induction of general anesthesia and with phenylephrine. Quantitative transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of MR using effective orifice area and vena contracta, and the use of phenylephrine challenge, were useful to avoid underestimating MR severity in the operating department.

  11. Echocardiographic diagnosis of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkovic, Niksa; Margetic, Eduard; Smalcelj, Anton; Brida, Vojtjeh

    2008-03-01

    We found increased systolic coronary flow in transthoracic pulsed wave (PW) Doppler in a 42-year-old patient with anomalous origin of left main coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. This is a characteristic echocardiographic finding in this anomaly in the presence of collateral circulation and coronary L-R shunt. In comparison with so far used echocardiographic criteria this parameter when present allows quick recognition of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, and its differentiation from other potentially lethal coronary anomalies.

  12. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  13. Role of two dimensional strain and strain rate imaging in assessment of left ventricular systolic function in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and normal ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Younan

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Patients with MS and preserved EF% had lower 2D longitudinal LV systolic S and Sr compared to the control group. 2D longitudinal LV systolic S and Sr imaging appears to be useful in the detection of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in patients with MS and preserved EF%.

  14. Temporal changes in ventricular function assessed echocardiographically in conscious and anesthetized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Ni, Gemin; Khoo, Michelle; Wang, Zhizhang; Zhang, Wei; Anderson, Mark E; Madu, Ernest C

    2003-11-01

    The mouse is an important model system for cardiovascular biology, with echocardiography a critical tool for noninvasive measurement of cardiac morphology and function. The feasibility and short-term temporal consistency of repeated echocardiographic measurements in conscious mice has not been previously evaluated. We performed serial 2-dimensional guided M-mode transthoracic echocardiographic measurements at 5- to 10-minute intervals over 60 minutes in conscious mice and in mice treated with 1 of 3 anesthetic regimens: ketamine and acepromazine (n = 14); pentobarbital (n = 14); and ketamine and xylazine (n = 13). Unanesthetized mice received intraperitoneal saline (n = 6) or no injection (n = 7). In sequentially repeated measurements over 1 hour in conscious mice, none of the measured or derived echocardiographic parameters differed from baseline, whereas all 3 anesthetic regimens produced significant, prolonged, and temporally variable decreases in heart rate and fractional shortening. The relationship between heart rate and fractional shortening was not altered by anesthetic choice. Serial echocardiographic assessments of cardiac function, dimension, and mass can be performed with high reproducibility in conscious mice.

  15. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic inf...... information about death and worsening of heart failure....

  16. Atrial fibrillation in aortic stenosis--echocardiographic assessment and prognostic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte Burup; Jensen, Jan Skov; Sogaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) exists more frequently in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) than in patients without, and AFib may be a sign of progressive deterioration of AS. Echocardiographic assessment of AS in sinus rhythm is well documented, however, little is known about AFib in AS since...

  17. Rapid estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction by echocardiographic wall motion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, J; Rokkedal Nielsen, J; Launbjerg, J

    1992-01-01

    Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide...

  18. Echocardiographic predictors of exercise capacity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces exercise capacity, but lung function parameters do not fully explain functional class and lung-heart interaction could be the explanation. We evaluated echocardiographic predictors of mortality and six minutes walking distance (6MWD), a marker...

  19. A clinical and echocardiographic score for assigning risk of major events after dobutamine echocardiograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Marwick (Thomas); L. Case (Laura); D. Poldermans (Don); H. Boersma (Eric); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); T. Sawada (Takahiro); J.D. Thomas (James)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives We sought to develop and validate a risk score combining both clinical and dobutamine echocardiographic (DbE) features in 4,890 patients who underwent DbE at three expert laboratories and were followed for death or myocardial infarction for up to five years. Background In cont

  20. Inspiratory muscle weakness in patients with Chagas heart disease: Echocardiographic and functional predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique S. Costa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The sedentary lifestyle, reduced LVEF and impaired VE/VCO2 slope showed to be independent predictors of IMW, probably by the association between these variables and the presence of inflammation in CHD patients. The detection of IMW may be helpful in identifying patients at high risk based on echocardiographic and functional aspects without much operating costs.

  1. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    echocardiographic studies should be interpreted in comparison with the data obtained from the 6-month study. An echocardiographic study, which shows no change from the baseline study, has a high negative predictive value for GR. There is no single systolic or diastolic parameter that can be reliably used to diagnose GR. However, in case several parameters are abnormal, the likelihood of GR increases. When an abnormality is detected, careful revision of images of the present and baseline study (side-by-side) is highly recommended. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a suitable parameter to diagnose subclinical allograft dysfunction, regardless of aetiology, by comparing the changes occurring during serial evaluations. Evaluation of GLS could be used in association with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) to characterize and monitor an acute GR or global dysfunction episode. RV size and function at baseline should be assessed using several parameters, which do not exclusively evaluate longitudinal function. At follow-up echocardiogram, all these parameters should be compared with the baseline values. 3DE may provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment of RV size and function. Moreover, due to the unpredictable shape of the atria in transplanted patients, atrial volume should be measured using the discs' summation algorithm (biplane algorithm for the left atrium) or 3DE. Tricuspid regurgitation should be looked for and properly assessed in all echocardiographic studies. In case of significant changes in severity of tricuspid regurgitation during follow-up, a 2D/3D and colour Doppler assessment of its severity and mechanisms should be performed. Aortic and mitral valves should be evaluated according to current recommendations. Pericardial effusion should be serially evaluated regarding extent, location, and haemodynamic impact. In case of newly detected pericardial effusion, GR should be considered taking into account the overall echocardiographic assessment and patient evaluation

  2. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, Samer

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean +\\/- SD age, 63 +\\/- 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. RESULTS: All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean +\\/- SD EROs were 0.16 +\\/- 0.03, 0.31 +\\/- 0.08, and 0.52 +\\/- 0.03 cm(2) (P < 0.0001) compared with mean +\\/- SD CCTA ROAs 0.09 +\\/- 0.05, 0.30 +\\/- 0.04, and 0.97 +\\/- 0.26 cm(2) (P < 0.0001), respectively. When echocardiographic measurements were graded qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P < 0.001). When echocardiographic measurements were graded quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P < 0.05 for both). Neither the proximal isovelocity surface area nor the regurgitant volume demonstrated significant correlations with CCTA ROA. CONCLUSIONS: Single-source 64-slice CCTA provides a

  3. Identification and further differentiation of subendocardial and transmural myocardial infarction by fast strain-encoded (SENC) magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Tha, Khin Khin; Terae, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Ishimori, Naoki; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc; Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcase, MR Clinical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Manabe, Osamu [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido Organization for Translational Research, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    To investigate whether subendocardial and transmural myocardial infarction can be identified and differentiated using the peak circumferential and longitudinal strains measured by fast strain-encoded (SENC). Nineteen patients with ischemic heart diseases underwent imaging with fast SENC and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI at 3 T. Fast SENC measurements were performed in three short-axis slices (basal, mid-ventricular and apical levels) and one long-axis view (four-chamber) to assess peak longitudinal and circumferential systolic strains. All patients showed myocardial infarction with an average of 7 positive LGE segments. A total of 304 segments for longitudinal strains (LS) and 114 segments for circumferential strains (CS) could be analysed. Positive LGE segments showed lower peak CS and LS compared with the no LGE segments (P < 0.0001 for both). Segments with subendocardial infarction showed reduced CS and LS compared with the no LGE segments (P < 0.0001 for both). There was a significant difference in CS between subendocardial and transmural infarct segments (P = 0.03), but no significant difference in LS between them (P = 0.64). Fast SENC can identify old myocardial infarction and differentiate subendocardial from transmural infarction. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Myocardial Systolic Function by Strain and Strain Rate Imaging in Post-Myocardial inFarction Rats%心梗后大鼠应变、应变率成像及心室重塑研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永锋; 朱文晖; 唐水娟; 段星星; 刘稳刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用应变及应变率成像评价心肌梗死后心力衰竭大鼠局部心肌收缩功能,探讨心肌收缩功能与心室重塑的关系.方法 雄性SD大鼠70只随机分为手术4周组(25)、4周对照组(10)、手术8周组(25)、8周对照组(10).结扎大鼠左冠脉前降支造模成功后,分别于4周末、8周末行应变及应变率成像,胶原容积分数(CVF)测定.结果 各手术组前壁基底段、中间段,侧壁基底段的收缩期峰值应变(Ssys)、收缩期峰值应变率(SRsys)较相应对照组显著降低(P<0.01).手术8周组较手术4周组显著下降(P<0.01).手术4周组CVF与平均收缩期峰值应变(mSsys)(r=0.76,P<0.01)及平均收缩期峰值应变率(mSRsys)(r=0.60,P<0.05)密切相关,手术8周组CVF与mSsys(r=0.74,P<0.01)、mSRsys(r=0.73,P<0.01)密切相关.结论 SI及SRI可定量评价心肌梗死后心力衰竭大鼠局部收缩功能改变,其收缩功能下降程度与心室重塑程度密切相关.%Objective To evaluate left ventricular segmental systolic function in post-myocardial infarction rats by strain imaging (SI) and strain rate imaging (SRI). Explore the relationship between systolic function and ventricular remodeling. Methods 70 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 4 weeks operation group (25), 4 weeks sham operation group ( 10), 8 weeks operation group (25), 8 weeks sham operation group (10). Postinfarction rat model was induced by left anterior descending ligature. SI and SRI were applied at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation. Measurement of collagen volume fraction (CVF) was carried out afterward. Results Compared with corresponding sham operation groups, peak systolic strain (Ssys) and peak systolic strain rate (SRsys) in middle anterior wall, basal anterior wall and basal lateral wall were significantly decreased in two operation groups(P<0. 01).Compared with 4 weeks operation group, Ssys and SRsys in these segments in 8 weeks operation group were significantly

  5. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Samer; Killeen, Ronan P; Martos, Ramon; Quinn, Martin; McDonald, Kenneth; Dodd, Jonathan Dermot

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean ± SD age, 63 ± 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean ± SD EROs were 0.16 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.08, and 0.52 ± 0.03 cm² (P qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P qualitative echocardiographic parameters but only a moderate correlation with quantitative echocardiographic parameters of chronic MR. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography slightly overestimates mild MR while slightly underestimating severe MR.

  6. A new 2D-based method for myocardial velocity strain and strain rate quantification in a normal adult and paediatric population: assessment of reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcidiacono C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in technology have provided the opportunity for off-line analysis of digital video-clips of two-dimensional (2-D echocardiographic images. Commercially available software that follows the motion of cardiac structures during cardiac cycle computes both regional and global velocity, strain, and strain rate (SR. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical applicability of the software based on the tracking algorithm feature (studied for cardiology purposes and to derive the reference values for longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR of the left ventricle in a normal population of children and young adults. Methods 45 healthy volunteers (30 adults: 19 male, 11 female, mean age 37 ± 6 years; 15 children: 8 male, 7 female, mean age 8 ± 2 years underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination; 2D cine-loops recordings of apical 4-four 4-chamber (4C and 2-chamber (2C views and short axis views were stored for off-line analysis. Computer analyses were performed using specific software relying on the algorithm of optical flow analysis, specifically designed to track the endocardial border, installed on a Windows™ based computer workstation. Inter and intra-observer variability was assessed. Results The feasibility of measurements obtained with tissue tracking system was higher in apical view (100% for systolic events; 64% for diastolic events than in short axis view (70% for systolic events; 52% for diastolic events. Longitudinal systolic velocity decreased from base to apex in all subjects (5.22 ± 1.01 vs. 1.20 ± 0.88; p Values of global systolic SR, both longitudinal and circumferential, were significantly higher in children than in adults (-1.3 ± 0.2, vs. -1.11 ± 0.2, p = 0.006; -1.9 ± 0.6 vs. -1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.0265, respectively. No significant differences in longitudinal and circumferential systolic velocities were identified for any segment when comparing adults with children. Conclusion

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles German

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography provides a useful tool in the diagnosis of many congenital heart diseases, including atrial septal defects, and aids in further delineating treatment options. Although two-dimensional echocardiography has been the standard of care in this regard, technological advancements have made three-dimensional echocardiography possible, and the images obtained in this new imaging modality are able to accurately portray the morphology, location, dimensions, and dynamic changes of defects and many other heart structures during the cardiac cycle.

  8. Fast catheter segmentation from echocardiographic sequences based on segmentation from corresponding X-ray fluoroscopy for cardiac catheterization interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianliang; Housden, James; Ma, YingLiang; Razavi, Benjamin; Rhode, Kawal; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Echocardiography is a potential alternative to X-ray fluoroscopy in cardiac catheterization given its richness in soft tissue information and its lack of ionizing radiation. However, its small field of view and acoustic artifacts make direct automatic segmentation of the catheters very challenging. In this study, a fast catheter segmentation framework for echocardiographic imaging guided by the segmentation of corresponding X-ray fluoroscopic imaging is proposed. The complete framework consists of: 1) catheter initialization in the first X-ray frame; 2) catheter tracking in the rest of the X-ray sequence; 3) fast registration of corresponding X-ray and ultrasound frames; and 4) catheter segmentation in ultrasound images guided by the results of both X-ray tracking and fast registration. The main contributions include: 1) a Kalman filter-based growing strategy with more clinical data evalution; 2) a SURF detector applied in a constrained search space for catheter segmentation in ultrasound images; 3) a two layer hierarchical graph model to integrate and smooth catheter fragments into a complete catheter; and 4) the integration of these components into a system for clinical applications. This framework is evaluated on five sequences of porcine data and four sequences of patient data comprising more than 3000 X-ray frames and more than 1000 ultrasound frames. The results show that our algorithm is able to track the catheter in ultrasound images at 1.3 s per frame, with an error of less than 2 mm. However, although this may satisfy the accuracy for visualization purposes and is also fast, the algorithm still needs to be further accelerated for real-time clinical applications.

  9. Evaluation of strain and strain rate imaging on myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridge%应变及应变率成像评估心肌桥患者局部心肌缺血的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡伟; 董彦; 李学文; 周瑞娟; 赵季红; 姜铁民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨定量组织速度成像和应变及应变率评估冠状动脉心肌桥引起局部心肌缺血的临床价值.方法 冠状动脉前降支心肌桥患者47例(心肌桥组)与冠状动脉正常者40例(对照组),测量前降支支配区域9个节段的收缩期峰值速度、峰值应变及应变率、舒张早、晚期峰值速度、舒张早、晚期峰值应变及相应的应变率.结果 与对照组比较,心肌桥组前间隔各节段、前壁基底段及中间段、后间隔中间段收缩期峰值速度及峰值应变率明显减低(P<0.05);前间隔基底段和中间段舒张早期、晚期峰值速度及舒张早期峰值应变率明显减低(P<0.05);前壁基底段、前间隔各节段收缩期峰值应变,前壁、前间隔舒张晚期峰值应变明显减低、侧壁心尖段明显升高(P<0.05).结论 定量组织速度成像和应变及应变率可定量检测冠状动脉心肌桥引起的心肌缺血.%Objective To study the clinical value of quantitative tissue velocity imaging (QTVD, strain (S) and strain rate imaging (SR) to the evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridge. Methods A total of 47 patients with myocardial bridge and 40 normal controls were measured peak systolic velocity (Vs), peak velocity in early diastole (Ve), peak velocity in late diastole (Va), peak systolic strain rate (SRs) , peak systolic strain (Ss), peak early diastolic strain rate (SRe), peak early diastolic strain (Se), peak late diastolic strain rate (SRa), and peak late diastolie strain (Sa) of nine segments supplied by the anterior descending with echocardiography. Results Compared with control group, Vs and SRs of segments on the anteroseptal, posterior septal and anterior wall decreased significantly (P<0. 05) , and Ve, Va and SRe of basal and middle segments on anteroseptal wall decreased significantly (P<0. 05). Ss of each segments of anteroseptal and basal segment of anterior wall decreased significantly (P<0. 05

  10. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  11. Echocardiographic Follow-up of Robotic Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation due to Degenerative Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wang; Chang-Qing Gao; Yah-Song Shen; Gang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Mitral valve (MV) repair can now be carried out through small incisions with the use of robotic assistance.Previous reports have demonstrated the excellent clinical result of robotic MV repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR).However,there has been limited information regarding the echocardiographic follow-up of these patients.The present study was therefore to evaluate the echocardiographic follow-up outcomes after robotic MV repair in patients with MR due to degenerative disease of the MV.Methods:A retrospective analysis was undertaken using data from the echocardiographic database of our department.Between March 2007 and February 2015,84 patients with degenerative MR underwent robotic MV repair.The repair techniques included leaflet resection in 67 patients (79.8%),artificial chordae in 20 (23.8%),and ring annuloplasty in 79 (94.1%).Eighty-one (96.4%) of the 84 patients were eligible for echocardiographic follow-up assessment,and no patients were lost to follow-up.Results:At a median echocardiographic follow-up of 36.0 months (interquartile range 14.3-59.4 months),four patients (4.9%) developed recurrent mild MR,and no patients had more than mild MR.Mean MR grade,left atrial diameter (LAD),left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD),and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly decreased when compared with preoperative values.Mean MR grade decreased from 3.96 ± 0.13 to 0.17 ± 0.49 (Z =-8.456,P < 0.001),LAD from 43.8 ± 5.9 to 35.5 ± 3.8 mm (t =15.131,P < 0.001),LVEDD from 51.0 ± 5.0 to 43.3 ± 2.2 mm (t =14.481,P < 0.001),and LVEF from 67.3 ± 7.0% to 63.9 ± 5.1% (t =4.585,P < 0.001).Conclusion:Robotic MV repair for MR due to degenerative disease is associated with a low rate of recurrent MR,and a significant improvement in MR grade,LAD,and LVEDD,but a significant decrease in LVEF at echocardiographic follow-up.

  12. Relationship between the severity of mitral regurgitation, left ventricular dysfunction and plasma brain natriuretic peptide level: An observational strain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Elbey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the this study was to investigatethe relationship between the degree of mitral regurgitation(MR, left ventricular (LV dysfunction determined bystrain (S/strain rate (SR imaging and plasma brain natriureticpeptide (BNP levels.Materials and methods: This is an observational crosssectionalstudy which included 31 consecutive patients(15[48.4%] male who had applied to our outpatient clinicsand diagnosed as mitral regurgitation and 25 (12[48.0%] male healthy persons as control subjects. Themitral regurgitation patients were divided into two groups:those with moderate MR (n=14[45.2%] and those withsevere MR (n=17[54.8%], and maximum strain / strainrate measurements of left ventricular wall segments andplasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were determined inthese two groups and controls.Results: S/SR values of all wall segments of left ventriclewere found to be decreased in patient with severe MRwhen compared with the control subjects and patientswith moderate MR (p<0.001.Conclusions: Although left ventricle functions with conventionalechocardiography in patients with mitral valveregurgitation were normal, subclinic deteriorations ofleft ventricle were detected in patients with severe mitralvalve regurgitation. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (4: 451-456Key words: strain/strain rate, echocardiography, mitralregurgitation, left ventricular functions

  13. 一种心肌应变图的快速绘制方法%A Fast Mapping Method of Myocardial Strain Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单志蕊; 李璇; 王青; 黄庆华; 冯前进; 陈武凡

    2016-01-01

    灰度B超图显示心脏的解剖结构,应变图可反映心肌的力学信息。心肌应变图与心脏灰度B超图混叠显示,有助于观察各阶段心肌组织的形态学及力学上的变化。提出一种心肌彩色应变图覆盖到心脏灰度B超图的快速绘制方法,即整体映射方法。采用Sonix RP超声系统扫描正常成年男性心脏6 s,保存左心室长轴的超声射频信号,经过重建灰度B超图像、计算位移图及应变图、勾画心肌的区域、彩色编码应变值等处理步骤,将心肌应变图整体映射到心脏灰度B超图上相应的位置,完成灰度B超图与彩色应变图混叠显示。实验结果:该方法绘制时间短,心肌勾画区域为1×106个像素点时,彩色应变图的绘制时间约为0.24 s,心肌勾画区域为4×106个像素点时,彩色应变图的绘制时间约为2.4 s。说明提出的心肌应变图的整体映射绘制方法,费时少,可以用于实现实时观察心肌的形状和弹性信息。%The grayscale B-mode ultrasound image displays the anatomic structure of the heart, while the strain map reflects the mechanical information of the myocardium.The combination of the myocardial color-coded strain map with the grayscale B-mode image benefits the detection of alterations in the myocardium.Objective:This study proposed a fast mapping method of myocardial strain image superimposed onto the grayscale B-mode ultrasound im-age, i.e.the overall mapping method.Methods:The heart of a health adult male was scanned using Sonix RP ul-trasound system for 6 seconds.The ultrasonic RF signals of the left ventricular long-axis view of the heart were re-corded for reconstruction of the B-mode image.The displacement and strain maps of the myocardium were obtained respectively using the method of dynamic estimation and analytic minimization and the polynomial linear regression. Then, the color-coded strain map of the myocardium was overall superimposed on the

  14. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular mechanical synchrony in clinically normal cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Lun Hsu, Hui-Pi Huang Institute of Veterinary Clinical Science, Veterinary School, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Ventricular heterogeneity and synchrony are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is commonly observed in cats. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and normal range of left ventricular mechanical heterogeneity and synchrony in clinically healthy cats using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Thirty-four clinically healthy cats were included in this prospective study. Two-dimensional echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography were performed on all cats. Echocardiographic parameters, including circumferential, radial, and longitudinal strain and strain rate, heterogeneity, and synchrony, were measured. Segmental heterogeneity values in the circumferential, radial, and longitudinal directions were 13.1%±5.9%, 19.1%±10.3%, and 15.4%±6.8%, respectively. Transmural heterogeneity was -14.3%±4.6% in the circumferential direction. Left ventricular synchrony values in the circumferential, radial, and longitudinal directions were 11.7±4.2, 16.5±13.4, and 19.4±8.5 ms, respectively. Interventricular synchrony was -3.9±13.2 ms. Left ventricular heterogeneity and synchrony were noted in clinically healthy cats; segmental heterogeneity, which is characterized as longitudinal, progressively increased from the apical to the basal segments, while transmural heterogeneity, which is characterized as circumferential, progressively decreased from the endocardium to the epicardium. Keywords: feline, ventricular heterogeneity, synchrony

  15. Echocardiographic findings associated with mortality ortransplant in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension:A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, V.J.; Driessen, M.M.P.; Post, M.C.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Bosch, A.E. van den; Takkenberg, J.J.; Sieswerda, G.T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of deterioration is essential to guide clinical management in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of well-investigated echocardiographic findings that are associated with clinical deterioration in

  16. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consec...

  17. Validity of acoustic quantification colour kinesis for detection of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities: a transoesophageal echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, T; Kolev, N; Blaicher, A; Spiss, C; Zimpfer, M

    1997-10-01

    Transoesophageal echocardiography is a sensitive monitor for intraoperative myocardial ischaemia. Colour kinesis is a new technology for echocardiographic assessment of regional wall motion based on acoustic quantification. We have examined the feasibility and accuracy of quantitative segmental analysis of colour kinesis images to provide objective evaluation of systolic regional wall motion during the perioperative period using transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). Two-dimensional echocardiograms were obtained in the transgastric short-axis and long-axis views in 60 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. End-systolic colour overlays superimposed on the grey scale images were obtained with colour kinesis to colour encode left ventricular endocardial motion throughout systole. These colour-encoded images were divided into segments and compared with corresponding conventional two-dimensional images. Six hundred of a potential 720 left ventricular wall segments were of sufficient resolution for grading by experts; they diagnosed wall motion abnormalities in 61 of these segments by a conventional method. In comparing the conventional TOE method with colour kinesis, there were 60 true positives, 482 true negatives, 57 false positives and 1 false negative result. This yielded a sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 89%, positive predictive value of 51% and negative predictive value of 100%. Translational and rotational movement of the heart and papillary muscle interference were common problems accounting for false positive diagnoses. We conclude that colour kinesis provides a basis for objective and on-line evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion which is a sensitive but non-specific method. It may be a useful aid for the less experienced because it can potentially direct the anaesthetist's attention towards specific segments.

  18. Reversal of echocardiographic right-sided heart pathology in a dog with severe pulmonary hypertension: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon P; Saelinger C

    2015-01-01

    Peggy McMahon,1 Carley Saelinger 2  1Emergency and Critical Care Department, 2Cardiology Department, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Pathologic right-sided heart changes are a common echocardiographic finding in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Canines with PH may have right heart pathology documented via echocardiographic color Doppler interrogation including tricuspid valve regurgitation, pulmonic valve insufficiency, elevat...

  19. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber Scale in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Using Global Finite-Element Based Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2015-05-01

    Laminated composites are materials with complex architecture made of continuous fibers embedded within a polymeric resin. The properties of the raw materials can vary from one point to another due to different local processing conditions or complex geometrical features for example. A first step towards the identification of these spatially varying material parameters is to image with precision the displacement fields in this complex microstructure when subjected to mechanical loading. This thesis is aimed to accurately measure the displacement and strain fields at the fiber-matrix scale in a cross-ply composite. First, the theories of both local subset-based digital image correlation (DIC) and global finite-element based DIC are outlined. Second, in-situ secondary electron tensile images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are post-processed by both DIC techniques. Finally, it is shown that when global DIC is applied with a conformal mesh, it can capture more accurately sharp local variations in the strain fields as it takes into account the underlying microstructure. In comparison to subset-based local DIC, finite-element based global DIC is better suited for capturing gradients across the fiber-matrix interfaces.

  20. A general protocol of ultra-high resolution MR angiography to image the cerebro-vasculature in 6 different rats strains at high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Padro, Daniel; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Reese, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    Differences in the cerebro-vasculature among strains as well as individual animals might explain variability in animal models and thus, a non-invasive method tailored to image cerebral vessel of interest with high signal to noise ratio is required. Experimentally, we describe a new general protocol of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography to visualize non-invasively the cerebral vasculature in 6 different rat strains. Flow compensated angiograms of Sprague Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, Lister Hooded, Long Evans, Fisher 344 and Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat strains were obtained without the use of contrast agents. At 11.7T using a repetition time of 60ms, an isotropic resolution of up to 62μm was achieved; total imaging time was 98min for a 3D data set. The visualization of the cerebral arteries was improved by removing extra-cranial vessels prior to the calculation of maximum intensity projection to obtain the angiograms. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the newly implemented method is also suitable to obtain angiograms following middle cerebral artery occlusion, despite the presence of intense vasogenic edema 24h after reperfusion. The careful selection of the excitation profile and repetition time at a higher static magnetic field allowed an increase in spatial resolution to reliably detect of the hypothalamic artery, the anterior choroidal artery as well as arterial branches of the peri-amygdoidal complex and the optical nerve in six different rat strains. MR angiography without contrast agent can be utilized to study cerebro-vascular abnormalities in various animal models. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversal of echocardiographic right-sided heart pathology in a dog with severe pulmonary hypertension: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peggy McMahon,1 Carley Saelinger 2  1Emergency and Critical Care Department, 2Cardiology Department, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Pathologic right-sided heart changes are a common echocardiographic finding in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH. Canines with PH may have right heart pathology documented via echocardiographic color Doppler interrogation including tricuspid valve regurgitation, pulmonic valve insufficiency, elevated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, elevated pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure, and alterations in ejection profiles. Two-dimensional echocardiographic findings may include right ventricular hypertrophy, interventricular septal flattening, paradoxical interventricular septal motion, pulmonary artery dilation, and potentially abnormal left heart dimensions. In veterinary medicine, much confidence is given to the measurement of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated from tricuspid valve regurgitation to grade the severity of PH and monitor its improvement with little emphasis placed on the integration of two-dimensional echocardiographic right and left heart pathology in conjunction with Doppler findings. To the authors’ knowledge, marked improvement and/or resolution of echocardiographic-documented right heart pathology have not been previously reported in the veterinary literature. This case report documents profound echocardiographic improvement of right-sided heart disease in a dog with severe PH. Keywords: canine, pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid valve regurgitation, right heart hypertrophy, sildenafil  

  2. Effect of breed, sex, age and body weight on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haidar, A; Farnir, F; Deleuze, S; Sandersen, C F; Leroux, A A; Borde, L; Cerri, S; Amory, H

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean±SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged ≤ 2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utility of comprehensive assessment of strain dyssynchrony index by speckle tracking imaging for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamawaki, Kouhei; Ryo, Keiko; Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Onishi, Tetsuari; Gorcsan, John; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2011-02-01

    The strain delay index is reportedly a marker of dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a relatively simple version of the strain dyssynchrony index (SDI) can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and that combining assessment of radial, circumferential, and longitudinal SDI can further improve the prediction of responders. A total of 52 patients who underwent CRT were studied. The SDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic strain from 6 segments for radial and circumferential SDI and 18 segments for longitudinal SDI. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, the Yu index, and radial dyssynchrony by speckle tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in end-systolic volume after 3 months. Of the individual parameters, radial SDI ≥6.5% was the best predictor of response to CRT, with sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 81%, and an area under the curve of 0.87 (p SDIs was 100%. In contrast, rates in patients with either 1 or no positive SDIs were 42% and 22%, respectively (p SDIs). In conclusion, the SDI can successfully predict response to CRT, and the combined approach leads to more accurate prediction than using individual parameters.

  4. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugjoo, M B; Hoque, M; Saxena, A C; Shamsuz Zama, M M; Dey, S

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (rcardiology.

  5. Comparison of echocardiographic measurements in elite and nonelite Arabian endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeper, Meg M; Durando, Mary M; Holbrook, Todd C; Payton, Mark E; Birks, Eric K

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether echocardiographic variables differed between successful (elite) and less successful (nonelite) Arabian endurance horses. 34 Arabian horses that competed in endurance racing. Horses were assigned to either an elite or nonelite group on the basis of results of a previous competition, and a standardized echocardiographic examination was performed on each horse within 1 to 4 weeks after that competition. Multivariable logistic regression with backward stepwise elimination was used to create a prediction model for the determination of horse status (elite or nonelite) as a function of the measured echocardiographic variables. The elite and nonelite groups consisted of 23 and 11 horses, respectively. One horse in the nonelite group had a frequent ventricular dysrhythmia that could have negatively affected its performance and rider's safety, whereas none of the horses in the elite group had remarkable cardiac abnormalities. The left ventricular internal diameter during systole and diastole and left ventricular mass and stroke volume were significantly greater for horses in the elite group, compared with those for horses in the nonelite group. The final logistic regression model correctly predicted the horse status for all of the horses in the elite group and 8 of 11 horses in the nonelite group. Results indicated that heart size was significantly associated with performance for Arabian endurance horses in a manner similar to findings for Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses in active competition.

  6. Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creso Abreu Falcão

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL have been associated with thrombosis, recurrent abortion, and thrombocytopenia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, but their relationship with cardiac disease is less clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL and echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with SLE. METHODS: A total of 70 consecutive patients and 42 control subjects underwent M-mode, 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and tests for lupus anticoagulant, aCL IgG, IgM, and IgA. Lupus anticoagulant was assayed with the dilute Russell viper venom time, and aCL IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: Lupus anticoagulant showed a prevalence of 10%. As a whole, aCL had a prevalence of 44.3% and aPL had a prevalence of 50%. Patients with echocardiographic abnormalities had a prevalence of 54.3% and showed a trend towards an association with aCL IgG (P=0.06. The presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH was significantly associated with aCL IgG (p=0.02. CONCLUSION: aCL IgG was significantly associated with PH and showed a strong trend towards an association with echocardiographic abnormalities taken together. These findings suggest a role for aCL IgG in the development of lupus cardiovascular disease.

  7. A meta-analysis for the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular structure and function in ARVC: a Study by the Research and Audit Committee of the British Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Mohammad; Utomi, Victor; George, Keith; Somauroo, John; Zaidi, Abbas; Forsythe, Lynsey; Bhattacharrya, Sanjeev; Lloyd, Guy; Rana, Bushra; Ring, Liam; Robinson, Shaun; Senior, Roxy; Sheikh, Nabeel; Sitali, Mushemi; Sandoval, Julie; Steeds, Richard; Stout, Martin; Willis, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited pathology that can increase the risk of sudden death. Current task force criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis do not include new, regional assessment tools which may be relevant in a phenotypically diverse disease. We adopted a systematic review and meta-analysis approach to highlight echocardiographic indices that differentiated ARVC patients and healthy controls. Methods Data was extracted and analysed from prospective trials that employed a case–control design meeting strict inclusion and exclusion as well as a priori quality criteria. Structural indices included proximal RV outflow tract (RVOT1) and RV diastolic area (RVDarea). Functional indices included RV fractional area change (RVFAC), tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities (S′ and E′, respectively) and myocardial strain. Results Patients with ARVC had larger RVOT1 (mean ± s.d.; 34 vs 28 mm, P < 0.001) and RVDarea (23 vs 18 cm2, P < 0.001) compared with healthy controls. ARVC patients also had lower RVFAC (38 vs 46%, P < 0.001), TAPSE (17 vs 23 mm, P < 0.001), S′ (9 vs 12 cm/s, P < 0.001), E′ (9 vs 13 cm/s, P < 0.001) and myocardial strain (−17 vs −30%, P < 0.001). Conclusion The data from this meta-analysis support current task force criteria for the diagnosis of ARVC. In addition, other RV measures that reflect the complex geometry and function in ARVC clearly differentiated between ARVC and healthy controls and may provide additional diagnostic and management value. We recommend that future working groups consider this data when proposing new/revised criteria for the echocardiographic diagnosis of ARVC. PMID:27686556

  8. A meta-analysis for the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular structure and function in ARVC: a Study by the Research and Audit Committee of the British Society of Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ARVC is an inherited pathology that can increase the risk of sudden death. Current task force criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis do not include new, regional assessment tools which may be relevant in a phenotypically diverse disease. We adopted a systematic review and meta-analysis approach to highlight echocardiographic indices that differentiated ARVC patients and healthy controls. Methods: Data was extracted and analysed from prospective trials that employed a case–control design meeting strict inclusion and exclusion as well as a priori quality criteria. Structural indices included proximal RV outflow tract (RVOT1 and RV diastolic area (RVDarea. Functional indices included RV fractional area change (RVFAC, tricuspid annular systolic excursion (TAPSE, peak systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities (S′ and E′, respectively and myocardial strain. Results: Patients with ARVC had larger RVOT1 (mean ± s.d.; 34 vs 28 mm, P < 0.001 and RVDarea (23 vs 18 cm2, P < 0.001 compared with healthy controls. ARVC patients also had lower RVFAC (38 vs 46%, P < 0.001, TAPSE (17 vs 23 mm, P < 0.001, S′ (9 vs 12 cm/s, P < 0.001, E′ (9 vs 13 cm/s, P < 0.001 and myocardial strain (−17 vs −30%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The data from this meta-analysis support current task force criteria for the diagnosis of ARVC. In addition, other RV measures that reflect the complex geometry and function in ARVC clearly differentiated between ARVC and healthy controls and may provide additional diagnostic and management value. We recommend that future working groups consider this data when proposing new/revised criteria for the echocardiographic diagnosis of ARVC.

  9. Cognitive Machine-Learning Algorithm for Cardiac Imaging: A Pilot Study for Differentiating Constrictive Pericarditis From Restrictive Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partho P; Huang, Yen-Min; Bansal, Manish; Ashrafi, Ali; Fisher, Matt; Shameer, Khader; Gall, Walt; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-06-01

    Associating a patient's profile with the memories of prototypical patients built through previous repeat clinical experience is a key process in clinical judgment. We hypothesized that a similar process using a cognitive computing tool would be well suited for learning and recalling multidimensional attributes of speckle tracking echocardiography data sets derived from patients with known constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Clinical and echocardiographic data of 50 patients with constrictive pericarditis and 44 with restrictive cardiomyopathy were used for developing an associative memory classifier-based machine-learning algorithm. The speckle tracking echocardiography data were normalized in reference to 47 controls with no structural heart disease, and the diagnostic area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the associative memory classifier was evaluated for differentiating constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy. Using only speckle tracking echocardiography variables, associative memory classifier achieved a diagnostic area under the curve of 89.2%, which improved to 96.2% with addition of 4 echocardiographic variables. In comparison, the area under the curve of early diastolic mitral annular velocity and left ventricular longitudinal strain were 82.1% and 63.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the associative memory classifier demonstrated greater accuracy and shorter learning curves than other machine-learning approaches, with accuracy asymptotically approaching 90% after a training fraction of 0.3 and remaining flat at higher training fractions. This study demonstrates feasibility of a cognitive machine-learning approach for learning and recalling patterns observed during echocardiographic evaluations. Incorporation of machine-learning algorithms in cardiac imaging may aid standardized assessments and support the quality of interpretations, particularly for novice readers with limited experience. © 2016

  10. Predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-derived myocardial strain for poor outcomes in patients with acute myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Won; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Gee Won; Lee, Nam Kyung; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Jin You [Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bum Sung; Choo, Ki Seok [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial strain measurement for the prediction of poor outcomes in patients with acute myocarditis We retrospectively analyzed data from 37 patients with acute myocarditis who underwent CMR. Left ventricular (LV) size, LV mass index, ejection fraction and presence of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were analyzed. LV circumferential strain (EccSAX), radial strain (ErrSAX) from mid-ventricular level short-axis cine views and LV longitudinal strain (EllLV), radial strain (ErrLax) measurements from 2-chamber long-axis views were obtained. In total, 31 of 37 patients (83.8%) underwent follow-up echocardiography. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Incomplete LV functional recovery was a secondary outcome. During an average follow-up of 41 months, 11 of 37 patients (29.7%) experienced MACE. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, which included LV mass index, LV ejection fraction, the presence of LGE, EccSAX, ErrSAX, EllLV, and ErrLax values, indicated that the presence of LGE (hazard ratio, 42.88; p = 0.014), together with ErrLax (hazard ratio, 0.77 per 1%, p = 0.004), was a significant predictor of MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated worse outcomes in patient with LGE and an ErrLax value ≤ 9.48%. Multivariable backward regression analysis revealed that ErrLax values were the only significant predictors of LV functional recovery (hazard ratio, 0.54 per 1%; p = 0.042). CMR-derived ErrLax values can predict poor outcomes, both MACE and incomplete LV functional recovery, in patients with acute myocarditis, while LGE is only a predictor of MACE.

  11. 超声斑点追踪技术评价慢性心力衰竭患者左室心肌应变的价值%Assessment the values of cardiac muscle strain in long axis of left ventricular in patients with chronic heart failure by speckle tracking imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继梅; 郑慧; 张婧姝; 解欣欣; 靳鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To obverse two-dimensional strain changes of regional and global cardiac muscle in long axis of left ventricle( LV )in patients with chronic heart failure( CHF )using speckle tracking imaging( STI ),in order to asses the characteristics of LV systolic dyssynchrony and LV systolic function in patients with CHF. Methods The images of echocardiographic examinations were performed in 30 chronic heart failure patients verified by clinical diagnosis and 30 normal control subjects from apical long axis chamber,4 chamber and 2 chamber views of three consecutive cardiac cycles were acquired. Analyzed these images using a software of GE Echo PAC PC SW-Only , these parameters included peak systolic strain , its time to peak from each segment, global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GSL )and average global strain( GSL-Avg )from each view were measured in control and CHF group. As well as time-strain curves from each view and segment and 18 segments strain Bull-Eyes pie were obtained. Meanwhile . LV ejection fraction( EF )was calculated through real time tri-plane LV volume rule. Results The parameters S of each segment and GSL of each view in CHF patients were significantly lower than those of controls( P < 0. 05 ). There were a high correlation between EF and GSL-Avg( r =0. 89 ). Time to peak longitudinal strain in most LV segments 14/18 )in CHF were significantly advanced than that of controls( P < 0. 05 ). The maximum difference of time to peak systolic longitudinal strain among 18 segments was enlarged in CHF group( P<0. 05 ). Patients with CHF had impaired LV systolic function and resulted in LV dyssynchrony. Conclusion STI may measure quantitatively strain of regional and global cardiac muscle in long axis of LV. LV systolic dyssynchrony and correlation between EF and GSL-Avg in CHF were evaluated exactly using STI echocardiography.%目的 应用超声斑点追踪成像技术观察慢性心力衰竭(CHF)患者左心室长轴各节段心肌及整体心

  12. Development and utilization of digital image correlation techniques for the study of structural isomerism effects on strain development in epoxy network glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Stephen Robert

    The specific aim of this dissertation is to present the findings regarding the effects of molecular structure on macroscopic mechanical performance and strain development in epoxy networks. Network molecular structure was altered through monomer isomerism and crosslink density/molecular weight between crosslinks. The use of structural isomerism provided a pathway for altering mechanical performance while maintaining identical chemical composition within the network. Isomerism was investigated primarily by the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) using either the para- or meta-substituted derivatives of diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Additional insights into isomerism were gained through the investigation of networks composed of either para- or meta-triglycidyl aminophenol (TGAP) cured with 3,3'- or 4,4'-DDS. Crosslink density of the network was varied through two different methods: (a) increasing the equivalent weight of the linear DGEBA epoxy resin and (b) increasing the functionality of the epoxy resin through the use of TGAP. The effects of molecular structure on mechanical properties and strain development were monitored using a relatively new strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC). Strain measurement via DIC was particularly useful for the development of strain recovery procedures, which provided key insights to the deformation of epoxy network glasses of varying molecular structure by providing full field analysis of the epoxy specimens. Specific findings of this research revealed that network isomerism plays an important role in the deformation of epoxy network glasses. Networks containing meta-substituted monomers possessed higher modulus and yield stress values and lower yield strains. On the contrary, networks with para-substituted monomers displayed lower modulus and yield stress values, but increased ability to store energy through anelastic strain mechanisms, thereby delaying the onset of yielding. The

  13. In vivo functional imaging of blood flow and wall strain rate in outflow tract of embryonic chick heart using ultrafast spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Xin; Shi, Liang; Rugonyi, Sandra; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-09-01

    During cardiac development, the cardiac wall and flowing blood are two important cardiac tissues that constantly interact with each other. This dynamic interaction defines appropriate biomechanical environment to which the embryonic heart is exposed. Quantitative assessment of the dynamic parameters of wall tissues and blood flow is required to further our understanding of cardiac development. We report the use of an ultrafast 1310-nm dual-camera spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to characterize/image, in parallel, the dynamic radial strain rate of the myocardial wall and the Doppler velocity of the underlying flowing blood within an in vivo beating chick embryo. The OCT system operates at 184-kHz line scan rate, providing the flexibility of imaging the fast blood flow and the slow tissue deformation within one scan. The ability to simultaneously characterize tissue motion and blood flow provides a useful approach to better understand cardiac dynamics during early developmental stages.

  14. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global myocardial strain assessment by different imaging modalities to predict outcomes after ST-elevation myocardial infarction:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Shetye; Sheraz A Nazir; Iain B Squire; Gerald P McCann

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a systematic review relating myocardial strain assessed by different imaging modalities for prognostication following ST-elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI).METHODS: An online literature search was performed in Pub Med and OVID? electronic databases to identify any studies that assessed global myocardial strain parameters using speckle-tracking echocardiography(STE) and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(CMR) techniques [either myocardial tagging or feature tracking(FT) software] in an acute STEMI cohort(days 0-14 post-event) to predict prognosis [either development of major adverse cardiac events(MACE)] or adverse left ventricular(LV) remodelling at follow-up(≥ 6 mo for MACE,≥ 3 mo for remodelling). Search was restricted to studies within the last 20 years. All studies that matched the pre-defined search criteria were reviewed and their results interpreted. Due to considerable heterogeneity between studies,metaanalysis was not performed.RESULTS: A total of seven studies(n = 7) were identified that matched the search criteria. All studies used STE to evaluate strain parameters- five(n = 5) assessed global longitudinal strain(GLS)(n = 5),one assessed GLS rate(GLS-R)(n = 1) and one assessed both(n = 1). Three studies showed that GLS independently predicted the development of adverse LV remodelling by multivariate analysis- odds ratio between 1.19(CI: 1.04-1.37,P < 0.05) and 10(CI: 6.7-14,P < 0.001) depending on the study. Four studies showed that GLS predicted the development of MACE- hazard ratio(HR) between 1.1(CI: 1-1.1,P = 0.006) and 2.34(1.10-4.97,P < 0.05). One paper found that GLS-R could significantly predict MACEHR 18(10-35,P < 0.001)- whilst another showed it did not. GLS <-10.85% had sensitivity/specificity of 89.7%/91% respectively for predicting the development of remodelling whilst GLS <-13% could predict the development of MACE with sensitivity/specificity of 100%/89% respectively. No suitable studies were identified that

  16. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material’s starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  17. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  18. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of pericardial effusion in patients who underwent echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis: Yonsei Cardiovascular Center experience, 1993-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Chul; Kang, Seok Min; Kim, Dae Hyuck; Ko, Young Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Ha, Jong Won; Rim, Se Joong; Jang, Yangsoo; Chung, Namsik; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2004-06-30

    Percutaneous pericardiocentesis guided by two-dimensional echocardiography was introduced in 1983 as an alternative to electrocardiographically or fluoroscopically guided puncture for the management of pericardial effusion. The objective of this study was to investigate echocardiographically (echo)- guided pericardiocenteses performed at Yonsei Cardiovascular Center from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003, and also to determine whether patient profiles, etiology, and practice patterns have changed over this 11-year period. The medical records of 272 patients were examined and a follow-up survey was conducted. Patient clinical profiles, etiology, echocardiographic findings, and procedural details were determined for 2 periods: January, 1993 through December, 1997 (period 1); and January 1998 through December, 2003 (period 2). During the 11-year study period, 291 therapeutic, echo-guided pericardiocenteses with pericardial catheter drainage were performed in 272 patients. The number of pericardiocentesis in period 2 was increased compared with period 1 (191 cases vs. 100 cases). The mean age at pericardiocentesis increased from 49 +/- 17 years in period 1 to 55 +/- 16 years in period 2 (p < 0.05). The procedural success rate was 99% overall with a major complication rate of 0.7% (2 cases of right ventricular free wall perforation which required emergency operation). Only one procedure-related mortality (< 30 days) was noted. Malignancy was the leading cause of a pericardial effusion requiring pericardiocentesis (45.6%). The incidence of pericardial effusion following cardiothoracic surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures accounted for nearly 20% of all pericardiocenteses performed. Echo-guided pericardiocentesis has become a safe, standard practice for clinically significant pericardial effusion, in line with the changes of patients profiles over the 11 years of the study.

  19. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Neonates and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogen Singh

    2017-09-01

    other investigation, it has certain limitations and the most important limitation is its intermittent nature. Sometimes acquiring high quality images for precise functional assessment in a ventilated child can be challenging. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with the existing tools (physical examination and clinical parameters for hemodynamic assessment while making clinical decisions.

  20. VARIABLES ECOCARDIOGRÁFICAS PARA LA EVALUACIÓN INCRUENTA DE LA HEMODINÁMICA PULMONAR / Echocardiographic variables for noninvasive assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cruz Elizundia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa valoración de la hemodinámica pulmonar depende de muchas situaciones clínicas, debido a que el árbol vascular pulmonar puede verse afectado por diversas circunstancias fisiológicas y patológicas. La prueba de oro para evaluar estos parámetros es el cateterismo derecho, pero su uso no puede justificarse de manera rutinaria. Las técnicas de imágenes, especialmente la ecocardiografía, se han desarrollado vertiginosamente y permiten obtener una descripción completa y aproximada, así como de la magnitud de la repercusión en el corazón, de dichos parámetros. Varios son los índices ecocardiográficos que resultan de un interés particular en la evaluación de la hemodinámica pulmonar, y múltiples son las variables a analizar para garantizar una adecuada interpretación de los resultados y un diagnóstico ecocardiográfico certero. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de las diferentes variables ecocardiográficas involucradas en la evaluación hemodinámica pulmonar, así como la aplicación de éstas en el escenario clínico. / AbstractThe assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics depends on many clinical situations because the pulmonary vascular tree may be affected by various physiological and pathological circumstances. The gold test for assessing these parameters is the right heart catheterization, but its use cannot be routinely justified. Imaging techniques, especially echocardiography, have developed rapidly and allow for a full and approximate description, as well as the magnitude of the impact of these parameters on the heart. There are several echocardiographic indexes that are of particular interest in the assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics, and multiple variables should be analyzed to ensure proper interpretation of results and an accurate echocardiographic diagnosis. This article presents a review of the different echocardiographic variables involved in assessing pulmonary hemodynamics and their application

  1. Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Atrium Deformation Indices in Healthy Young Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ojaghi Haghighi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, assessment of the atrial motion and deformation indices obtained via Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI has been proposed as a new method of exploring the atrial function.Objective: Our aim was to assess the right atrial (RA regional function using myocardial velocities, strain, and strain rate imaging (SRI and compare it with the function of the inter-atrial septum (IAS and left atrial (LA lateral wall in healthy young adults.Patients and Methods: A total of 75 healthy young individuals (35 women and 40 men underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography and DMI at rest. Myocardial velocities, strain, and SRI profiles from the RA free wall, IAS, and LA lateral wall were calculated throughout the three cardiac cycles. Peak systolic, diastolic and time to peak were derived, and the average of the three cardiac cycles was taken into account for analysis in this study.Results: The RA peak systolic, peak of early, and late diastolic velocities were 9.2 ± 1.6 cm/s, -9.5 ± 1.8 cm/s, and -8.3 ± 2.1 cm/s, respectively. The RA peak systolic strain was 152% ± 51%. The RA systolic strain was significantly higher than that of the IAS (87% ± 21%, P = 0.001 and the LA lateral wall (89% ± 15%, P = 0.001. The RA peak systolic, peak early and late diastolic SR were 6.3 ± 3.0 s-1, -5.4 ± 1.7 s-1, and -4.5 ± 2.2 s-1, respectively.Conclusions: DMI proved to be a feasible and reproducible method for the assessment of the RA function in healthy young subjects. Study of myocardial properties showed that the RA free wall myocardial motion and deformation were significantly higher than those of the IAS and the LA lateral wall, but the rate of the RA free wall deformation was not significantly higher than that of the IAS and the LA lateral wall.Keywords: Right Atrium; Normal Values; Velocity; Strain; Strain Rate1. BackgroundThe right atrium (RA is a dynamic structure with complex mechanics. William Harvey was the first to identify the atrium

  2. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular geometric patterns in hypertensive patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Ajayi, Ebenezer A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients, and its geometric pattern is a useful determinant of severity and prognosis of heart disease. Studies on LV geometric pattern involving large number of Nigerian hypertensive patients are limited. We examined the LV geometric pattern in hypertensive patients seen in our echocardiographic laboratory. A two-dimensional, pulsed, continuous and color flow Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of 1020 consecutive hypertensive patients aged between 18 and 91 years was conducted over an 8-year period. LV geometric patterns were determined using the relationship between the relative wall thickness and LV mass index. Four patterns of LV geometry were found: 237 (23.2%) patients had concentric hypertrophy, 109 (10.7%) had eccentric hypertrophy, 488 (47.8%) had concentric remodeling, and 186 (18.2%) had normal geometry. Patients with concentric hypertrophy were significantly older in age, and had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and pulse pressure than those with normal geometry. Systolic function index in patients with eccentric hypertrophy was significantly lower than in other geometric patterns. Doppler echocardiographic parameters showed some diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with abnormal LV geometry. Concentric remodeling was the most common LV geometric pattern observed in our hypertensive patients, followed by concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. Patients with concentric hypertrophy were older than those with other geometric patterns. LV systolic function was significantly lower in patients with eccentric hypertrophy and some degree of diastolic dysfunction were present in patients with abnormal LV geometry.

  3. Echocardiographic Parameters and Survival in Chagas Heart Disease with Severe Systolic Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo, E-mail: dani.rassi@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arruda, Ana Lúcia Martins [Instituto de Radiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hotta, Viviane Tiemi [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furtado, Rogério Gomes; Rassi, Danilo Teixeira; Rassi, Salvador [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Echocardiography provides important information on the cardiac evaluation of patients with heart failure. The identification of echocardiographic parameters in severe Chagas heart disease would help implement treatment and assess prognosis. To correlate echocardiographic parameters with the endpoint cardiovascular mortality in patients with ejection fraction < 35%. Study with retrospective analysis of pre-specified echocardiographic parameters prospectively collected from 60 patients included in the Multicenter Randomized Trial of Cell Therapy in Patients with Heart Diseases (Estudo Multicêntrico Randomizado de Terapia Celular em Cardiopatias) - Chagas heart disease arm. The following parameters were collected: left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes; ejection fraction; left atrial diameter; left atrial volume; indexed left atrial volume; systolic pulmonary artery pressure; integral of the aortic flow velocity; myocardial performance index; rate of increase of left ventricular pressure; isovolumic relaxation time; E, A, Em, Am and Sm wave velocities; E wave deceleration time; E/A and E/Em ratios; and mitral regurgitation. In the mean 24.18-month follow-up, 27 patients died. The mean ejection fraction was 26.6 ± 5.34%. In the multivariate analysis, the parameters ejection fraction (HR = 1.114; p = 0.3704), indexed left atrial volume (HR = 1.033; p < 0.0001) and E/Em ratio (HR = 0.95; p = 0.1261) were excluded. The indexed left atrial volume was an independent predictor in relation to the endpoint, and values > 70.71 mL/m{sup 2} were associated with a significant increase in mortality (log rank p < 0.0001). The indexed left atrial volume was the only independent predictor of mortality in this population of Chagasic patients with severe systolic dysfunction.

  4. Reference intervals and allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Morgan, Kyla L

    2015-12-01

    The Bengal is a relatively new hybrid breed, reported to develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats. Sixty-six apparently healthy Bengal cats. The study included a retrospective review of echocardiograms from 39 Bengal cats evaluated from March 2004 to June 2012 and reported to be normal by a board-certified cardiologist. An additional 27 cats were enrolled prospectively from June 2012 to June 2013. The effects of sex and body weight on linear cardiac dimensions were evaluated by regression analysis. Reference intervals were determined by the robust method with bootstrapping. Allometric equations scaled to body weight were derived for each echocardiographic variable. Intra- and interobserver variability were evaluated by coefficient of variation from 6 of the prospective studies. Reference intervals were determined from all 66 Bengal cats as no significant differences were observed between the retrospective and prospective data. An effect of sex, separate from body weight, was suggested and unique reference intervals for male and female cats were determined. Body weight was a significant co-variate and 95% prediction intervals for linear dimensions were determined by allometric scaling. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% for 2-dimensional variables and less than 18% for M-mode variables. These data provide reference intervals and weight-based 95% prediction intervals for echocardiographic measurements in the Bengal cat, potentially aiding cardiologists who screen this breed in detecting pathologic variants from normal dimensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Echocardiographic characteristics of the left heart ventricle in people with different somatotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, Sh; Babaev, M V; Kondrashev, A V

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze echocardiographic parameters in 143 healthy individuals aged 18-21 years with different somatotypes. The evaluation of somatotype was performed using the the method of R.N. Dorokhov and V.G. Petrukhin (1989). During the echocardiography, left ventricular wall thickness, internal diameter and myocardial mass were measured. The investigation showed marked sex- and somatotype-related differences in left ventricular parameters. The correlations between the studied left ventricular parameters and body mass, length and surface area were demonstrated. The optimal method of the indexation of left ventricular myocardial mass as related to (body length)3, is described.

  6. Two-Dimensional Echo-cardiographic Estimation of the Size of the Mitral Valve Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenobu,Masaharu

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of the mitral annulus as measured on the long axis by two-dimensional echocardiogram was found to correlate well with the size of the sewing ring used to replace the mitral valve in 35 consecutive patients. The size of the prosthesis which was used could be predicted within 1 mm of error in 83% of the mitral stenosis (MS patients and in 76% of the mitral regurgitation (MR patients in the study. Preoperative echocardiographic estimation of the size of the mitral valve annulus and prediction of the sewing ring size of the prosthetic valve used could reduce the incidence of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch.

  7. Echocardiographic Monitoring of Cardiac Parameters after Mitral Valve Replacement with the Preservation of Subvalvular Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasul Sadirhanovich Parpiyev; Mirdjamal Mirumarovich Zufarov; Khamidulla Amannullaevich Abdumadjivov; Sayora Abdullaeva; Khusan Gazihanovich Khalikulov

    2011-01-01

    @@ TO date many monitoring techniques have been used to determine the efficacy of surgical correction of mitral valve disease.The most common non-invasive method in use is echocardiography which can assess the myocardial and mitral valve function changes after mitral valve replacement procedures.In this study,we investigated the five-year follow-up echocardiographic results of 143 patients undergoing mitral valve replacement with preservation of subvalvuiar apparatus to analyze the recovery of myocardial and mitral valve functions.

  8. Comparison of four echocardiographic methods to determine left atrial size in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höllmer, Miriam; Willesen, Jakob; Tolver, Anders

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare a linear and three volume-based two-dimensional echocardiographic methods for measuring LA size: left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao ratio), biplane area-length, biplane modified Simpson and monoplane area-length. ANIMALS: One hundred seventy-six client-owned dogs of different...... breeds, 88 healthy dogs and 88 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease of different disease severity. METHODS: The left apical four- and two-chamber views were used to measure LA volumes. The right parasternal short-axis view at the level of the heart base was used to measure the LA/Ao ratio. RESULTS...

  9. Newest echocardiographic techniques for the detection of cardiotoxicity and heart failure during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Heloisa; Plana, Juan Carlos; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2011-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity has become a significant public health issue. Left ventricular ejection fraction is routinely used to monitor cardiotoxicity but fails to detect subtle alterations in cardiac function. Improvements in the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, physical or pharmacologic stressors, and novel cardiac functional indices may be useful in the detection of cardiotoxicity. The improvements in the detection and therapy of cancer have led to the emergence of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. New echocardiographic techniques may be useful in the detection of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments who could benefit from alternative cancer treatments, therefore decreasing the incidence of cardiotoxicity.

  10. Early recognition of apical ballooning syndrome by global longitudinal strain using speckle tracking imaging--the evil eye pattern, a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sualy; Banchs, Jose

    2015-07-01

    We report 4 cases of patients diagnosed with stress-induced cardiomyopathy and the pattern of typical apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), who presented to our institution with chest pain, mildly elevated cardiac enzymes and ischemic electrocardiographic changes, found to have severe hypokinesis or akinesis of the mid to apical segments with dynamic basal segments on two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography along with a global longitudinal strain (GLS) pattern markedly different from the typical left anterior descending artery (LAD) myocardial infarction pattern. All of them had a similar GLS pattern on presentation, which was easy to recognize on the polar map the day of the event. Three of the patients underwent left heart catheterization and found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We discuss the usefulness of early recognition of ABS using GLS images. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the put......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT......-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  12. Speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in young elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigout, Stéphane; Maufrais, Claire; Cornette, Thibault; Alaphilippe, Anne; Daviet, Jean C

    2016-11-01

    Little evidence exists in the literature on the effects of mixed-type training on the left ventricle (LV). This study focused on the effects of training on the morphological and functional characteristics of the left ventricle. This study investigated the effects of training on LV function using Speckle Tracking Imaging (STI) in high-level, young rugby players. This prospective and longitudinal cohort study enrolled ten young controls and 24 young rugby players (13 high-level rugby players; 11 amateur rugby players) were included in the study. Standard Tissue Doppler Imaging Echocardiography and STI were performed in this study before and after the season. LV mass and pulsed wave Doppler inflow recording of the LV, including early and atrial waves, were carried out in 2-3-4 chamber views. We assessed three normal strains, rotation, and torsion in the LV. The main results of this study demonstrated that no differences existed between the three groups in LV functional parameters, the longitudinal circumferential and radial strain indices, and rotation and torsion indices. In the professional group, a significantly higher end-diastolic diameter (Prugby players have normal LV remodeling and normal LV function under resting conditions.

  13. Echocardiographic features defining right dominant unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect: a multi-institutional Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jegatheeswaran, Anusha; Baffa, Jeanne M; Gremmels, David B; Overman, David M; Caldarone, Christopher A; McCrindle, Brian W; Mertens, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Definition and management of right dominant unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) remains challenging because unbalance entails a spectrum of left heart hypoplasia. Previous work has highlighted atrioventricular valve (AVV) index as a reasonable defining echocardiographic measure. We sought to assess which additional echocardiographic features might provide further characterization. From a multi-institutional cohort of complete AVSD, 52 preoperative echocardiograms of patients with presumed right dominant unbalanced AVSD (based on AVV index) and 60 randomly selected preoperative echocardiograms from patients with presumed balanced AVSD were reviewed. Cluster analysis of echocardiographic variables was used to group patients with similar features. Discriminant function analysis was used to explore which variables differentiated these groups. Three groups were identified from the cluster analysis. Echocardiographic variables that differentiated these groups were right ventricle:left ventricle inflow angle, LV width/LV length, left AVV color diameter at smallest inflow, left AVV color diameter at annulus, right AVV overriding left atrium, and LV width. Based on procedures and outcomes, 1 group likely represented balanced patients, whereas 2 groups with similar outcomes likely represented unbalanced patients. The dominant differentiating echocardiographic variable between the 3 cluster groups was the right ventricle:LV inflow angle (partial R²=0.86), defined as the angle between the base of the right ventricle and LV free wall, using the crest of the ventricular septum as apex of the angle. The angle of right ventricle/LV inflow and other surrogates of inflow may be important defining echocardiographic measures of right dominant unbalanced AVSD, although confirmation is needed.

  14. Efficacy of a Standardized Computer-Based Training Curriculum to Teach Echocardiographic Identification of Rheumatic Heart Disease to Nonexpert Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Andrea; Nascimento, Bruno R; Diamantino, Adriana C; Pereira, Gabriel T R; Lopes, Eduardo L V; Miri, Cassio O; Bruno, Kaciane K O; Chequer, Graziela; Ferreira, Camila G; Lafeta, Luciana C X; Richards, Hedda; Perlman, Lindsay; Webb, Catherine L; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Sable, Craig; Nunes, Maria do Carmo P

    2016-06-01

    The ability to integrate echocardiographic for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) into RHD prevention programs is limited because of lack of financial and expert human resources in endemic areas. Task shifting to nonexperts is promising; but investigations into workforce composition and training schemes are needed. The objective of this study was to test nonexperts' ability to interpret RHD screening echocardiograms after a brief, standardized, computer-based training course. Six nonexperts completed a 3-week curriculum on image interpretation. Participant performance was tested in a school-screening environment in comparison to the reference approach (cardiologists, standard portable echocardiography machines, and 2012 World Heart Federation criteria). All participants successfully completed the curriculum, and feedback was universally positive. Screening was performed in 1,381 children (5 to 18 years, 60% female), with 397 (47 borderline RHD, 6 definite RHD, 336 normal, and 8 other) referred for handheld echo. Overall sensitivity of the simplified approach was 83% (95% CI 76% to 89%), with an overall specificity of 85% (95% CI 82% to 87%). The most common reasons for false-negative screens (n = 16) were missed mitral regurgitation (MR; 44%) and MR ≤1.5 cm (29%). The most common reasons for false-positive screens (n = 179) included identification of erroneous color jets (25%), incorrect MR measurement (24%), and appropriate application of simplified guidelines (39.4%). In conclusion, a short, independent computer-based curriculum can be successfully used to train a heterogeneous group of nonexperts to interpret RHD screening echocardiograms. This approach helps address prohibitive financial and workforce barriers to widespread RHD screening.

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry of maximal regurgitant orifice area in myxomatous mitral regurgitation: intraoperative comparison with proximal flow convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.

  16. The reliability of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion index to identify high-risk patients for multicenter studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Gadsbøll, Niels; Quinones, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    overall agreement for identifying patients with severe impairment of LV function. This not only underscores the value of LV-WMI as a useful tool for selecting high-risk patients to be included in multicenter studies but also serves to warn against the use of rigid cutoff values for WMI in the treatment......OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) wall motion index (WMI) is a dependable parameter for identifying patients with LV dysfunction to be enrolled in multicenter trials. METHODS: Videotaped echocardiographic examinations from 200 randomly selected patients...

  17. DIAGNÓSTICO ECOCARDIOGRÁFICO DE VENTANA AORTOPULMONAR DISTAL / Echocardiographic diagnosis of distal aortopulmonary window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel E. González Morejón

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La ventana aortopulmonar es una comunicación entre la aorta ascendente y la arteria pulmonar, con válvulas sigmoideas bien diferenciadas.Los defectos distales son menos frecuentes y se presentan aproximadamente en 25 % de todos los pacientes con ventana aortopulmonar. Aunque la ecocardiografía transtorácica bidimensional puede proveer un diagnóstico certero en la mayoría de los casos, algunos autores solicitan la realización de otros estudios. Se presenta una lactante de 40 días de edad con diagnóstico ecocardiográfico de ventana aortopulmonar distal, que fue confirmado en el quirófano, sin necesidad de realizar otros estudios. A los 9 meses de seguimiento clínico y ecocardiográfico, la paciente se mantiene asintomática. / Abstract: The aortopulmonary window is a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery, with well differentiated semilunar valves. Distal defects are less common and occur in approximately 25% of all patients with aortopulmonary window. Although two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography can provide an accurate diagnosis in most cases, some authors ask for further studies. This is the case of a 40-day-old infant with echocardiographic diagnosis of distal aortopulmonary window that was confirmed in the operating room without further studies. At 9 months of clinical and echocardiographic follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic.

  18. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroux Aurélia A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulsed wave (PW Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.

  19. Echocardiographic evaluation of female centrifuge subjects for chronic changes in cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, W B

    1999-06-01

    High sustained G exposure as experienced in flying high performance aircraft can affect cardiac function. Numerous studies, mostly on male pilots, have evaluated the chronic effects of exposure to high G. To date, none of these studies has revealed significant positive findings in cardiac function as a result of long-term high G exposure. A longitudinal study was conducted on six female centrifuge panel members who did not have a history of significant high +Gz exposure. Baseline echocardiographic studies were conducted prior to any +Gz exposure on the Dynamic Environment Simulator (DES) centrifuge. The echocardiograms were repeated after each panel member completed approximately 100 3-min high G (up to 9 G) exposures over the period of 7 mo. These follow-up echos were performed after all six subjects had been exposed to at least 6 h (cumulative) of sustained acceleration > 3 G. The women were protected with the COMBAT EDGE positive pressure breathing G protection ensemble. Each subject served as her own control. All studies were evaluated independently by a cardiologist who was blinded to the order in which the echos were performed. Although complete echocardiographic studies were performed, only the parameters identified as significant in prior studies were evaluated. No significant differences were found between the initial and follow-up echo parameters. We found no significant differences in cardiac function after at least 6 and up to 17 h (cumulative) of exposure to G > 3 in women. These subjects will be monitored during a longitudinal study throughout their centrifuge subject career.

  20. Allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in healthy Spanish foals with different body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, S; Muñoz, A; Rodilla, V

    2009-04-01

    Scaling in biology is usually allometric, and therefore, the size of the heart may be expressed as a power function of body weight (BW). The present research analyses the echocardiographic measurements in 68 healthy Spanish foals weighed between 70 and 347kg in order to determine the correct scaling exponent for the allometric equation. The echocardiographic parameters measured were: left ventricular internal dimensions (LVID), free wall thickness (LVFWT), interventricular septum thickness (IVST) at systole (s) and diastole (d), EPSS (distance between the point E of the mitral valve and the interventricular septum), and aorta diameters at the level of the aortic valve (AOD), base of valve leaflets (ABS), sinus of Valsalva (ASV) and sino-tubular junction (AJT). Indices of left ventricular performance were calculated. It was found that LVIDd, IVSTs, AOD, and ASV have a relationship to BW raised to 0.300-0.368 power, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume scaled to BW raised to 0.731-0.712 power. With these data, appropriate values can be calculated for normal Spanish foals.

  1. Rationale and Design of the Echocardiographic Study of Hispanics / Latinos (ECHO-SOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Dharod, Ajay; Allison, Matthew A.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Hurwitz, Barry; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Kitzman, Dalane; Gillam, Linda; Spevack, Daniel; Dadhania, Rupal; Langdon, Sarah; Kaplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Information regarding the prevalence and determinants of cardiac structure and function (systolic and diastolic) among the various Hispanic background groups in the United States is limited. Methods and Results The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) ancillary study recruited 1,824 participants through a stratified-sampling process representative of the population-based Hispanic Communities Health Study – Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) across four sites (Bronx, NY; Chicago, Ill; San Diego, Calif; Miami, Fla). The HCHS-SOL baseline cohort did not include an echo exam. ECHO-SOL added the echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function to an array of existing HCHS-SOL baseline clinical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic data and provides sufficient statistical power for comparisons among the Hispanic subgroups. Standard two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography protocol, including M-mode, spectral, color and tissue Doppler study was performed. The main objectives were to: 1) characterize cardiac structure and function and its determinants among Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups; and 2) determine the contributions of specific psychosocial factors (acculturation and familismo) to cardiac structure and function among Hispanics. Conclusion We describe the design, methods and rationale of currently the largest and most comprehensive study of cardiac structure and function exclusively among US Hispanics. ECHO-SOL aims to enhance our understanding of Hispanic cardiovascular health as well as help untangle the relative importance of Hispanic subgroup heterogeneity and sociocultural factors on cardiac structure and function. (Ethn Dis. 2015;25[2]:180–186) PMID:26118146

  2. [Clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic aspects in elderly hypertensive patients in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Simon Antoine; Babaka, Kana; Mboup, Mouhamadou Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Dia, Khadidiatou; Bodian, Malick; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Bamba; Kane, Adama; Diao, Maboury; Ba, Serigne Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) in the elderly is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our study aims to describe the clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic aspects of Arterial hypertension in elderly patients. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study from January to September 2013. Hypertensive patients =60 years treated in Outpatient Cardiology Department at the Principal Hospital in Dakar were included in the study. Statistical data were analyzed using Epi Info 7 software and a p-value Holter ECG revealed non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (Lown class IVb) in 4 cases, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 6 cases and paroxysmal atrial flutter in 1 case. Echocardiography performed in 140 patients showed mainly concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in 25 patients, occuring more frequently in males (p=0,04) and dilated left atrium in 56,42% of cases, occuring more frequently in elderly patients (p= 0,01). Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic aspects in elderly hypertensive population are characterized by concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and by the frequency of arrhythmias sometimes revealed by long-term continuous external electrocardiographic recording.

  3. Relevance of echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular function in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Lea; Rordorf, Roberto; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Landolina, Maurizio; Magrini, Giulia; Klersy, Catherine; Frattini, Folco; Petracci, Barbara; Vicentini, Alessandro; Campana, Carlo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Ghio, Stefano

    2009-08-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a marker of poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. It is still unclear whether RV function might influence response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Forty-four consecutive patients with HF, large QRS, and either intraventricular or interventricular dyssynchrony underwent echocardiographic evaluation before, 1 month after, and 6 months after CRT. Response to CRT was considered in case of significant LV reverse remodeling, defined as the occurrence of LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction > or =15% at 6 months. All echocardiographic indexes of baseline RV function and dimensions were significantly more impaired in nonresponders versus responders to CRT: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE 15 +/- 4 mm vs 20 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.001), RV systolic pulmonary artery pressure (RVSP 39 +/- 14 mmHg vs 27 +/- 8 mmHg, P = 0.02), RV end-diastolic area (RVEDA 23 +/- 6 cm(2) vs 16 +/- 3 cm(2) P 14 mm. As compared to those with high TAPSE (n = 30), patients with low TAPSE (n = 14) were less likely to show LV reverse remodeling after CRT (76% vs 14%, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that RV function significantly affects response to CRT. Poor LV reverse remodeling occurs after CRT in patients with HF having severe RV dysfunction at baseline.

  4. Changes in Mitral Annular Ascent with Worsening Echocardiographic Parameters of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Hernández Burgos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE has been suggested as a surrogate measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, less is known about the relative value of mitral annular ascent (MAa. Methods. Our database was queried for complete transthoracic echocardiograms performed for any clinical indication. Baseline echocardiographic measurements were compared to determine any correlation between MAa and traditional Echo-Doppler echocardiographic measures to characterize left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD. Results. Patients with normal LV diastolic function were younger (41±13 years than patients with LVDD (stage 1: 61±13 years; stage 2: 57±14 years; and stage 3: 66±17 years; p=0.156. LV ejection fraction decreased in patients with stage 2 LVDD (63±17% and was further reduced in patients with stage 3 LVDD (28±21; p=0.003. Discussion. While a vigorous MAa excursion was seen in patients with stage 1 LVDD, MAa significantly decreased in stage 2 and stage 3 LVDD patients. Our results highlight the importance of atrioventricular coupling, as MAa motion seems to reflect changes in left atrial pressure. Additional studies are now required to better examine atrioventricular interactions and electromechanical coupling that might improve our assessment of LV diastolic function.

  5. Echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and blood pressure changes induced by icodextrin solution in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, R; Orihuela, O; Ventura, M-D-J; Avila-Díaz, M; Cisneros, A; Vicenté-Martínez, M; Furlong, M-D-C; García-González, Z; Villanueva, D; Prado-Uribe, M-D-C; Alcántara, G; Amato, D

    2008-04-01

    The use of icodextrin as an osmotic agent in solutions for peritoneal dialysis (PD) has important cardiovascular effects related with better control of extracellular volume. Among them, reduction of arterial pressure and an improvement in echocardiographic parameters stand out. In diabetic patients, icodextrin has additional potential advantages related with better metabolic control. In a multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial, the effects of icodextrin solutions were compared to glucose solutions on echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and blood pressure changes in diabetic patients on PD. Two phases were noted in the follow-up. In the early phase (6 months), reduction in ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and left ventricular end diastolic diameter were found in the icodextrin group. These changes correlated with changes in body fluids. In the late phase (12 months), a trend towards baseline values in ABP was seen. Changes in inferior vena cava diameter and in low frequency R-R variability spectral analysis in the icodextrin group suggest that icodextrin increases circulating blood volume and sympathetic tone, probably by accumulation of icodextrin metabolites in the bloodstream and improvement in diabetic neuropathy as a result of lower peritoneal glucose absorption. The effects of icodextrin in diabetic patients were related to better fluid management and metabolic control.

  6. 应变及应变率成像技术对中老年Ⅱ型糖尿病患者心肌功能评价的研究%Strain and strain rate imaging techniques in older patients with type II diabetes myocardial function evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩; 王丽; 赵明; 胡忠春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Explore the strain and strain rate imaging of myocardial function in elderly patients with Type II diabetes affects the situation.Methods: Select the third quarter of 2013 to the second quarter of 2014 in 52 elderly patients with diabetes type II in our hospital, and in accordance with the duration of disease were divided into Group A(≤10 years, 25 people) and B(≥15 years 27),respectively, according to the apex of two, three, four chamber facets derived tissue velocity imaging image (Tvl),after application of strain rate imaging (Strain Rate Imaging, SRI) method of left ventricular basal segments of the heart as well as the central cardiac get the strain rate curve analysis, calculated the size of the strain rate values.Results: Group A and group B comparison with the results, group A early and late diastole, peak systolic strain rate was significantly higher than that of group B. Conclusion: The strain and strain rate imaging can be more accurate evaluation of cardiac function in elderly patients with type II diabetes.%目的:探究应变及应变率成像(SRI)技术对中老年Ⅱ型糖尿病患者心肌功能的影响情况。方法:选取52例住院治疗的中老年Ⅱ型糖尿病患者,按病程长短将其分为观察组(25例)与对照组(27例),依据心尖二腔、三腔和四腔的切面得出组织速度成像图像(Tvl),运用SRI技术方法对左室基底以及心脏中部各节段心肌得到的应变率曲线进行分析,计算得出应变率值的大小。结果:观察组舒张早期和晚期、收缩期的峰值应变率明显高于对照组,两组比较具有显著差异。结论:应变及SRI可以较为准确的评价中老年Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的心肌功能。

  7. Spatial and Temporal Control of Hyperthermia Using Real Time Ultrasonic Thermal Strain Imaging with Motion Compensation, Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josquin Foiret

    Full Text Available Mild hyperthermia has been successfully employed to induce reversible physiological changes that can directly treat cancer and enhance local drug delivery. In this approach, temperature monitoring is essential to avoid undesirable biological effects that result from thermal damage. For thermal therapies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been employed to control real-time Focused Ultrasound (FUS therapies. However, combined ultrasound imaging and therapy systems offer the benefits of simple, low-cost devices that can be broadly applied. To facilitate such technology, ultrasound thermometry has potential to reliably monitor temperature. Control of mild hyperthermia was previously achieved using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller based on thermocouple measurements. Despite accurate temporal control of heating, this method is limited by the single position at which the temperature is measured. Ultrasound thermometry techniques based on exploiting the thermal dependence of acoustic parameters (such as longitudinal velocity can be extended to create thermal maps and allow an accurate monitoring of temperature with good spatial resolution. However, in vivo applications of this technique have not been fully developed due to the high sensitivity to tissue motion. Here, we propose a motion compensation method based on the acquisition of multiple reference frames prior to treatment. The technique was tested in the presence of 2-D and 3-D physiological-scale motion and was found to provide effective real-time temperature monitoring. PID control of mild hyperthermia in presence of motion was then tested with ultrasound thermometry as feedback and temperature was maintained within 0.3°C of the requested value.

  8. Diagnosing Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Ischemic Strokes and Transient Ischemic Attacks Using Echocardiographic Measurements of Left Atrium Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Kristoffer Grundtvig; Christensen, Hanne; Høst, Nis;

    2016-01-01

    AF in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). We retrospectively analyzed 219 patients who after acute IS or TIA underwent a transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Patients were designated as patients with paroxysmal AF if they had one or more reported incidents...

  9. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    -NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  10. Two- and Three-dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiographic Assessment of Tricuspid Valve Prolapse with Mid-to-Late Systolic Tricuspid Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Thind, Munveer; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-06-01

    We present the two-dimensional echocardiographic findings of tricuspid valve prolapse with mid-to-late systolic tricuspid regurgitation and describe the incremental value provided by live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. We also discuss a potential pitfall when assessing the severity of regurgitation in this setting.

  11. Imaging Mass Spectrometry by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Stress-Strain Measurements in Iontophoresis Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vinciguerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare biomechanical effect, riboflavin penetration and distribution in transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking with iontophoresis (I-CXL, with standard cross linking (S-CXL and current transepithelial protocol (TE-CXL. Materials and Methods. The study was divided into two different sections, considering, respectively, rabbit and human cadaver corneas. In both sections corneas were divided according to imbibition protocols and irradiation power. Imaging mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-IMS and stress-strain measurements were used. Forty-eight rabbit and twelve human cadaver corneas were evaluated. Results. MALDI-IMS showed a deep riboflavin penetration throughout the corneal layers with I-CXL, with a roughly lower concentration in the deepest layers when compared to S-CXL, whereas with TE-CXL penetration was considerably less. In rabbits, there was a significant increase (by 71.9% and P=0.05 in corneal rigidity after I-CXL, when compared to controls. In humans, corneal rigidity increase was not significantly different among the subgroups. Conclusions. In rabbits, I-CXL induced a significant increase in corneal stiffness as well as better riboflavin penetration when compared to controls and TE-CXL but not to S-CXL. Stress-strain in human corneas did not show significant differences among techniques, possibly because of the small sample size of groups. In conclusion, I-CXL could be a valid alternative to S-CXL for riboflavin delivery in CXL, preserving the epithelium.

  12. Strain correction in interleaved strain-encoded (SENC) cardiac MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaal, Abdallah G.; Osman, Nael F.

    2010-03-01

    The strain encoding (SENC) technique directly encodes regional strain of the heart into the acquired MR images and produces two images with two different tunings so that longitudinal strain, on the short-axis view, or circumferential strain on the long-axis view, are measured. Interleaving acquisition is used to shorten the acquisition time of the two tuned images by 50%, but it suffers from errors in the strain calculations due to inter-tunings motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a method to correct for the inter-tunings motion by estimating the motion-induced shift in the spatial frequency of the encoding pattern, which depends on the strain rate. Numerical data was generated to test the proposed method and real images of human subjects were used for validation. The proposed method corrected the measured strain values so they became nearly identical to the original ones. The results show an improvement in strain calculations so as to relax the imaging constraints on spatial and temporal resolutions and improve image quality.

  13. Assessment of left ventricular segmental function after autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction by tissue tracking and strain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wen; PAN Cui-zhen; HUANG Guo-qian; LI Yan-lin; GE Jun-bo; SHU Xian-hong

    2005-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells can be used to improve cardiac function in patients after acute myocardial infarction. In this randomized trial, we aimed to use Doppler tissue tracking and strain imaging to assess left ventricular segmental function after intracoronary transfer of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (BMCs) for 6 months' follow up. Methods Twenty patients with acute myocardial infarction and anterior descending coronary artery occlusion proven by angiography were double-blindedly randomized into intracoronary injection of bone-marrow cell (treated, n=9) or diluted serum (control, n=11) groups. GE vivid 7 and Q-analyze software were used to perform echocardiogram in both groups 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after treatment. Three apical views of tissue Doppler imaging were acquired to measure peak systolic displacement (Ds) and peak systolic strain (εpeak) from 12 segments of LV walls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were obtained by Simposon's biplane method. Results (1) 3 months later, Ds and εpeak over the infract-related region clearly increased in the BMCs group [Ds: (4.49±2.71) mm vs (7.56±2.95) mm, P0.05; εpeak : (-13.84±6.05)% vs (-15.04±6.75)%, P>0.05]. At the same time, Ds over the normal region also increased, but the Ds enhancement was markedly higher in the BMCs group than that in the control group [(3.21±3.17) mm vs (0.76±1.94) mm, P0.05). (2) LVEF in treated and control groups were almost the same at baseline (1st week after PCI) [(53.37±8.92)% vs (53.51±5.84)%, P>0.05]. But 6 months later, LVEF in the BMCs group were clearly higher than that in the control group [(59.33±12.91)% vs (50.30±8.30)%, P0.05; ESV: (57.12±18.66) ml vs (62.09±17.68) ml, P>0.05]. Three months later, EDV and ESV in the control group were markedly greater than those in the BMCs group [EDV: (154.89±46.34) ml vs (104.85±33.21) ml, P0.05). Conclusions Emergency

  14. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD OF DIFFERENT GRADES OF SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Pulmonary hypertension is the major cardiovascular complication of COPD; this is associated with right ventricular dysfunction and corpulmonale which has a poor prognosis. The detection of right ventricular (RV hypertrophy in electrocardiography (ECG has a high specificity but very low sensitivity. 2 - D echocardiogra phy can be used to assess right ventricular dimensions and the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with COPD. AIMS: This study was undertaken to observe the electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes in COPD patients with differen t grades of severity as assessed clinically and through spirometry and correlate the findings with duration and severity of the disease. METHODS: 50 patients with COPD were randomly selected over a period of 2 years. All cases were studied clinically , and underwent chest X - ray , electrocardiography , echocardiography , and spirometry. The severity of the disease was graded according to BTS (British thoracic society guidelines. Statistical analysis of correlation was done with Pearson’s test and Chi square tes t , and statistical significance was taken a p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mean age was 59.9+/ - 10.4 years , with male preponderance. Mean duration of disease was 5.71 years , with mean exposure to smoking of 23.2 +/ - 3.6 pack years. ECG findings that showed significant correlation with severity of disease were ‘p’ pulmonale , right axis deviation , right bundle branch block , right ventricular hypertrophy and poor ‘R’ wave progression. Only right axis deviation increased significantly with duration of disease. Among echocardiographic findings , R.A (right atrial / R.V dilatation , R.V. failure , pulmonary hypertension and corpulmonale also showed significant correlation with severity of disease. With respect to duration of disease , R

  15. Effect of atropine-dobutamine stress test on left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in untrained warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandersen, Charlotte F; Detilleux, Johanne; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Loon, Gunther; Amory, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined atropine low-dose dobutamine stress test on left ventricular parameters in adult warmblood horses, to establish a potential protocol for pharmacological stress echocardiography. Seven healthy untrained warmblood horses aged 9 to 22 years were used. Heart rate (HR) and left ventricular B- and M-mode dimensions were recorded at baseline and during stress testing with 35 microg/kg atropine IV followed by incremental dobutamine infusion of 2 to 6 microg/kg/min. HR increased significantly (P stress test induced significant changes in left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in adult warmblood horses. Additional research should evaluate the value of this stress test in horses suffering from cardiac disease.

  16. Echocardiographic findings in a goat with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic parasitic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Pinard, J; Ferrouillet, C; Veillette, M

    2010-02-01

    A four-year old goat was presented for anorexia and apathy since kidding one week earlier. Physical examination revealed dyspnea, extensive ascites and bilateral distended jugular veins, suggestive of congestive right heart failure. The echocardiographic findings of severe right ventricular and atrial dilatation were consistent with right heart failure. In the absence of abnormalities in the right ventricular outflow tract a diagnosis of cor pulmonale secondary to lung disease was posed. Due to a poor prognosis, the goat was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed cor pulmonale and identified severe chronic parasitic pneumonia as underlying cause. Echocardiography is an interesting tool also applicable in the farm for diagnosing heart diseases in goats, and its use should help to avoid unnecessary therapy in cases with a poor prognosis.

  17. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  18. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Søholm, Helle; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14......Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs...... of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p...

  19. Invasive and noninvasive assessment of pulmonic regurgitation: clinical, angiographic, phonocardiographic, echocardiographic, and Doppler ultrasound correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraratna, P A; Wilson, D; Imaizumi, T; Ritter, W S; Aronow, W S

    1982-06-01

    Three patients with pulmonic regurgitation and no evidence of pulmonary hypertension were investigated. These patients had low pitched diastolic murmurs which increased on inspiration, evidence of connective tissue disease as manifested by lax joints and hyperextensible skin, and marked hilar dance which extended up to the peripheral vessels. Suprasternal echocardiography revealed dilatation and increased systolic expansion of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) (25% and 28%, respectively) in two patients; the third patient had a normal RPA dimension in diastole and a marked increase in diameter (88%) in systole. Thus, these three patients demonstrated hyperdistensibility of the RPA. The spectral signal from the pulsed doppler echocardiograph showed evidence of turbulent blood flow in diastole (wide dispersion of the dots) in the right ventricular outflow tract in all three patients. This pattern was indicative of pulmonic regurgitation. In summary, the combined use of echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound is useful in the evaluation of patients with pulmonic regurgitation.

  20. The role of biomedical knowledge in echocardiographic interpretation expertise development: a correlation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about factors of relevance for achieving knowledge of echocardiography (TTE); one of the essential skills defined by the European Society of Cardiology Core Curriculum. Recent research in other fields suggests that biomedical knowledge plays a more prominent role...... in professional practice than previously assumed. This study investigates the role of biomedical knowledge represented by physiology knowledge in the development of echocardiographic expertise. Methods: Forty-five physicians (15 novices, 15 intermediates and 15 experts) were evaluated on echocardiography...... interpretation skills. An anatomical focused checklist was developed based on Danish Cardiology Society guidelines for a standard echocardiography of adults. A TTE case of a common and complex clinical presentation was recorded and presented to participants on a portable computer using EchoPac software...

  1. Means for load variation during echocardiographic assessment of the Frank-Starling relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, B Z; Silvestry, S C; Davis, J W; Kisslo, J A; Glower, D D

    1999-10-01

    Because minimally invasive methods of preload variation are not validated for load-insensitive indexes of cardiac performance, intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG), phenylephrine, and saline solution (VOL) boluses were used in blocked and intact autonomic states to alter load and were compared with vena caval occlusion in the assessment of preload recruitable stroke work relationships between stroke work and left ventricular end-diastolic volume in dogs. In both autonomic states NTG and VOL produced comparable linear relationships. NTG and saline solution were combined with noninvasive measurements of left ventricular pressure and volume to construct echocardiographic relationships between stroke work and left ventricular end-diastolic cross-sectional area; NTG produced linear relationships similar to vena caval occlusion. Therefore NTG and VOL reliably alter load in constructing preload recruitable stroke work relationships, and NTG may be used with noninvasive measurements to provide load-insensitive estimates of cardiac function in a minimally invasive manner.

  2. Comprehensive assessment of biventricular function and aortic stiffness in athletes with different forms of training by three-dimensional echocardiography and strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitarelli, Antonio; Capotosto, Lidia; Placanica, Giuseppe; Caranci, Fiorella; Pergolini, Mario; Zardo, Francesco; Martino, Francesco; De Chiara, Stefania; Vitarelli, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown distinct models of cardiac adaptations to the training in master athletes and different effects of endurance and strength-training on cardiovascular function. We attempted to assess left-ventricular (LV) function, aortic (Ao) function, and right-ventricular (RV) function in athletes with different forms of training by using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking imaging (STI). We examined 35 male marathon runners (endurance-trained athletes, ETA), 35 powerlifting athletes (strength-trained athletes, STA), 35 martial arts athletes (mixed-trained athletes, MTA), and 35 sedentary untrained healthy men (controls, CTR). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography were performed for the assessment of LV and RV systolic/diastolic function. LV and RV longitudinal strain (LS) and LV torsion (LVtor) were determined using STI (EchoPAC BT11, GE-Ultrasound). Maximum velocity of systolic wall expansion peaks (AoSvel) was determined using TDI. ETA experienced LV eccentric hypertrophy with increased 3D LV end-diastolic volume and mass and significant increase in peak systolic apical rotation and LVtor. In all groups of athletes, RV-LS was reduced at rest and improved after exercise. AoSvel was significantly increased in ETA and MTA and significantly decreased in STA compared with CTR. There were good correlations between LV remodelling and aortic stiffness values. Multivariate analysis showed aortic wall velocities to be independently related to LV mass index. In strength-trained, endurance-trained, and mixed-trained athletes, ventricular and vascular response assessed by 3DE, TDI, and STI underlies different adaptations of LV, RV, and aortic indexes.

  3. Changes in Mitral Annular Geometry after Aortic Valve Replacement: A Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Chen, Tzong-Huei; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec® Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters. Results Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p <0.001), circumference (-8.9% p <0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p <0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 62%, p <0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Conclusion The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve. PMID:23409347

  4. Echocardiographic Follow up After Surgical Correction of Aortic Coarctation During The First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligere Elīna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the aorta (AoCo accounts for 6–10% of congenital heart diseases in infants. We analysed echocardiographic findings of patients operated on for AoCo in the University Hospital for Children in Riga during the first year of life to evaluate the long-term findings. Fifty-nine children underwent surgical correction of AoCo at the age of 55 ± 61 days. The methods of surgical correction were anastomosis end-to-end (ETE in 29% (n = 17, subclavian flap aortoplasty (SFA in 64% (n = 38 and extended anastomosis end-to-end (EETE in 7% (n = 4. Recoarctation developed in 15 patients (25% with no difference between surgical techniques (P > 0.05. The recoarcation patients had left ventricle hypertrophy (left ventricle mass index (LVMi 76 ± 19 g/m2.7 normalising after angioplasty (LVMi 42 ± 7 g/m2.7. Patients with recoarctation had a decreased pulsed wave (PW Doppler systolic/diastolic ratio in abdominal aorta 2.3 ± 0.4 versus patientswithout recoarctation 5.3 ± 1.2 and the control group 6.3 ± 1.4 (P < 0.05. A high incidence of recoarctation exists in patients operated on for AoCo as small infants. Life-long surveillance is required to monitor and to intervene in a timely way. Supplementation of the echocardiographic protocol with an evaluation of PW Doppler flow pattern in abdominal aorta can provide additional information about the presence of obstruction.

  5. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimpour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS. Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classified into two subgroups according to the type of the mothers’ diabetes: pre-gestational and gestational. They were also those were classified into three subgroups according to their birth weight: appropriate, large and small for gestational age. Data analysis was made by Fisher exact test and Chi-Square test. Results: Forty nine (65% and thirty six (35% of subjects were infants of gestational (IGDM and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (IPDM, respectively. Fifty five Newborns (73% were apropriate, fourteen (19% were large and six (8% were small for gestational age. The most common echocardiographic findings included: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA: 54.7%, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP: 24%, ventricular septal defect (VSD: 4%, atrial septal defect (ASD: 2.7%, transposition of great arteries (TGA: 1.3% and coarctation of the Aorta (COA: 1.3%. Overall incidence of congenital heart diseases was 9.3 after exclusion of PDA and HCMP cases. The incidence of congenital heart diseases was higher in macrosomic than nonmacrosomic infants of diabetic mothers (P<0.001. Congenital heart diseases were more common in infants of pre-gestational than gestational diabetic mothers (P=0.004. Conclusion: Our results showed that diabetic mothers are at increased risk of giving birth to a newborn with congenital heart disease, and transthoracic echocardiography is recommended for all infants of diabetic mothers.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure and echocardiographic left ventricular dimensions in elderly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, V; Piccirillo, G; Cicconetti, P; Bianchi, A; Capponi, L; Salza, M C; Cacciafesta, M; Marigliano, V

    1996-10-01

    In a consecutive series of 62 hypertensive elderly subjects, the authors studied the relation of blood pressure circadian variations with echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. All the subjects were submitted to an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and to B- and M-mode echocardiography. In the elderly hypertensive group, LV mass index (LVMI) was more strongly related to twenty-four-hour, daytime and nighttime systolic ambulatory blood pressure (r = 0.52, r = 0.37, r = 0.51) than diastolic ambulatory blood pressures were (r = 0.32, r = 0.18, r = 0.33). Casual systolic and diastolic blood pressure (CBP) was found more weakly related to LVMI than ambulatory blood pressures were (r = 0.35, r = 0.26). Elderly hypertensive subjects were divided into two subgroups in relation to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of blood pressure nocturnal decline. No differences were found between these two subgroups in regard to: casual blood pressure values, ambulatory blood pressures in the diurnal period, sex, body surface area, height, weight, and age. LVMIs were computed in all three groups and showed the following results: 89.32 +/- 19.76 in elderly normotensives, 91.21 +/- 31.32 in group 1, and 99.80 +/- 18.21 in group 2. Echocardiographic parameters of LV dimensions and LVMIs were different in group 1 and 2. An inverse correlation, statistically significant, was observed between LVMIs and the nocturnal blood pressure reduction (systolic: r = -0.36, P < 0.05; diastolic: r = -0.29, P < 0.05). These results suggest an association between a smaller LV mass and nocturnal blood pressure decline in elderly hypertensive patients.

  7. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  8. Papillary fibroelastoma: clinical and echocardiographic features and initial approach in 54 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Tomás Francisco; Soumoulou, Juan Bautista; Lax, Jorge Alberto; Saccheri, María Cristina; Cozzarin, Alberto; Beck, Martín Alejandro; Ferreiro, Daniel Ernesto; Prezioso, Horacio Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) is a benign cardiac tumor that is currently detected more often due to the technological improvements in echocardiography. To describe the echocardiographic features of PFE and correlate them with the clinical presentation and initial treatment. A prospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of PFE was conducted between 2000 and 2015. We assessed the clinical history, symptoms at the time of diagnosis, echocardiographic features, and initial treatment. Fifty-four patients with a diagnosis of PFE by echocardiography were included. The incidence was 0.038%. Mean age was 62±16 years; 50% were male. Forty-six percent of patients had symptoms at the time of diagnosis, the most frequent of which was transient ischemic accident (TIA). Embolic episodes occurred in 31% of patients, mainly to the brain. PFEs were valvular in 70.4% of cases and multiple in 13%. Mean maximum length was 1.18±0.58 cm, and 44% were mobile. PFEs >1.5 cm were most often found in the heart valves (56.8% vs 10.8%; P=.045). There was no significant relation between size, mobility, location and number of tumors, and the presence of embolism or symptoms. Most frequent treatment was oral anticoagulation in 48.6%, followed by simple tumor resection in 42.8% of cases. PFE is a small tumor, predominantly valvular and benign, but entails a high incidence of cerebral embolism. The initial approach should be individualized according to clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and the experience of the surgical center. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tissue Doppler echocardiographic quantification. Comparison to coronary angiography results in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allal Joseph

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiples indices have been described using tissue Doppler imaging (DTI capabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of one or several regional DTI parameters in separating control from ischemic myocardium. Methods Twenty-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction were imaged within 24-hour following an emergent coronary angioplasty. Seventeen controls without any coronary artery or myocardial disease were also explored. Global and regional left ventricular functions were assessed. High frame rate color DTI cineloop recordings were made in apical 4 and 2-chamber for subsequent analysis. Peak velocity during isovolumic contraction time (IVC, ejection time, isovolumic relaxation (IVR and filling time were measured at the mitral annulus and the basal, mid and apical segments of each of the walls studied as well as peak systolic displacement and peak of strain. Results DTI-analysis enabled us to discriminate between the 3 populations (controls, inferior and anterior AMI. Even in non-ischemic segments, velocities and displacements were reduced in the 2 AMI populations. Peak systolic displacement was the best parameter to discriminate controls from AMI groups (wall by wall, p was systematically Conclusion DTI-analysis appears to be valuable in ischemic heart disease assessment. Its clinical impact remains to be established. However this simple index might really help in intensive care unit routine practice.

  10. Strain Promoted Click Chemistry of 2- or 8-Azidopurine and 5-Azidopyrimidine Nucleosides and 8-Azidoadenosine Triphosphate with Cyclooctynes. Application to Living Cell Fluorescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Jessica; Annoual, Marie; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Felty, Quentin; Gonzalez, Walter G; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Sharifai, Nima; Chiba, Akira; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2015-08-19

    Strain-promoted click chemistry of nucleosides and nucleotides with an azido group directly attached to the purine and pyrimidine rings with various cyclooctynes in aqueous solution at ambient temperature resulted in efficient formation (3 min to 3 h) of fluorescent, light-up, triazole products. The 2- and 8-azidoadenine nucleosides reacted with fused cyclopropyl cyclooctyne, dibenzylcyclooctyne, or monofluorocyclooctyne to produce click products functionalized with hydroxyl, amino, N-hydroxysuccinimide, or biotin moieties. The 5-azidouridine and 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine were similarly converted to the analogous triazole products in quantitative yields in less than 5 min. The 8-azido-ATP quantitatively afforded the triazole product with fused cyclopropyl cyclooctyne in aqueous acetonitrile (3 h). The novel triazole adducts at the 2- or 8-position of adenine or 5-position of uracil rings induce fluorescence properties which were used for direct imaging in MCF-7 cancer cells without the need for traditional fluorogenic reporters. FLIM of the triazole click adducts demonstrated their potential utility for dynamic measuring and tracking of signaling events inside single living cancer cells.

  11. Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy as assessed by time-based speckle tracking imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Abdul; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Elvan, Arif

    2015-04-01

    Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is still difficult to predict with previously investigated dyssynchrony indices. The predictive value of speckle tracking strain analysis has not been fully delineated yet. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of longitudinal strain (LS) and radial strain (RS) speckle tracking measurements on echocardiographic and clinical response to CRT. A total of 138 consecutive patients with functional class II-IV heart failure who underwent CRT were studied. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and during follow-up. Six different time-based left ventricular (LV)-dyssynchrony indices were measured with LS and RS. Echocardiographic response to CRT was defined as a reduction in LV end-systolic volume ≥15% and clinical response as survival without heart failure hospitalization. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Echocardiographic and clinical follow-up was 22 ± 8 and 42 ± 8 months, respectively. Ninety-six patients (70%) were classified as echocardiographic responders and 114 patients (83%) survived without heart failure hospitalization. QRS duration and nonischemic etiology predicted echocardiographic response to CRT. None of the speckle tracking indices was different between echocardiographic responders and nonresponders to CRT. Regarding clinical response, only maximal delay between six segments in four-chamber view measured with LS was different between responders and nonresponders, with 154-ms delay as the optimal cut-off value. Neither stratified analyses in patients with sinus rhythm nor multivariable analyses did change these findings. Of all time-based measured speckle tracking indices, only maximal delay between six segments in four-chamber view as assessed with LS was associated with clinical response to CRT. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Value of 3D Printing Models of Left Atrial Appendage Using Real-Time 3D Transesophageal Echocardiographic Data in Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion: Applications toward an Era of Truly Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Rijing; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yingfeng; Tang, Xiaoming; Cheng, Yanzhen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of generating 3D printing models of left atrial appendage (LAA) using real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data for preoperative reference of LAA occlusion. Percutaneous LAA occlusion can effectively prevent patients with atrial fibrillation from stroke. However, the anatomical structure of LAA is so complicated that adequate information of its structure is essential for successful LAA occlusion. Emerging 3D printing technology has the demonstrated potential to structure more accurately than conventional imaging modalities by creating tangible patient-specific models. Typically, 3D printing data sets are acquired from CT and MRI, which may involve intravenous contrast, sedation, and ionizing radiation. It has been reported that 3D models of LAA were successfully created by the data acquired from CT. However, 3D printing of the LAA using real-time 3D TEE data has not yet been explored. Acquisition of 3D transesophageal echocardiographic data from 8 patients with atrial fibrillation was performed using the Philips EPIQ7 ultrasound system. Raw echocardiographic image data were opened in Philips QLAB and converted to 'Cartesian DICOM' format and imported into Mimics® software to create 3D models of LAA, which were printed using a rubber-like material. The printed 3D models were then used for preoperative reference and procedural simulation in LAA occlusion. We successfully printed LAAs of 8 patients. Each LAA costs approximately CNY 800-1,000 and the total process takes 16-17 h. Seven of the 8 Watchman devices predicted by preprocedural 2D TEE images were of the same sizes as those placed in the real operation. Interestingly, 3D printing models were highly reflective of the shape and size of LAAs, and all device sizes predicted by the 3D printing model were fully consistent with those placed in the real operation. Also, the 3D printed model could predict operating difficulty and the

  13. Myocardial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease evaluated by global 2-dimensional strain imaging%二维超声应变评价慢性肾病心肌损害的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泓; 曹铁生; 杨斌; 傅宁华; 李娟; 孙晖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether global 2-dimensional strain imaging can offer additional benefit over conventional echocardiography to detect subclinical myocardial damage in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD). Methods Conventional echocardiography and global 2-dimension strain imaging were performed in 39 patients with CKD [23 men and 16 women,mean age (45.6± 14.6) years] and 29 control subjects. Twenty patients had CKD stage 2 or 3(group 1 ) and nineteen patients had CKD stage 4 or 5(group 2). Left ventricular structure and function were evaluated by conventional echocardiography. Global longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate were analyzed. Results There were no differences in ejection fraction and fraction shortening between CKD patients and controls. Compared with controls, CKD groups had significantly decreased value of global longitudinal strain and strain rate. Global longitudinal strain decreased from - (23.8 ± 3.1 ) % in controls to - ( 18. 5 ± 2.4) % in group 1 and to - (15.2 ± 3.2) % in group 2 ( P <0. 001 ). Compared with controls, there was no difference in global circumferential strain and strain rate between group 1 and controls, but global circumferential strain and strain rate of group 2 was reduced [ - (17.1± 3. 0) % vs -(21.2±2.8)%, P<0.05;-(1.0±0.2)% vs -(1.3±0.3)%, P<0.05]. In correlation analyses, global longitudinal strain was positively related to eGFR( r =0. 376, P <0. 001 ) and inversely related to left ventricular mass index( r = - 0. 473, P <0.01). Conclusions Global 2-dimensional strain imaging may represent a useful tool for the assessment of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with CKD.%目的 探讨整体二维超声应变成像评价慢性肾病(CKD)心肌损害的价值.方法 39例CKD患者,其中20例为2~3期CKD患者(组1),19例为4~5期CKD患者(组2),设29例正常对照.使用常规超声心动图评价左室结构和功能,使用二维超声应变成像评价心肌整

  14. 3D strain measurement in soft tissue: demonstration of a novel inverse finite element model algorithm on MicroCT images of a tissue phantom exposed to negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R; Zhao, Y; Cunningham, K; Kieswetter, K; Haridas, B

    2009-07-01

    This study describes a novel system for acquiring the 3D strain field in soft tissue at sub-millimeter spatial resolution during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Recent research in advanced wound treatment modalities theorizes that microdeformations induced by the application of sub-atmospheric (negative) pressure through V.A.C. GranuFoam Dressing, a reticulated open-cell polyurethane foam (ROCF), is instrumental in regulating the mechanobiology of granulation tissue formation [Saxena, V., Hwang, C.W., Huang, S., Eichbaum, Q., Ingber, D., Orgill, D.P., 2004. Vacuum-assisted closure: Microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114, 1086-1096]. While the clinical response is unequivocal, measurement of deformations at the wound-dressing interface has not been possible due to the inaccessibility of the wound tissue beneath the sealed dressing. Here we describe the development of a bench-test wound model for microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging of deformation induced by NPWT and an algorithm set for quantifying the 3D strain field at sub-millimeter resolution. Microdeformations induced in the tissue phantom revealed average tensile strains of 18%-23% at sub-atmospheric pressures of -50 to -200 mmHg (-6.7 to -26.7 kPa). The compressive strains (22%-24%) and shear strains (20%-23%) correlate with 2D FEM studies of microdeformational wound therapy in the reference cited above. We anticipate that strain signals quantified using this system can then be used in future research aimed at correlating the effects of mechanical loading on the phenotypic expression of dermal fibroblasts in acute and chronic ulcer models. Furthermore, the method developed here can be applied to continuum deformation analysis in other contexts, such as 3D cell culture via confocal microscopy, full scale CT and MRI imaging, and in machine vision.

  15. Correlation analysis of the relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide and selected echocardiographic parameters in patients with permanent pacemakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sielski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the practical value of BNP measurements and echocardiographic left ventricular volume index in patients with permanent pacemakers because there are no such reports in the literature. Aim of the research: The aim of the study was to reveal multiple correlations between BNP levels and selected echocardiographic parameters of the left atrium in patients with permanent pacemakers. In the literature there are reports on the significance of BNP values and left atrial size in patients with permanent pacemakers. The results of the present study appear to be of value in the outpatient assessment of these patients. Material and methods: We analysed a group of 117 patients with permanent pacemakers (AAI/R 21 patients, DDD/R 59 patients, VVI/R 37 patients and 48 healthy volunteers serving as the control group. BNP measurements were performed on venous blood samples using Triage meters. The Simpson method and the ellipse method were used to assess the left atrium on echocardiography. Results: There was a significant correlation between BNP and maximum left atrial volume, minimum left atrial volume, and left atrial volume index in patients with AAI/R, DDD/R, and VVI/R pacemakers at 3 and 6 months after the implantation. Conclusions : In patients after implantation of permanent pacemakers there are correlations between BNP values and echocardiographic left atrial parameters, especially in patients with DDD/R pacemakers. Left atrial function improves in patients with DDD/R pacemakers. Pacemaker check-up should be extended to include BNP measurements and echocardiographic assessment of the left atrium.

  16. Influence of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Echocardiographic Data of Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo Salgado; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; de Albuquerque, Felipe Neves; Schneider, Roberta Siuffo; Gimenez, Alinne; Pozzan, Roberto; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; de Albuquerque, Denilson Campos

    2016-01-01

    Background Association between angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and different clinical and echocardiographic outcomes has been described in patients with heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease. Studying the genetic profile of the local population with both diseases is necessary to assess the occurrence of that association. Objectives To assess the frequency of ACE gene polymorphisms in patients with ischemic HF in a Rio de Janeiro population, as well as its association with echocardiographic findings. Methods Genetic assessment of I/D ACE polymorphism in association with clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic analysis of 99 patients. Results The allele frequency was: 53 I alleles, and 145 D alleles. Genotype frequencies were: 49.5% DD; 47.48% DI; 3.02% II. Drug treatment was optimized: 98% on beta-blockers, and 84.8% on ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Echocardiographic findings: difference between left ventricular diastolic diameters (ΔLVDD) during follow-up: 2.98±8.94 (DD) vs. 0.68±8.12 (DI) vs. -11.0±7.00 (II), p=0.018; worsening during follow-up of the LV systolic diameter (LVSD): 65.3% DD vs. 19.0% DI vs. 0.0% II, p=0.01; of the LV diastolic diameter (LVDD): 65.3% DD vs. 46.8% DI vs. 0.0% II, p=0.03; and of the LV ejection fraction (LVEF): 67.3% DD vs. 40.4% DI vs. 33.3% II, p=0.024. Correlated with D allele: ΔLVEF, ΔLVSD, ΔLVDD. Conclusions More DD genotype patients had worsening of the LVEF, LVSD and LVDD, followed by DI genotype patients, while II genotype patients had the best outcome. The same pattern was observed for ΔLVDD. PMID:27812677

  17. Barnidipine or Lercanidipine on Echocardiographic Parameters in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetics with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Derosa; Amedeo Mugellini; Fabrizio Querci; Ivano Franzetti; Rosa Maria Pesce; Angela D’Angelo; Pamela Maffioli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lercanidipine or barnidipine on echocardiographic parameters, in hypertensive, type 2 diabetics with left ventricular hypertrophy. One hundred and forty-four patients were randomized to lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, or barnidipine, 20 mg/day, in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We evaluated: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (...

  18. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width, Hematology, and Serum Biochemistry in Dogs with Echocardiographically Estimated Precapillary and Postcapillary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantitative measurement of anisocytosis. RDW has prognostic value in humans with different cardiovascular and systemic disorders, but few studies have investigated this biomarker in dogs. Objectives To compare the RDW in dogs with precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) and a control population of dogs and to correlate RDW with demographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables. Animals One hundred and twenty‐se...

  19. Influence of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Echocardiographic Data of Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Salgado Duque

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Association between angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE gene polymorphisms and different clinical and echocardiographic outcomes has been described in patients with heart failure (HF and coronary artery disease. Studying the genetic profile of the local population with both diseases is necessary to assess the occurrence of that association. Objectives: To assess the frequency of ACE gene polymorphisms in patients with ischemic HF in a Rio de Janeiro population, as well as its association with echocardiographic findings. Methods: Genetic assessment of I/D ACE polymorphism in association with clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic analysis of 99 patients. Results: The allele frequency was: 53 I alleles, and 145 D alleles. Genotype frequencies were: 49.5% DD; 47.48% DI; 3.02% II. Drug treatment was optimized: 98% on beta-blockers, and 84.8% on ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Echocardiographic findings: difference between left ventricular diastolic diameters (ΔLVDD during follow-up: 2.98±8.94 (DD vs. 0.68±8.12 (DI vs. -11.0±7.00 (II, p=0.018; worsening during follow-up of the LV systolic diameter (LVSD: 65.3% DD vs. 19.0% DI vs. 0.0% II, p=0.01; of the LV diastolic diameter (LVDD: 65.3% DD vs. 46.8% DI vs. 0.0% II, p=0.03; and of the LV ejection fraction (LVEF: 67.3% DD vs. 40.4% DI vs. 33.3% II, p=0.024. Correlated with D allele: ΔLVEF, ΔLVSD, ΔLVDD. Conclusions: More DD genotype patients had worsening of the LVEF, LVSD and LVDD, followed by DI genotype patients, while II genotype patients had the best outcome. The same pattern was observed for ΔLVDD.

  20. [Malnutrition in dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation with echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, L G; Csengeri, L F; Alonso, R R; Ciscato, C M; Barreto, A C; Bellotti, G; Pileggi, F

    1992-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence of severe protein-calorie malnutrition in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DC), and its correlation with left ventricular contractility. Group A--51 patients with DC in decompensated congestive heart failure class III or IV, 36 men, aged 51.9 +/- 15.6 years. Group B--25 patients admitted for elective myocardial revascularization with normal LV contractility, 20 men, aged 57.2 +/- 10.5 years. Tricipital skinfold thickness (TS) and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were obtained in all patients. Severe protein-calorie malnutrition was defined when both measurements were below the fifth populational percentile (Frisancho tables). In Group Am the echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) diastolic diameter (DD), ejection fraction (EF) and systolic volume (SV) were obtained. Those LV parameters were compared between DC patients with and without severe malnutrition. Correlation analysis were performed between TS, MAMC and LV DD, EF, and SV, in the patients of Group A. Severe malnutrition occurred in 7/51 (13.7%) of Group A, and none in Group B. TS values were of 8.90 +/- 4.47 cm in Gr. A and 23.48 +/- 8.52 in B (p < 0.001). MAMC measured 22.25 +/- 3.13 cm in Gr. A and 23.58 +/- 8.52 in B (p = 0.03), LVEF was of 36.29 +/- 9.43% in severe malnutrition patients and of 37.84 +/- 9.78 in the other patients of Group A (p = 0.70). Conversely, LVDD was of 70.90 +/- 11.3 mm vs. 70.75 +/- 8.54 mm (p = 0.98), and LVSV was of 113.0 +/- 52.7 ml vs. 137.6 +/- 56.8 (p = 0.45), when compared severe malnutrition with the rest of patients of Group A. No correlation was found between TS and MAMC and LV, EF, DD and SV in Group A. Severe malnutrition was frequent in patients with DC and heart failure. TS measurements, reflecting caloric reserves, were more affected. Echocardiographic parameters of LV function did not correlate with nutritional status.

  1. Persistent reduction in left ventricular strain using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography after balloon valvuloplasty in children with congenital valvular aortic stenosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, K.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Feuth, T.; Thijssen, J.M.; Oort, A.M. van; Tanke, R.B.; Kapusta, L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investige serial changes of myocardial deformation using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic (2DSTE) imaging in children undergoing balloon valvuloplasty for congenital valvular aortic stenosis (VAS). METHODS: Thirty-seven children with isolate

  2. Impact of mitral E/A ratio on the accuracy of different echocardiographic indices to estimate left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerner, Tudor C; Goebel, Björn; Kralev, Stefan; Kaden, Jens J; Süselbeck, Tim; Haase, Karl K; Borggrefe, Martin; Haghi, Dariusch

    2007-05-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of left ventricular (LV) inflow pattern on the accuracy of different echocardiographic indices for estimation of LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Echocardiography with color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and LVEDP measurements using fluid-filled catheters were performed in 176 consecutive patients on the same day. Mitral peak diastolic velocities (E, A) and the difference in duration between pulmonary venous retrograde velocity and mitral A-velocity (PV(R)-A) were recorded by pulsed Doppler. Propagation velocity of the early mitral inflow (V(P)) was assessed using color M-mode. Early diastolic longitudinal (E'(lat)) and radial (E'(radial)) velocities of mitral annulus were measured by TDI. Area under ROC curve (AUC) for prediction of elevated LVEDP (> or =15 mm Hg) was computed for each parameter. For E/A > or =1 (98 patients, 46 with elevated LVEDP), the AUC values were: PV(R)-A: 0.914; E/E'(lat): 0.780; E/E'(radial): 0.729; E/V(P): 0.712 (p PV(R)-A reached statistical significance (AUC = 0.893, p PV(R)-A enabled the most accurate noninvasive estimation of LVEDP irrespective of LV filling profile and combined indices E/V(P), E/E'(lat) and E/E'(radial) represent more feasible alternatives for patients with mitral E/A-1.

  3. Myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in aortic stenosis: hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of patients with and without angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, R; DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S; Morganroth, J

    1983-08-01

    Angina pectoris is a common symptom in patients with aortic stenosis without coronary artery disease. To investigate the correlates of angina pectoris, echocardiographic and hemodynamic data from 44 patients with aortic stenosis and no coronary artery disease (mean age 56 +/- 10 years) were analyzed. Twenty-three patients had no angina pectoris and 21 patients had angina pectoris. The ratio of the diastolic pressure-time index (area between the aortic and left ventricular pressure curves during diastole) to the systolic pressure-time index (area under the left ventricular pressure curve during systole), an index of the oxygen supply/demand ratio, was not different in patients with or without angina pectoris. There were no differences between patients with and without angina pectoris in echocardiographically determined wall thickness, chamber size, systolic and diastolic wall stress and left ventricular mass; in electrocardiographically defined voltage; and in hemodynamically defined aortic valve area, transaortic gradient and stroke work index. Thus, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements at rest are not significantly different in the presence or absence of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis. Dynamic data appear to be essential for evaluation of the mechanisms of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis.

  4. 应变率成像评价左房局部功能的临床研究进展%Clinic research progress on evaluation of left atrial local function using strain rate imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晨芳; 农丽录

    2014-01-01

    心肌应变率成像(SRI)是组织速度成像基础上发展起来的一种超声心动图技术,可作为评价心房局部心肌功能的量化指标,目前在各种心脏疾病中的应用得到广泛研究。本文阐述了SRI的定义、测量方法及优缺点,并对其在评价一些心脏疾病左房局部功能的应用进展做一综述。%Myocardial strain rate imaging is a new technology developed from tissue Doppler imaging which can be used for a quantitative index to evaluate local myocardial function. The myocardial strain rate imaging have been studied widely in all kinds of heart diseases. This article reviews the definition,measurements,virtue and limitations of myocardial strain rate,and discusses its clinical application on evaluation of left atrial local function in patients with heart disease.

  5. Intraobserver reproducibility of parameters of standard and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography, dynamics of global longitudinal strain I in patients with acute primary anterior STEMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercheva, M.; Ryabova, T.; Ryabov, V.; Karpov, R.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intraobserver reproducibility of parameters of standard and 2 dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, dynamics of global longitudinal strain in patients with acute primary anterior STEMI. The study included 24 patients, mean age 58.46±10.2. Echocardiography with 2D speckle tracking imaging was performed on the 1st (T1), 7th (T2), 14th days (T3) after STEMI («Vivid E9»). Analysis of echocardiographic images was performed offline at the different periods by the two independent observers (EchoPac) - experienced and inexperienced. In order to assess the agreement between standard and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography, a correlation analysis (Pearson correlation, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and Bland-Altman analysis were undertaken. The 23 patients had urgent reperfusion therapy, 6 patients underwent primary PCI, 16 patients - PCI after successful fibrinolysis (68%). GLS and WMSI had the best intraobsever reproducibility. Dynamics of EDV LV, ESV LV, EF LV was without significant differences. Nevertheless, it was found positive dynamic of GLS: - 12.65±3.53 (T1), -13.61±3.81 (T2), -14.27±4.1 (T3), pspeckle-tracking and standard echocardiography was revealed in GLS and WMSI. The modern management of STEMI patients limits adverse postinfarction remodeling and preserves of global left ventricular contractility detected by the EF LV. However, GLS had the positive dynamics and improved to the 14th day.

  6. Frequency of echocardiographic complications of dilated cardiomyopathy at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Ahmed, Rehan; Ahmed, Nasir; Rashid, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy can lead to a variety of complications recognisable on clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and radiographic assessment. Among this, transthoracic echocardiography has the dual advantage of being helpful in making the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy as well as an effective tool in early recognition of certain complications for timely management to improve the quality of life of these patients. This descriptive (case series) study was undertaken at Departments of Medicine, Cardiology, Paediatrics and Obs/Gyn, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from July to December, 2008. Fifty patients of dilated cardiomyopathy without age and gender discrimination were selected by convenience sampling. Those with hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathies, valvular and congenital heart disease, hypertension and ischemic heart disease were excluded. Mean age was 47.12 +/- 17.9 year with male predominance (males=34, females=16). Mean ejection fraction was 30.6 +/- 6.9%. Complications revealed on echocardiography were intracardiac thrombi (5, 10%), spontaneous echo contrast (5, 10%), pericardial effusion (6, 12%), mitral regurgitation (46, 92%), tricuspid (25, 50%), aortic (5, 10%), pulmonary (2, 4%) multi-valvular regurgitation (28, 56%), and left atrial dilatation (36, 72%). LV systolic dysfunction, cardiac thrombi, spontaneous echo contrast, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and left atrial enlargement are important complications of dilated cardiomyopathy. Echocardiography is important tool towards identification of these complications.

  7. STUDY OF ECG AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN COPD PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available COPD is a major cause of death worldwide. Early identification of the complications, particularly pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction can prevent or delay long-term complications. AIM OF THE STUDY To study ECG and Echocardiographic profile among COPD patients and study their importance in the management of COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have studied 103 (N=103 patients diagnosed as COPD in our tertiary care centre. We categorized them into mild (FEV1/FVC80% predicted, Moderate (FEV1/FVC1 was seen in 4.44%. Atrial ectopics were seen in 18.55% and ventricular ectopics were seen in 3.09%. Right axis deviation was seen in 5.55% and no ECG changes in 39.17%. Echocardiogram showed consistent abnormal findings in 94%. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was seen in 94.84%, RV hypertrophy was seen in 26.82%. Cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac failure were seen in 8.24% each. ECG and Echocardiography can identify early pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction. Proper institution of therapy can prevent long-term complications of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure and can prolong the life and improve quality of life among COPD patients.

  8. Tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided valve surgery: echocardiographic evaluation and optimal timing of surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Chisato

    2015-03-01

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation may often appear and progress late after left-sided valve surgery without left-sided valve dysfunction, significant left heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. The clinical features, echocardiographic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of this disease entity have been discussed, but data is limited compared with left-sided valve diseases. Tricuspid annular dilatation associated with atrial fibrillation and right ventricular dysfunction strongly relate to development of isolated tricuspid regurgitation late after left-sided valve surgery. Three-dimensional evaluation may be useful in evaluating tricuspid valve anatomy in more detail. Better prognosis in patients undergoing surgical treatment for severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation than those who were treated medically has been reported; however, the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery is often too late. Right ventricular function is a key word for determining the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery; however, it is difficult to evaluate by conventional echocardiography. One of the serious issues in the future will be how to accurately evaluate right ventricular function.

  9. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Echocardiographic and phonocardiographic assessment of the St. Jude cardiac valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Lichtenberg, R; Goel, I P; Segal, B L

    1981-09-01

    Forty-three consecutive patients with a St. Jude mitral, aortic, or combined prosthesis were studied by simultaneous phonocardiography and echocardiography. Twenty-eight patients had a mitral prosthesis, 20 an aortic prosthesis, and five had both. No opening click was recorded in any patient; however, a loud aortic or mitral closing click was recorded in all 43 patients. In patients with St. Jude mitral valve prosthesis, an echo-free space separated the two leaflets during diastole; seven of these also had a mid-diastolic closing and late diastolic reopening motion; two of the seven had an associated closing mid-diastolic click. A mid-diastolic rumble was recorded in six of 28 patients with St. Jude mitral valve prosthesis. In patients with a St. Jude aortic valve prosthesis, left atrium leaflet motion was recorded in 17 of 20 patients and was indistinguishable in appearance from echocardiograms obtained with various eccentric monocusp valves. In addition, we report one case of malfunction of a St. Jude mitral valve and one case of a paravalvular leak diagnosed by echophonocardiography. We concluded that the St. Jude cardiac prosthesis has variable normal phonocardiographic-echocardiographic patterns. Knowledge of these variable patterns is important in assessing patients with suspected malfunction of a St. Jude cardiac prosthesis.

  11. Doppler echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension in dogs: a retrospective clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, P; Spagnolo, P P; Amato, M E; Pulpito, D; Sasanelli, M

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) decreases resistance to fatigue and life expectancy. The aim of this study was to correlate some indirect Doppler indices of PH with tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation criteria and to relate PH on different indices with the severity of clinical signs. Furthermore the pathogenetic mechanisms associated to PH development were discussed. Dogs with Doppler echocardiographic evidence of PH diagnosed by assessment of pulmonary and tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity were selected, their clinical records were reviewed and a clinical score was computed. Seventeen cases of PH were identified. The degree of PH was assessed based on systolic or diastolic pulmonary pressure and the indirect Doppler indices (AT/ET and Tei Index) were calculated; data were statistically evaluated. Indirect Doppler indices were calculated also in a control group of seven healthy dogs. The most common clinical signs were coughing, dyspnea and syncope; the most common condition associated to PH development was the left-sided valvular heart disease. A significant positive correlation was found between Tei Index and both the systolic pressure and the severity of PH while no correlations were found between PH on different indices and clinical score and/or severity of clinical signs. Results of this study suggest that Tei-index could be an useful support not only to reveal PH but also to give information on the severity of PH. The clinical picture in dogs with PH is apparently unpredictable and not strictly correlated with the severity of PH.

  12. [Effect of rapid digitalization on the left-ventricular myocardial function according to the echocardiographic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkov, Iu N; At'kov, O Iu; Tsibekmakher, T D

    1977-09-01

    The article deals with the data of echocardiographic examination of 61 patients (37 with rheumatic heart disease and 17 with atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis) subjected to rapid stage-by-stage digitalization by intravenous administration of various rapidly acting glycosides. In 10 patients with ischemic heart disease echocardiography was performed following a single strophanthin injection. Decrease in the volumes of the left ventricle and increase in the indices of central hemodynamics were noted as a result of rapid stage-by-stage saturation with strophanthin. The maximum inotropic effect of strophanthin does not coincide in time with the maximum chronotropic effect. The increase in the stroke volume noted in maximum deceleration of cardiac contractions is probably realized due to the Frank-Starling mechanism. Strophanthin increases the rate of myocardial contractions without changing the duration of the systole. The rate of diastolic relaxation grows, the phase of rapid filling becomes shorter and the phase of slow filling longer, which creates favourable conditions for the next contraction.

  13. Echocardiographic prediction of the site of coronary artery obstruction in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, L A; Sprynger, M; Carlier, J

    1987-02-01

    In 49 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the infarction topography was assessed by cross-sectional echocardiography and the location of coronary artery obstruction were correlated. A ventricular segmentation of 5 right and 16 left ventricular segments was used. The site of coronary obstruction was determined in 45 patients by coronary angiography and by necropsy in 4 patients. The exact location of the obstruction could not be found in 4 patients. The infarct related vessel was the left main artery in 1 patient, the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in 19, the left circumflex in 6 and the right coronary artery in 24. Specific segments were identified for each of the 3 coronary arteries: anteroseptal and anterior segments for LAD, right ventricular segments for the right coronary artery and basal anterolateral segment for the left circumflex. Specific segments (specificity 100%) were also identified for the principal coronary branches: basal anterior for the first anterior descending diagonal (sensitivity 71%), basal anteroseptal for the first septal perforator (83%), middle anterior for the second diagonal (100%), middle anteroseptal for the second septal (89%), basal posteroseptal for a dominant right coronary artery (89%), right ventricular anterolateral segment for the right ventricular marginal branch (83%). Echocardiographic identification of the topography of AMI can be useful in recognizing the infarct-related vessel and identifying the site of coronary artery obstruction.

  14. Comparison of right ventricular contractile abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy versus hypertensive heart disease using two dimensional strain imaging: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Luis; Briasoulis, Alex; Mahajan, Nitin; Kondur, Ashok; Siddiqui, Fayez; Siddiqui, Sabeeh; Alesh, Issa; Cardozo, Shaun; Kottam, Anupama

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) affects the right ventricle (RV) because of the anatomically hypertrophied septum and plausibly by extension of the myopathic process to the RV. We sought to investigate RV strain in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to either HCM or hypertension (H-LVH). Our cross-sectional study included 32 patients with HCM, 21 patients with H-LVH, and 11 healthy subjects, who were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography. Using a dedicated software package, bi-dimensional acquisitions were analyzed to measure segmental longitudinal strain in apical views. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) was calculated by averaging septal and right free wall strains. The HCM and H-LVH groups were comparable for age and demographic characteristics. Right ventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was not significantly different between HCM and H-LVH subjects. Moreover, RV GLS, septal and lateral RV myocardial strain were significantly impaired in patients with HCM (all p 14.9% differentiated HCM and H-LVH with a 90% sensitivity and a 95% specificity (p < 0.001). RV strain parameters are impaired in patients with HCM. Assessment of two-dimensional RV strain parameters could help differentiate between HCM and H-LVH.

  15. [Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  16. Tissue Doppler, strain and strain rate in ischemic heart disease "how I do it".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Razvan O; Duchenne, Jürgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2014-09-18

    Echocardiography is the standard method for assessing myocardial function in patients with ischemic heart disease. The acquisition and interpretation of echocardiographic images, however, remains a highly specialized task which often relies entirely on the subjective visual assessment of the reader and requires therefore, particular training and expertise. Myocardial deformation imaging allows quantifying myocardial function far beyond what can be done with sole visual assessment. It can improve the interpretation of regional dysfunction and offers sensitive markers of induced ischemia which can be used for stress tests. In the following, we recapitulate shortly the pathophysiological and technical basics and explain in a practical manner how we use this technique in investigating patients with ischemic heart disease.

  17. Strain bidimensional na cardiopatia de Takotsubo Two-dimensional strain in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bellini G. Gomes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato apresenta o seguimento tardio de um caso de cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo com boa evolução clínica e melhora da função sistólica global ventricular esquerda. Contudo, observou-se persistência de significativa disfunção sistólica regional longitudinal que foi avaliada por meio de nova técnica ecocardiográfica (speckle tracking, com as medidas do strain (S e strain rate (SR correspondentes. Ressaltamos a importância desse novo método para o acompanhamento dessa cardiopatia, pois permite identificar os pacientes que persistem com disfunção sistólica e que possivelmente serão beneficiados com a manutenção da terapêutica clínica.This report presents the late follow-up of a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with good clinical outcome and improved left ventricular global systolic function. However, there was persistence of significant regional longitudinal systolic dysfunction evaluated using a new echocardiographic technique (speckle tracking, with corresponding measures of strain (S and strain rate (SR. We emphasize the importance of this new method to monitoring this cardiomyopathy, since it identifies patients with persistent systolic dysfunction who will possibly benefit from maintenance of clinical therapy

  18. Two-dimensional strain analysis of the global and regional myocardial function for the differentiation of pathologic and physiologic left ventricular hypertrophy: a study in athletes and in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, T; van Buuren, F; Mellwig, K P; Langer, C; Plehn, G; Meissner, A; Trappe, H J; Horstkotte, D; Faber, L

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional strain (2DS) is a novel method to measure strain from standard two-dimensional echocardiographic images by speckle tracking, which is less angle dependent and more reproducible than conventional Doppler-derived strain. The objective of our study was to characterize global and regional function abnormalities using 2DS and strain rate analysis in patients (pts) with pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) caused by non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in top level athletes, and in healthy controls. The hypothetical question was, if 2DS might be useful as additional tool in differentiating between pathologic and physiologic hypertrophy in top-level athletes. We consecutively studied 53 subjects, 15 pts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 20 competitive top-level athletes, and a control group of 18 sedentary normal subjects by standard echocardiography according to ASE guidelines. Glob