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Sample records for echinococcus multilocularis eggs

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Joørgen Eskild; Kapel, Christian M O; Deplazes, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Infection with the fox dwarf tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, has for the first time been found in a fox in Denmark, and E. multilocularis infection is therefore now a possible diagnosis in Danish patients. This paper reviews the life cycle, epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis...

  2. A flotation/sieving method to detect Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. eggs in soil by real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Bastien, Matthieu; Renault, Camille; Faisse, Marine; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Hormaz, Vanessa; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Boué, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Soil can be a source of human infection by many zoonotic helminth species including Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. The prevention of alveolar echinococcosis could be greatly improved through the identification of at-risk areas. Yet very few data are available about the detection of E. multilocularis in soil, while more studies have been reported for Toxocara spp. Identification of soil contamination by E. multilocularis eggs requires the use of specific methods. This study describes the development of a method for the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples with the concentration of eggs using a flotation/sieving method and detection by duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Toxocara spp. egg detection was also undertaken due to the widespread presence of this parasite in soil, despite it being considered less pathogenic. Method sensitivity of 100% was reached for the detection of 10 E. multilocularis eggs spiked in 10 g of soil. Concerning Toxocara spp., method sensitivity was lower but assumed to be due to the reduced effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol. The parasitological status for E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. of 63 carnivore fecal samples collected in highly endemic rural areas of France and of soil samples collected under and near these fecal samples was compared. The contamination of soil samples collected under positive fecal samples for E. multilocularis (n = 3) or Toxocara spp. (n = 19) confirmed the transfer of eggs from the definitive host to the environment. PMID:28737135

  3. Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery.

  4. Origin, differentiation and functional ultrastructure of egg envelopes in the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2017-07-01

    The origin, differentiation and functional ultrastructure of oncospheral or egg envelopes in Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cytochemistry. The purpose of our study is to describe the formation of the four primary embryonic envelopes, namely vitelline capsule, outer envelope, inner envelope and oncospheral membrane, and their transformation into the oncospheral or egg envelopes surrounding the mature hexacanth. This transformation takes place in the preoncospheral phase of embryonic development. The vitelline capsule and oncospheral membrane are thin membranes, while the outer and inner envelopes are thick cytoplasmic layers formed by two specific types of blastomeres: the outer envelope by cytoplasmic fusion of two macromeres and the inner envelope by cytoplasmic fusion of three mesomeres. Both outer and inner envelopes are therefore cellular in origin and syncytial in nature. During the advanced phase of embryonic development, the outer and inner envelopes undergo great modifications. The outer envelope remains as a metabolically active layer involved in the storage of glycogen and lipids for the final stages of egg development and survival. The inner envelope is the most important protective layer because of its thick layer of embryophoric blocks that assures oncospheral protection and survival. This embryophore is the principal layer of mature eggs, affording physical and physiological protection for the differentiated embryo or oncosphere, since the outer envelope is stripped from the egg before it is liberated. The embryophore is very thick and impermeable, consisting of polygonal blocks of an inert keratin-like protein held together by a cementing substance. The embryophore therefore assures extreme resistance of eggs, enabling them to withstand a wide range of environmental temperatures and physicochemical conditions.

  5. Pasture types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

  6. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  7. Echinococcus multilocularis infection in the field vole (Microtus agrestis)an ecological model for studies on transmission dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Bune, Nethe Eva Touborg; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model involving the oral inoculation of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs in a vole species and examine the infection dynamics in a dose-response experiment. Defined doses, 100 (n = 8), 500 (n = 5) and 1000 (n = 5) of E. multilocularis eggs were used to inoculate Microtus agrestis. Four...

  8. Echinococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Echinococcosis is an infection caused by either the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also ... References Fischer PR, Cabada MM, White AC. Echinococcosis ( Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis ). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  9. Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Taeniidae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The present study establishes the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is essential for future research on the location of specific proteins involved in the sperm development in this species and also in Echinococcus granulosus. Thus, the ultrastructural characteristics of the sperm cell are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon of E. multilocularis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, crested bodies, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other characteristics observed in the male gamete are the presence of a >900-nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of E. multilocularis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. The most interesting finding concerns the presence of two helical crested bodies in E. multilocularis while in the studied species of Taenia, there is only one crested body. Future ultrastructural studies of other species of the genus Echinococcus would be of particular interest in order to confirm whether or not the presence of two crested bodies is a characteristic of this genus.

  10. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  11. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  12. Imported disease of dogs and cats exotic to Ireland: echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodfellow Mark

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in legislation that facilitate the movement of animals within the European Union may increase the risk that some microbial and parasitic organisms, currently exotic to Ireland, will be introduced by travelled pet animals. It is possible that the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, might be introduced in that manner from any of the several member states in which it is endemic. Red foxes are the principal definitive hosts of E. multilocularis but dogs and cats can also be infected. Infection in the definitive host is of little clinical significance, but aberrant infection of humans results in alveolar echinococcosis, a debilitating disease that has a high mortality rate. Humans acquire the organism by ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs excreted by definitive hosts; the larval metacestodes develop primarily in the liver, in the initial asymptomatic phase as small, well-encapsulated cysts. Over time, perhaps five to 15 years, progressive local infiltration and secondary cyst development at distant sites occur with resultant clinical signs. Patients with infiltrative liver disease present with cholestatic jaundice, epigastric pain, fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. This paper recounts the life cycle of the parasite, and discusses the control measures on which its exclusion from Ireland depend. Strict adherence to the routine worming of travelled dogs with praziquantel, at appropriate doses, 24 to 48 hours prior to entry into the country will minimise the likelihood of introduction of this zoonosis.

  13. Public Health Follow-up of Suspected Exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis in Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotz-Williams, L A; Mercer, N J; Walters, J M; Wallace, D; Gottstein, B; Osterman-Lind, E; Boggild, A K; Peregrine, A S

    2017-09-01

    In the 3 years since the first report of canine alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Ontario, three additional cases have been diagnosed in the province. Of the four cases reported to date, three have had no known history of travel outside the province. It is possible that this development is an indication of previously unrecognized environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs in some areas of the province. If so, there is the potential for an emerging threat to human health. This article describes a local public health department's investigation of the possible exposure to E. multilocularis of a number of individuals who had had contact with the latest of the four cases of canine AE, and summarizes a comprehensive decision process that can be used by public health departments to assist in the follow-up of such exposures. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in canine definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingwei; McManus, Donald P; Yan, Hongbin; Yang, Jifei; Lou, Zhongzi; Li, Hongmin; Li, Li; Lei, Mengtong; Cai, Jinzhong; Fan, Yanlei; Li, Chunhua; Liu, Quanyuan; Shi, Wangui; Liu, Xu; Zheng, Yadong; Fu, Baoquan; Yang, Yurong; Jia, Wanzhong

    2014-05-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance and is highly prevalent in northwest China. To effectively monitor its transmission, we developed a new rapid and cheap diagnostic assay, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify canine definitive hosts infected with E. multilocularis. The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the mitochondrial nad5 gene of E. multilocularis and were designed using Primer Explorer V4 software. The developed LAMP assay was compared with a conventional PCR assay, using DNA extracted from the feces of dogs experimentally infected with E. multilocularis, on 189 dog fecal samples collected from three E. multilocularis-endemic regions in Qinghai province, the People's Republic of China, and 30 negative control copro-samples from dogs from an area in Gansu province that had been subjected to an intensive de-worming program. Light microscopy was also used to examine the experimentally obtained and field collected dog copro-samples for the presence of E. multilocularis eggs. The E. multilocularis-positivity rates obtained for the field-collected fecal samples were 16.4% and 5.3% by the LAMP and PCR assays, respectively, and all samples obtained from the control dogs were negative. The LAMP assay was able to detect E. multilocularis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected dogs at 12 days post-infection, whereas the PCR assay was positive on the 17th day and eggs were first detectable by light microscopy at day 44 post-challenge. The earlier specific detection of an E. multilocularis infection in dog copro-samples indicates that the LAMP assay we developed is a realistic alternative method for the field surveillance of canines in echinococcosis-endemic areas.

  15. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2013-12-06

    Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most pathogenic zoonoses in the temperate and arctic region of the Northern Hemisphere. To investigate the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis and the factors influencing this distribution in the recently identified endemic area of Hungary, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory from November 2008 to February 2009 and from November 2012 to February 2013. The topographic positions of foxes were recorded in geographic information system database. The digitized home ranges and the vector data were used to calculate the altitude, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, soil water retention, soil permeability, areas of land cover types and the presence and buffer zone of permanent water bodies within the fox territories. The intestinal mucosa from all the foxes was tested by sedimentation and counting technique. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and E. multilocularis counts. The spatial distribution of the parasite was clumped. Based on statistical analysis, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Hungary. It can be attributed to the sensitivity of E. multilocularis eggs to high temperatures and desiccation. Although spreading and emergence of the parasite was observed in Hungary before 2009, the prevalence and intensity of infection did not change significantly between the two collection periods. It can be explained by the considerably lower annual precipitation before the second collection period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of Echinococcus multilocularis in Environmental Definitive Host Feces in the Asian and the European Parts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tümay Gürler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in two regions of Turkey—central Anatolia (in Asia Minor and Thrace (in the European part of Turkey. A total of 405 putative fox feces were collected from central Anatolia (186 specimens in 59 locations and from Thrace (219 specimens in 114 locations. All samples were examined by the flotation and sieving method for taeniid eggs, and positive and putative samples were further analyzed by multiplex PCR. In seven samples from three locations in central Anatolia (5.1% and in one (0.9% from Thrace, E. multilocularis DNA was amplified, and this result was confirmed with another PCR specific for E. multilocularis. In addition, Echinococcus granulosus s.l. was found in two (0.5% of the samples. Although alveolar echinococcosis (AE is known as a serious zoonosis in Turkey, this is the first field study detecting E. multilocularis in collected fecal samples documenting the environmental contamination with eggs of this zoonotic parasite.

  17. Spatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, Muriel; Giessen, Joke van der; Brochier, Bernard; Losson, Bernard; Jordaens, Kurt; Verhagen, Ron; Lezenne Coulander, Cor de; Teunis, Peter F M

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium

  18. Hepatic alveolar hydatid disease (Echinococcus multilocularis) in a boxer dog from southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Brooks, Andrew; Stalker, Margaret; Mercer, Nicola; de Villa, Eileen; Gottstein, Bruno; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-06-01

    A 2-year-old boxer dog from southern Ontario was evaluated because of acute onset lethargy. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a hemorrhagic, destructive, liver mass. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction confirmed Echinococcus multilocularis as the cause of the hepatic mass. This constitutes the first description of endemic E. multilocularis in Ontario.

  19. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  20. The impact of globalisation on the distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Romig, Thomas; Jenkins, Emily; Tryland, Morten; Robertson, Lucy J

    2012-06-01

    In the past three decades, Echinococcus multilocularis, the cause of human alveolar echinococcosis, has been reported in several new countries both in definitive hosts (canids) as well as in people. Unless treated, infection with this cestode in people is fatal. In previously endemic countries throughout the Northern Hemisphere, geographic ranges and human and animal prevalence levels seem to be increasing. Anthropogenic influences, including increased globalisation of animals and animal products, and altered human/animal interfaces are thought to play a vital role in the global emergence of this pathogenic cestode. Molecular epidemiological techniques are a useful tool for detecting and tracing introductions, and differentiating these from range expansions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America: the great unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massolo, Alessandro; Liccioli, Stefano; Budke, Christine; Klein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have begun to shed light on the distribution and genetic characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), in North America. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is likely expanding its range in the central region of the United States and Canada and that invasions of European strains might have occurred. In our review, we present the available data on E. multilocularis infections in wild and domestic animals and humans in North America and emphasize the lack of knowledge on the distribution of the parasite in wild and domestic hosts. Furthermore, we stress the need to better understand the complexity of host communities and their roles in shaping the transmission and distribution of the parasite. We hypothesize that a lack of knowledge about AE by North American physicians might result in the misdiagnosis of cases and an underestimation of disease incidence. The endemic presence of the parasite in urban areas and a recent human case in Alberta, Canada, suggest that the scientific community may need to reconsider the local public health risks, re-assess past cases that might have been overlooked and increase surveillance efforts to identify new cases of human AE. PMID:25531581

  2. Spatial modelling and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, F Mark; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Recent research in central China has suggested that the most likely transmission mechanism for Echinococcus multilocularis to humans is via domestic dogs which are allowed to roam freely and hunt (infected) small mammals within areas close to villages or in areas of tented pasture. This assertion has led to the hypothesis that there is a landscape control on transmission risk since the proximity of suitable habitat for susceptible small mammals appears to be the key. We have tested this hypothesis in a number of endemic areas in China, notably south Gansu Province and the Tibetan region of western Sichuan Province. The fundamental landscape control is its effect at a regional scale on small mammal species assemblages (susceptible species are not ubiquitous) and, at a local scale, the spatial distributions of small mammal populations. To date the research has examined relationships between landscape composition and patterns of human infection, landscape and small mammal distributions and recently the relationships between landscape and dog infection rates. The key tool to characterize landscape is satellite remote sensing and these data are used as inputs to drive spatial models of transmission risk. This paper reviews the progress that has been made so far in spatial modeling of the ecology of E. multilocularis with particular reference to China, outlines current research issues, and describes a framework for building a spatial-temporal model of transmission ecology.

  3. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran using mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%. Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8% dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8% jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts.

  4. Implications of increased susceptibility to predation for management of the sylvatic cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vervaeke, V; Davis, S; Leirs, Herwig

    2006-01-01

    The ability to increase the chances that infectious prey are taken by predators is an observed feature of many parasites that rely on one or more predator-prey relationships to complete their life-cycle. In the sylvatic life-cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis - the causative agent of human...

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis: An Emerging Pathogen in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, Tamás; Széll, Zoltán; Egyed, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is reported for the first time in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. This parasite may be spreading eastward because the population of foxes has increased because of human interventions, and this spread may result in the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Central Eastern Europe. PMID:12643838

  6. Fresh fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Lucy J.; Troell, Karin; Woolsey, Ian David

    2016-01-01

    transmission stages, even during outbreaks, tends to show only low contamination. Echinococcus multilocularis is considered one of the most important foodborne parasites, but there are few studies in which fresh produce or like foods collected in their natural habitat is analysed for contamination with E...

  7. The presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen JWB; Rombout Y; Limper L; van der Veen; Moolenbeek C; Franchimont H; Homan W; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Er zijn onderzoekingen gedaan naar het voorkomen van Echinococcus multilocularis bij vossen in Nederland van 1996 tot 1998. Deze parasiet is de oorzaak van alveolaire echinococcose, een ernstige parasitaire zoonose. Hiervoor zijn eerst 272 vossen onderzocht in het grensgebied met Duitsland en

  8. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  9. Impact of overgrazing on the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan pastoral communities of Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Xiao, Yong-fu; Vuitton, Dominique A; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overgrazing was assumed to increase the population density of small mammals that are the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis, the pathogen of alveolar echinococcosis in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This research tested the hypothesis that overgrazing might promote

  10. Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: From fundamental knowledge to health ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Gottstein, Bruno; Saarma, Urmas; Millon, Laurence

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy. Although taxonomic studies have recognised E. multilocularis as a separate entity from the Echinococcus granulosus complex and other members of the genus, it would be premature to draw firm conclusions about the taxonomy of the genus before the phylogeny of the whole genus is fully resolved. The recent sequencing of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus genomes opens new possibilities for performing in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In addition, whole genome data provide the possibility of inferring phylogenies based on a large number of functional genes, i.e. genes that trace the evolutionary history of adaptation in E. multilocularis and other members of the genus. Moreover, genomic data open new avenues for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. multilocularis: genotyping studies with larger panels of genetic markers allow the genetic diversity and spatial dynamics of parasites to be evaluated with greater precision. There is an urgent need for international coordination of genotyping of E. multilocularis isolates from animals and human patients. This could be fundamental for a better understanding of the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis and for designing efficient healthcare strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic characterization of EmsB microsatellite loci in Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valot, Benoît; Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    EmsB is a molecular marker applied to Echinococcus multilocularis genotyping studies. This marker has largely been used to investigate the epidemiology of the parasite in different endemic foci. The present study has lifted the veil on the genetic structure of this microsatellite. By in silico analysis on the E. multilocularis genome the microsatellite was described in about 40 copies on the chromosome 5 of the parasite. Similar structure was found in the relative parasite Echinococcus granulosus, where the microsatellite was firstly described. The present study completes the first investigations made on the EmsB microsatellite origins and confirms the reliability of this highly discriminant molecular marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in definitive and intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalenc...... there was some indication of publication bias in this dataset. This study also highlights the possible importance of temperature and precipitation to EM transmission. This implies the possibility of a changing climate affecting the future distribution of the parasite.......Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalence...

  13. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Extensive Alternative Splicing Events in the Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Hao, Lili; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS), as one of the most important topics in the post-genomic era, has been extensively studied in numerous organisms. However, little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of AS in Echinococcus species, which can cause significant health problems to humans and domestic animals. Based on high-throughput RNA-sequencing data, we performed a genome-wide survey of AS in two major pathogens of echinococcosis-Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Our study revealed that the prevalence and characteristics of AS in protoscoleces of the two parasites were generally consistent with each other. A total of 6,826 AS events from 3,774 E. granulosus genes and 6,644 AS events from 3,611 E. multilocularis genes were identified in protoscolex transcriptomes, indicating that 33–36% of genes were subject to AS in the two parasites. Strikingly, intron retention instead of exon skipping was the predominant type of AS in Echinococcus species. Moreover, analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway indicated that genes that underwent AS events were significantly enriched in multiple pathways mainly related to metabolism (e.g., purine, fatty acid, galactose, and glycerolipid metabolism), signal transduction (e.g., Jak-STAT, VEGF, Notch, and GnRH signaling pathways), and genetic information processing (e.g., RNA transport and mRNA surveillance pathways). The landscape of AS obtained in this study will not only facilitate future investigations on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during the life cycle of Echinococcus species, but also provide an invaluable resource for future functional and evolutionary studies of AS in platyhelminth parasites. PMID:28588571

  14. Molecular discrimination of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis by sequencing and a new PCR-RFLP method with the potential use for other Echinococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAKALAR, Çağrı; KUK, Salih; ERENSOY, Ahmet; DAĞLI, Adile Ferda; ÖZERCAN, İbrahim Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    To develop a novel polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol using a new genomic marker sequence and a novel set of restriction enzymes in order to detect and discriminate 2 Echinococcus species, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, found in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues. Materials and methods: DNA was isolated from 11 FFPE human tissue samples positive for cystic echinococcosis or alveolar echinococcosis. A mitochondrial...

  15. Molecular discrimination of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis by sequencing and a new PCR-RFLP method with the potential use for other Echinococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakalar, Çağrı; Kuk, Salih; Erensoy, Ahmet; Dağli, Adile Ferda; Özercan, İbrahim Hanifi; Çetınkaya, Ülfet; Yazar, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    To develop a novel polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol using a new genomic marker sequence and a novel set of restriction enzymes in order to detect and discriminate 2 Echinococcus species, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, found in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues. DNA was isolated from 11 FFPE human tissue samples positive for cystic echinococcosis or alveolar echinococcosis. A mitochondrial genomic marker region was amplified and sequenced using a novel primer pair and a new PCR-RFLP protocol was developed for the detection and discrimination of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using a set of restriction enzymes including AccI, MboI, MboII, and TsoI. The selected marker region was amplified using DNA isolated from FFPE human tissue samples positive for cystic echinococcosis or alveolar echinococcosis and the discrimination of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis was accomplished by use of the novel PCR-RFLP method. In this PCR-RFLP protocol, use of any single restriction enzyme is enough for the discrimination of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis. The PCR-RFLP protocol can be potentially used for the discrimination of 5 other Echinococcus species: E. oligarthus, E. shiquicus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis, and E. vogeli.

  16. Molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in small mammals from Northeast, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection.

  17. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Miller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%, 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6% Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6% Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3% Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%. The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance.

  18. Ecological and biological factors involved in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in the French Ardennes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guislain, Marie-Hélène; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Terrier, Marie-Eve; Froment, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine

    2008-06-01

    In order to identify the respective importance of the ecological and biological factors involved in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, we estimated grassland vole intermediate host (Microtus sp. and Arvicola terrestris) population densities, in relation to the diet of the definitive host (red fox, Vulpes vulpes) and with the prevalence of E. multilocularis in the fox population. The study was conducted in the Ardennes, north-eastern France, which is an area with a high incidence of alveolar echinococcosis. Surface index methods showed that Microtus was the most abundant intermediate host in the area. Furthermore, Microtus was present in one-third of the 144 faeces and 98 stomach content samples examined and represented more than two-thirds of the rodent occurrences. Red fox predation on Microtus was significantly correlated with Microtus relative abundance. In contrast, the relative abundance of A. terrestris was very low. This species, as well as Clethrionomys glareolus and Apodemus sp., was little consumed. E. multilocularis prevalence in foxes was determined from carcasses and reached 53% (95% confidence interval 45-61%). Intensity of infection varied from 2 to 73,380 worms per fox, with 72% of the sampled worm burden harboured by 8% of the sampled foxes. The selected explanatory variables (sex, year, age class, health and nutritional condition, and season) failed to predict prevalence rate and worm burden. The high prevalence rate in foxes indicates the possibility of intense E. multilocularis transmission, apart from periods, or in landscapes, favourable to large population outbreaks of grassland rodents.

  19. High density of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens and resulting rodent exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Matthieu; Vaniscotte, Amelie; Combes, Benoit; Umhang, Gerald; Germain, Estelle; Gouley, Valentin; Pierlet, Alice; Quintaine, Thomas; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amelie; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Boue, Franck; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine

    2018-03-08

    The faeces of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), and the domestic cat, Felis catus (Linnaeus), can be responsible for spreading eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) into the environment. The accidental ingestion of these eggs or oocysts, through consumption of raw fruits or vegetables grown in or in contact with contaminated soil, can lead to alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or toxoplasmosis in humans. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the faecal deposition by foxes and cats in kitchen gardens where fruits and vegetables are grown and its consequences for zoonosis transmission. The density of definitive host faeces is considered as one of the main factors in infection risk for intermediate hosts. The density of fox and cat faeces, as well as the prevalence of both AE and toxoplasmosis in rodent populations (contaminated by ingestion of eggs or oocysts), were compared within and outside kitchen gardens. Our results showed that the mean density of fox faeces did not significantly differ between kitchen gardens and habitat edges (0.29 ± 0.04 faeces/m 2 vs 0.22 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ), the latter being known as an area of high fox faeceal densities. The density of cat faeces was significantly higher within the kitchen garden than outside (0.86 ± 0.22 faeces/m 2 vs 0.04 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ). The sampled kitchen gardens might therefore be considered as possible hotspots for both fox and cat defecation. Of the 130 rodents trapped, 14% were infected by at least one species of fox or cat intestinal parasite. These rodents were significantly more often infected when they were exposed to a kitchen garden. These results suggest that the deposit of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens would significantly impact the risk of human exposure to E. multilocularis and T. gondii. and should be prevented using effective means.

  20. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The unique stem cell system of the immortal larva of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is believed that in tapeworms a separate population of undifferentiated cells, the germinative cells, is the only source of cell proliferation throughout the life cycle (similar to the neoblasts of free living flatworms). In Echinococcus multilocularis, the metacestode larval stage has a unique development, growing continuously like a mass of vesicles that infiltrate the tissues of the intermediate host, generating multiple protoscoleces by asexual budding. This unique proliferation potential indicates the existence of stem cells that are totipotent and have the ability for extensive self-renewal. Results We show that only the germinative cells proliferate in the larval vesicles and in primary cell cultures that undergo complete vesicle regeneration, by using a combination of morphological criteria and by developing molecular markers of differentiated cell types. The germinative cells are homogeneous in morphology but heterogeneous at the molecular level, since only sub-populations express homologs of the post-transcriptional regulators nanos and argonaute. Important differences are observed between the expression patterns of selected neoblast marker genes of other flatworms and the E. multilocularis germinative cells, including widespread expression in E. multilocularis of some genes that are neoblast-specific in planarians. Hydroxyurea treatment results in the depletion of germinative cells in larval vesicles, and after recovery following hydroxyurea treatment, surviving proliferating cells grow as patches that suggest extensive self-renewal potential for individual germinative cells. Conclusions In E. multilocularis metacestodes, the germinative cells are the only proliferating cells, presumably driving the continuous growth of the larval vesicles. However, the existence of sub-populations of the germinative cells is strongly supported by our data. Although the germinative cells are very similar to the neoblasts of other flatworms in function and

  2. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Bastien, Matthieu; Richard, Yolan; Josse-Dupuis, Émilie; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Knapp, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures. © M.-L. Poulle et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulle Marie-Lazarine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE, which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures.

  4. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Bastien, Matthieu; Richard, Yolan; Josse-Dupuis, Émilie; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Knapp, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures. PMID:28748783

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis found in 2 foxes in Southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    The news about these findings were released this morning [10 Jul 2013]. However, later today we detected another positive fox, from the same area, which is not mentioned in the press release (The press release, in Danish, can be found at http://www.vet.dtu.dk/Nyheder/Nyhed?id=%7bDC4E4263- 505A-4554......-BD23-BB1C85C34327%7d). Since September 2011 we have surveyed _E. multilocularis_ in wild carnivores. A total of 856 carnivores have been studied so far: 692 foxes, 150 raccoon dogs, 11 badgers, 3 raccoons, and one wolf. Of these, 7 foxes were positive, all of them originating from the same area...... in southern Denmark -- the Hojer region near the German border. At present, 32 foxes have been analyzed from this area (local prevalence: 7/32 = 21.9 percent; national prevalence: 7/692 = 1.0 percent). The 3 new findings were from foxes shot between December 2012 and February 2013 and revealed worm burdens...

  6. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J; Guislain, M-H; Bart, J M; Raoul, F; Gottstein, B; Giraudoux, P; Piarroux, R

    2008-05-01

    Echinococcusmultilocularis is the causative agent of human Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE), and it is one of the most lethal zoonotic infections in the Northern Hemisphere. In France, the eastern and central regions are endemic areas; Franche-Comté, Lorraine and Auvergne are particularly contaminated. Recently, several human cases were recorded in the French Ardennes area, a region adjacent to the western border of the E. multilocularis range in France. A previous study in this focus described a prevalence of over 50% of the parasite in red foxes. The present study investigated the genetic diversity of adult worms collected from foxes in a 900km(2) area in the Ardennes. Instead of a conventional mitochondrial target (ATP6), two microsatellite targets (EmsB and NAK1) were used. A total of 140 adult worms isolated from 25 red foxes were genotyped. After hierarchical clustering analyses, the EmsB target enabled us to distinguish two main assemblages, each divided into sub-groups, yielding the differentiation of six clusters or assemblage profiles. Thirteen foxes (52% of the foxes) each harbored worms from at least two different assemblage profiles, suggesting they had become infected by several sources. Using the NAK1 target, we identified 3 alleles, two found in association with the two EmsB assemblages. With the NAK1 target, we investigated the parasite breeding system and the possible causes of genetic diversification. Only one fox harbored hybrid worms, indicative of a possible (and rare) occurrence of recombination, although multiple infections have been observed in foxes. These results confirm the usefulness of microsatellite targets for assessing genetic polymorphism in a geographically restricted local range.

  7. Feeding ecology informs parasite epidemiology: prey selection modulates encounter rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Bialowas, Carly; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971) in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4%), when consumption of deer was highest (36.4%). However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season) with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0-22.4), combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi) were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary.

  8. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Knapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps but more recently also neighbouring regions previously not known to be endemic. The genetic diversity of the parasite population and respective distribution in Europe have now been investigated in view of generating a fine-tuned map of parasite variants occurring in Europe. This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level.The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis was assessed based upon the tandemly repeated microsatellite marker EmsB in association with matching fox host geographical positions. Our study demonstrated a higher genetic diversity in the endemic areas north of the Alps when compared to other areas.The study of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Europe, based on 32 genetic clusters, suggests that Europe can be considered as a unique global focus of E. multilocularis, which can be schematically drawn as a central core located in Switzerland and Jura Swabe flanked by neighbouring regions where the parasite exhibits a lower genetic diversity. The transmission of the parasite into peripheral regions is governed by a "mainland-island" system. Moreover, the presence of similar genetic profiles in both zones indicated a founder event.

  9. Feeding ecology informs parasite epidemiology: prey selection modulates encounter rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Liccioli

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971 in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4%, when consumption of deer was highest (36.4%. However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0-22.4, combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary.

  10. Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2, that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3, MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6, most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene

  11. Efficacy of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    María, Albani Clara; Celina, Elissondo María

    2014-12-01

    The larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a mainly hepatic disease characterized by continuous asexual proliferation of metacestodes by exogenous budding, resulting in the tumor-like, infiltrative growth of the parasite lesion. Current chemotherapeutical treatment of AE relies on the use of benzimidazoles, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole, but these drugs act parasitostatic rather than parasitocidal, and due to their low success rate they imply a lifelong application causing severe side effects. Thymol is one of the major components of the essential oils of Thymus and is a widely known anti-microbial agent. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and thymol separately or combined on E. multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes. For this purpose, microscopical examinations at different time points were carried out. Moreover the tegumentary enzyme gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured to quantify the damage in metacestodes. Even though treatments of in vitro cultured E. multilocularis protoscoleces or metacestodes with ABZ or/and thymol showed that the drugs have an adverse effect on parasite viability, the combination of the two compounds at the concentration of 10μg/ml showed the maximum anti-parasitic effect. Three days postincubation the first effects of the treatment were detected on protoscoleces and a marked reduction in viability (33%) was registered at day 18. Incubation of E. multilocularis metacestodes in the presence of ABZ 10μg/ml+thymol 10μg/ml during 10 days resulted in dramatic alterations such as strongly irregular and fissured surface and markedly disrupted vesicles. Scanning electron microscopy showed that protoscoleces as well as the germinal layer of E. multilocularis metacestodes were dramatically damaged following ABZ or/and thymol treatment. Also an important increase of tegumentary enzyme GGT was registered after 72h

  12. Genetic structuring and differentiation of Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovakia assessed by sequencing and isoenzyme studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabel, V.; Miterpakova, M.; D'Amelio, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene and isoenzyme analysis were used to survey the genetic variability in Echinococcus multilocularis populations from Slovakia. A sample of 12 isolates acquired from 10 different districts from red foxes exhibited......) in the CO1 fragment. These data, along with the recently gathered data from French isolates, are indicative of a genetically unique population occurring in Central and Western Europe. Electrophoretic examination of enzymes produced by 14 gene loci revealed intraspecific polymorphism only with the glucose...... between the species were obtained by isoenzyme analysis. Fixed genetic differences between the species were detected in the glucose-phosphate isomerase, esterase and aldolase systems, and partial differences were detected in four additional systems....

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis vesicular fluid inhibits activation and proliferation of natural killer cells.

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    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Mougey, Valentine; Pallandre, Jean-Rene; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Godet, Yann; Millon, Laurence

    2017-08-25

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a severe chronic helminthic disease that mimics slow-growing liver cancer. The immune evasion strategy of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the impact of E. multilocularis vesicular fluid (Em-VF) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on natural killer (NK) cells. PBMC and NK cells were exposed to Em-VF (1 µg/ml) during six days. The effect of Em-VF was assessed on CD69, viability and proliferation, and on and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 10, using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Exposure to Em-VF had no bearing on PBMC's viability, proliferation and expression of CD69. In contrast, higher levels of IL-17 at day three and of TGF-β at day six were observed in PBMC supernatant after exposure to Em-VF (p Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Exposure to Em-VF induced a significant decrease of CD69 expression of NK cells at day three and a significant decrease of proliferation of NK cells at day six (p Wilcoxon signed-rank test). In contrast, NK cells viability and levels of cytokines did not vary significantly over Em-VF stimulation. Exposure to Em-VF had a significant bearing on activation and proliferation of NK cells. NK cells may play an important role in the immune response of the host against E. multilocularis.

  14. Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: Need for proactive information

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    Romig Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public information about prevention of zoonoses should be based on the perceived problem by the public and should be adapted to regional circumstances. Growing fox populations have led to increasing concern about human alveolar echinococcosis, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge about this zoonotic tapeworm was assessed. Methods By means of representative telephone interviews (N = 2041, a survey of public knowledge about the risk and the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis was carried out in the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Switzerland in 2004. Results For all five questions, significant country-specific differences were found. Fewer people had heard of E. multilocularis in the Czech Republic (14% and France (18% compared to Germany (63% and Switzerland (70%. The same effect has been observed when only high endemic regions were considered (Czech Republic: 20%, France: 17%, Germany: 77%, Switzerland: 61%. In France 17% of people who knew the parasite felt themselves reasonably informed. In the other countries, the majority felt themselves reasonably informed (54–60%. The percentage that perceived E. multilocularis as a high risk ranged from 12% (Switzerland to 43% (France. In some countries promising measures as deworming dogs (Czech Republic, Switzerland were not recognized as prevention options. Conclusion Our results and the actual epidemiological circumstances of AE call for proactive information programs. This communication should enable the public to achieve realistic risk perception, give clear information on how people can minimize their infection risk, and prevent exaggerated reactions and anxiety.

  15. Dynamics of the force of infection: insights from Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes.

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    Fraser I Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the force of infection (FOI is an essential part of planning cost effective control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis in humans, a serious disease with a high fatality rate and an increasing global spread. Red foxes are high prevalence hosts of E. multilocularis. Through a mathematical modelling approach, using field data collected from in and around the city of Zurich, Switzerland, we find compelling evidence that the FOI is periodic with highly variable amplitude, and, while this amplitude is similar across habitat types, the mean FOI differs markedly between urban and periurban habitats suggesting a considerable risk differential. The FOI, during an annual cycle, ranges from (0.1,0.8 insults (95% CI in urban habitat in the summer to (9.4, 9.7 (95% CI in periurban (rural habitat in winter. Such large temporal and spatial variations in FOI suggest that control strategies are optimal when tailored to local FOI dynamics.

  16. Detection of a high-endemic focus of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in southern Denmark, January 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Knapp, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Danish surveillance programme for Echinococcus multilocularis was initiated in September 2011, and so far 679 wild carnivores have been examined. In April 2012, one infected fox was detected in Højer near the Danish-German border, and in January 2013 three additional foxes from the same area...... were found infected. Local prevalence in the area was 31% (four of 13 foxes) which is a new epidemiological situation calling for re-evaluation of the national risk management....

  17. Support for targeted sampling of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces in Sweden: a method to improve the probability of finding Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Olsson, Gert E; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-11-29

    Localized concentrations of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs from feces of infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can create areas of higher transmission risk for rodent hosts and possibly also for humans; therefore, identification of these areas is important. However, in a low prevalence environment, such as Sweden, these areas could be easily overlooked. As part of a project investigating the role of different rodents in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis in Sweden, fox feces were collected seasonally from rodent trapping sites in two regions with known parasite status and in two regions with unknown parasite status, 2013-2015. The aim was to evaluate background contamination in rodent trapping sites from parasite eggs in these regions. To maximize the likelihood of finding fox feces positive for the parasite, fecal collection was focused in habitats with the assumed presence of suitable rodent intermediate hosts (i.e. targeted sampling). Parasite eggs were isolated from feces through sieving-flotation, and parasite species were then confirmed using PCR and sequencing. Most samples were collected in the late winter/early spring and in open fields where both Arvicola amphibius and Microtus agrestis were captured. Fox feces positive for E. multilocularis (41/714) were found within 1-3 field collection sites within each of the four regions. The overall proportion of positive samples was low (≤5.4%) in three regions, but was significantly higher in one region (22.5%, P < 0.001). There was not a significant difference between seasons or years. Compared to previous national screenings, our sampling strategy identified multiple E. multilocularis positive feces in all four regions, including the two regions with previously unknown parasite status. These results further suggest that the distribution of E. multilocularis is highly aggregated in the environment and provide support for further development of a targeted sampling strategy. Our results show that it was

  18. Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in China: small mammal diversity, landscape or climate?

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    Patrick Giraudoux

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i for continental China and (ii over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics.The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002-2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km(2 region.E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for

  19. Suppression of nemo-like kinase by miR-71 in Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaola; Zhang, Xueyong; Yang, Jing; Jin, Xiaoliang; Ding, Juntao; Xiang, Haitao; Ayaz, Mazhar; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes are a causative pathogen for alveolar echinococcosis in human beings, and have been found to express miRNAs including emu-miR-71. miR-71 is evolutionarily conserved and highly expressed across platyhelminths, but little is known about its role. Here it was shown that emu-miR-71 was differentially expressed in protoscoleces and was unlikely to be expressed in neoblasts. The results of the luciferase assay indicated that emu-miR-71 was able to bind in vitro to the 3'-UTR of emu-nlk, encoding a key regulator of cell division, causing significant downregulation of luciferase activity (p < 0.01) compared to the negative control and the construct with mutations in the binding site. Consistent with the decreased luciferase activity, transfection of emu-miR-71 mimics into protoscoleces notably repressed emu-NLK (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate the suppression of emu-nlk by emu-miR-71, potentially involved in the protoscolex development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fresh fruits, vegetables and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in highly endemic areas of Poland: reply to concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemysław; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of other foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with dispersed forms of E. multilocularis, may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. In this article, we reply to the incorrect interpretation of results of our study concerning the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in fresh fruit, vegetable and mushroom samples collected from the highly endemic areas of the Warmia-Masuria Province, Poland, to dispel any doubts. The accusations formulated by the commentators concerning our paper are unfounded; moreover, these commentators demand information which was beyond the purview of our study. Making generalisations and drawing far-reaching conclusions from our work is also unjustified. The majority of positive samples were found in only a few hyperendemic communities; this information corresponds with the highest number of both infected foxes and AE cases in humans recorded in this area. Our findings indicate that E. multilocularis is present in the environment and may create a potential risk for the inhabitants. These people should simply be informed to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. No additional far-reaching conclusions should be drawn from our data. We believe these commentators needlessly misinterpreted our results and disseminated misleading information. Nevertheless, we would like to encourage any readers simply to contact us if any aspects of our study are unclear.

  1. First findings of Trichinella spiralis and DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild raccoon dogs in the Netherlands

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    Miriam Maas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the raccoon dog in the Netherlands may be associated with the risk of introduction and spread of zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess whether Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp. infections are present in Dutch raccoon dogs. Between 2013 and 2014, nine raccoon dogs, mainly road kills, were collected for necropsies. One raccoon dog tested repeatedly positive in the qPCR for E. multilocularis. The positive raccoon dog was collected in the province of Flevoland, which is not a known endemic region for E. multilocularis. Another raccoon dog tested positive for Trichinella spiralis by the digestion of the forelimb musculature and the tongue. Trichinella spiralis has not been reported in wildlife since 1998 and thus far was not found in wild carnivores in the Netherlands. It shows that despite the small raccoon dog population that is present in the Netherlands and the limited number of raccoon dogs that were tested, the raccoon dog may play a role in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis and Trichinella spp. in the Netherlands.

  2. [Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in cyst samples using a novel single tube multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hüseyin; İnceboz, Tonay; Caner, Ayşe; Atalay Şahar, Esra; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Döşkaya, Mert; Çelebi, Fehmi; Değirmenci Döşkaya, Aysu; Gülçe İz, Sultan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, are important helminthic diseases worldwide as well as in our country. Epidemiological studies conducted in Turkey showed that the prevalence of CE is 291-585/100.000. It has also been showed that the seroprevalence of AE is 3.5%. For the diagnosis of CE and AE, radiological (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and serological methods, in addition to clinical findings, are being used. The definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination When the hydatid cysts are sterile or does not contain protoscolex, problems may occur during pathological discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis species. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis using Echi S (5'-TTTATGAATATTGTGACCCTGAGAT-3') and Echi A (5'-GGTCTTAACTCAACTCATGGAG-3') primers and three different probes; Anchor Ech (5'-GTTTGCCACCTCGATGTTGACTTAG-fluoroscein-3'), Granulosus (5'-LC640-CTAAGGTTTTGGTGTAGTAATTGATATTTT-phosphate-3') and Multilocularis (5'-LC705-CTGTGATCTTGGTGTAGTAGTTGAGATT-phosphate-3') that will enable the diagnosis of CE and AE in same assay. During M-RTR-PCR, plasmids containing E.granulosus (GenBank: AF297617.1) and E.multilocularis (GenBank: NC_000928.2) mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions were used as positive controls. Cysts samples of patients which were pathologically confirmed to be CE (n: 10) and AE (n: 15) and healthy human DNA samples (n: 25) as negative control as well as DNA samples of 12 different parasites (Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola hepatica, Enterobius vermicularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) were used to develop M

  3. Gene expression profiles of the small intestinal mucosa of dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis

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    Hirokazu Kouguchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled “ The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis” (Kouguchi et al., 2016 [1]. This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2 Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379. The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE105098. Keywords: E. multilocularis, Microarray, Dog, Echinococcosis, Vaccine

  4. In vivo activity of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Clara María; Pensel, Patricia Eugenia; Elissondo, Natalia; Gambino, Guillermo; Elissondo, María Celina

    2015-09-15

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is usually lethal if left untreated. The current strategy for treating human AE is surgical resection of the parasite mass complemented by chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. However, reliable chemotherapeutic alternatives have not yet been developed stimulating the research of new treatment strategies such as the use of medicinal plants. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the combination albendazole (ABZ)+thymol on mice infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For this purpose, mice infected with parasite material were treated daily for 20 days with ABZ (5 mg/kg), thymol (40 mg/kg) or ABZ (5 mg/kg)+thymol (40 mg/kg) or left untreated as controls. After mice were euthanized, cysts were removed from the peritoneal cavity and the treatment efficacy was evaluated by the mean cysts weight, viability of protoscoleces and ultrastructural changes of cysts and protoscoleces. The application of thymol or the combination of ABZ+thymol resulted in a significant reduction of the cysts weight compared to untreated mice. We also found that although ABZ and thymol had a scolicidal effect, the combination of the two compounds had a considerably stronger effect showing a reduction in the protoscoleces viability of 62%. These results were also corroborated by optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. Protoscoleces recovered from ABZ or thymol treated mice showed alterations as contraction of the soma region, rostellar disorganization and presence of blebs in the tegument. However both drugs when combined lead to a total loss of the typical morphology of protoscoleces. All cysts removed from control mice appeared intact and no change in ultrastructure was detected. In contrast, cysts developed in mice treated with ABZ revealed changes in the germinal layer as reduction in cell number, while the treatment with thymol or the ABZ+thymol combination

  5. Negligible elongation of mucin glycans with Gal β1-3 units distinguishes the laminated layer of Echinococcus multilocularis from that of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, Lucía; Rovetta, Romina; Navatta, Marco; Fontana, Carolina; Lin, Gerardo; Moyna, Guillermo; Dematteis, Sylvia; Brehm, Klaus; Koziol, Uriel; Ferreira, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro

    2016-05-01

    The larval stages of the cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus cause the important zoonoses known as larval echinococcoses. These larvae are protected by a unique, massive, mucin-based structure known as the laminated layer. The mucin glycans of the E. granulosus laminated layer are core 1- or core 2-based O-glycans in which the core Galpβ1-3 residue can initiate a chain comprising one to three additional Galpβ1-3 residues, a motif not known in mammalian carbohydrates. This chain can be capped with a Galpα1-4 residue, and can be ramified with GlcNAcpβ1-6 residues. These, as well as the GlcNAcpβ1-6 residue in core 2, can be decorated with the Galpα1-4Galpβ1-4 disaccharide. Here we extend our analysis to the laminated layer of E. multilocularis, showing that the non-decorated cores, together with Galpβ1-3(Galpα1-4Galpβ1-4GlcNAcpβ1-6)GalNAc, comprise over 96% of the glycans in molar terms. This simple laminated layer glycome is exhibited by E. multilocularis grown either in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, all the differences with the complex laminated layer glycome found in E. granulosus may be explained in terms of strongly reduced activity in E. multilocularis of a putative glycosyltransferase catalysing the elongation with Galpβ1-3. Comparative inter-species analysis of available genomic and transcriptomic data suggested a candidate for this enzyme, amongst more than 20 putative (non-core 1) Gal/GlcNAc β1-3 transferases present in each species as a result of a taeniid-specific gene expansion. The candidate gene was experimentally verified to be transcribed at much higher levels in the larva of E. granulosus than that of E. multilocularis. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in the small intestine of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with and without Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožová, Adela; Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Scháňková, Štěpánka; Truněčková, Jana; Langrová, Iva; Kudrnáčová, Marie; Vadlejch, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels in red fox small intestine samples with or without Echinococcus multilocularis infection were studied. The red foxes were taken from the open countryside of northwest Bohemia (CR). Red foxes with E. multilocularis infection had lower levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb); cadmium levels in infected foxes (0.0052 mg/kg) were twice as low as in uninfected foxes (0.0106 mg/kg). This was the same case for lead: 0.0288 mg/kg infected red foxes (inf.) and 0.0413 mg/kg uninfected (uninf.). Conversely, red foxes with E. multilocularis infection yielded higher concentrations in comparison to their uninfected counterparts: Cr (0.0087 mg/kg uninf. and 0.0116 mg/kg inf.), Cu (0.2677 mg/kg uninf. and 0.3205 mg/kg inf.), Fe (6.46 mg/kg uninf. and 10.89 mg/kg inf.), Mn (0.1966 mg/kg uninf. and 0.2029 mg/kg inf.), Ni (0.0415 mg/kg uninf. and 0.064 mg/kg inf.) and Zn (16.71 mg/kg uninf. and 20.25 mg/kg inf). This could support the hypothesis that tapeworms are able to absorb toxic heavy metals from the host body into their tissues, as well as to modify other element concentrations in the host body.

  7. Could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis? A study based on qPCR analysis of cat feces in a rural area in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Combes, Benoît; Umhang, Gérald; Aknouche, Soufiane; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines. In the present study, we investigated copro-sampling performed in a rural and highly endemic area in Eastern France, on carnivore feces (n = 150). From these samples, the parasite was detected and identified by DNA analysis using quantitative PCR targeting part of a mitochondrial gene (Em-qPCR). Taeniid eggs were isolated from positive-Em-qPCR samples by flotation, and species identification was confirmed by sequencing on DNA extracts. From a total of 43 copro-samples from cats, four tested positive for E. multilocularis by the Em-qPCR. In two of these, we found parasite eggs that were identified as E. multilocularis. This finding was confirmed by sequencing, while one dog stool out of 61 collected was found to be positive, no egg was detectable. At the same time, 34% of fox stools tested positive for the parasite. The present study challenges the current idea that cats are only of minor significance in the E. multilocularis life cycle. PMID:27739398

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

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    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  9. Targeting Echinococcus multilocularis stem cells by inhibition of the Polo-like kinase EmPlk1.

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    Andreas Schubert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a life-threatening disease caused by larvae of the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Crucial to AE pathology is continuous infiltrative growth of the parasite's metacestode stage, which is driven by a population of somatic stem cells, called germinative cells. Current anti-AE chemotherapy using benzimidazoles is ineffective in eliminating the germinative cell population, thus leading to remission of parasite growth upon therapy discontinuation.We herein describe the characterization of EmPlk1, encoded by the gene emplk1, which displays significant homologies to members of the Plk1 sub-family of Polo-like kinases that regulate mitosis in eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate germinative cell-specific expression of emplk1 by RT-PCR, transcriptomics, and in situ hybridization. We also show that EmPlk1 can induce germinal vesicle breakdown when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, indicating that it is an active kinase. This activity was significantly suppressed in presence of BI 2536, a Plk1 inhibitor that has been tested in clinical trials against cancer. Addition of BI 2536 at concentrations as low as 20 nM significantly blocked the formation of metacestode vesicles from cultivated Echinococcus germinative cells. Furthermore, low concentrations of BI 2536 eliminated the germinative cell population from mature metacestode vesicles in vitro, yielding parasite tissue that was no longer capable of proliferation.We conclude that BI 2536 effectively inactivates E. multilocularis germinative cells in parasite larvae in vitro by direct inhibition of EmPlk1, thus inducing mitotic arrest and germinative cell killing. Since germinative cells are decisive for parasite proliferation and metastasis formation within the host, BI 2536 and related compounds are very promising compounds to complement benzimidazoles in AE chemotherapy.

  10. Excretory/secretory-products of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae induce apoptosis and tolerogenic properties in dendritic cells in vitro.

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    Justin Komguep Nono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis larvae, is a chronic disease associated with considerable modulation of the host immune response. Dendritic cells (DC are key effectors in shaping the immune response and among the first cells encountered by the parasite during an infection. Although it is assumed that E.multilocularis, by excretory/secretory (E/S-products, specifically affects DC to deviate immune responses, little information is available on the molecular nature of respective E/S-products and their mode of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established cultivation systems for exposing DC to live material from early (oncosphere, chronic (metacestode and late (protoscolex infectious stages. When co-incubated with Echinococcus primary cells, representing the invading oncosphere, or metacestode vesicles, a significant proportion of DC underwent apoptosis and the surviving DC failed to mature. In contrast, DC exposed to protoscoleces upregulated maturation markers and did not undergo apoptosis. After pre-incubation with primary cells and metacestode vesicles, DC showed a strongly impaired ability to be activated by the TLR ligand LPS, which was not observed in DC pre-treated with protoscolex E/S-products. While none of the larvae induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-12p70, the production of immunosuppressive IL-10 was elevated in response to primary cell E/S-products. Finally, upon incubation with DC and naïve T-cells, E/S-products from metacestode vesicles led to a significant expansion of Foxp3+ T cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the induction of apoptosis in DC by cestode E/S-products. Our data indicate that the early infective stage of E. multilocularis is a strong inducer of tolerance in DC, which is most probably important for generating an immunosuppressive environment at an infection phase in which the parasite is highly vulnerable to host attacks. The

  11. Activities of fenbendazole in comparison with albendazole against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in vitro and in a murine infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Tatiana; Stadelmann, Britta; Aeschbacher, Denise; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The current chemotherapeutic treatment of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans is based on albendazole and/or mebendazole. However, the costs of treatment, life-long consumption of drugs, parasitostatic rather than parasiticidal activity of chemotherapy, and high recurrence rates after treatment interruption warrant more efficient treatment options. Experimental treatment of mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes with fenbendazole revealed similar efficacy to albendazole. Inspection of parasite tissue from infected and benzimidazole-treated mice by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated drug-induced alterations within the germinal layer of the parasites, and most notably an almost complete absence of microtriches. On the other hand, upon in vitro exposure of metacestodes to benzimidazoles, no phosphoglucose isomerase activity could be detected in medium supernatants during treatment with any of these drugs, indicating that in vitro treatment did not severely affect the viability of metacestode tissue. Corresponding TEM analysis also revealed a dramatic shortening/retraction of microtriches as a hallmark of benzimidazole action, and as a consequence separation of the acellular laminated layer from the cellular germinal layer. Since TEM did not reveal any microtubule-based structures within Echinococcus microtriches, this effect cannot be explained by the previously described mechanism of action of benzimidazoles targeting β-tubulin, thus benzimidazoles must interact with additional targets that have not been yet identified. In addition, these results indicate the potential usefulness of fenbendazole for the chemotherapy of AE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takako; Yoshimura, Masashi; Onoyama, Keiichi; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-06

    Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations. The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection. Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model. Our

  13. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground. PMID:28972978

  14. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Damy, Sylvie; Brillaud, Jonathan; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Navion, Jérémy; Mélior, Raphael; Afonso, Eve; Hormaz, Vanessa; Gottstein, Bruno; Umhang, Gérald; Casulli, Adriano; Dadeau, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Raoul, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas), Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan), and North America (Canada and Alaska). Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature). In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms) and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET) project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database), consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  15. EWET: Data collection and interface for the genetic analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis based on EmsB microsatellite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Knapp

    Full Text Available Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recently, molecular aspects were investigated to better understand the nature of the variations observed among isolates. The study of the tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite EmsB allowed us to attain a high genetic diversity level where other classic markers have failed. Since 2006, EmsB data have been collected on specimens from various endemic foci of the parasite in Europe (in historic and newly endemic areas, Asia (China, Japan and Kyrgyzstan, and North America (Canada and Alaska. Biological data on the isolates and metadata were also recorded (e.g. host, geographical location, EmsB analysis, citation in the literature. In order to make available the data set of 1,166 isolates from classic and aberrant domestic and wild animal hosts (larval lesions and adult worms and from human origin, an open web access interface, developed in PHP, and connected to a PostgreSQL database, was developed in the EmsB Website for the Echinococcus Typing (EWET project. It allows researchers to access data collection, perform genetic analyses online (e.g. defining the genetic distance between their own samples and the samples in the database, consult distribution maps of EmsB profiles, and record and share their new EmsB genotyping data. In order to standardize the EmsB analyses performed in the different laboratories throughout the world, a calibrator was developed. The final aim of this project was to gather and arrange available data to permit to better understand the dispersion and transmission patterns of the parasite among definitive and intermediate hosts, in order to organize control strategies on the ground.

  16. Influence of x-ray irradiation on the proliferative ability of the germinal layer cells of Echinococcus multilocularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Influence of X-ray irradiation on the proliferative ability of the germinal layer cells of larval Echinococcus multilocularis was studied by using small sterile hydatids containing vesicles composed of a non-cellular laminated layer and a cellular germinal layer. The small sterile hydatids were irradiated by X-ray at dose levels of 5,000, 15,000, 25,000, 35,000, 45,000 or 55,000 R and implanted into the peritoneal cavity of Chinese hamsters. Fully developed hydatids were recognized in all cases irradiated at up to 35,000 R, when assessed 113 days after implantation. At 45,000 R, 2 out of 6 animals showed small, fully developed hydatids. No such hydatid was found in the other 4 animals nor in any of the animals implanted with hydatids irradiated at 55,000 R. No structural differences were observed between fully developed hydatids originating from the irradiated and non-irradiated small hydatids. These results indicate that the tolerance limit of the germinal layer cells is between 45,000 R and 55,000 R. (author)

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess in a child with concomitant infections – Staphylococcus aureus, Echinococcus multilocularis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolová D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess is an uncommon but important and potentially life-threatening disease that occurs whenever there is failure of clearance of an infection in the liver. Work presents a rare case of pyogenic liver abscess with confirmed bacterial aetiology of Staphylococcus aureus, subsequently confirmed Echinococcus multilocularis and suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis liver infection in 6 years old child. Moreover, several other parasitic diseases were recorded. According to clinical presentation of diseases, it could be supposed that liver impairment caused by alveolar echinococcosis and potentially also by M. tuberculosis could be the predisposition site for the capture of Staphylococcus aureus in altered liver tissues during its haematogenous spreading, and thus contributed to the development and subsequent clinical presentation of pyogenic liver abscess. The presence of three different aetiological agents complicated the diagnostic process as well as the therapy of the patient and made her prognosis uncertain. Proper diagnosis of multiloculated liver abscesses, with echinococcosis and hepatic tuberculosis considered in the differential diagnosis, is therefore crucial to administration of early and appropriate treatment.

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

    2005-10-01

    Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis and Its Intermediate Host: A Model of Parasite-Host Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Angèle Vuitton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in the E. multilocularis-intermediate host model depend on a subtle balance between cellular immunity, which is responsible for host's resistance towards the metacestode, the larval stage of the parasite, and tolerance induction and maintenance. The pathological features of alveolar echinococcosis. the disease caused by E. multilocularis, are related both to parasitic growth and to host's immune response, leading to fibrosis and necrosis, The disease spectrum is clearly dependent on the genetic background of the host as well as on acquired disturbances of Th1-related immunity. The laminated layer of the metacestode, and especially its carbohydrate components, plays a major role in tolerance induction. Th2-type and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, as well as nitric oxide, are involved in the maintenance of tolerance and partial inhibition of cytotoxic mechanisms. Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon-α, or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease.

  20. Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis Infection in Intermediate Hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David

    our understanding of parasite epizootiology significantly, they do not provide robust data on comparative parasite development and the baseline susceptibility of individual species. The present Ph.D. project therefore aims to experimentally evaluate differences in susceptibility and parasite...... in the context of parasite establishment growth and fertility. The present Ph.D. project and the four resulting papers demonstrated fundamental differences in susceptibility, growth and fertility in the various wild rodent isolates (and laboratory strains) investigated and provided evidence for potential...... by which these aspects can be investigated further in order to provide highly detailed information on a key aspect of E. multilocularis transmission, enabling better risk assessment and understanding changes in distribution....

  1. Combining information from surveys of several species to estimate the probability of freedom from Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjertqvist Marika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis has foxes and other canids as definitive host and rodents as intermediate hosts. However, most mammals can be accidental intermediate hosts and the larval stage may cause serious disease in humans. The parasite has never been detected in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway. All three countries require currently an anthelminthic treatment for dogs and cats prior to entry in order to prevent introduction of the parasite. Documentation of freedom from E. multilocularis is necessary for justification of the present import requirements. Methods The probability that Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway were free from E. multilocularis and the sensitivity of the surveillance systems were estimated using scenario trees. Surveillance data from five animal species were included in the study: red fox (Vulpes vulpes, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, domestic pig, wild boar (Sus scrofa and voles and lemmings (Arvicolinae. Results The cumulative probability of freedom from EM in December 2009 was high in all three countries, 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99 in Finland and 0.99 (0.97-0.995 in Sweden and 0.98 (0.95-0.99 in Norway. Conclusions Results from the model confirm that there is a high probability that in 2009 the countries were free from E. multilocularis. The sensitivity analyses showed that the choice of the design prevalences in different infected populations was influential. Therefore more knowledge on expected prevalences for E. multilocularis in infected populations of different species is desirable to reduce residual uncertainty of the results.

  2. Occurrence and prevalence of selected zoonotic agents: Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spiralis and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the population of Polish hunters--results of the study conducted in 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Wnukowska, Natalia; Popczyk, Bartłomiej; Kucharczyk, Bożena; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In Poland the development of the knowledge concerning zoonotic pathogens, of which free-living animals are the reservoir of is gaining in importance both in epidemiological aspect as well as in the context of prevention for improving public health. Dietary habits such as the consumption of forest undergrowth products and wild game meat, and the way of those products being prepared (in the process of barbequing) pose a risk factors of infection with the foodborne pathogens such as Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp., and HEV. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of infections caused by Trichinella spp., Echinococcus multilocularis, and HEV in the population of Polish hunters, describing their geographical distribution in Poland, and to try to define basic factors, which may contribute to their occurrence. In 2010-2012 a cross-sectional study was carried out among Polish hunters. A blood samples were collected as well as a survey of 1027 participants recruited in the 16 provinces was also carried out. Serological tests were performed for the presence of specific antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp. and HEV using commercial or "in home" ELISA tests. In case of positive result for Echinococcus, an Em2plus ELISA or/and western blot test were carried out, and for positive results for IgM for HEV a recomLine HEV IgM test was carried out. In the studied population a total number of 2 cases of Echinococcus multilocularis infection were found. Moreover in 47 (4,6%) participants presence of antibodies against Trichinella spp. were found, including 17 positive and 30 borderline results. In 206 persons (25%) IgG anti-HEV antibodies were found (by ELISA test). Geographical diversity in prevalence of both, the Trichinella spp. and HEV cases was observed. The study confirmed presence of zoonotic infections such as Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp., and hepatitis E (HEV) among Polish hunters. In the case of

  3. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Wahlström

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR, allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard. Materials and methods: Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108 and autumn 2012 (n=69 in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained. Results and discussion: This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI 0.80–0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76–0.88, which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94–0.99 for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99–1 for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997–1. One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88 was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83.

  4. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  5. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Reveals Insight into Adaptation and Maintenance of Parasitic Homeostasis at the Host-Parasite Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Han, Xiumin; Bae, Young-An; Park, Woo-Jae; Kang, Insug; Wang, Hu; Kong, Yoon

    2017-02-03

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode is frequently associated with deleterious zoonotic helminthiasis. The growth patterns and morphological features of AE, such as invasion of the liver parenchyme and multiplication into multivesiculated masses, are similar to those of malignant tumors. AE has been increasingly detected in several regions of Europe, North America, Central Asia, and northwestern China. An isoform of E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) shows a specific immunoreactivity against patient sera of active-stage AE, suggesting that EmAgB3 might play important roles during adaptation of the parasite to hosts. However, expression patterns and biochemical properties of EmAgB3 remained elusive. The protein profile and nature of component proteins of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) have never been addressed. In this study, we conducted proteome analysis of EmHF of AE cysts harvested from immunocompetent mice. We observed the molecular and biochemical properties of EmAgB3, including differential transcription patterns of paralogous genes, macromolecular protein status by self-assembly, distinct oligomeric states according to individual anatomical compartments of the worm, and hydrophobic ligand-binding protein activity. We also demonstrated tissue expression patterns of EmAgB3 transcript and protein. EmAgB3 might participate in immune response and recruitment of essential host lipids at the host-parasite interface. Our results might contribute to an in depth understanding of the biophysical and biological features of EmAgB3, thus providing insights into the design of novel targets to control AE.

  7. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed.

  8. Estimated prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in rac-coon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides in northern Branden-burg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine SCHWARZ, Astrid SUTOR, Christoph STAUBACH, Roswitha MATTIS, Kirsten TACKMANN, Franz Josef CONRATHS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage of the small fox tapeworm, is a lethal zoonotic infection if left untreated. E. multilocularis is distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and lives in the small intestines of carnivores, mainly canids. The main definitive host of E. multilocularis in European countries is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and in the last ten years new endemic areas for the parasite in Central Europe have been identified. In some areas, for instance in Germany, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides - a spreading neozoon - must be regarded as an additional definitive host for E. multilocularis. In 2001 this parasite was found for the first time in raccoon dogs in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Between 2000 and 2008, 1,252 raccoon dogs from Brandenburg were examined by the Intestinal Scraping Technique. The majority of samples were obtained in five northern counties and all 60 animals that tested positive for E. multilocularis were located there. The estimated true prevalence calculated by a beta-binomial- model ranged from 6%–12% [Current Zoology 57 (5: 655–661, 2011].

  9. Development of Three PCR Assays for the Differentiation between Echinococcus shiquicus, E. granulosus (G1 genotype), and E. multilocularis DNA in the Co-Endemic Region of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Umhang, Gérald; Qiu, Jiamin; Chen, Xingwang; Lahmar, Samia; Boué, Franck; Jenkins, David; Craig, Philip

    2013-01-01

    To investigate echinococcosis in co-endemic regions, three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the amplification of a fragment within the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) mitochondrial gene were optimized for the detection of Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus granulosus G1, and Echinococcus multilocularis DNA derived from parasite tissue or canid fecal samples. Specificity using parasite tissue-derived DNA was found to be 100% except for E. shiquicus primers that faintly detected E. equinus DNA. Sensitivity of the three assays for DNA detection was between 2 and 10 pg. Ethanol precipitation of negative PCR fecal samples was used to eliminate false negatives and served to increase sensitivity as exemplified by an increase in detection from 0% to 89% of E. shiquicus coproDNA using necropsy-positive fox samples. PMID:23438764

  10. Immunization of rhesus macaques with Echinococcus multilocularis recombinant 14-3-3 antigen leads to specific antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Karen; Gottstein, B; Becker, T; Stahl-Hennig, C; Kaup, F-J; Mätz-Rensing, K

    2017-01-01

    E. multilocularis (Em) is the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a severe and potentially fatal disease, primarily affecting the liver of and occurring in aberrant intermediate hosts, e.g., humans and non-human primates. Due to increasing numbers of spontaneous cases of AE in the Old World monkey colonies of the German Primate Center, the question arose as to whether vaccination of non-human primates may represent a useful prophylactic approach. In this pilot study, the recombinant antigen Em14-3-3, which has provided a 97 % protection against E. multilocularis challenge infection in rodent models, was used for the first time to immunize rhesus macaques. In order to increase immunogenicity, the antigen was formulated with different adjuvants including Quil A®, aluminum hydroxide (alum), and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Also, different vaccination regimens were tested. All vaccinated animals developed antigen-specific antibodies. While Quil A® induced a local adverse reaction, alum proved to be the most potent adjuvant in terms of induced antibody levels, longevity as well as tolerability. In conclusion, our pilot study demonstrated that recombinant Em14-3-3 is safe and immunogenic in rhesus monkeys. As a next step, efficacy of the vaccination remains to be explored.

  11. A semi-automated magnetic capture probe based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method applied in the Swedish surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Mats; Hagström, Åsa; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Wahlström, Helene; Ågren, Erik Olof; Miller, Andrea; Holmberg, Anders; Lukacs, Morten; Casulli, Adriano; Deplazes, Peter; Juremalm, Mikael

    2014-12-19

    Following the first finding of Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden in 2011, 2985 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were analysed by the segmental sedimentation and counting technique. This is a labour intensive method and requires handling of the whole carcass of the fox, resulting in a costly analysis. In an effort to reduce the cost of labour and sample handling, an alternative method has been developed. The method is sensitive and partially automated for detection of E. multilocularis in faecal samples. The method has been used in the Swedish E. multilocularis monitoring program for 2012-2013 on more than 2000 faecal samples. We describe a new semi-automated magnetic capture probe DNA extraction method and real time hydrolysis probe polymerase chain reaction assay (MC-PCR) for the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in faecal samples from red fox. The diagnostic sensitivity was determined by validating the new method against the sedimentation and counting technique in fox samples collected in Switzerland where E. multilocularis is highly endemic. Of 177 foxes analysed by the sedimentation and counting technique, E. multilocularis was detected in 93 animals. Eighty-two (88%, 95% C.I 79.8-93.9) of these were positive in the MC-PCR. In foxes with more than 100 worms, the MC-PCR was positive in 44 out of 46 (95.7%) cases. The two MC-PCR negative samples originated from foxes with only immature E. multilocularis worms. In foxes with 100 worms or less, (n = 47), 38 (80.9%) were positive in the MC-PCR. The diagnostic specificity of the MC-PCR was evaluated using fox scats collected within the Swedish screening. Of 2158 samples analysed, two were positive. This implies that the specificity is at least 99.9% (C.I. = 99.7-100). The MC-PCR proved to have a high sensitivity and a very high specificity. The test is partially automated but also possible to perform manually if desired. The test is well suited for nationwide E. multilocularis surveillance programs where sampling

  12. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp. eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Federer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn, originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18% of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia taeniaeformis in five cases. Similarly, in 13 (28% of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases. Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections.

  13. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yan, Hong-Bin; Blair, David; Lei, Meng-Tong; Cai, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Yan-Lei; Li, Jian-Qiu; Fu, Bao-Quan; Yang, Yu-Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Jia, Wan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus were designed based on sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes, respectively. This multiplex PCR accurately detected Echinococcus DNA without generating nonspecific reaction products. PCR products were of the expected sizes of 219 (nad1), 584 (nad5) and 471 (cox1) bp. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR enabled diagnosis of multiple infections using DNA of protoscoleces and copro-DNA extracted from fecal samples of canine hosts. Specificity of the multiplex PCR was 100% when evaluated using DNA isolated from other cestodes. Sensitivity thresholds were determined for DNA from protoscoleces and from worm eggs, and were calculated as 20 pg of DNA for E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, 10 pg of DNA for E. multilocularis, 2 eggs for E. granulosus, and 1 egg for E. multilocularis. Positive results with copro-DNA could be obtained at day 17 and day 26 after experimental infection of dogs with larval E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The multiplex PCR developed in this study is an efficient tool for discriminating E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus from each other and from other taeniid cestodes. It can be used for the detection of canids infected with E. granulosus s.s. and E. multilocularis using feces collected from these definitive hosts. It can also be used for the identification

  14. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  15. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Profound activity of the anti-cancer drug bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes identifies the proteasome as a novel drug target for cestodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ, a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors.

  17. Evaluation by latent class analysis of a magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by real-time qPCR as a new diagnostic method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; van Roon, Annika; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Opsteegh, Marieke; Massolo, Alessandro; Deksne, Gunita; Teunis, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-10-30

    A new method, based on a magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR, was developed for the detection of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive hosts. Latent class analysis was used to compare this new method with the currently used phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. In total, 60 red foxes and coyotes from three different locations were tested with both molecular methods and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) or intestinal scraping technique (IST). Though based on a limited number of samples, it could be established that the magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR showed similar sensitivity and specificity as the currently used phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. All methods have a high specificity as shown by Bayesian latent class analysis. Both molecular assays have higher sensitivities than the combined SCT and IST, though the uncertainties in sensitivity estimates were wide for all assays tested. The magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR has the advantage of not requiring hazardous chemicals like the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. This supports the replacement of the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR by the magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR for molecular detection of E. multilocularis in definitive hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA extraction in Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia spp. eggs in dogs stool samples applying thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2018-03-01

    The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples

  19. Experimental and field investigation of non-biting flies as potential mechanical vectors of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Sahel; Afshar, Abbas Aghaei; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Afgar, Ali; Nasibi, Saeid; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2018-06-01

    Synanthropic fly species can be potential mechanical vectors of many infectious agents. The potential of the flies to carry Echinococcus granulosus eggs is not fully documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of non-biting flies to carry taeniid eggs. A total of 210 flies were collected from seven selected sites in areas of Kerman city, southeastern Iran from November 2016 to May 2017. Adult flies were live-caught using sweeping nets. Flies were placed individually in small glass bottles and transported to the laboratory. All the flies were killed by deep freezing and then identified to the species level using both morphological and molecular methods. The flies were homogenized in test tubes and genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR protocols were used both to identify the live-caught flies to the species level, and for the detection of E. granulosus. The laboratory reared second generation flies were experimentally exposed to dog feces manually spiked by Echinococcus eggs. Two runs of experiments with 1-3 h of exposure were designed. For each experiment 20 flies were selected from the stock colony and were starved for three days. After each experiment, the flies were frozen for further molecular studies. The dominant fly species were Musca domestica and Lucilia sericata. No eggs were found on the body surface and/or guts of live-caught flies. After the first hour of exposure, 60%, of the flies of both species were found to harbor Echinococcus eggs. However, in the case of L. sericata 50% of the flies harbored Echinococcus eggs after 3 h of exposure. Results of the present study indicate the probable role of synanthropic flies in harboring Echinococcus eggs and mechanical transmission of cystic echinococcosis. When the helminth eggs are susceptible to desiccation grooming flies can remove many of eggs from exterior surfaces of them. Despite this result the role of synanthropic flies in the transmission of

  20. Hepatik Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolaris), olgu sunumu ve literatürün gözden geçirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZİN, Yasemin; KILIÇ, Z. Mesut Yalın; PARLAK, Erkan; KAÇAR, Sabite; TURHAN, Nesrin; ŞAŞMAZ, Nurgül; ŞAHİN, Burhan

    2008-01-01

    Ekinokokkoz; köpeklerde yaşayan Echinococcus granulosus'un larva ve kist dönemlerinin insanlarda oluşturduğu hastalıktır. Kesin konakçı sı köpek, ara konakçısı koyun, sığır ve insandır. Yaygın olarak görülen ekinokokoz enfeksiyonlarından Echinococcus granulosus sorumlu iken Echinococcus alveolaris karaciğerdeki tüm ekinokokal lezyonların sadece %3'ünden sorumludur. Echinococcus alveolaris'in karaciğerde neden olduğu hastalık yavaş ilerleyen paraziter bir hastalıktır; ancak dokuya infiltrasyon...

  1. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Gaotian; Renqing, Pengcuo; Xie, Fei; Li, Tiaoying; Wang, Zhenghuan; Wang, Xiaoming

    2012-10-01

    There are three Echinococcus species, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) have been determined to be the main wild definitive host of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, but little information is available on the prevalence of these two parasites in Tibetan foxes. Consequently, the copro-prevalence of these parasites in foxes from the eastern Tibetan plateau was evaluated in this study. For each copro-DNA sample extracted from fox feces, a 133-bp segment of EgG1 Hae III was used to screen for infection with E. granulosus. Multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to target an 874-bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene to distinguish E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Among 184 fecal samples, 120 were from Tibetan foxes and six from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Of the fecal samples from Tibetan foxes, 74 (giving a copro-prevalence of 62%) showed the presence of Echinococcus spp.: 23 (19%) were found to contain E. multilocularis, 32 (27%) E. shiquicus, and 19 (16%) showed mixed infection with both E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Two fecal samples from red foxes were found to be infected with E. multilocularis. No fox feces were found to be infected with E. granulosus. Tests on zinc finger protein genes and a 105-bp fragment of the Sry gene found no significant difference in the prevalence of the two parasites between sexes. The efficiency of our multiplex nested PCR methods were compared with previous polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods and some problems associated with the copro-PCR were discussed.

  2. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  3. A mathematical model for optimising profylactic deworming strategies of companion pets moving from Echinicoccus multilocularis endemic areas to countries free of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a minute tapeworm residing in the small intestine of carnivores like foxes and dogs. The eggs produced forms cysts in the intermediate mice hosts and develop into the adult worms when ingested by a suitable carnivore. However, cysts may also develop in accidental...... contagious that a single infected animal crossing the border necessarily will result in the successful establishment of the parasite. A worm will produce a large number of eggs in its lifetime. But on average only very few of these eggs will result in a new adult tapeworm. And because the real concern...... failure. Because we do not know the actual risk of establishing the infection caused by each deposited egg the model cannot quantify the risk. But the model allows for relative quantitative comparisons of different import scenarios, endemicity levels, drug efficiencies and treatment strategies, and can...

  4. Present status, actions taken and future considerations due to the findings of E. multilocularis in two Scandinavian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Helene; Enemark, Heidi; Davidson, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    When Echinococcus (E.) multilocularis was first detected in mainland Scandinavia in Denmark in 2000, surveillance was initiated/intensified in Sweden, mainland Norway and Finland. After 10 years of surveillance these countries all fulfilled the requirements of freedom from E. multilocularis as de...

  5. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  6. Treatment of a case of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to Echinococcus alveolaris with albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Sükrü; Ozkan, Gülsüm; Mungan, Sevdegül; Arslan, Mehmet; Cansu, Ayşegül; Cansiz, Muammer; Köseoğlu, Rahman; Kaynar, Kübra

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections lead to significant morbidity and mortality, especially in tropical regions. The renal damage caused by these infections occurs via various mechanisms. Two forms of parasitic echinococcus infection widely responsible for infection in humans are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. E. multilocularis causes Alveolar echinococcus infection in humans. Alveolar echinococcus has high mortality, and the possible limits of surgery are generally exceeded by the time of diagnosis. The literature contains no case reports of comorbidity of alveolar echinococcus and glomerulonephritis. Here we discuss the treatment of a patient with comorbid mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and alveolar echinococcus, behaving like a tumor, using albendazole since there was no possibility of surgery. This is the first ever such case report.

  7. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Nirmal Kumar; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Kinzang, Dukpa; Gurung, Ratna B; Wangdi, Phuntsho; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In this pilot study, fecal samples were collected from community dogs around slaughterhouses and from the city of Thimphu (n=138) as well as from carnivores in the forest area around a farm in Bhutan (n=28). Samples were analyzed microscopically for the presence of taeniid eggs by the floatation and sieving method. Further molecular analyses of 20 samples of community dogs positive for taeniid eggs confirmed 10 Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and one Taenia hydatigena case. From 14 environmental fecal samples from the forest area positive for taeniid eggs, one contained E. granulosus s.l., six T. hydatigena and one Taenia taeniaeformis DNA. In the remaining samples considered positive for taeniid eggs, no molecular confirmation could be achieved. Additionally, Echinococcus cysts were collected from locally slaughtered cattle and imported cattle organs. Seven Echinococcus cysts (one fertile) from the local animals and 35 (four fertile) from imported cattle organs were confirmed as E. granulosus (G1-3) by PCR/sequencing. One Echinococcus cyst each from a local animal and from an imported cattle organ (both fertile) were confirmed to be Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). Sterile Echinococcus cysts were also collected from local yaks (n=10), and all revealed to be E. granulosus (G1-G3). Hospital records of cystic echinococcosis in humans and the presence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs and ungulates indicate the existence of local transmission for both E. ortleppi and E. granulosus in Bhutan. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.

  9. Surveillance of Echinococcus isolates from Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Wang, Hu; Lin, Gonghua; Zhao, Fang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tongzuo; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Yongguo; Hou, Zhibin; Cai, Huixia; Liu, Peiyun; Wang, Yongshun

    2015-01-15

    Echinococcosis is highly endemic over large parts of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China. Based on a large number of samples, we present data on the current presence, host distribution, and genetic diversity of Echinococcus in the Qinghai Province, located in the northeastern corner of the QTP and constituting >25% of the area of the plateau. We used 521 samples (including 451 newly collected samples and 70 samples from our previous study) from humans, yaks, sheep, goats, dogs, fox, plateau pikas, and voles in 36 counties, and genotyped them using the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene and the maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstruction methods. Based on the 792 bp sequence matrix, we recorded 177 variable sites; 157 were parsimony-informative. A total of 105 haplotypes (H1-H105) were detected, of which H1-H15 and H90-H104, H16-H17, H18-H89, and H105 belonged to Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Echinococcus canadensis, respectively. Our results showed that, (i) the Qinghai Province was under a high burden of Echinococcus epidemiology; (ii) E. granulosus was the main echinococcosis threat to the local people, and the followed is E. multilocularis; (iii) there are a considerable number of haplotypes shared by domestic animals (sheep, yaks, and dogs) and humans, demonstrating the close relationship between human and domestic animals epidemiology; (iv) the threat of E. shiquicus on humans and livestock can be mostly ignored, while the infection risk of E. canadensis echinococcosis should not be neglected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus tapeworms in China as determined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Li, Tiaoying; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiumin; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Wang, Hu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Mamuti, Wulamu; Wen, Hao; Moro, Pedro L.; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus spp. in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region were evaluated by DNA sequencing analyses of genes for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1a). We collected 68 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from Xinjiang and 113 isolates of E. granulosus s. s., 49 isolates of Echinococcus multilocularis and 34 isolates of Echinococcus shiquicus from the Tibetan Plateau. The results of molecular identification by mitochondrial and nuclear markers were identical, suggesting the infrequency of introgressive hybridization. A considerable intraspecific variation was detected in mitochondrial cox1 sequences. The parsimonious network of cox1 haplotypes showed star-like features in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, but a divergent feature in E. shiquicus. The cox1 neutrality indexes computed by Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed high negative values in E. granulosus s. s. and E. multilocularis, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. In contrast, the low positive values of both tests were obtained in E. shiquicus. These results suggest the following hypotheses: (i) recent founder effects arose in E. granulosus and E. multilocularis after introducing particular individuals into the endemic areas by anthropogenic movement or natural migration of host mammals, and (ii) the ancestor of E. shiquicus was segregated into the Tibetan Plateau by colonizing alpine mammals and its mitochondrial locus has evolved without bottleneck effects. PMID:19800346

  12. Molecular identification of Echinococcus species from eastern and southern Qinghai, China, based on the mitochondrial cox1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Wang, Hu; Lin, Gonghua; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira; Cai, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Tongzuo; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jingxiao; Liu, Yufang; Zhao, Yanmei; Wang, Yongshun

    2012-07-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, in western China), which is the largest and highest plateau on Earth, is a highly epidemic region for Echinococcus spp. We collected 70 Echinococcus samples from humans, dogs, sheep, yaks, plateau pikas, and voles in eastern and southern Qinghai and genotyped them using the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene and maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstruction methods. Based on the 792-bp sequence matrix, we recorded 124 variable sites, of which, 115 were parsimony-informative. Thirty-four haplotypes (H1-H34) were detected, of which H1-H15, H16-H17, and H18-H34 belonged to Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus multilocularis, and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Within 26 human isolates, three were identified as E. multilocularis and 23 were E. granulosus. We also detected a dual infection case in a dog with E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. The intraspecific haplotype (Hd ± SD) and nucleotide (Nd ± SD) diversity of E. shiquicus (0.947 ± 0.021; 0.00441 ± 0.00062) was higher than that for E. granulosus (0.896 ± 0.038; 0.00221 ± 0.00031) and E. multilocularis (0.286 ± 0.196; 0.00036 ± 0.00025). Moreover, the haplotype network of E. shiquicus showed a radial feature rather than a divergent feature in a previous study, indicating this species in the QTP has also evolved with bottleneck effects.

  13. Recent advances in Echinococcus genomics and stem cell research.

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    Koziol, U; Brehm, K

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively, are life-threatening diseases and very difficult to treat. The introduction of benzimidazole-based chemotherapy, which targets parasite β-tubulin, has significantly improved the life-span and prognosis of echinococcosis patients. However, benzimidazoles show only parasitostatic activity, are associated with serious adverse side effects and have to be administered for very long time periods, underlining the need for new drugs. Very recently, the nuclear genomes of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus have been characterised, revealing a plethora of data for gaining a deeper understanding of host-parasite interaction, parasite development and parasite evolution. Combined with extensive transcriptome analyses of Echinococcus life cycle stages these investigations also yielded novel clues for targeted drug design. Recent years also witnessed significant advancements in the molecular and cellular characterisation of the Echinococcus 'germinative cell' population, which forms a unique stem cell system that differs from stem cells of other organisms in the expression of several genes associated with the maintenance of pluripotency. As the only parasite cell type capable of undergoing mitosis, the germinative cells are central to all developmental transitions of Echinococcus within the host and to parasite expansion via asexual proliferation. In the present article, we will briefly introduce and discuss recent advances in Echinococcus genomics and stem cell research in the context of drug design and development. Interestingly, it turns out that benzimidazoles seem to have very limited effects on Echinococcus germinative cells, which could explain the high recurrence rates observed after chemotherapeutic treatment of echinococcosis patients. This clearly indicates that future efforts into the development of

  14. Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus Infections: Confirmatory Testing and Species Differentiation by a New Commercial Western Blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liance, Martine; Janin, Veronique; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Vuitton, Dominique-Angele; Houin, Rene; Piarroux, Renaud

    2000-01-01

    The Echinococcus Western Blot IgG (LDBIO Diagnostics, Lyon, France), using a whole larval antigen from Echinococcus multilocularis, was evaluated for serodiagnosis and differentiation between two human parasitic infections of worldwide importance: cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, due to E. multilocularis. Fifty and 61 serum samples from patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively, were used for assessing diagnostic sensitivity. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with those of screening tests used for these applications. Sera used for assessing cross-reactivities were from 154 patients with other diseases, either parasitic or not. The assay allowed the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 97% of Echinococcus-infected patients. It had a higher sensitivity than screening assays for the detection for each echinococcosis. The assay allowed us to correctly distinguish between E. granulosus- and E. multilocularis-infected patients in 76% of cases. It did not allow us to distinguish active from inactive forms of both echinococcoses. The occurrence of cross-reactivities with neurocysticercosis indicates the necessity for retesting sera with species-specific antigens, for rare patients with neurologic disorders. This study shows the usefulness of the commercially available Echinococcus Western Blot IgG for the serological confirmation of human echinococcosis. PMID:11015390

  15. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

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    Robardet E.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression. Urbanisation level was the only influencing factor, with a decreasing gradient from rural [54%, CI 95% (40-68] to peri-urban [31%, CI 95% (15-52] and urban area [4%, CI 95% (0.7-15]. The consumption of Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp., grassland species, the main presumed intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis, was studied by the same approach. The two species were consumed less in the urban area and more in autumn than in spring. Anthropogenic food consumption was linked to urbanisation and to age. The frequency of anthropogenic food consumption decreased in the rural area. A global model explaining the presence of E. multilocularis and including urbanisation level and diet was then elaborated. Independently of urbanisation, there was a suggestion of less E. multilocularis infection with anthropogenic food consumption. Red foxes consuming Microtus sp. and A. terrestris had higher worm burden than those that did not. The results suggest that the decreasing gradient observed from rural to urban area is linked to behaviour and feeding habits.

  16. [Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates obtained from different hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Emrah; Özkan, Bora; Mutlu, Fatih; Karaca, Serkan; Şahin, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a parasite that can be seen throughout the world. So far, five species of genus Echinococcus have been identified as parasite in people: E.granulosus, E.multilocularis, E.vogeli, E.oligarthrus, E.shiquicus. Larval (metacestod) form of parasite settles in internal organs of hoofed animals (cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, etc.) and human; the adult form is found in small intestine of final host, canine. Disease caused by parasite called as "Cystic echinococcosis" (CE) is an important health problem and causes economic losses in many countries including our country that livestock is common. Infective eggs cause infections in intermediate hosts by taking oral way and rarely inhalation. Received egg opens in the stomach and intestines of intermediate host and oncosphere is released. Oncosphere quickly reaches the lamina propria of the villus epithelium by its histolytic enzymes and hooks. It usually transported from here to the liver and lungs, less frequently, muscle, brain, spleen, kidney and to other organs through the veins. By molecular studies, five species have been validated taxonomically and 10 different variants or strains of E.granulosus have been identified. Host and developmental differences between strains may negatively affect control studies and fight against the parasite. This study aimed to determinate E.granulosus strains obtained from cyst material of different intermediate hosts from different regions of Turkey by molecular methods. In the study, 25 human, 8 cattle, 6 sheep and 2 goat cysts material has been collected. Total genomic DNA was isolated from protoscoleces in cyst fluid and analyzed by PCR with COX-1 (L) and COX-1 (S) genes specific primers. DNA sequence analysis for each PCR product has been made. DNA sequence analysis results evaluated phylogenetically by MEGA analyze and BLAST software. As a result of this study, all isolates were identified as E.granulosus sensu stricto (G1) by DNA sequence analysis. CE

  17. Echinococcus spp.: Tapeworms that Pose a Danger to Both Animals and Humans – a Review

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    Brožová A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda; Taeniidae are minute tapeworms of carnivores. Their larvae are known as hydatids (metacestode, which proliferate asexually in various mammals. Like the majority of cestodes, Echinococcus spp. require two different host species to complete their life cycle. Definitive hosts harbouring the adult cestodes in the small intestine are exclusively carnivores of the Canidae and Felidae families. A wide range of mammal species including humans is susceptible to infection by the metacestode of Echinococcus spp., which develops in their viscera. The disease, caused by species of the genus Echinococcus, is called echinococcosis, and it is one of the most dangerous zoonoses in the world. The traditional species Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are agents of significant diseases due to the high number of cases and the wide geographical species range. The taxonomy of the genus is controversial; in the current state of ongoing complex revisions, the agent of cystic echinococcosis E. granulosus sensu lato is divided into five species (E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. felidis, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis, in addition to the agents of alveolar echinococcosis (E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus and polycystic/unicystic echinococcosis (E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus. Here we provide an overview of the current situation, which continues to develop.

  18. Differential Detection of Echinococcus Spp. Copro-DNA by Nested-PCR in Domestic and Wild Definitive Hosts in Moghan Plain, Iran

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    I Mobedi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite Echinococcus granulosus, there are merely two old reports of E. multilocularis infection among Iranian canids of Moghan Plain, the only area known endemic for the species. We detected specific DNA markers in fecal samples by PCR (Copro-PCR for differential diagnosis of Echinococcus species in living canids.Methods: Totally 144 fecal samples from domestic dogs, red foxes and a golden jackal were examined for genus-specific Echinococcus coproantigens using ELISA. Forty two positive or ambiguous samples were further examined for Echinococcus species-specific DNA markers by two different set of nested-PCR.Results: Twenty five out of 144 (17.4% animals were contaminated with E. granulosus including 14 (23.7% domestic dogs, 10 (11.9% red foxes and one (100% golden jackal. But none of them harboured E. multilocularis species-specific Copro-DNA. The overall prevalence of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections in canids of the area was estimated to be 17.4% and 0.0%, respectively. There was a significant relation between the results of Copro-PCR and CA-ELISA.Conclusion: The lack of E. multilocularis infection, compared to previous reports may be due to the differences in used diagnostic methods and/or recently limited territories of wild canids and altered their food resources in this particular area.

  19. Differential Detection of Echinococcus Spp. Copro-DNA by Nested-PCR in Domestic and Wild Definitive Hosts in Moghan Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobedi, I; Zare-Bidaki, M; Siavashi, Mr; Naddaf, Sr; Kia, Eb; Mahmoudi, M

    2013-01-01

    Despite Echinococcus granulosus, there are merely two old reports of E. multilocularis infection among Iranian canids of Moghan Plain, the only area known endemic for the species. We detected specific DNA markers in fecal samples by PCR (Copro-PCR) for differential diagnosis of Echinococcus species in living canids. Totally 144 fecal samples from domestic dogs, red foxes and a golden jackal were examined for genus-specific Echinococcus coproantigens using ELISA. Forty two positive or ambiguous samples were further examined for Echinococcus species-specific DNA markers by two different set of nested-PCR. Twenty five out of 144 (17.4%) animals were contaminated with E. granulosus including 14 (23.7%) domestic dogs, 10 (11.9%) red foxes and one (100%) golden jackal. But none of them harboured E. multilocularis species-specific Copro-DNA. The overall prevalence of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections in canids of the area was estimated to be 17.4% and 0.0%, respectively. There was a significant relation between the results of Copro-PCR and CA-ELISA. The lack of E. multilocularis infection, compared to previous reports may be due to the differences in used diagnostic methods and/or recently limited territories of wild canids and altered their food resources in this particular area.

  20. The laminated layer: Recent advances and insights into Echinococcus biology and evolution.

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    Díaz, Álvaro; Fernández, Cecilia; Pittini, Álvaro; Seoane, Paula I; Allen, Judith E; Casaravilla, Cecilia

    2015-11-01

    The laminated layer is the unique mucin-based extracellular matrix that protects Echinococcus larvae, and thus to an important extent, shapes host-parasite relationships in the larval echinococcoses. In 2011, we published twin reviews summarizing what was known about this structure. Since then, important advances have been made. Complete genomes and some RNAseq data are now available for E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, leading to the inference that the E. multilocularis LL is probably formed by a single type of mucin backbone, while a second apomucin subfamily additionally contributes to the E. granulosus LL. Previously suspected differences between E. granulosus and E. multilocularis in mucin glycan size have been confirmed and pinned down to the virtual absence of Galβ1-3 chains in E. multilocularis. The LL carbohydrates from both species have been found to interact selectively with the Kupffer cell receptor expressed in rodent liver macrophages, highlighting the ancestral adaptations to rodents as intermediate hosts and to the liver as infection site. Finally, LL particles have been shown to possess carbohydrate-independent mechanisms profoundly conditioning non-liver-specific dendritic cells and macrophages. These advances are discussed in an integrated way, and in the context of the newly determined phylogeny of Echinococcus and its taenid relatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of reactivity to Echinococcus spp. among rural inhabitants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    A group of 172 rural inhabitants from eastern Poland (68 males and 104 females, mean age 49.0 ± 12.0 years) was examined for the presence of antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. A population of 38 healthy urban dwellers from the city of Lublin (17 males and 21 females, mean age 36.2 ± 9.6 years) were examined as a control group. Sera of 22 rural inhabitants (12.8%) reacted positively to Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid antigen in the screening test. A cross-reactivity was observed with two serum samples that tested positive in ELISA for E. granulosus. Three serum samples were tested positive for E. multilocularis using the Em2plus ELISA assay and also positive for Western blot. None of the members of control group showed the presence of a seropositive reaction to Echinococcus spp. The reactivity to Echinococcus spp. among rural inhabitants decreased with age and this correlation was statistically significant (R = -0.197151, p = 0.009535). The percentage of positive findings was the highest (50.0%) in the youngest age group (14-20). No significant correlations were found between responses to interview questions (possession of domestic and farm animals, contact with wild animals, eating unwashed berries, drinking unboiled water) and the presence of seropositive reactions to Echinococcus spp. The presented results seem to indicate that echinococcosis is still a current problem in Poland that should not be neglected and, moreover, indicates the need for improvement in the routine laboratory diagnostics of Echinococcus spp. by standardizing the ELISA and Western blot tests.

  2. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  3. High-throughput characterization of Echinococcus spp. metacestode miRNomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, Marcela; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Kamenetzky, Laura; Maldonado, Lucas; Brehm, Klaus; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern, considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. The cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) and Echinococcus multilocularis are the main aetiological agents. In the intermediate host, these parasites display particular developmental traits that lead to different patterns of disease progression. In an attempt to understand the causes of these differences, we focused on the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs with major roles in development of animals and plants. In this work, we analysed the small RNA expression pattern of the metacestode, the stage of sanitary relevance, and provide a detailed description of Echinococcus miRNAs. Using high-throughput small RNA sequencing, we believe that we have carried out the first experimental identification of miRNAs in E. multilocularis and have expanded the Echinococcus miRNA catalogue to 38 miRNA genes, including one miRNA only present in E. granulosus s. l. Our findings show that although both species share the top five highest expressed miRNAs, 13 are differentially expressed, which could be related to developmental differences. We also provide evidence that uridylation is the main miRNA processing mechanism in Echinococcus spp. These results provide detailed information on Echinococcus miRNAs, which is the first step in understanding their role in parasite biology and disease establishment and/or progression, and their future potential use as drug or diagnostic targets. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  5. Rapid detection of Echinococcus species by a high-resolution melting (HRM) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme Brzoskowski; Espínola, Sergio Martín; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Margis, Rogerio; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2013-11-14

    High-resolution melting (HRM) provides a low-cost, fast and sensitive scanning method that allows the detection of DNA sequence variations in a single step, which makes it appropriate for application in parasite identification and genotyping. The aim of this work was to implement an HRM-PCR assay targeting part of the mitochondrial cox1 gene to achieve an accurate and fast method for Echinococcus spp. differentiation. For melting analysis, a total of 107 samples from seven species were used in this study. The species analyzed included Echinococcus granulosus (n = 41) and Echinococcus ortleppi (n = 50) from bovine, Echinococcus vogeli (n = 2) from paca, Echinococcus oligarthra (n = 3) from agouti, Echinococcus multilocularis (n = 6) from monkey and Echinococcus canadensis (n = 2) and Taenia hydatigena (n = 3) from pig. DNA extraction was performed, and a 444-bp fragment of the cox1 gene was amplified. Two approaches were used, one based on HRM analysis, and a second using SYBR Green Tm-based. In the HRM analysis, a specific profile for each species was observed. Although some species exhibited almost the same melting temperature (Tm) value, the HRM profiles could be clearly discriminated. The SYBR Green Tm-based analysis showed differences between E. granulosus and E. ortleppi and between E. vogeli and E. oligarthra. In this work, we report the implementation of HRM analysis to differentiate species of the genus Echinococcus using part of the mitochondrial gene cox1. This method may be also potentially applied to identify other species belonging to the Taeniidae family.

  6. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutation scanning analysis of genetic variation within and among Echinococcus species: implications and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-07-01

    Adult tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae) occur in the small intestines of carnivorous definitive hosts and are transmitted to particular intermediate mammalian hosts, in which they develop as fluid-filled larvae (cysts) in internal organs (usually lung and liver), causing the disease echinococcosis. Echinococcus species are of major medical importance and also cause losses to the meat and livestock industries, mainly due to the condemnation of infected offal. Decisions regarding the treatment and control of echinococcosis rely on the accurate identification of species and population variants (strains). Conventional, phenetic methods for specific identification have some significant limitations. Despite advances in the development of molecular tools, there has been limited application of mutation scanning methods to species of Echinococcus. Here, we briefly review key genetic markers used for the identification of Echinococcus species and techniques for the analysis of genetic variation within and among populations, and the diagnosis of echinococcosis. We also discuss the benefits of utilizing mutation scanning approaches to elucidate the population genetics and epidemiology of Echinococcus species. These benefits are likely to become more evident following the complete characterization of the genomes of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Echinococcus spp. in Human Patients and Infected Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, M; Casulli, A; Conraths, F J; Müller, N

    2017-01-01

    Among the species composing the genus Echinococcus, four species are of human clinical interest. The most prevalent species are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, followed by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The first two species cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) respectively. Both diseases have a complex clinical management, in which laboratory diagnosis could be an adjunctive to the imaging techniques. To date, several approaches have been described for the laboratory diagnosis and followup of CE and AE, including antibody, antigen and cytokine detection. All of these approaches are far from being optimal as adjunctive diagnosis particularly for CE, since they do not reach enough sensitivity and/or specificity. A combination of several methods (e.g., antibody and antigen detection) or of several (recombinant) antigens could improve the performance of the adjunctive laboratory methods, although the complexity of echinococcosis and heterogeneity of clinical cases make necessary a deep understanding of the host-parasite relationships and the parasite phenotype at different developmental stages to reach the best diagnostic tool and to make it accepted in clinical practice. Standardization approaches and a deep understanding of the performance of each of the available antigens in the diagnosis of echinococcosis for the different clinical pictures are also needed. The detection of the parasite in definitive hosts is also reviewed in this chapter. Finally, the different methods for the detection of parasite DNA in different analytes and matrices are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of the genetics and molecular taxonomy of Echinococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, D P

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomy of Echinococcus has long been controversial. Based mainly on differences in morphology and host-parasite specificity characteristics, 16 species and 13 subspecies were originally described. Subsequently, most of these taxa were regarded as synonyms for Echinococcus granulosus and only 4 valid species were recognised: E. granulosus; E. multilocularis; E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli. But, over the past 50 years, laboratory and field observations have revealed considerable phenotypic variability between isolates of Echinococcus, particularly those of E. granulosus, which include differences in: morphology in both larval and adult stages, development in vitro and in vivo, host infectivity and specificity, chemical composition, metabolism, proteins and enzymes, pathogenicity and antigenicity. The application of molecular tools has revealed differences in nucleic acid sequences that reflect this phenotypic variation and the genetic and phenotypic characteristics complement the previous observations made by the descriptive parasitologists many years ago. The fact that some of these variants or strains are poorly or not infective to humans has resulted in a reappraisal of the public health significance of Echinococcus in areas where such variants occur. A revised taxonomy for species in the Echinococcus genus has been proposed that is generally accepted, and is based on the new molecular data and the biological and epidemiological characteristics of host-adapted species and strains.

  10. Coprodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs from Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Gönenç, Bahadır; Sarımehmetoğlu, Oğuz; Özbakış, Gökben

    2017-08-15

    The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Filaroides sp., Dioctophyme renale, Linguatula serrata, hookworm, Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp. and Ascaridia galli. Significantly, more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the sedimentation method (n=27) as compared to the flotation method (n=10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Echinococcus-Host Interactions at Cellular and Molecular Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, K; Koziol, U

    2017-01-01

    The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host-parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host-parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years. In this review, we discuss progress in this field, with emphasis on parasite development and proliferation. We review host-parasite interaction mechanisms that occur early during an infection, when the invading oncosphere stage undergoes a metamorphosis towards the metacestode, and outline the decisive role of parasite stem cells during this process. We also discuss special features of metacestode morphology, and how this parasite stage takes up nutrients from the host, utilizing newly evolved or expanded gene families. We comprehensively review mechanisms of host-parasite cross-communication via evolutionarily conserved signalling systems and how the parasite signalling systems might be exploited for the development of novel chemotherapeutics. Finally, we point to an urgent need for the development of functional genomic techniques in this parasite, which will be imperative for hypothesis-driven analyses into Echinococcus stem cell biology, developmental mechanisms and immunomodulatory activities, which are all highly relevant for the development of anti-infective measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional profiles of cytokine/chemokine factors of immune cell-homing to the parasitic lesions: a comprehensive one-year course study in the liver of E. multilocularis-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wang

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of chronically developing alveolar echinococcosis (AE is characterized by a continuous, granulomatous, periparasitic infiltration of immune cells surrounding the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis (E.multilocularis in the affected liver. A detailed cytokine and chemokine profile analysis of the periparasitic infiltrate in the liver has, however, not yet been carried out in a comprehensive way all along the whole course of infection in E. multilocularis intermediate hosts. We thus assessed the hepatic gene expression profiles of 18 selected cytokine and chemokine genes using qRT-PCR in the periparasitic immune reaction and the subsequent adjacent, not directly affected, liver tissue of mice from day 2 to day 360 post intra-hepatic injection of metacestode. DNA microarray analysis was also used to get a more complete picture of the transcriptional changes occurring in the liver surrounding the parasitic lesions. Profiles of mRNA expression levels in the hepatic parasitic lesions showed that a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response, characterized by the concomitant presence of IL-12α, IFN-γ and IL-4, was established very early in the development of E. multilocularis. Subsequently, the profile extended to a combined tolerogenic profile associating IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-β. IL-17 was permanently expressed in the liver, mostly in the periparasitic infiltrate; this was confirmed by the increased mRNA expression of both IL-17A and IL-17F from a very early stage, with a subsequent decrease of IL-17A after this first initial rise. All measured chemokines were significantly expressed at a given stage of infection; their expression paralleled that of the corresponding Th1, Th2 or Th17 cytokines. In addition to giving a comprehensive insight in the time course of cytokines and chemokines in E. multilocularis lesion, this study contributes to identify new targets for possible immune therapy to minimize E. multilocularis-related pathology and to

  13. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic position of Echinococcus felidis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from the African lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, Marion; Nakao, Minoru; Wassermann, Torsten; Siefert, Ludwig; Boomker, Joop D F; Dinkel, Anke; Sako, Yasuhito; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas; Ito, Akira

    2008-06-01

    Echinococcus felidis had been described in 1937 from African lions, but was later included in Echinococcus granulosus as a subspecies or a strain. In the absence of any genetic characterization, most previous records of this taxon from a variety of large African mammals remained unconfirmed due to the lack of diagnostic criteria and the possible confusion with the sympatric E. granulosus sensu stricto, Echinococcus ortleppi and Echinococcus canadensis. In this study, we obtained taeniid eggs from lion feces in Uganda and amplified DNA from individual eggs. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences showed similarities with those of other Echinococcus spp., but high values of percentage divergence of mitochondrial genes indicated the presence of a distinct species. In a second step, we compared this material with the preserved specimens of adult E. granulosus felidis, which had been identified morphologically approximately 40 years ago in South Africa. All DNA fragments (<200 bp) that could be amplified from the adults showed 100% similarity with the Ugandan material. In the phylogenetic tree of Echinococcus which was constructed from the mitochondrial genes, E. felidis is positioned as a sister taxon of E. granulosus sensu stricto. The data obtained will facilitate the development of diagnostic tools necessary to study the epidemiology of this enigmatic parasite.

  14. The Echinococcus canadensis (G7) genome: a key knowledge of parasitic platyhelminth human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lucas L; Assis, Juliana; Araújo, Flávio M Gomes; Salim, Anna C M; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Camicia, Federico; Fox, Adolfo; Rosenzvit, Mara; Oliveira, Guilherme; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-02-27

    The parasite Echinococcus canadensis (G7) (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Cestoda) is one of the causative agents of echinococcosis. Echinococcosis is a worldwide chronic zoonosis affecting humans as well as domestic and wild mammals, which has been reported as a prioritized neglected disease by the World Health Organisation. No genomic data, comparative genomic analyses or efficient therapeutic and diagnostic tools are available for this severe disease. The information presented in this study will help to understand the peculiar biological characters and to design species-specific control tools. We sequenced, assembled and annotated the 115-Mb genome of E. canadensis (G7). Comparative genomic analyses using whole genome data of three Echinococcus species not only confirmed the status of E. canadensis (G7) as a separate species but also demonstrated a high nucleotide sequences divergence in relation to E. granulosus (G1). The E. canadensis (G7) genome contains 11,449 genes with a core set of 881 orthologs shared among five cestode species. Comparative genomics revealed that there are more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) than between E. canadensis (G7) and E. multilocularis. This result was unexpected since E. canadensis (G7) and E. granulosus (G1) were considered to belong to the species complex E. granulosus sensu lato. We described SNPs in known drug targets and metabolism genes in the E. canadensis (G7) genome. Regarding gene regulation, we analysed three particular features: CpG island distribution along the three Echinococcus genomes, DNA methylation system and small RNA pathway. The results suggest the occurrence of yet unknown gene regulation mechanisms in Echinococcus. This is the first work that addresses Echinococcus comparative genomics. The resources presented here will promote the study of mechanisms of parasite development as well as new tools for drug discovery. The availability of a high

  15. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in dogs in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab Ali; Daugschies, Arwid; Gawlowska, Sandra; Elnahas, Ayman; Kern, Peter; Bashir, Sofia; Ali, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim; Osman, Amin; Romig, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000. Dipylidiun caninum was found in 53.6% of the dogs. At coproscopy, taeniid eggs were found in 37 of the 43 dogs which were positive for Echinococcus at necropsy, but none in the 41 necropsy-negative dogs. In addition, 58% of the rectal samples contained eggs of Toxocara spp., 34.5% eggs of Trichuris spp. (34.5%), and 26% eggs of Ancylostoma caninum. Copro-PCR gave positive results for E. canadensis with 97.5% (39/40) of nonhibiting samples from the necropsy positive dogs; the one remaining dog tested positive for E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), whose partial cox1 and nad1 sequences showed a 100% identity with various reference sequences of the G1 genotype. 100% of 38 non-inhibited samples taken from the necropsy-negative dogs were also negative in copro-PCR. This is the first study which combines prevalence and genetic identification of Echinococcus spp. in dogs of Sudan. Together with a recent report from cattle, it confirms the autochthonous presence, at low level, of E. granulosus sensu stricto in Central Sudan.

  16. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  17. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Rong; Clements, Archie C A; Gray, Darren J; Atkinson, Jo-An M; Williams, Gail M; Barnes, Tamsin S; McManus, Donald P

    2012-07-24

    Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), the People's Republic of China (PRC), has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic) factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  18. Severe and unusual hepatic lesions asociated with alveolar echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis) in a Gorilla g. gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    Polledo, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, B.; González, J.; Ferreras, Mª del Carmen; García Iglesias, M. J.; García Marín, Juan Francisco

    2011-01-01

    1 página.-- Trabajo presentado al II Iberic Meeting of Veterinary Pathology.--XVI Annual Meeting of the Portuguese Society of Animal Pathology.-- Annual Meeting of the Spanisch Society of Veterinary Anatomical Pathology. (Lisboa, Portugal, 1-3 de junio de 2011).

  19. Een patiënt met alveolaire echinokokkose (infectie met Echinococcus multilocularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; den Boer, S.; Schipper, H. G.; Kager, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    In a 45-year-old Swiss male, who had been living in the Netherlands for 20 years, alveolar echinococcosis was diagnosed. He had probably been infected during his youth in Switzerland. His illness became symptomatic more than 20 years later. The diagnosis was reached by microscopic examination of

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovak Republic: The first record in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubinský, P.; Svobodová, V.; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Literák, I.; Martínek, K.; Reiterová, K.; Kolářová, L.; Klimeš, J.; Mrlík, Vojtěch

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (1999), s. 105-110 ISSN 0440-6605. [International Helminthological Symposium "Helminths, Helminthoses and Environment" /8./. Košice, 28.09.1999-01.10.1999] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/5012/99 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.514, year: 1999

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovak Republic: The first record in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubinský, P.; Svobodová, V.; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Literák, I.; Martínek, K.; Reiterová, K.; Kolářová, L.; Klimeš, J.; Mrlík, Vojtěch

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 36, Supplementum (1999), s. 44 ISSN 0440-6605. [International Helminthological Symposium "Helminths, Helminthoses and Environment" /8./. 28.09.1999-01.10.1999, Košice] Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores from the Klatovy district of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Kolářová, L.; Červený, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 75, c. 1 (2001), s. 61-66 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA MZd NJ4962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : alveolar echinococcosis * Vulpes vulpes * red fox Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.698, year: 2001 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?aid=709408

  3. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  4. Selection, Recombination and History in a Parasitic Flatworm (Echinococcus Inferred from Nucleotide Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haag KL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of flatworms from the genus Echinococcus (E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. vogeli and four strains of E. granulosus (cattle, horse, pig and sheep strains were analysed by the PCR-SSCP method followed by sequencing, using as targets two non-coding and two coding (one nuclear and one mitochondrial genomic regions. The sequencing data was used to evaluate hypothesis about the parasite breeding system and the causes of genetic diversification. The calculated recombination parameters suggested that cross-fertilisation was rare in the history of the group. However, the relative rates of substitution in the coding sequences showed that positive selection (instead of purifying selection drove the evolution of an elastase and neutrophil chemotaxis inhibitor gene (AgB/1. The phylogenetic analyses revealed several ambiguities, indicating that the taxonomic status of the E. granulosus horse strain should be revised

  5. Biology and Systematics of Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2017-01-01

    The biology of Echinococcus, the causative agent of echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is reviewed with emphasis on the developmental biology of the adult and metacestode stages of the parasite. Major advances include determining the origin, structure and functional activities of the laminated layer and its relationship with the germinal layer; and the isolation, in vitro establishment and characterization of the multipotential germinal cells. Future challenges are to identify the mechanisms that provide Echinococcus with its unique developmental plasticity and the nature of activities at the parasite-host interface, particularly in the definitive host. The revised taxonomy of Echinococcus is presented and the solid nomenclature it provides will be essential in understanding the epidemiology of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), the People’s Republic of China (PRC), has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic) factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread. PMID:22827890

  7. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR, the People’s Republic of China (PRC, has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  8. A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for

  9. Imaging features of breast echinococcus granulosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Li; Liu Fanming; Gong Yue; Ge Jinmei; Li Xianjun; Shi Minxin; Guo Yongzhong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the X-ray and CT features of breast hydatid disease. Methods: Of 11 patients with pathologically confirmed breast Echinococcus hydatid disease were collected and the X-ray and CT image data were analyzed. Results: Of 11 patients with hydatid cysts,single cyst was found in 9 patients which one cyst was ruptured due to trauma, multiple cyst in 2 patients. Mammography showed small or large shadow in different size, with low or high density and smooth margin. Calcification was found in 5 and 2 patients with egg shell-like calcification along the wall of cyst, 3 patients with spotted calcification within cyst. One case had cavity-like change (annular solar eclipse sign). Cystic lesion with a complete capsule was demonstrated on CT scan in 1 patient. Conclusion: Molybdenum target mammography can accurately display the imaging characteristics of hydatid cyst and improve the diagnostic ability of breast hydatid cyst in combination with clinical and epidemiological data. (authors)

  10. A Multiplex PCR for the Simultaneous Detection and Genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A.; Rosenzvit, Mara C.; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1–G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1–G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6–G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus. PMID:23350011

  11. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A; Rosenzvit, Mara C; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6-G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus.

  12. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalia Boubaker

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10 and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3, E. equinus (G4, E. ortleppi (G5, and E. canadensis (G6-G10. The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR allowing three levels of discrimination: (i Echinococcus genus, (ii E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20 and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13. The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (<40%. Thus, except for copro analysis, the mPCR described here has a high potential for a worldwide application in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies on the Echinococcus genus.

  13. Echinococcus P29 Antigen: Molecular Characterization and Implication on Post-Surgery Follow-Up of CE Patients Infected with Different Species of the Echinococcus granulosus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew; Babba, Hamouda; Spiliotis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The protein P29 is a potential serological marker for post-treatment monitoring of cystic echinococcosis (CE) especially in young patients. We now have demonstrated that P29 is encoded in the Echinococcus genus by a single gene consisting of 7 exons spanning 1.2 kb of DNA. Variability of the p29 gene at inter- and intra-species level was assessed with 50 cDNA and 280 genomic DNA clones isolated from different E. granulosus s.l. isolates (E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), E. canadensis (G6), E. canadensis (G7) and E. canadensis (G10)) as well as four E. multilocularis isolates. Scarce interspecies polymorphism at the p29 locus was observed and affected predominantly E. granulosus s.s. (G1), where we identified two alleles (A1 and A2) coding for identical P29 proteins and yielding in three genotypes (A1/A1, A2/A2 and A1/A2). Genotypic frequencies expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium revealed a high rate of heterozygosity (47%) that strongly supports the hypothesis that E. granulosus s.s. (G1) is predominantly outbreeding. Comparative sequence analyses of the complete p29 gene showed that phylogenetic relationships within the genus Echinococcus were in agreement with those of previous nuclear gene studies. At the protein level, the deduced P29 amino acid (AA) sequences exhibited a high level of conservation, ranging from 97.9% AA sequence identity among the whole E. granulosus s.l. group to 99.58% identity among E. multilocularis isolates. We showed that P29 proteins of these two species differ by three AA substitutions without implication for antigenicity. In Western-blot analyses, serum antibodies from a human CE patient infected with E. canadensis (G6) strongly reacted with recombinant P29 from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) (recEg(G1)P29). In the same line, human anti-Eg(G1)P29 antibodies bound to recEcnd(G6)P29. Thus, minor AA sequence variations appear not to impair the prognostic serological use of P29. PMID:24851904

  14. Echinococcus P29 antigen: molecular characterization and implication on post-surgery follow-up of CE patients infected with different species of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew; Babba, Hamouda; Spiliotis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The protein P29 is a potential serological marker for post-treatment monitoring of cystic echinococcosis (CE) especially in young patients. We now have demonstrated that P29 is encoded in the Echinococcus genus by a single gene consisting of 7 exons spanning 1.2 kb of DNA. Variability of the p29 gene at inter- and intra-species level was assessed with 50 cDNA and 280 genomic DNA clones isolated from different E. granulosus s.l. isolates (E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), E. canadensis (G6), E. canadensis (G7) and E. canadensis (G10)) as well as four E. multilocularis isolates. Scarce interspecies polymorphism at the p29 locus was observed and affected predominantly E. granulosus s.s. (G1), where we identified two alleles (A1 and A2) coding for identical P29 proteins and yielding in three genotypes (A1/A1, A2/A2 and A1/A2). Genotypic frequencies expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium revealed a high rate of heterozygosity (47%) that strongly supports the hypothesis that E. granulosus s.s. (G1) is predominantly outbreeding. Comparative sequence analyses of the complete p29 gene showed that phylogenetic relationships within the genus Echinococcus were in agreement with those of previous nuclear gene studies. At the protein level, the deduced P29 amino acid (AA) sequences exhibited a high level of conservation, ranging from 97.9% AA sequence identity among the whole E. granulosus s.l. group to 99.58% identity among E. multilocularis isolates. We showed that P29 proteins of these two species differ by three AA substitutions without implication for antigenicity. In Western-blot analyses, serum antibodies from a human CE patient infected with E. canadensis (G6) strongly reacted with recombinant P29 from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) (recEg(G1)P29). In the same line, human anti-Eg(G1)P29 antibodies bound to recEcnd(G6)P29. Thus, minor AA sequence variations appear not to impair the prognostic serological use of P29.

  15. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx). PMID:25830103

  16. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taenidae) in the Czech Republic: the first detection of metacestodes in a naturally infected rodent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Kolářová, L.; Červený, Jaroslav; Andreas, M.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (1998), s. 332-333 ISSN 0015-5683 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 1998 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21237

  19. Infection of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus: causes and consequences in an hyperendemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2015-04-17

    Tunisia is a hyper endemic country for human echinococcosis. The infection is transmitted via the eggs of Echinococcus granulosus which are passed in the faeces of the definitive canid host. This study evaluated the contamination rate of the dog faeces in different climatic conditions at eight different geographic regions throughout Tunisia. Dog faecal samples were collected from the soil and the Echinococcus eggs were identified using microscopic and molecular (Eg1121/1122 PCR, Egss1 PCR and Nad1 PCR-RFLP) tools. The contamination index of dog faeces by E. granulosus eggs ranged from 8.3% to 41.3% depending on the region. Comparisons of the dog faecal contamination rate against human incidence found them to be independent. Neither human prevalence nor dog contamination index appeared to be related to climatic conditions or geographic characteristics. The genetic variability of E. granulosus samples was different within each region but was not related to geographic distance which is indicative of local divergent evolutions rather than isolation by distance. A high environmental dog contamination index does not necessarily correspond to high prevalence in humans as transmission is strongly linked to human behavior and hygiene.

  20. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT. (orig.)

  1. Computed tomographic diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    CT was performed in seventeen cases of E, alveolaris of the liver, and two cases of E. alveolaris of the lung. The scans provided considerable detailed information which, when taken together, enabled a specific diagnosis of echinococcus infestation to be made in most cases. The extent of intra- and extrahepatic infiltration by E. alveolaris can be well defined by CT.

  2. Genetic diversity in Echinococcus shiquicus from the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in Darlag County, Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Lei; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Yan, Hong-Bin; Liu, Quan-Yuan; Zhan, Fang; Li, Jian-Qiu; Liu, Cong-Nuan; Cai, Jin-Zhong; Lei, Meng-Tong; Shi, Wan-Gui; Yang, Yu-Rong; McManus, Donald P; Jia, Wan-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The metacestode of Echinococcus shiquicus has been recorded previously in the lung and liver of its intermediate host, the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), but there is limited information regarding other organ sites. There is also limited evidence of intra-specific genetic variation within E. shiquicus. A PCR-amplified mitochondrial (mt) nad1 gene fragment (approximately 1400bp in size), with unique EcoRI and SspI restriction sites, was used to distinguish cysts or cyst-like lesions of E. shiquicus from E. multilocularis. Then, the complete mt nad1 and cox1 genes for the E. shiquicus isolates were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses for the isolates were then generated based on a concatenated dataset of the nad1 and cox1 genes using the neighbour-joining (NJ) method and TCS1.21 software. Nineteen of eighty trapped pikas were found to harbor cysts (71 in total) when dissected at the survey site. Seventeen animals had cysts (fertile) present only in the lungs, one animal had fertile cysts in the lungs and spleen, and one individual had an infertile kidney cyst. Restriction endonuclease analysis of a fragment of the nad1 gene indicated all the cysts were due to E. shiquicus. Genetic diversity analysis revealed that the nad1 and cox1 genes varied by 0.1-1.2% and 0.1-1.0%, respectively. Haplotype network analysis of the concatenated nad1 and cox1 sequences of the isolates showed they were classified into at least 6 haplotypes, and different haplotype percentages ranged from 4.2% to 29.6%. Although, high haplotype diversity was evident in the study area, the complete nad1 and cox1 gene sequences obtained indicated that all samples represented isolates of E. shiquicus. The study has also provided a new PCR-restriction endonuclease-based method to rapidly distinguish E. shiquicus from E. multilocularis which provides a useful tool for epidemiological investigations where the two species overlap. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  3. Phylogenetic systematics of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious helminthic zoonosis in humans, livestock and wildlife. The pathogenic organisms are members of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Life cycles of Echinococcus spp. are consistently dependent on predator-prey association between two obligate mammalian hosts. Carnivores (canids and felids) serve as definitive hosts for adult tapeworms and their herbivore prey (ungulates, rodents and lagomorphs) as intermediate hosts for metacestode larvae. Humans are involved as an accidental host for metacestode infections. The metacestodes develop in various internal organs, particularly in liver and lungs. Each metacestode of Echinococcus spp. has an organotropism and a characteristic form known as an unilocular (cystic), alveolar or polycystic hydatid. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that the type species, Echinococcus granulosus, causing cystic echinococcosis is a cryptic species complex. Therefore, the orthodox taxonomy of Echinococcus established from morphological criteria has been revised from the standpoint of phylogenetic systematics. Nine valid species including newly resurrected taxa are recognised as a result of the revision. This review summarises the recent advances in the phylogenetic systematics of Echinococcus, together with the historical backgrounds and molecular epidemiological aspects of each species. A new phylogenetic tree inferred from the mitochondrial genomes of all valid Echinococcus spp. is also presented. The taxonomic nomenclature for Echinococcus oligarthrus is shown to be incorrect and this name should be replaced with Echinococcus oligarthra. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  5. Computer tomographic and sonographic diagnosis of echinococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Huebener, K.H.; Klott, K.; Jenss, H.; Baehr, R. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Strahleninstitut und Roentgenabteilung; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    In 33 patients (18 cystic echinococci, 15 alveolar) both methods produced the following findings which could be correlated with the pathological results: single or multi-centric lesions, sharp or indefinite demarkation and abnormalities in the shape and size of the liver. The sonographic findings were analysed with respect to the echo characteristics, whereas the computer tomographically demonstrated lesions were examined densitometrically in order to show calcification. Both methods demonstrate the pathological changes satisfactorily. Computer tomography is more effective in alveolar echinococcus lesions by showing the different types of calcification, whereas sonography provides a more accurate picture of the internal structure of the cysts in cystic echinococcus. Comparison of the methods in 19 patients examined by both showed a high accuracy in each method, but sonography was relatively poor in demonstrating lesions in the spleen.

  6. Suppression of E. multilocularis hydatid cysts after ionizing radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis. METHODODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays.

  7. Echinococcus vogeli in man, with a review of polycystic hydatid disease in Colombia and neighboring countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, R L; Cuello, C; Aristizabal, N

    1979-03-01

    Three cases of polycystic hydatid disease (PHD) from Colombia are reported and 11 others from the region are reviewed. When cysts from two patients were fed to a dog and an ocelot about 250 mature and gravid specimens of Echinococcus vogeli and two poorly developed strobilae, respectively, were recovered. These human cases constitute the first record of the larval stage of E. vogeli, previously known only from the strobilar stage in the type host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus). Based on the morphological characteristics of the protoscolex rostellar hooks from other PHD cases (6 Colombian, 1 Ecuadorian, and 1 Panamanian), it was concluded that all were also due to E. vogeli, rather than to E. oligarthrus as had been previously suggested. Although E. oligarthrus is or may be present in the same areas, so far no human infection due to this parasite has been confirmed. Of the 14 cases reported, 13 were pathologically proven to be PHD. Clinically, eight had an undiagnosed tumor-like mass in or near the liver, one had a subcutaneous mass in the anterior sixth intercostal space, and in two the cysts were in the chest. Two were autopsy findings. In contrast to E. multilocularis, the cysts produced by E. vogeli were found to be relatively large and filled with fluid; brood capsules and protoscolices were numerous. Focal necrosis was commonly observed but large necrotic cavities were not seen. The main natural intermediate host is the paca (Cuniculus paca); man probably obtains the infection by contamination from feces of infected hunting dogs.

  8. Role of sonography in the diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W.

    1983-02-01

    Abdominal sonography and computed tomography were performed in eleven patients with operatively and histologically proven Echinococcus alveolaris of the liver and the detailed appearances were compared. Sonography is a useful screening method in the assessment of E. alveolaris, but its previous importance is being gradually superseded by computed tomography, which is capable of providing more detailed information in the diagnosis of Echinococcus infestation.

  9. The role of sonography in the diagnosis of Echinococcus alveolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1983-01-01

    Abdominal sonography and computed tomography were performed in eleven patients with operatively and histologically proven Echinococcus alveolaris of the liver and the detailed appearances were compared. Sonography is a useful screening method in the assessment of E. alveolaris, but its previous importance is being gradually superseded by computed tomography, which is capable of providing more detailed information in the diagnosis of Echinococcus infestation. (orig.)

  10. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  11. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Antti

    2015-10-30

    The Echinococcus granulosus complex (EG) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Northern cervid Echinococcus was previously suggested to be the ancestor of the entire EG. During the last century, it was regarded to have three (or four) different, but often overlapping, transmission cycles in the circumpolar North: the original wolf-wild cervid (reindeer or elk)-cycle; the semi-synanthropic cycle involving sled and hunting dogs and wild cervids; and the synanthropic cycle involving herding dogs and semi-domesticated reindeer. Human infections mainly derived from the latter two cycles. In Fennoscandia, the synanthropic cycle has been eliminated during the last 50 years due to changes in reindeer husbandry methods; machinery making herding dogs largely redundant. Typical to human CE in the North has been the relatively benign nature of the disease compared with CE caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto. The metacestodes in humans and in the natural cervid hosts predominantly appear in the lungs. The causative agents have been identified as EG mitochondrial genotypes G8 and G10, now together with G6 (camel), G7 (pig) and G9 genotypes constituting the Echinococcus canadensis species. Based on recent findings in reindeer in Yakutia, G6 might also be recognised among cervid genotypes. The geographical distribution of both G8 and G10 is circumpolar, with G10 currently apparently more prevalent both in the Palearctic and Nearctic. Because of the disappearance of the working dog, E. canadensis in Fennoscandia is again highly dependent on the wolf, as it was before domestication of the dog. Pet and sled dogs, if their number further increases, may to a minor part participate in the life cycle. Human CE in the North was mostly diagnosed by mass chest tuberculosis radiography campaigns, which have been discontinued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Echinococcus granulosus: Cure for Cancer Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwanthi L. Ranasinghe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a number of parasites are well recognized risk factors for a number of different cancers in mammalian hosts, there is limited information on the ability of parasitic organisms to induce anticancer effects. There are conflicting reports that echinococcosis, caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, can decrease or increase cancer risk. This review considers both indirect anticancer effects as the result of adaptive immunity generated against certain echinococcal antigens and the direct effect of molecules released by E. granulosus whose activity directly inhibits cancer cell migration and growth. In conclusion, E. granulosus probably secretes molecules that can be developed as anticancer therapeutics in future.

  15. First report of Echinococcus granulosus (genotype G6) in a dog in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauti, S; Traoré, A; Crump, L; Zinsstag, J; Grimm, F

    2016-02-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is one of the most widespread and important helminthic zoonoses, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. However, to date there is little information about the disease in West Africa. Faecal and fur samples from 193 dogs, the main final hosts, were collected in 2010 and 2011 in Bamako, Mali. Taeniid eggs were found microscopically in 28/118 (24%) and 80/223 (36%) faecal and fur samples, respectively. One faecal and one fur sample from the same dog were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. In the remaining 27 faecal (96%) and 77 fur samples (96%) only Taenia DNA was detected. Three microscopically positive fur samples were negative by PCR. Sequence analysis of part of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene identified the parasite as E. granulosus (genotype G6; Echinococcus canadensis). This is the first study to focus on the final host of E. granulosus s. l. in Mali and the first report of E. canadensis in Mali. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalimi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis is an important zoonosis in the sheep rising areas of Iran. To develop a simple andreliable diagnostic method for Echinococcus infection in definitive hosts, E. granulosus polyoclonalantibodies (PolyAbs were prepared from adult worm in rabbit. A selected PoAb was used for coproantigendetection in faecal samples obtained from animals naturally infected with Echinococcus and compared withnecropsy method. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated. The results indicated E.granulosus worms was detected in 36 (43% of small intestine contents of dogs. The results obtained by CpAg- ELISA test showed 30 (36.14% positive and 53 (63.86% negative cases. The sensitivity andspecificity of CpAg-ELISA test were evaluated 83.33% and 100% respectively. In conclusion, the present result suggests that, CpAg-ELISA is a valid test for detection of E. granulosus infection in living dogs. Thus it is appropriate to apply for epidemiological study.

  17. Studies on the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of Echinococcus granulosus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalic, R.; Petrovic, M.; Movsesijan, M.; Jovanovic, B.; Radulovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    Serological and parasitological studies indicate that hydatidosis is a significant health and economic problem in Yugoslavia and that the percentage of infected sheep varies between regions. In some areas of the country the prevalence of hydatidosis is about 90%. Results of studies on the development of different serological tests for in vivo diagnosis of hydatidosis showed that the most reliable results were obtained with a radioactive antibody test if a metabolic antigen was used. No difference in worm burden or antibody titre was observed between sheep infected with Echinococcus granulosus and control animals after challenge with Dictyocaulus filaria infective larvae. Vaccination of dogs with two doses of irradiated protoscolices given over an interval of 30 days resulted in significantly reduced numbers of parasites developing from a challenge infection with normal parasites. Also, eggs removed from the terminal segments of tapeworms collected from the small intestine of vaccinated dogs were not developed. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis. (B) For removal of the canine cestode Echinococcus granulosus, and for removal and control of the canine cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. (iii) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do not...

  2. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  3. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunoprotection of recombinant Eg.myophilin against Echinococcus granulosus infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingxing; Gao, Fu; Li, Zihua; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhao, Jiaqing; Zhao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the immunoprotection of recombinant Echinococcus granulosus myophilin (rEg.myophilin) against the establishment of a challenge oral infection with E. granulosus eggs, as well as to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Sheep were subcutaneously immunized two times with rEg.myophilin, followed by the challenge with E. granulosus eggs orally. The animals were sacrificed 44 weeks after infection and the immunoglobulin (Ig) and cytokine levels were analyzed using ELISA. The results identified significant changes in several indexes of animal immune response subsequent to immunization with rEg.myophilin. These changes included reduced number of formed cysts, as well as elevated levels of IgG, IgA and cytokines. The present data suggest that immunization with rEg.myophilin in sheep can successfully reduce the formation of cysts caused by challenge E. granulosus infection and stimulate immune response, suggesting that rEg.myophilin a has potential value as a candidate vaccine against E. granulosus .

  5. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Dumaidi, Kamal; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Hanan; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Laham, Nahed; Abdeen, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron), Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1). The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18%) were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain). For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months) and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine. PMID:26181591

  6. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jawabreh

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron, Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1. The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18% were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain. For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GALINDO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic platyhelminth that is responsible for cystic hydatid disease. From the inner, germinal layer of hydatid cysts protoscoleces are generated, which are are the infective forms to the dog. Systematic studies on the cell biology of E. granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections are scarce and incomplete. In the present report we describe seven steps in the development of protoscoleces. Cellular buds formed by a clustering of cells emerge from the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. The buds elongate and the cells at their bases seem to diminish in number. Very early on a furrow appears in the elongated buds, delimiting anterior (scolex and caudal (body regions. Hooks are the first fully-differentiated structures formed at the apical region of the nascent scolex. In a more advanced stage, the scolex shows circular projections and depressions that develop into suckers. A cone can later be seen at the center of the hooks, the body is expanded and a structured neck is evident between the scolex and the body. During protoscolex development this parasitic form remains attached to the germinative layer through a stalk. When fully differentiated, the stalk is cut off and the infective protoscolex is now free in the hydatid fluid

  8. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Mantion, Georges; Delabrousse, Eric; Millon, Laurence; Boué, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated. PMID:25417697

  9. Rare manifestation of echinococcus cysticus presented in CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrazidlo, W.; Rieber, A.; Schneider, S.; Brambs, H.J.; Friedel, P.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    A case of primary spinal echinococcus with bone destruction is presented and the findings in CT and MR imaging are discussed. Although CT and MRI are complementary studies for the diagnosis of the spinal echinococcosis, MRI is the study of choice for prolonged follow-up of complicated cases. (orig.) [de

  10. Echinococcus as a model system: biology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A; Jenkins, D J

    2014-10-15

    The introduction of Echinococcus to Australia over 200 years ago and its establishment in sheep rearing areas of the country inflicted a serious medical and economic burden on the country. This resulted in an investment in both basic and applied research aimed at learning more about the biology and life cycle of Echinococcus. This research served to illustrate the uniqueness of the parasite in terms of developmental biology and ecology, and the value of Echinococcus as a model system in a broad range of research, from fundamental biology to theoretical control systems. These studies formed the foundation for an international, diverse and ongoing research effort on the hydatid organisms encompassing stem cell biology, gene regulation, strain variation, wildlife diseases and models of transmission dynamics. We describe the development, nature and diversity of this research, and how it was initiated in Australia but subsequently has stimulated much international and collaborative research on Echinococcus. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical treatment of hepatic Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Patkowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Infections caused by metacestode stage of the Echinococcus granulosus in humans result in disease named cystic echinococcosis. Aim: To present the outcomes of patients treated surgically for cystic echinococcosis of the liver. Material and methods : One hundred and nineteen patients treated in the period between 1989 and 2014 due to E. granulosus infection in the Department of General, Transplant, and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw were selected for this retrospective study. Diagnostic protocol included imaging examinations, i.e. ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen. Blood samples where used to proceed sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using Em2plus antigen as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect E. granulosus . Results : Surgery was the choice for treatment for almost all of the patients (98.3%. In 40 (34.2% patients right hemihepatectomy, in 19 (16.2% patients left hemihepatectomy, and in 21 (17.9% patients bisegementectomy were performed. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 (3.4% patients. In 3 patients biliary fistula requiring endoscopic treatment was observed, and 1 patient had subdiaphragmatic abscess successfully treated with drainage under ultrasound guidance. None of the patients died in the postoperative period, and the 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 100.0%, 90.9%, and 87.9%, respectively. Conclusions : Surgical treatment of the symptomatic cystic echinococcosis is the modality of choice for E. granulosus infection of the liver. Despite substantial development of diagnostic methods and new management opportunities, echinococcal infection still presents a challenge for epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and clinicists.

  12. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  13. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, Echinococcus canadensis (G7), and Echinococcus ortleppi in fertile hydatid cysts isolated from cattle in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urach Monteiro, Danieli; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Correia Ribeiro, Tatiana; Emmanouilidis, Jéssica; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; de la Rue, Mário Luiz

    2016-12-01

    Echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection that affects humans and animals. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the fertile hydatid cysts from bovine viscera in order to verify different species and/or genotypes present in Southern Brazil. Firstly, cysts were collected from a slaughterhouse, which received animals from different regions of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), considered an important area of occurrence of cystic echinococcosis. In total, 2396 cysts were analyzed by microscopy to verify the presence of protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were detected in 291 samples and were classified as fertile hydatid cysts. Total DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred and fifty-one samples were identified by PCR and characterized as G5/G6/G7 genotypes, of which 40 belonged to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3). PCR was also performed, using G5-specific primers to identify 250 samples as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). Only one sample was identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7) by DNA sequencing using primers specific for the coxI gene. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed and identified three distinct groups E1 (G5), E2 (G7), and E3 (G1-G3), which were grouped according to similarity of their sequences. The study highlights the fact that E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi, and E. canadensis (G7) were infecting cattle in RS, emphasizing the adaptation of different species of Echinococcus to this intermediate host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  16. Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, T; Ebi, D; Wassermann, M

    2015-10-30

    Echinococcus granulosus, formerly regarded as a single species with a high genotypic and phenotypic diversity, is now recognised as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. This diversity is reflected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and has led to the construction of phylogenetic trees and hypotheses on the origin and geographic dispersal of various taxa. Based on phenotypic characters and gene sequences, E. granulosus (sensu lato) has by now been subdivided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (including the formerly identified genotypic variants G1-3), Echinococcus felidis (the former 'lion strain'), Echinococcus equinus (the 'horse strain', genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (the 'cattle strain', genotype G5) and Echinococcus canadensis. The latter species, as recognised here, shows the highest diversity and is composed of the 'camel strain', genotype G6, the 'pig strain', genotype G7, and two 'cervid strains', genotypes G8 and G10. There is debate whether the closely related G6 and G7 should be placed in a separate species, but more morphological and biological data are needed to support or reject this view. In this classification, the application of rules for zoological nomenclature led to the resurrection of old species names, which had before been synonymised with E. granulosus. This nomenclatural subdivision of the agents of cystic echinococcosis (CE) may appear inconvenient for practical applications, especially because molecular tools are needed for identification of the cyst stage, and because retrospective data on 'E. granulosus' are now difficult to interpret without examination of voucher specimens. However, the increased awareness for the diversity of CE agents - now emphasised by species names rather than genotype numbers - has led to a large number of recent studies on this issue and a rapid increase of knowledge

  17. Immunoprotection of recombinant Eg.P29 against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Zihua; Gao, Fu; Zhao, Jiaqing; Zhu, Mingxing; He, Xin; Niu, Nan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the immunoprotection of recombinant Eg.P29 (rEg.P29) vaccine and analyze the underlying mechanism in sheep. Three groups of male sheep were immunized subcutaneously with rEg.P29 and PBS, Freund's complete adjuvant as controls, respectively. After prime-boost vaccination, the sheep were challenged with encapsulated Echinococcus granulosus eggs. The percentage of protection in sheep was determined 36 weeks after the infection. Humoral immune response was analyzed for specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgE levels. Moreover, cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4,and IL-10 were also evaluated. Immunization with rEg.P29 induced protective immune responses up to 94.5 %, compared with immunoadjuvant group. The levels of specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 significantly increased after two immunizations (P granulosus infection.

  18. CT findings of extrahepatic alveolar echinococcus (report of 12 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenya; Shang Ge; Dang Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of extrahepatic alveolar echinococcus (EAE), and assess the value of CT scanning for the diagnosis of such cases. Methods: 12 patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcus (HAE) verified by operation and histology were examined by CT because of new complains. It was found that multiple organs were involved by the same lesions. Results: Brain AE (7 cases) showed single or multiple cerebral nodules, characterized by honeycombed hypodense structures or target sign after enhancement. Lung AE (3 cases) appeared as irregular, peripherally scattered nodules, with small vacuoles or cavities inside. The only 1 case with heart AE demonstrated a multiple calcifications and vacuoles within the mass. Adrenal gland AE (2 cases) presented as plaques containing different sizes of hypodense areas and calcifications. Retroperitoneal AE (2 cases) exhibited mass with plentiful calcifications. Conclusion: CT can define the location and morphology of the lesion, providing a reliable method for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  19. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.

  20. Genetic polymorphism and population structure of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, F; Wassermann, M; Banda, F; Mbaya, H; Aschenborn, J; Aschenborn, O; Koskei, P; Umhang, G; DE LA Rue, M; Elmahdi, I E; Mackenstedt, U; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2017-04-01

    The zoonotic cestode Echinococcus ortleppi (Lopez-Neyra and Soler Planas, 1943) is mainly transmitted between dogs and cattle. It occurs worldwide but is only found sporadically in most regions, with the notable exception of parts of southern Africa and South America. Its epidemiology is little understood and the extent of intraspecific variability is unknown. We have analysed in the present study the genetic diversity among 178 E. ortleppi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and South America using the complete mitochondrial cox1 (1608 bp) and nad1 (894 bp) DNA sequences. Genetic polymorphism within the loci revealed 15 cox1 and six nad1 haplotypes, respectively, and 20 haplotypes of the concatenated genes. Presence of most haplotypes was correlated to geographical regions, and only one haplotype had a wider spread in both eastern and southern Africa. Intraspecific microvariance was low in comparison with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, despite the wide geographic range of examined isolates. In addition, the various sub-populations showed only subtle deviation from neutrality and were mostly genetically differentiated. This is the first insight into the population genetics of the enigmatic cattle adapted Echinococcus ortleppi. It, therefore, provides baseline data for biogeographical comparison among E. ortleppi endemic regions and for tracing its translocation paths.

  1. Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, T; Deplazes, P; Jenkins, D; Giraudoux, P; Massolo, A; Craig, P S; Wassermann, M; Takahashi, K; de la Rue, M

    2017-01-01

    The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog - livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echinococcus canadensis, E. borealis, and E. intermedius. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  4. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  5. Genetic variability and haplotypes of Echinococcus isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lahmar, Samia; Rebaï, Waël; Ben Safta, Zoubeir; Jebabli, Leïla; Ammar, Adel; Kachti, Mahmoud; Aouadi, Soufia; Craig, Philip S

    2014-11-01

    The species/genotypes of Echinococcus infecting a range of intermediate, canid and human hosts were examined as well as the intraspecific variation and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) within these hosts. A total of 174 Echinococcus isolates from humans and ungulate intermediate hosts and adult tapeworms from dogs and jackals were used. Genomic DNA was used to amplify a fragment within a mitochondrial gene and a nuclear gene, coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1; 828 bp) and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1a; 656 bp), respectively. E. granulosus sensu stricto was identified from all host species examined, E. canadensis (G6) in a camel and, for the first time, fertile cysts of E. granulosus (s.s.) and E. equinus in equids (donkeys) and E. granulosus (s.s.) from wild boars and goats. Considerable genetic variation was seen only for the cox1 sequences of E. granulosus (s.s.). The pairwise fixation index (Fst) for cox1 E. granulosus (s.s.) sequences from donkeys was high and was statistically significant compared with that of E. granulosus populations from other intermediate hosts. A single haplotype (EqTu01) was identified for the cox1 nucleotide sequences of E. equinus. The role of donkeys in the epidemiology of echinococcosis in Tunisia requires further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  7. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies of Echinococcus species responses to immune attacks: implications for therapeutic tool development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcus species have been studied as a model to investigate parasite-host interactions. Echinococcus spp. can actively communicate dynamically with a host to facilitate infection, growth and proliferation partially via secretion of molecules, especially in terms of harmonization of host immune attacks. This review systematically outlines our current knowledge of how the Echinococcus species have evolved to adapt to their host's microenvironment. This understanding of parasite-host interplay has implications in profound appreciation of parasite plasticity and is informative in designing novel and effective tools including vaccines and drugs for the treatment of echinococcosis and other diseases. © 2013.

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequence polymorphisms reveal geographic structuring in Amazonian populations of Echinococcus vogeli (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme B; Soares, Manoel do C P; de F Brito, Elisabete M; Rodrigues, André L; Siqueira, Nilton G; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele S; Alves, Max M; Carneiro, Liliane A; Malheiros, Andreza P; Póvoa, Marinete M; Zaha, Arnaldo; Haag, Karen L

    2012-12-01

    To date, nothing is known about the genetic diversity of the Echinococcus neotropical species, Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. Here we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence polymorphisms to uncover the genetic structure, transmission and history of E. vogeli in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a sample of 38 isolates obtained from human and wild animal hosts. We confirm that the parasite is partially synanthropic and show that its populations are diverse. Furthermore, significant geographical structuring is found, with western and eastern populations being genetically divergent. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  12. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  13. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Rahimi, Hamidreza

    2014-03-01

    Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here. Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features. After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed. Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2) which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  14. High intraspecific variability of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Ebi, Dennis; Paredes, Rodolfo; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Urriola, Nicole; Roa, Juan Carlos; Manterola, Carlos; Cortes, Sandra; Romig, Thomas; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2017-04-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of cystic echinococcosis in most human and animal cases in the world and the most widespread species within the E. granulosus sensu lato complex. E. granulosus s.s. remains endemic in South America together with other species of the Echinococcus genus, especially in some areas in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru. Except for a single human case caused by E. canadensis (G6) described in the literature, only E. granulosus s.s. has been found in the Chilean territory. In the current study 1609bp of the cox1 gene from 69 Chilean isolates of E. granulosus s.s. from humans and animals were analysed. In total, 26 cox1 haplotypes were found, including the widespread haplotype EG01 (22 isolates) and also EGp1 (5), EgRUS7 (1), EgAus02 (1) and EgAus03 (2). Twenty-one different haplotype not previously described were identified from 38 Chilean isolates designated EgCL1-EgCL21. Previous work had described low variability of E. granulosus s.s. in South America, based on isolates from Peru. Results obtained in this work challenge the previously described idea of the low diversity of the parasite in South America, and warrant future investigation on the origin and spread of the parasite in the continent after the Spanish arrival. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Gamma-Ray Treatment of Echinococcus Protoscoleces prior to Implantation in Mice Reduces Echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Li, Bo; Jiang, Shiping; Zhao, Qiang; Duo, Ji; Huang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. Protoscoleces are sometimes released during surgical treatment for hydatid cysts, causing the recurrence of echinococcosis. Protoscoleces may be susceptible to radiation therapy. In this study Echinococcus protoscoleces were cultured in vitro and then divided into four different γ-ray irradiation dose groups (10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 80 Gy) and a blank group. The protoscoleces were then implanted into the abdominal cavity of mice. Four months later, we observed that the incidence and weight of cysts declined with the increase of irradiation dose. γ-ray irradiation can suppress the generation of Echinococcus originated from protoscolex, the reason of which is due to the damaging to the structure of Echinococcus. Irradiation may prevent echinococcosis recurrence after surgical removal of hydatid cysts.

  16. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28, sheep (n=7 and buffalos (n=2. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1 genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato from Farm Animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B.; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt. PMID:25760944

  18. Gamma-Ray Treatment of Echinococcus Protoscoleces prior to Implantation in Mice Reduces Echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. Protoscoleces are sometimes released during surgical treatment for hydatid cysts, causing the recurrence of echinococcosis. Protoscoleces may be susceptible to radiation therapy. In this study Echinococcus protoscoleces were cultured in vitro and then divided into four different γ-ray irradiation dose groups (10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 80 Gy and a blank group. The protoscoleces were then implanted into the abdominal cavity of mice. Four months later, we observed that the incidence and weight of cysts declined with the increase of irradiation dose. γ-ray irradiation can suppress the generation of Echinococcus originated from protoscolex, the reason of which is due to the damaging to the structure of Echinococcus. Irradiation may prevent echinococcosis recurrence after surgical removal of hydatid cysts.

  19. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-01-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  1. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  2. Severe kyphoscoliosis after primary Echinococcus granulosus infection of the spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabl, M.; Lechner, R.; Gstöttner, M.; Bach, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    A primary Echinococcus granulosus infection of the spine involving the vertebrae T8 and T9 of a 6-year-old child was treated elsewhere by thoracotomy, partial corporectomy, multiple laminectomies and uninstrumented fusion. Owing to inappropriate stabilization, severe deformity developed secondary to these surgeries. X-rays, CT and MRI scans of the spine revealed a severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis of more than 100° (Fig. 1) and recurrence of Echinococcus granulosus infection. The intraspinal cyst formation was located between the stretched dural sac and the vertebral bodies of the kyphotic apex causing significant compression of the cord (Figs. 2, 3, 4). A progressive neurologic deficit was reported by the patient. At the time of referral, the patient was wheelchair bound and unable to walk by herself (Frankel Grade C). Standard antiinfectious therapy of Echinococcus granulosus requires a minimum treatment period of 3 months. This should be done before any surgical intervention because in case of a rupture of an active cyst, the delivered lipoprotein antigens of the parasite may cause a potentially lethal anaphylactic shock. Owing to the critical neurological status, we decided to perform surgery without full length preoperative antiinfectious therapy. Surgical treatment consisted in posterior vertebral column resection technique with an extensive bilateral costotransversectomy over three levels, re-decompression with cyst excision around the apex and multilevel corporectomy of the apex of the deformity. Stabilisation and correction of the spinal deformity were done by insertion of a vertebral body replacement cage anteriorly and posterior shortening by compression and by a multisegmental pedicle screw construct. After the surgery, antihelminthic therapy was continued. The patients neurological deficits resolved quickly: 4 weeks after surgery, the patient had Frankel Grade D and was ambulatory without any assistance. After an 18-month follow-up, the patient is

  3. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  4. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  5. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  6. The DSA findings and interventional therapy of hepatic alveolar echinococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Weixin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Chen Peng; Ma Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the DSA findings of hepatic alveolar echinococcus (HAE) and evaluate the feasibility of the interventional therapy. Methods: Eight patients with HAE were all examined by DSA, CT and lab test. Three of them were performed the transcatheter arterial embolization by iodized oil. All of them were confirmed by surgical operation and followed-up for three months. Results: The DSA findings of HAE included hepatic arterial curling and enlargement with hypertrophied circled encircling as typical 'handed ball'. Eight cases presented the ring stain during the capillary stage. After embolization, the retention of iodized oil was revealed by DSA in 3 cases. CT three months later showed fine iodized oil retention and the enlarged necrosis. Ischemic necrosis around the lesion and the cut margins were clearly seen in operation biopsy. Conclusions: HAE possesses special DSA findings and interventional therapy is a new therapeutic method of choice. (authors)

  7. First Report of Echinococcus equinus in a Donkey in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sami; Roinioti, Erifylli; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    A 2-year-old female donkey (Equus asinus) was euthanized in the Pathology Department of Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. Necropsy disclosed the presence of 7 hydatid cysts distributed throughout the lung parenchyma. One of those cysts represented the parasite material of the present study and was molecularly identified through sequencing of a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene, as Echinococcus equinus. The generated CO1 sequence supports the presence of the dominant haplotype as has been described in Europe and Africa. The NADH1 sequence was found similar to sequences reported in equids in Egypt and the United Kingdom. The molecular identification of E. equinus in a donkey is being reported for the first time in Turkey.

  8. Molecular identification and characterization of prohibitin from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiuqin; Song, Xingju; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Liu, Tinayu; Wang, Tao; Gu, Xiaobin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-02-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) is a widely distributed protein that functions as a molecular chaperone, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle, and maintains mitochondrial structure and functions of the anti-apoptosis, senescence, and proliferation. The aim of this study was to characterize PHB in Echinococcus granulosus (EgPHB), a harmful cestode parasite of humans, many livestock species, and wild animals. We found that EgPHB is a conserved SPFH (stomatin, prohibitin, flotillin, and HflK/C) domain-containing protein, consisting of 289 amino acids, which shares 42.66-99.31% identity with PHBs from other parasites and mammals. EgPHB was located mainly in the tegument issue of protoscoleces, in the inner body of adult worms, and was expressed widely in the germinal layer. This is the first report on prohibitin from E. granulosus, and EgPHB is considered to be a valuable protein to study more in the future.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro effect of sodium arsenite on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guoqiang; Wang, Bo; Lei, Ying; Liu, Chunli; Wang, Zhuo; Shi, Hongjuan; Yang, Rentan; Qin, Wenjuan; Jiang, Yufeng; Lv, Hailong

    2016-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus is an important cosmopolitan zoonosis. Surgery is the main treatment option for CE. Meanwhile, chemotherapy is used as an significant adjunct to surgery. However, the benzimidazole carbamate group and the existing scolicidal agents may not be as effective as hoped. In this study, we aimed to explore the in vitro effect of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, the causative agents of CE. Protoscoleces of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20μM NaAsO2. Viability and changes in morphology were investigated by 0.1% eosin staining. The ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, caspase-3 activity was measured by colorimetric assay. Obvious protoscolicidal effect was seen with NaAsO2 at concentrations of 16μM and 20μM. Protoscolex mortality was 83.24% (16μM) and 100% (20μM) after 6 days post-incubation. SEM showed that the primary site of drug damage was the tegument of the protoscoleces. TEM analysis demonstrated that the internal tissues were severely affected and revealed an increase in the number of lipid droplets and vacuoles after treatment with 16μM NaAsO2. Meanwhile, the caspase-3 activity significantly increased in protoscoleces after 24h of NaAsO2 incubation compared to the untreated controls. Our study demonstrated the clear in vitro scolicidal effect of NaAsO2 against E. granulosus protoscoleces. However, the in vivo efficacy, specific mechanism, and any possible side effects of NaAsO2 remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of socio-cultural factors on transmission of Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishani, M; Sherifi, K; Rexhepi, A; Hamidi, A; Armua-Fernandez, M T; Grimm, F; Hegglin, D; Deplazes, P

    2017-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu (s.l.) and Taenia hydatigena are common parasites of ruminant intermediate hosts in the Balkans. Transmission is linked mainly to home slaughtering and the feeding of infected organs to dogs. In Kosovo, many old sheep are slaughtered particularly during Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice). To determine whether this tradition could affect parasite transmission, we compared the probability of 504 dogs to contract taenid infections after deworming during one period before Eid al-Adha and a similar period beginning with this event. Initially, taeniid eggs were detected in 6·2% (CI 4·2-8·6) of the dogs. The prevalence before Eid al-Adha was significantly lower (1·2%, CI 0·4-2·6) as compared with the prevalence after the event (4·3%, CI 2·6-6·3). A comparable trend was apparent at species level for T. hydatigena and E. granulosus. These results indicate that the pronounced increase of taeniid infections, including E. granulosus s.l., after Eid al-Adha is linked to traditional home slaughtering that occurs during this celebration. This particular epidemiological situation provides an opportunity for implementing focussed control activities.

  12. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  13. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  14. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  15. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  16. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  17. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  18. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  19. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  20. Echinococcus spp. in central Kenya: a different story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, H; Magambo, J; Njenga, S; Zeyhle, E; Mbae, C; Mulinge, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-10-01

    Research on cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a long history in Kenya, but has mainly concentrated on two discrete areas, Turkana and Maasailand, which are known to be foci of human CE in Africa. Here, we report on a survey for CE in livestock from central to northeastern Kenya, from where no previous data are available. A total of 7,831 livestock carcasses were surveyed. CE prevalence was 1.92% in cattle (n = 4,595), 6.94% in camels (n = 216), 0.37% in goats (n = 2,955) and 4.62% in sheep (n = 65). Identification of the parasite was done using an RFLP-PCR of the mitochondrial nad1 gene, which had been validated before against the various Echinococcus taxa currently recognized as distinct species. From a total of 284 recovered cysts, 258 could be identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n = 160), E. ortleppi (n = 51) and E. canadensis (n = 47) by RFLP-PCR of nad1. In cattle, fertile cysts occurred mostly in the lungs and belonged to E. ortleppi (31 of 54), while the vast majority were sterile or calcified cysts of E. granulosus s.s.. Most fertile cysts in camels belonged to E. canadensis (33 of 37); sterile or calcified cysts were rare. Goats harboured fertile cysts of E. ortleppi (n = 3)--which is the first record in that host species--and E. canadensis (n = 1), while all cysts of E. granulosus were sterile. Only sterile cysts were found in the three examined sheep. Typically, all cysts in animals with multiple infections belonged to the same species, while mixed infections were rare. Our data indicate that the epidemiological situation in central to northeastern Kenya is clearly different from the well-studied pastoral regions of Turkana and Maasailand, and the apparently low number of human CE cases correlates with the infrequent occurrence of E. granulosus s.s.

  1. Molecular and biochemical characterization of calmodulin from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhong, Xiuqin; Song, Xingju; Gu, Xiaobin; Lai, Weiming; Xie, Yue; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2017-12-04

    Echinococcus granulosus is a harmful cestode parasite that causes cystic echinococcosis in humans as well as various livestock species and wild animals. Calmodulin (CaM), a Ca 2+ sensor protein, is widely expressed in eukaryotes and mediates a variety of cellular signaling activities. In the present study, the cDNA encoding CaM in Echinococcus granulosus (rEgCaM) was successfully cloned and the molecular and biochemical characterizations carried out. The antigenicity and immunoreactivity of rEgCaM was detected and the preliminary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serodiagnostic potential of EgCaM was assessed. The locations of this protein in the adult worm and larval stage, and the mRNA expression in different states of E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) were defined clearly. Moreover, the Ca 2+ -binding properties of EgCaM were measured. rEgCaM is a highly conserved calcium-binding protein, consisting of 149 amino acids. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that rEgCaM could be identified using E. granulosus infected sheep serum. The use of rEgCaM as an antigen was evaluated by indirect ELISA which exhibited a high sensitivity (90.3%), but low specificity (47.1%). rEgCaM was ubiquitously expressed in protoscoleces and adults of E. granulosus, as well as in the germinal layer of the cyst wall. The mRNA expression level of rEgCaM was increased from the start of H 2 O 2 exposure and then gradually decreased because of the increased apoptosis of PSCs. In electrophoretic mobility tests and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid assays, rEgCaM showed a typical characteristic of a calcium-binding protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on CaM from E. granulosus and rEgCaM is likely to be involved in some important biological function of E. granulosus as a calcium-binding protein.

  2. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  3. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  4. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  5. Evidence that the Echinococcus granulosus G6 genotype has an affinity for the brain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjjadi, S M; Mikaeili, F; Karamian, M; Maraghi, S; Sadjjadi, F S; Shariat-Torbaghan, S; Kia, E B

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigates the molecular characteristics of cerebral Echinococcus cysts. A total of 10 specimens of cerebral Echinococcus cysts, including six formalin-fixed paraffin blocks and four intact cerebral cysts, were used for this study. The target DNA was successfully amplified from eight samples and sequenced. BLAST analysis indicated that sequenced isolates belong to the Echinococcus granulosus (G6) genotype. All of the eight sampled brain cysts belonged to the G6 genotype, while all of the eight liver cysts belonged to G1. This is a strong indication that G6 has a higher affinity for the human brain than G1. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  7. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods: A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results: Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G1 4 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions: The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  8. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  9. Protoscolicidal effects of chenodeoxycholic acid on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongjuan; Lei, Ying; Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Xing, Guoqiang; Lv, Hailong; Jiang, Yufeng

    2016-08-01

    Dissemination of protoscoleces-rich fluid during surgical operation for cystic echinococcosis is a major cause of its recurrence. Instillation of a scolicidal agent into hydatid cysts to reduce the risk of spillage of viable protoscoleces is an integral part of the surgical technique employed by many surgeons. In this study, the protoscolicidal effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was investigated. Freshly isolated protoscoleces were subjected to CDCA treatment (500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 μmol/L), and the effects on protoscoleces were investigated with the help of 0.1% eosin staining, electron microscopy, and colorimetric assay of caspase-3 like activity. Dose-dependent mortality of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces was observed within a few days of CDCA treatment. The treated protoscoleces showed loss of viability, and morphological changes such as contraction of the soma region, formation of blebs, rostellar disorganization, loss of hooks, destruction of microtriches, and formation of vesicles, lipid droplets, and lamellar bodies. Apoptosis was evident in the treated protoscoleces, as compared to the control group, which were cultivated for nearly 3 months. Our study indicates a therapeutic potential for CDCA as a protoscolicidal agent against E. granulosus. However, further studies are needed to test the long-term effects of CDCA in animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in the North of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Salam Jumaah; Cavallero, Serena; Milardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gabrielli, Simona; D Amelio, Stefano; Al-Nasiri, Fatima Shihab

    2018-01-15

    Cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is an important cosmopolitan zoonotic disease that causes large economic losses and human suffering. The larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus are the etiological agents of cystic echinococcosis that showed different genotypes in different regions in the world. The present study was aimed at the detection of E. granulosus strains circulating in two cities from north of Iraq (Kirkuk and Sulaimania). A total of 47 specimens of hydatid cysts were collected from patients and from different domestic intermediate hosts including cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo from slaughterhouses. Molecular characterization was performed by direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes coding for the cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS). The results showed a high prevalence for the sheep strain (G1), an isolated finding of the buffalo strain (G3) and the presence of seven and three different microvariants for cox1 and rrnS, respectively. This is the first contribution on molecular genotyping of E. granulosus in Iraq with the observation of genotypes other than G1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Different protein of Echinococcus granulosus stimulates dendritic induced immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yana; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Shiyu; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2015-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic infectious disease that results from a host/parasite interaction. Vaccination with ferritin derived from Echinococcus granulosus is a potential preventative treatment. To understand whether ferritin is capable of inducing a host immune response, we investigated the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to both recombinant ferritin protein and the hydatid fluid (HF) of E. granulosus. We evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of these antigens by performing, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and in vivo imaging of monocyte-derived murine DCs. During antigen stimulation of DCs, ferritin cause DCs maturation and induced higher levels of surface marker expression and activated T-cell proliferation and migration. On contrary, HF failed to induce surface marker expression and to stimulate T-cell proliferation. In response to HF, DCs produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), but no IL-12 and IL-10. DCs stimulated with ferritin produced high levels of cytokines. Overall, HF appears to induce host immunosuppression in order to ensure parasite survival via inhibits DC maturation and promotes Th2-dependent secretion of cytokines. Although ferritin also promoted DC maturation and cytokine release, it also activates CD4+T-cell proliferation, but regard of the mechanism of the Eg.ferritin induce host to eradicate E. granulosus were not clear.

  12. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-09-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed.

  13. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  14. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A dual PCR-based sequencing approach for the identification and discrimination of Echinococcus and Taenia taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Marinova, Irina; Gori, Francesca; Hizem, Amani; Müller, Norbert; Casulli, Adriano; Jerez Puebla, Luis Enrique; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and rapid molecular tools for the genetic identification and differentiation of Echinococcus species and/or genotypes are crucial for studying spatial and temporal transmission dynamics. Here, we describe a novel dual PCR targeting regions in the small (rrnS) and large (rrnL) subunits of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which enables (i) the specific identification of species and genotypes of Echinococcus (rrnS + L-PCR) and/or (ii) the identification of a range of taeniid cestodes, including different species of Echinococcus, Taenia and some others (17 species of diphyllidean helminths). This dual PCR approach was highly sensitive, with an analytical detection limit of 1 pg for genomic DNA of Echinococcus. Using concatenated sequence data derived from the two gene markers (1225 bp), we identified five unique and geographically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that allowed genotypes (G1 and G3) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto to be distinguished, and 25 SNPs that allowed differentiation within Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7/8/10). In conclusion, we propose that this dual PCR-based sequencing approach can be used for molecular epidemiological studies of Echinococcus and other taeniid cestodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  17. First molecular identification of Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto) G1 revealed in feces of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) from Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Leandro Batista; Teixeira, Paulo Eduardo Ferlini; Silva, Sidnei; de Oliveira, Fernanda Bittencourt; Garcia, Daniel Daipert; de Almeida, Fernanda Barbosa; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2017-01-14

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) (s.l.) and Echinococcus vogeli are causative agents of chronic zoonotic diseases such as cystic and polycystic echinococcosis, respectively. In Brazil, polycystic echinococcosis has a restricted geographical distribution in the North Region, while cystic echinococcosis is observed in the South Region. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) fed with raw viscera represent a risk factor for E. granulosus (s.l.) infection in the South Region. Although this practice is frequent, it remains unclear whether domestic dogs are infected with E. vogeli in the state of Acre, located in the Amazon basin in the North Region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate this gap in the polycystic echinococcosis epidemiology. Sixty-five fecal samples were collected from the ground in five municipalities (Sena Madureira, n = 14; Rio Branco, n = 06; Bujari, n = 06; Xapuri, n = 30; and Epitaciolândia, n = 09) located in the state of Acre, northern Brazil. The samples were screened for parasites by copro-PCR using the cox1 gene associated with automated sequencing. Echinococcus vogeli was molecularly confirmed in a sample from Sena Madureira and E. granulosus (sensu stricto) (s.s.) (G1) in a sample from Rio Branco. These findings indicate that molecular assays are useful in typing Echinococcus taxa from fecal samples of dogs in northern Brazil. The present study is the first molecular record of E. vogeli in domestic dogs found in the state of Acre, reinforcing their role as a source of infection for humans. Because E. granulosus (s.s.) (G1) was detected for the first time in the North Region, from the epidemiological standpoint this finding is highly relevant, because it expands the known geographical distribution, which was previously restricted to the South Region of Brazil.

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Polycystic Echinococcosis Due to Echinococcus vogeli in a Paraguayan Immigrant in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frider, B.; Alvarez Rodriguez, J.; Amante, M.; Pestalardo, M. L.; Cazorla, A.; Bresson-Hadni, S.; Millon, L.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli is a rare parasitic infection that occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Only molecular identification performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples gave an unequivocal diagnosis of this disease in a Paraguayan immigrant in Argentina. PMID:23824768

  19. First case of Echinococcus vogeli infection imported to the Netherlands, January 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnis, C.; Bart, A.; Brosens, L.; van Gool, T.; Grobusch, M.; van Gulik, T.; Roelfsema, J.; van Thiel, P.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013 in the Netherlands, a man in his 50s from Suriname underwent hemihepatectomy because of a cystic liver mass, assumed to be a cystadenoma. Pathology revealed an echinococcal infection. PCR analysis of cyst material identified Echinococcus vogeli, causing polycystic hydatid disease.

  20. First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs from eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufana, B.; Qui, J.; Chen, X.; Budke, C.; Campos Ponce, M.; Craig, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus shiquicus was discovered in foxes and pika wildlife hosts in Sichuan Province, China in 2005. Faecal samples from dogs collected in a previous echinococcosis purgation survey from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Sichuan) were screened by coproPCR to investigate the

  1. First molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu stricto) genotype 1 among cattle in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Salim, Bashir; Grobusch, Martin P.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease infecting humans and a wide range of mammalian species including cattle. Currently, little information is available on the genetic diversity

  2. First insights into species and genotypes of Echinococcus in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogoye, Benjamin K.; Menezes, Colin N.; Wong, Michelle L.; Stacey, Sarah; von Delft, Dirk; Wahlers, Kerstin; Wassermann, Marion; Romig, Thomas; Kern, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P.; Frean, John

    2013-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a serious and neglected parasitic zoonosis that is regarded as an emerging disease world-wide. Effective control of the disease is based on understanding the variability of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato), as genotypic characteristics may influence lifecycle patterns,

  3. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Eltom, Kamal H.; Musa, Nasreen O.; Ali, Ibtisam A.; Elamin, Fatima M.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic

  4. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus in center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestechian, Nader; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Tajedini, Mohammadhasan; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousofi, Hosseinali; Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important parasitic diseases around the world and many countries in Asia, including Iran, are involved with this infection. This disease can cause high mortality in humans as well as economic losses in livestock. To date, several molecular methods have been used to determine the genetic diversity of E. granulosus. So far, identification of E. granulosus using real-time PCR fluorescence-based quantitative assays has not been studied worldwide, also in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of E. granulosus from center of Iran using real-time PCR method. A total of 71 hydatid cysts were collected from infected sheep, goat, and cattle slaughtered in Isfahan, Iran during 2013. DNA was extracted from protoscolices and/or germinal layers from each individual cyst and used as template to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) (420 bp). Five cattle isolates out of 71 isolates were sterile and excluded from further investigation. Overall, of 66 isolates, partial sequences of the cox1 gene of E. granulosus indicated the presence of genotypes G1 in 49 isolates (74.2%), G3 in 15 isolates (22.7%), and G6 in 2 isolates (3.0%) in infected intermediate hosts. Sixteen sequences of G1 genotype had microgenetic variants, and they were compared to the original sequence of cox1. However, isolates identified as G3 and G6 genotypes were completely consistent with original sequences. G1 genotype in livestock was the dominant genotype in Isfahan region, Iran.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  6. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  7. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  8. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  9. Review of "Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A." edited by R. C. Andrew Thompson, Alan J. Lymbery and Peter Deplazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira

    2017-09-04

    Thompson RCA, Deplazes P, Lymbery AJ, Editors. Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A. Volume 95, Advances in Parasitology 95. Academic Press; 2017. 525 pages, ISBN 978-0-12-8114711 (hardcover); 9780128114728 (eBook).

  10. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  11. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  12. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ..., Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or... caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and puppies two pounds of body weight or greater and six...

  13. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  14. Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, T V; Jensen, O; Mossello, M; Iriarte, J; Avila, H G; Gertiser, M L; Serafino, J J; Romero, S; Echenique, M A; Dominguez, D E; Barrios, J R; Heath, D

    2016-08-01

    An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84·2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94·7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Establishment of a Modified in Vitro Cultivation of Protoscoleces to Adult Echinococcus Ganulosus; an Important Way for New Investigations on Hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcus granulosus, a zoonotic cestode parasite, causative agent of hydatid cyst is endemic in many parts of the world including the Middle East. Study on different aspects of this parasite is very important and valuable. However, working with adult worms which their habitat situated in the small intestine of canids, is dangerous and risky. Achieving such risky situation needs a controlled condition which is cultivation of the organisms in the laboratory. In this regard, cultivation of E. granulosus protoscoleces leading to adult worms was established in the laboratory for the first time in Iran.Methods: Under aseptic conditions a number of protoscoleces were cultivated in diphasic S.10E.H medium using CO2 incubator to produce adult worms.Results: Different forms of parasites including pre-segmentation stages (PS1 - PS4 and segmentation stages (S5-S8 and developing stages in segmented worms (S10-S11 were observed and evaluated in these medium. Finally adult worms contained four proglottids with a large and distinct genital pore were observed 50-55 days post cultivation. These parasites do not produce fertile eggs and conclusively do not have risk of hydatid disease transmission to the researchers.Conclusion: The mentioned method for producing E. granulosus adult worms can open a new window for researches and facilitate working on different aspects of hydatidosis especially for diagnosis, protection and treatment studies.

  16. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  17. [Echinococcus vogeli cysts in paca liver (Cuniculus paca) native from the Acre State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, U G; Martinelli, A L; Velludo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Four of the patients with polycystic hydatid disease observed by us reported that they were aware of the presence of liver disease in the pacas hunted for food. The viscera of these animals were usually given to domestic dogs. All of our 7 patients reported contact with dogs that had previously ingested viscera of pacas. Examination of the liver considered to be diseased by one of the patients and removed from a paca killed in the same region (State of Acre, Brazil) from which the human cases originated showed the presence of hydatid cysts. The characteristics of the rostellar hooks of the protoscolex indicated that this was the larval form of Echinococcus vogeli. These observations confirm the participation of pacas in the biological cycle of E. vogeli and the pathway through which man may become an alternative intermediate host of this echinococcus.

  18. Practical Algorisms for PCR-RFLP-Based Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Yong, Tae-Soon; Shin, Myeong Heon; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Park, Gab-Man; Suvonkulov, Uktamjon; Kovalenko, Dmitriy; Yu, Hak Sun

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a causative agent of cystic echinococcosis or cystic hydatid disease in humans and domestic and wild animals. The disease is a serious health problem in countries associated with poverty and poor hygiene practices, particularly in livestock raising. We introduced a practical algorism for genotyping the parasite, which may be useful to many developing countries. To evaluate the efficiency of the algorism, we genotyped 3 unknown strains isolated from human patients. We found that unknowns 1 and 3 were included in G1, G2, and G3 genotypes group and unknown 2 was included in G4 genotype (Echinococcus equinus) according to the algorisms. We confirmed these results by sequencing the 3 unknown isolates cox1 and nad1 PCR products. In conclusion, these new algorisms are very fast genotype identification tools that are suitable for evaluating E. granulosus s.l. isolated from livestock or livestock holders, particularly in developing countries.

  19. Bortezomib initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, elicits autophagy and death in Echinococcus granulosus larval stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Loos, Julia A.; Rodriguez Rodrigues, Christian; Beas, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide distributed helminthic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Benzimidazole derivatives are currently the only drugs for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. However, their low efficacy and the adverse effects encourage the search for new therapeutic targets. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of Bortezomib (Bz), a proteasome inhibitor, in the larval stage of the parasite. After 96 h, Bz showed potent deleterious effects at a concentration of 5 μM and 0.5 μM in protoscoleces and metacestodes, respectively (P Echinococcus cell viability, we evaluated the efficacy of Bz in combination with rapamycin and a synergistic cytotoxic effect on protoscolex viability was observed when both drugs were used together. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that Bz induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and subsequent death allowing to identify unstudied parasite-host pathways that could provide a new insight for control of parasitic diseases. PMID:28817601

  20. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  1. Genome-wide identification of microRNA targets in the neglected disease pathogens of the genus Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Maldonado, Lucas L; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Cucher, Marcela; Gismondi, María Inés; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in biological processes such as development. MiRNAs silence target mRNAs by binding to complementary sequences in the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs). The parasitic helminths of the genus Echinococcus are the causative agents of echinococcosis, a zoonotic neglected disease. In previous work, we performed a comprehensive identification and characterization of Echinococcus miRNAs. However, current knowledge about their targets is limited. Since target prediction algorithms rely on complementarity between 3'UTRs and miRNA sequences, a major limitation is the lack of accurate sequence information of 3'UTR for most species including parasitic helminths. We performed RNA-seq and developed a pipeline that integrates the transcriptomic data with available genomic data of this parasite in order to identify 3'UTRs of Echinococcus canadensis. The high confidence set of 3'UTRs obtained allowed the prediction of miRNA targets in Echinococcus through a bioinformatic approach. We performed for the first time a comparative analysis of miRNA targets in Echinococcus and Taenia. We found that many evolutionarily conserved target sites in Echinococcus and Taenia may be functional and under selective pressure. Signaling pathways such as MAPK and Wnt were among the most represented pathways indicating miRNA roles in parasite growth and development. Genome-wide identification and characterization of miRNA target genes in Echinococcus provide valuable information to guide experimental studies in order to understand miRNA functions in the parasites biology. miRNAs involved in essential functions, especially those being absent in the host or showing sequence divergence with respect to host orthologs, might be considered as novel therapeutic targets for echinococcosis control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  5. [Effect comparison between two ELISA kits in IgG antibody detection of Echinococcus granulosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yan-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Ai, Lin; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2013-06-01

    To compare the effects of two ELISA kits on IgG antibody detection of human Echinococcus granulosus. A Total of 134 sera of patients with echinococcosis, paragonimiasis westermani, clonorchiasis sinensis, schistosomiasis japonica, and cysticercosis cellulosae, and normal persons were detected by two IgG ELISA kits produced by different companies. Furthermore, the specificity, sensitivity and cross reactivity were counted and analyzed statistically. The sensitivity and specificity were extremely high of the two kits as 100.00%. The cross-reactivity rates were 25.00% (paragonimiasis westermani), 26.09% (clonorchiasis sinensis), 10.00% (schistosomiasis japonica), and 87.5% (cysticercosis), respectively, by using the kit produced by the Combined Company in Shenzhen; the cross-reactivity rates were 5.00% (paragonimiasis westermani), 13.04% (clonorchiasis sinensis), 20.00% (schistosomiasis japonica), and 93.75% (cysticercosis) respectively, by using the kit produced by Haitai Company in Zhuhai. In addition, there was a significant difference of Paragonimus westermani detection (P 0.05) between the two kits. Both ELISA kits on IgG antibody detection of human Echinococcus granulosus have the advantages of a high sensitivity, specificity, convenience and high-speed. However, it is also in urgent need to further solve the cross-reactivity of Echinococcus granulosus with other parasites, in order to improve the accuracy of early diagnosis.

  6. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  7. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  8. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  9. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  10. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus strains using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism amongst livestock in Moroto district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamai, Martin; Omadang, Leonard; Erume, Joseph; Ocaido, Michael; Oba, Peter; Othieno, Emmanuel; Bonaventure, Straton; Kitibwa, Annah

    2016-07-29

    A descriptive study was conducted to identify the different strains of Echinococcus granulosus occurring in livestock in Moroto district, Uganda. Echinococcus cysts from 104 domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and camels, were taken and examined by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and Sanger DNA sequencing. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes or strains were identified through use of Bioinformatics tools: BioEdit, BLAST and MEGA6. The major finding of this study was the existence of a limited number of E. granulosus genotypes from cattle, goats, sheep and camels. The most predominant genotype was G1 (96.05%), corresponding to the common sheep strain. To a limited extent (3.95%), the study revealed the existence of Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 in three (n = 3) of the E. granulosus-positive samples. No other strains of E. granulosus were identified. It was concluded that the common sheep strain of Echinococcus sensu stricto and G6/7 of E. canadensis were responsible for echinococcal disease in Moroto district, Uganda.

  11. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  12. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  13. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  14. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  15. Proteomic characterization of larval and adult developmental stages in Echinococcus granulosus reveals novel insight into host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Fang, Cai-Yun; Feng, Zheng; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Hu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2013-06-12

    Cystic hydatid disease is an important zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus infection. The expression profiles of its parasitic life stages and host-Echinococcus interactions remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified 157 adult and 1588 protoscolex proteins (1610 in all), including 1290 novel identifications. Paramyosins and an antigen B (AgB) were the dominant adult proteins. Dog proteins (30) identified in adults indicated diminished local inflammation caused by adult infection. The protoscolex expresses proteins that have been reported to be antigens in other parasites, such as 6-phosphofructokinase and calcineurin B. Pathway analyses suggested that E. granulosus uses both aerobic and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolisms to generate ATP. E. granulosus expresses proteins involved in synthesis and metabolism of lipids or steroids. At least 339 of 390 sheep proteins identified in protoscolex were novel identifications not seen in previous analyses. IgGs and lambda light chains were the most abundant antibody species. Sheep proteins were enriched for detoxification pathways, implying that host detoxification effects play a central role during host-parasite interactions. Our study provides valuable data on E. granulosus expression characteristics, allowing novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in host-parasite interactions. In this study, the Echinococcus granulosus adult worm proteome was analyzed for the first time. The protein identification of E. granulosus protoscoleces was extended dramatically. We also identified the most abundant host proteins co-purified with Echinococcus. The results provide useful information pertaining to the molecular mechanisms behind host-Echinococcus interaction and Echinococcus biology. This data also increases the potential for identifying vaccine candidates and new therapeutic targets, and may aid in the development of protein probes for selective and sensitive diagnosis of echinococcosis infection. In

  16. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  17. Neotropical echinococcosis: second report of Echinococcus vogeli natural infection in its main definitive host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Pereira Soares, Manoel; Souza de Souza, Alex Junior; Pinheiro Malheiros, Andreza; Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Almeida Carneiro, Liliane; Alves, Max Moreira; Farias da Conceição, Bernardo; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Marins Póvoa, Marinete

    2014-04-01

    The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) acts as the natural definitive host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli, the causative agent of polycystic hydatid disease, a zoonotic neglected disease in the South America. We report a case of natural infection by Echinococcus vogeli in a bush dog from the Brazilian Amazon, confirmed by the morphological and morphometric examination of adult parasites and their hooks obtained from the small intestine of the canid. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis corroborated these findings. This is the second report of natural infection by E. vogeli in a bush dog. © 2013.

  18. First report of a human case of polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from neotropical area of Peru, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somocurcio, José R; Sánchez, Elizabeth L; Náquira, César; Schilder, José; Rojas, Francisco; Chacón, Pedro; Yabar, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    We report a human case of polycystic hidatidosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from Contamana (Department of Loreto) village located in the central jungle of Peru. The patient is a 44 year-old lady, teacher, who carried a painless liver mass since a year ago. She was submitted to abdominal surgery and the liver mass was removed and showed multiple cysts containing colorless liquid as is showed in the polycystic hidatidosis. The morphology and measure of the hooks obtained from the liquid contained in the cysts are from Echinococcus vogeli. It is the first report of this parasitism in Perú.

  19. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...... and today continue to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss their gendered implications captured...

  20. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  2. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  3. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  4. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Ali, Ibtisam A; Elamin, Fatima M; Grobusch, Martin P; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-25

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

  5. Phylogenetic Pattern, Evolutionary Processes and Species Delimitation in the Genus Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, A J

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and stable alpha taxonomy requires a clear conception of what constitutes a species and agreed criteria for delimiting different species. An evolutionary or general lineage concept defines a species as a single lineage of organisms with a common evolutionary trajectory, distinguishable from other such lineages. Delimiting evolutionary species is a two-step process. In the first step, phylogenetic reconstruction identifies putative species as groups of organisms that are monophyletic (share a common ancestor) and exclusive (more closely related to each other than to organisms outside the group). The second step is to assess whether members of the group possess genetic exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained by gene flow among populations) or ecological exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained because populations occupy the same ecological niche). Recent taxonomic reviews have recognized nine species within the genus Echinococcus. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the relationships between these putative species using mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences show that for the most part these nine species are monophyletic, although there are important incongruences that need to be resolved. Applying the criteria of genetic and ecological exchangeability suggests that seven of the currently recognized species represent evolutionarily distinct lineages. The species status of Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus ortleppi could not be confirmed. Coalescent-based analyses represent a promising approach to species delimitation in these closely related taxa. It seems likely, from a comparison of sister species groups, that speciation in the genus has been driven by geographic isolation, but biogeographic scenarios are largely speculative and require further testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of new tools in molecular epidemiology studies of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Héctor G; Santos, Guilherme B; Cucher, Marcela A; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Pérez, Matías G; Baldi, Germán; Jensen, Oscar; Pérez, Verónica; López, Raúl; Negro, Perla; Scialfa, Exequiel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species and genotypes in intermediate and definitive hosts and in human isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Brazil including those where no molecular data is available by a combination of classical and alternative molecular tools. A total of 227 samples were isolated from humans, natural intermediate and definitive hosts. Amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment was performed and a combination of AluI digestion assay, High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM) assay and DNA sequencing was implemented for Echinococcus species/genotype determination. E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) was found in sheep (n=35), cattle (n=67) and dogs (n=5); E. ortleppi (G5) in humans (n=3) and cattle (n=108); E. canadensis (G6) in humans (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs (n=7). We reported for the first time the presence of E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6) in humans from San Juan and Catamarca Argentinean provinces and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs from Cordoba Argentinean province. In this work, we widened molecular epidemiology studies of E. granulosus s. l. in South America by analyzing several isolates from definitive and intermediate hosts, including humans from endemic regions were such information was scarce or unavailable. The presence of different species/genotypes in the same region and host species reinforce the need of rapid and specific techniques for accurate determination of Echinococcus species such as the ones proposed in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic characterization of human hydatid cysts shows coinfection by Echinococcus canadensis G7 and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto G1 in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiaggi, María Florencia; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Moguillansky, Sergio; Farjat, Juan Angel Basualdo

    2017-09-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005-2014 period. Twenty six hydatid cysts were obtained from 21 patients. The most frequent locations were the liver and lungs. Single cysts were observed in 81.0% of patients, and combined infection of liver and lungs was detected in 9.5% of cases. Partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes identified the presence of E. granulosus s.s. G1 (n = 11; 42.3%) including three different partial sequences; E. canadensis G6 (n = 14; 53.8%) and E. canadensis G7 (n = 1; 3.9%). Coinfection with G1 and G7 genotypes was detected in one patient who harbored three liver cysts. Most of the liver cysts corresponded to G1 and G6 genotypes. This study presents the first report in the Americas of a human infection with E. canadensis G7 and the second worldwide report of a coinfection with two different species and genotypes of E. granulosus s.l in humans. The molecular diversity of this parasite should be considered to redesign or improve the control program strategies in endemic regions.

  8. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  9. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression normalization in Echinococcus spp. larval stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (βTUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1α, βACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1α and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, βACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1α as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1α was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1α reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the

  10. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  11. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Expression Normalization in Echinococcus spp. Larval Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (βTUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1α, βACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1α and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, βACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1α as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1α was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1α reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the

  12. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  13. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  14. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  15. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  16. Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Branzburg, Anna; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Abdel Hafez, Sami K; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S; Hamburger, Joseph

    Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by detecting adult worms recovered post mortem or purged from the intestines after treatment with arecoline is not suitable for mass screening. Large-scale diagnosis by detection of copro-antigens is useful but only with relatively high

  17. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  18. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  19. In vitro effectiveness of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale extracts on Echinococcus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Esam; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Al-Quarishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an important economic and human public health problem with a wide geographical distribution. Surgical excision remains the primary treatment and the only hope for complete cure of hydatosis. The most important complications arising from surgical excision, however, is recurrence, which is due to dissemination of protoscolices during the surgery. Pre-surgical inactivation of the contents of the hydatid cyst by injection of scolicidal agent into the cyst has been used as adjunct to surgery in order to overcome the risk of recurrence. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) were tested as scolicidal agent for Echinococcus protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Three concentrations (10, 30 and 50 mg/ml) of each extract were investigated and viability of the protoscoleces was tested by 0.1% eosin staining. Ginger extract showed the strongest scolicidal effect (100%) after 20 min at a concentration of 30 mg/ml and 10 min at 50 mg/ml . The maximum scolicidal effect of turmeric was 93.2% after 30 min at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. It is concluded that turmeric and ginger extracts have high scolicidal activity and could be used as effective scolicidal agents against Echinococcus protoscoleces.

  20. First insights into species and genotypes of Echinococcus in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoye, Benjamin K; Menezes, Colin N; Wong, Michelle L; Stacey, Sarah; von Delft, Dirk; Wahlers, Kerstin; Wassermann, Marion; Romig, Thomas; Kern, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P; Frean, John

    2013-09-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a serious and neglected parasitic zoonosis that is regarded as an emerging disease world-wide. Effective control of the disease is based on understanding the variability of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato), as genotypic characteristics may influence lifecycle patterns, development rate, and transmission. No molecular epidemiological research has previously been conducted to shed light on genotypes responsible for the disease in South Africa. To identify strains circulating in the country, parasite material was collected from patients between August 2010 and September 2012 and analyzed by PCR/RFLP methods. A total of 32 samples was characterized as E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) (81%), E. canadensis (G6/7) (16%) and E. ortleppi (G5) (3%). Furthermore, two co-amplifying G6/7 genotypes were confirmed as G7 by sequencing. This is the first report on genotyping of Echinococcus species in South Africa, and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the G5 and G7 genotypes from humans in Africa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and purification of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B from hydatid cyst fluid using three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst, the larval stage of cestodes Echinococcus spp., is recognized as a zoonotic infection in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently classified echinococcosis in a group of neglected tropical diseases. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection is high in Iran due to the presence of various intermediate hosts in this country. Considering the rising trend of this zoonotic parasitic disease based on national epidemiological studies, diagnosis is of great significance. WHO has suggested the use of specific antigens, especially antigen B (AgB for serological diagnostic tests. In general, AgB is a polymeric lipoprotein, which disintegrates into 8.12, 16, and 20.24 kDa subunits. In the present study, we applied three different methods for AgB isolation from hydatid cyst fluid (HCF and compared their efficacy in AgB isolation. Finally, the protein concentration of this antigen was measured by Bradford assay and confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the application of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000 as a thickener agent beside purification of HCF in dialysis bag and filtering and also dialysis against acetate buffer leading to the best quantity in purified antigen B.

  2. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus on the Tibetan Plateau using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Song, X; Wang, N; Zhong, X; Wang, J; Liu, T; Jiang, Z; Dawa, T; Gu, X; Peng, X; Yang, G

    2015-10-30

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that causes large economic losses and human suffering. Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of CE, exhibits different genotypes in different locations. In order to identify its genotypes and analyze its genetic structure on the Tibetan Plateau, we collected 72 hydatid cysts from different intermediate hosts and amplified and sequenced their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) genes. Seventy isolates were identified as the E. granulosus G1 genotype, while two isolates belonged to the G6 genotype. There were 18 haplotypes among the 70 E. granulosus isolates, which exhibited a star-like network pattern and shared a common haplotype (H1). There was little difference between geographical sub-populations. Our results suggest that a recent E. granulosus population expansion occurred on the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting that E. granulosus was introduced into China. This study increases the basic molecular data needed for the molecular diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and control of Echinococcus diseases.

  3. Anticestodal Activity of Endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C. Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9, Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8, Fusarium (355 ± 14.5, and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3 showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0, which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO as salvage treatment for pulmonary Echinococcus granulosus infection with acute cyst rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören L. Becker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to severe infections. Although rare, parasites can also cause severe pulmonary disease. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus give rise to the development of cystic structures in the liver, lungs, and other organs. Acute cyst rupture leads to potentially life-threatening infection, and affected patients may deteriorate rapidly. The case of a young woman from Bulgaria who was admitted to hospital with severe dyspnoea, progressive chest pain, and haemoptysis is described. Computed tomography of the chest was pathognomonic for cystic echinococcosis with acute cyst rupture. Following deterioration on mechanical ventilation, she was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. The patient’s condition improved considerably, and she was weaned successfully from ECMO and mechanical ventilation. Following lobectomy of the affected left lower lobe, the patient was discharged home in good condition. This appears to be the first report of the successful use of ECMO as salvage treatment for a severe manifestation of a helminthic disease. Due to recent migration to Western Europe, the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure due to pulmonary echinococcosis with cyst rupture is likely to increase. Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, Infection, Echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid disease, Infection

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  8. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  9. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  10. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  11. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its...... use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. RESULTS: Data...... was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active...

  12. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  13. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... for Recommendations This page contains information about egg allergy and flu vaccination. Summary: CDC and its Advisory ...

  14. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  15. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  16. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  17. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  18. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  19. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  20. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  1. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman; Bay, Ali; Koesem, Mustafa; Dogan, Ekrem

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  2. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Bay, Ali [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Van (Turkey); Koesem, Mustafa [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Van (Turkey); Dogan, Ekrem [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Van (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  3. [First report of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca in Misiones province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Helou, Marcia; Dematteo, Karen; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara; D'Alessandro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We report the first finding of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca, Cuniculus paca, in the tropical forest of Misiones, in the north of Argentina. The presence of the bush dog, Speothos venaticus, E. vogelís only natural definitive host, was also reported. The polycystic hydatids, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, were only found in the liver of an adult paca. The size range of the hooks and the relative proportion blade/handle did not show significant differences with respect to the ones reported for E. vogeli. The size of E. granulosus hooks, measured for comparison purposes, was significantly smaller (p E. vogeli in Argentina. The probability of finding neotropical echinococcosis in humans reinforces the need to expand the search for E. vogeli in Argentina. Echinococcosis due to E. vogeli is very aggressive and may cause death in about a third of the human population affected.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus: Evidence of a heterodimeric glutathione transferase built up by phylogenetically distant subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildi, Paula; La-Rocca, Silvana; Lopez, Veronica; Da-Costa, Natalia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    In the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, three phylogenetically distant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EgGST1, 2 and 3) were identified. Interestingly, the C-terminal domains of EgGST3 and EgGST2 but not EgGST1, exhibit all amino acids involved in Sigma-class GST dimerization. Here, we provide evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3 naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3), and also we report the enzymatic activity of the recombinant heterodimer. EgGST2-3 might display novel properties able to influence the infection establishment. This is the first report of a stable heterodimeric GST built up by phylogenetically distant subunits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Expression of Hox and Notch Genes in Larval and Adult Stages of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taheri, Elham; Almani, Pooya Ghaseminejad; Tohidi, Farideh; Gottstein, Bruno; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-10-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the differential expression of HoxB7 and notch genes in different developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. The expression of HoxB7 gene was observed at all developmental stages. Nevertheless, significant fold differences in the expression level was documented in the juvenile worm with 3 or more proglottids, the germinal layer from infected sheep, and the adult worm from an experimentally infected dog. The notch gene was expressed at all developmental stages of E. granulosus ; however, the fold difference was significantly increased at the microcysts in monophasic culture medium and the germinal layer of infected sheep in comparison with other stages. The findings demonstrated that the 2 aforementioned genes evaluated in the present study were differentially expressed at different developmental stages of the parasite and may contribute to some important biological processes of E. granulosus .

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  7. Effect of immunization with protoscolices antigens of hydatid cysts on growth of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aljawady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3 before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities. (author)

  9. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Echinococcus granulosus: the potential use of specific radiolabelled antibodies in diagnosis by immunoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, M.T.; Morris, D.L.; Pritchard, D.I.; Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. (UK))

    1990-05-01

    Diagnosis of hydatid disease in man is frequently dependent on the imaging of cysts in situ by techniques such as ultrasonography and CAT scans. Such methods are useful but are not specific and can lead to errors in diagnosis. The present work reports preliminary experiments on the development of a specific imaging technique for hydatid cysts using radiolabelled antibodies. A purified preparation of antigen B of hydatid fluid was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits and the resulting affinity-purified IgG labelled with {sup 131}I. Gerbils with an established Echinococcus granulosus infection were injected intraperitoneally with the labelled antibody and imaged 48 h later with a gamma camera. Hydatid cysts could be identified within the peritoneal cavity and post-mortem assessment of activity showed the cysts to contain approximately four times as much activity as the surrounding organs thereby indicating successful targeting of the antibody to the cysts. (author).

  11. Echinococcus granulosus: the potential use of specific radiolabelled antibodies in diagnosis by immunoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, M.T.; Morris, D.L.; Pritchard, D.I.; Perkins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnosis of hydatid disease in man is frequently dependent on the imaging of cysts in situ by techniques such as ultrasonography and CAT scans. Such methods are useful but are not specific and can lead to errors in diagnosis. The present work reports preliminary experiments on the development of a specific imaging technique for hydatid cysts using radiolabelled antibodies. A purified preparation of antigen B of hydatid fluid was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits and the resulting affinity-purified IgG labelled with 131 I. Gerbils with an established Echinococcus granulosus infection were injected intraperitoneally with the labelled antibody and imaged 48 h later with a gamma camera. Hydatid cysts could be identified within the peritoneal cavity and post-mortem assessment of activity showed the cysts to contain approximately four times as much activity as the surrounding organs thereby indicating successful targeting of the antibody to the cysts. (author)

  12. In silico cloning and B/T cell epitope prediction of triosephosphate isomerase from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Ye, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Because the methods of diagnosis and treatment for cystic echinococcosis were limited, it is still necessary to screen target proteins for the development of new anti-hydatidosis vaccine. In this study, the triosephosphate isomerase gene of E. granulosus was in silico cloned. The B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted by bioinformatics methods. The cDNA sequence of EgTIM was composition of 1094 base pairs, with an open reading frame of 753 base pairs. The deduced amino acid sequences were composed of 250 amino acids. Five cross-reactive epitopes, locating on 21aa-35aa, 43aa-57aa, 94aa-107aa, 115-129aa, and 164aa-183aa, could be expected to serve as candidate epitopes in the development of vaccine against E. granulosus. These results could provide bases for gene cloning, recombinant expression, and the designation of anti-hydatidosis vaccine.

  13. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  14. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  15. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through

  16. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  17. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  18. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  19. Immunodiagnostic Value of Echinococcus Granulosus Recombinant B8/1 Subunit of Antigen B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savardashtaki, Amir; Sarkari, Bahador; Arianfar, Farzane; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2017-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a chronic parasitic disease, is a major health problem in many countries. The performance of the currently available serodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of CE is unsatisfactory. The current study aimed at sub-cloning a gene, encoding the B8/1 subunit of antigen B (AgB) from Echinococcus granulosus, using gene optimization for the immunodiagnosis of human CE. The coding sequence for AgB8/1 subunit of Echinococcus granulosus was selected from GenBank and was gene-optimized. The sequence was synthesized and inserted into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Purification was performed with GST tag affinity column. Diagnostic performance of the produced recombinant antigen, native antigen B and a commercial ELISA kit were further evaluated in an ELISA system, using a panel of sera from CE patients and controls. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the protein of interest had a high expression level and purity after GST tag affinity purification. Western blotting verified the immunoreactivity of the produced recombinant antigen with the sera of CE patients. In an ELISA system, the sensitivity and specificity (for human CE diagnosis) of the recombinant antigen, native antigen B and commercial kit were respectively 93% and 92%, 87% and 90% and 97% and 95%. The produced recombinant antigen showed a high diagnostic value which can be recommended for serodiagnosis of CE in Iran and other CE-endemic areas. Utilizing the combination of other subunits of AgB8 would improve the performance value of the introduced ELISA system.

  20. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bortezomib initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, elicits autophagy and death in Echinococcus granulosus larval stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Nicolao

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a worldwide distributed helminthic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Benzimidazole derivatives are currently the only drugs for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. However, their low efficacy and the adverse effects encourage the search for new therapeutic targets. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of Bortezomib (Bz, a proteasome inhibitor, in the larval stage of the parasite. After 96 h, Bz showed potent deleterious effects at a concentration of 5 μM and 0.5 μM in protoscoleces and metacestodes, respectively (P < 0.05. After 48 h of exposure to this drug, it was triggered a mRNA overexpression of chaperones (Eg-grp78 and Eg-calnexin and of Eg-ire2/Eg-xbp1 (the conserved UPR pathway branch in protoscoleces. No changes were detected in the transcriptional expression of chaperones in Bz-treated metacestodes, thus allowing ER stress to be evident and viability to highly decrease in comparison with protoscoleces. We also found that Bz treatment activated the autophagic process in both larval forms. These facts were evidenced by the increase in the amount of transcripts of the autophagy related genes (Eg-atg6, Eg-atg8, Eg-atg12, Eg-atg16 together with the increase in Eg-Atg8-II detected by western blot and by in toto immunofluorescence labeling. It was further confirmed by direct observation of autophagic structures by electronic microscopy. Finally, in order to determine the impact of autophagy induction on Echinococcus cell viability, we evaluated the efficacy of Bz in combination with rapamycin and a synergistic cytotoxic effect on protoscolex viability was observed when both drugs were used together. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that Bz induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and subsequent death allowing to identify unstudied parasite-host pathways that could provide a new insight for control of parasitic diseases.

  2. Effects of trigonelline inhibition of the Nrf2 transcription factor in vitro on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wenjuan; Guan, Dongfang; Ma, Rongji; Yang, Rentan; Xing, Guoqiang; Shi, Hongjuan; Tang, Guangyao; Li, Jiajie; Lv, Hailong; Jiang, Yufeng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of trigonelline (TRG) on Echinococcus granulosus, and to explore the inhibition impact of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway on E. granulosus protoscoleces. Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were incubated with various concentrations of TRG, and then Nrf2 protein expression and its localization in protoscoleces were detected by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in protoscoleces was measured using ROS detection kit. Caspase-3 activity was measured using a caspase-3 activity assay kit, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activities in protoscoleces were measured by ELISA. The effect of TRG on protoscoleces viability was investigated using 0.1% eosin staining, and ultrastructural alterations in protoscoleces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Immunolocalization experiment clearly showed that Nrf2 protein was predominantly present in cells of protoscoleces. TRG treatment reduced NQO-1 and HO-1 activities in protoscoleces, but could increase ROS level at early time. Protoscoleces could not survive when treated with 250 μM TRG for 12 days. SEM results showed that TRG-treated protoscoleces presented damage in the protoscoleces region, including hook deformation, lesions, and digitiform protuberance. Nrf2 protein expression was significantly decreased and caspase-3 activity was clearly increased in protoscoleces treated with TRG for 24 and 48 h, respectively, when compared with that in controls (P granulosus protoscoleces. Nrf2 protein was mainly expressed in the cells and TRG could efficiently inhibit the Nrf2 signaling pathway in E. granulosus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For

  3. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  4. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  5. Application of multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Taenia spp. from domestic dogs in the north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M.T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Taeniidae is of great importance in the medical and veterinary fields, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Identification of eggs of different Taenia spp. in the final host by morphological examination is difficult owing to their similarity. Therefore, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a mitochondrial gene was applied to identify morphologically indistinguishable eggs. Fecal samples from 100 domestic dogs, from the Mazandaran province in Iran, were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR. Taeniid eggs were observed in 24 % samples, of which 12 %, 10 %, and 2 % were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia spp., and both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. E. multilocularis was absent in these samples. The prevalence of E. granulosus in the examined domestic dogs as definitive hosts in north of Iran was high (14 %. Therefore, people living in this region of Iran are in danger of acquiring hydatid cyst, which is a serious public health problem.

  6. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiumin; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Peng, Shanshan; Ma, Haimei; Cao, Chunbao; Xin, Yan; Yimiti, Delixiati; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus which is distributed worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat with surgery removal is the only cure treatment. In the high endemic areas, vaccination of humans is believed a way to protect communities from the disease. In this study we vaccinated BALB/c mice with rBCG-EgG1Y162, and then detected the level of IgG and IgE specifically against the recombinant protein by ELISA, rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses. In vitro study showed that rBCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine not only promote splenocytes proliferation but also active T cell. In addition, the rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced a protection in the mice against secondary infection of Echinococcus granulosus.

  7. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  8. The impact of socio-cultural factors on transmission of Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Alishani, Mentor; Sherifi, K; Rexhepi, A; Hamidi, A; Armua-Fernandez, M T; Grimm, Felix; Hegglin, D; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu (s.l.) and Taenia hydatigena are common parasites of ruminant intermediate hosts in the Balkans. Transmission is linked mainly to home slaughtering and the feeding of infected organs to dogs. In Kosovo, many old sheep are slaughtered particularly during Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice). To determine whether this tradition could affect parasite transmission, we compared the probability of 504 dogs to contract taenid infections after deworming during one perio...

  9. The EG95 Antigen of Echinococcus spp. Contains Positively Selected Amino Acids, which May Influence Host Specificity and Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Karen Luisa; Gottstein, Bruno; Ayala, Francisco Jose

    2009-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease of humans and various herbivorous domestic animals (intermediate hosts) transmitted by the contact with wild and domestic carnivores (definitive hosts), mainly foxes and dogs. Recently, a vaccine was developed showing high levels of protection against one parasite haplotype (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus, and its potential efficacy against distinct parasite variants or species is still unclear. Interestingly, the EG95 vaccine antigen is a secreted glycosylphosphatydilinositol (GPI)-anchored protein containing a fibronectin type III domain, which is ubiquitous in modular proteins involved in cell adhesion. EG95 is highly expressed in oncospheres, the parasite life cycle stage which actively invades the intermediate hosts. After amplifying and sequencing the complete CDS of 57 Echinococcus isolates belonging to 7 distinct species, we uncovered a large amount of genetic variability, which may influence protein folding. Two positively selected sites are outside the vaccine epitopes, but are predicted to alter protein conformation. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicate that EG95 isoform evolution is convergent with regard to the number of beta-sheets and alpha-helices. We conclude that having a variety of EG95 isoforms is adaptive for Echinococcus parasites, in terms of their ability to invade different hosts, and we propose that a mixture of isoforms could possibly maximize vaccine efficacy. PMID:19401778

  10. Heterogenity of Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 - the main causative agent of cystic echinococcosis in Birjand, Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Fatemeh; Hemmati, Mina; Taylor, Walter Robert; Salehabadi, Alireza; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-15

    Little is known about the genotypes of Echinococcus spp. and their life cycles in eastern Iran. We analysed the partial sequences of the nad1 and cox1 genes from 17 isolates from hydatid cyst-infected patients (n=9), camels (n=5) and sheep (n=3) in Birjand, eastern Iran. A new primer pair was also used to amplify the long fragment (1180bp) of the cox1 gene. All camel and eight human isolates were G6 strains of Echinococcus canadensis while one human isolate and the three sheep isolates were G1 genotypes (sheep strain) of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.). Nad1 and cox1 sequence analyses showed high G6 genetic homogeneity, similar to previously reported G6 strains from southeast and central Iran, Sudan and Mauritania. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity similar to G6 strains from Russia (Altai republic) and Kazakhstan was also found, consistent with a bottleneck effect. In this study, G6 was the most common Echinococcus genotype. Genetic homogeneity of east, southeast and central Iranian G6 and its low genetic diversity may be due limited mobility and contact between humans and camels from other regions because of large, inhospitable deserts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Th9/IL-9 Profile in Human Echinococcosis: Their Involvement in Immune Response during Infection by Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Th9 cells have been reported to contribute to immune responses; however, the role of Th9 cells in Echinococcus granulosus infection is unknown. This study is to determine whether Th9 cells and IL-9 are involved in human Echinococcus granulosus infection. Compared with healthy controls (HC group, the mRNA levels of PU.1, IL-9, and GATA-3 were significantly increased in patients before therapy (CE group, as revealed by qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the percentages of Th9 and Th2 cells in CE group were significantly higher. The levels of IL-9, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in CE group were also significantly increased, as detected by CBA assay. The percentages of Th9 and Th2 cells in CE group were positively correlated. After treatments of surgery in combination with albendazole, the PU.1 and GATA-3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in patients after therapy (PCE group compared with CE group. The numbers of Th9 and Th2 cells and levels of IL-9, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β were also significantly decreased in PCE group. In conclusion, the ratios of Th9 cells and IL-9 levels were significantly decreased after treatment, suggesting that Th9/IL-9 may be involved in immune response induced by Echinococcus granulosus infection.

  12. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  13. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  14. 77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

  15. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  16. Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M R G; Medina, I; Langmore, N E; Sherratt, E

    2017-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts. We found evidence of size mimicry and, for the first time, evidence of egg shape mimicry in two Australian cuckoo species (pallid cuckoo and brush cuckoo). Moreover, cuckoo-host egg similarity was higher for hosts with open nests than for hosts with closed nests. This finding fits well with theory, as it has been suggested that hosts with closed nests have more difficulty recognizing parasitic eggs than open nests, have lower rejection rates and thus exert lower selection for mimicry in cuckoos. This is the first evidence of mimicry in egg shape in a cuckoo-host system, suggesting that mimicry at different levels (size, shape, colour pattern) is evolving in concert. We also confirm the existence of egg size mimicry in cuckoo-host systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus isolates indicates goats as reservoir for Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype in Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Saiz, M S; Kossman, A V; Bergagna, H F J; Chartier, K; Basualdo, J A

    2010-12-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic zoonotic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina, although a hydatid control programme has been carried out since 1970. Human infection due to Echinococcus canadensis (G6 genotype) is frequent in Neuquén. However, the reservoir for this species remains undetermined in a region where camels are absent. We investigated the fertility, viability and molecular epidemiology of hydatid cysts obtained from local goats, pigs and sheep in order to identify the possible reservoirs of E. canadensis (G6). We also analyzed isolates from infected dogs. A total of 67 isolates were identified by the DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Cysts from sheep (n=16), goats (n=23) and pigs (n=18) and adult worms from 10 infected dogs were analyzed. The fertility of the hydatid cysts was 78.6%; 90.4% and 94.4% for sheep, goats and pigs, respectively. We detected E. canadensis (G6) in 21 of 23 goat samples and in 1 dog isolate, E. canadensis (G7) in all the pig isolates, E. granulosus sensu stricto (G3) in 1 sheep and the G1 genotype in 15 sheep, 2 goats and 9 dog samples. The G1 haplotypes included the common sheep strain sequence and 2 microvariants of this sequence. E. granulosus sensu stricto (G3) is described for the first time in South America. We conclude that goats act as reservoir for E. canadensis (G6) in Neuquén, and that control strategies may have to be adapted to local molecular epidemiology to improve the control of parasite transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  19. First study about the development of adult Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Debiaggi, María Florencia; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Bergagna, Héctor Fabián Jesús; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2016-09-15

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E. canadensis G6 in dogs experimentally infected with protoscoleces derived from goats, to describe the resultant adult morphology, to evaluate the growth of their rostellar hooks from larval to adult stages and to determine the prepatent period of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 derived from goats. The development of the strobilar stage of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was examined by studying the growth (variation of the total worm length) and segmentation in experimentally infected dogs at 14, 25, 35 and 56days post infection. A morphological characterization of 35-day-old worms as well as of larval and adult rostellar hooks was also carried out by conventional optical microscopic observations and/or by scanning electron microscopy. The prepatent period of the strobilar stage was assessed by microscopic examination of faeces from 2 infected dogs. Our results were compared with published data from the camel and other strains. The roles of the host, genotype and species in morphological and developmental features as well as the taxonomic position of E. canadensis G6 were discussed. The prepatent period of E. canadensis G6 genotype of goat origin was determined as at least, 41days. The obtained results contribute to increase the knowledge about the biology

  20. Designing and conducting in silico analysis for identifying of Echinococcus spp. with discrimination of novel haplotypes: an approach to better understanding of parasite taxonomic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotin, Adel; Gholami, Shirzad; Nasab, Abbas Najafi; Fallah, Esmaeil; Oskouei, Mahmoud Mahami; Semnani, Vahid; Shariatzadeh, Seyyed Ali; Shahbazi, Abbas

    2015-04-01

    The definitive identification of Echinococcus species is currently carried out by sequencing and phylogenetic strategies. However, the application of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns is not broadly used as a result of heterogeneity traits of Echinococcus genome in different regions of the world. Therefore, designing and conducting a standardized pattern should indigenously be considered in under-studied areas. In this investigation, an in silico mapping was designed and developed for eight Echinococcus spp. on the basis of regional sequences in Iran and the world. The numbers of 60 Echinococcus isolates were collected from the liver and lungs of 15 human, 15 sheep, 15 cattle, and 15 camel cases in Semnan province, Central Iran. DNA samples were extracted and examined by polymerase chain reaction of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and PCR-RFLP via Rsa1 endonuclease enzyme. Moreover, 15 amplicons of cytochrome oxidase 1 (Cox1) were directly sequenced in order to identify the strains/haplotypes. PCR-RFLP and phylogenetic analyses revealed firmly the presence of the G1 and G6 genotypes with heterogeneity (three novel haplotypes) of Cox1 gene although no other expected genotypes were found in the region. Finding shows that the identification of novel haplotypes along with discrimination of Echinococcus spp. through regional patterns can unambiguously illustrate the real taxonomic status of parasite in Central Iran.

  1. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  3. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  4. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  5. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  6. microRNA profiling in the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus canadensis using a high-throughput approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Maldonado, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2015-02-06

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism. The particular developmental and metabolic characteristics of cestode parasites highlight the importance of studying miRNA gene regulation in these organisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus canadensis G7, one of the causative agents of the neglected zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis. Small RNA libraries from protoscoleces and cyst walls of E. canadensis G7 and protoscoleces of E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 were sequenced using Illumina technology. For miRNA prediction, miRDeep2 core algorithm was used. The output list of candidate precursors was manually curated to generate a high confidence set of miRNAs. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs between stages or species was estimated with DESeq. Expression levels of selected miRNAs were validated using poly-A RT-qPCR. In this study we used a high-throughput approach and found transcriptional evidence of 37 miRNAs thus expanding the miRNA repertoire of E. canadensis G7. Differential expression analysis showed highly regulated miRNAs between life cycle stages, suggesting a role in maintaining the features of each developmental stage or in the regulation of developmental timing. In this work we characterize conserved and novel Echinococcus miRNAs which represent 30 unique miRNA families. Here we confirmed the remarkable loss of conserved miRNA families in E. canadensis, reflecting their low morphological complexity and high adaptation to parasitism. We performed the first in-depth study profiling of small RNAs in the zoonotic parasite E. canadensis G7. We found that miRNAs are the preponderant small RNA silencing molecules, suggesting that these small RNAs could be an essential mechanism of gene regulation in this species. We also

  7. Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40–50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  8. Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Obal

    Full Text Available Antigen B (EgAgB is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5. In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40-50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9 are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding

  9. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  11. The first report of human-derived G10 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis in China and possible sources and routes of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Zhang, Tiemin; Zeng, Zhaolin; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin

    2015-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses. 10 distinct genotypes, designated G1-G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), have been split into 4 species: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10); Echinococcus felidis has also been suggested as a sister taxon of E. granulosus s.s. recently. Four genotypes belonging to two species (G1 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s., and G6 and G7 genotypes of E. canadensis) have been identified in humans and animals in China. In the present study, a human-derived hydatid cyst from a patient in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province was identified as G10 genotype of E. canadensis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Homology analysis showed the cox1 gene sequence of G10 genotype of E. canadensis had 100% homology with those from wolves in Mongolia and from a moose in Russia. The cytb and nad1 gene sequences of G10 genotype of E. canadensis had 100% homology with the complete sequence from a moose in Finland at an amino acid level. The infection source of the CE patient here might be primarily attributable to wolves. This is the first report of G10 genotype of E. canadensis in a human in China. The finding of G10 genotype of E. canadensis in China shows that this genotype possibly has a more wide geographical distribution than previously considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  13. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  15. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  16. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; M?ller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  17. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  18. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  19. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  20. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  1. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  2. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  3. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  4. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  5. In vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia against protoscoleces of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; DE Avila Botton, Sônia; Funk, Nadine Lysyk; DE Bona DA Silva, Cristiane; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; DE LA Rue, Mário Luiz

    2017-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The use of protoscolicidal agents in procedures is of utmost importance for treatment success. This study was aimed at analysing the in vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil - TTO), its nanoemulsion formulation (NE-TTO) and its major component (terpinen-4-ol) against Echinococcus ortleppi protoscoleces obtained from cattle. Concentrations of 2·5, 5 and 10 mg mL-1 of TTO, 10 mg mL-1 of NE-TTO and 1, 1·5 and 2 mg mL-1 of terpinen-4-ol were evaluated in vitro against protoscoleces at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. TTO was also injected directly into hydatid cysts (ex vivo analysis, n = 20) and the viability of protoscoleces was evaluated at 5, 15 and 30 min. The results indicated protoscolicidal effect at all tested formulations and concentrations. Terpinen-4-ol (2 mg mL-1) activity was superior when compared with the highest concentration of TTO. NE-TTO reached a gradual protoscolicidal effect. TTO at 20 mg mL-1 showed 90% protoscolicidal action in hydatid cysts at 5 min. The results showed that TTO affects the viability of E. ortleppi protoscoleces, suggesting a new protoscolicidal option to the treatment of cystic equinococcosis.

  6. Detection of Osteopontin in the pericyst of human hepatic Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyu; Li, Jianhui; Wu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Shijie; Niu, Jianhua; Chen, Xiaoping; Yao, Jin; Sun, Hong

    2006-12-01

    It aims at investigating the expression and distribution of the Osteopontin (OPN) in the pericyst of human hepatic Echinococcus granulosus and their related significances. Sixty pericysts excised by "sub-adventitial cystectomy" were studied. OPN was detected in 80% (48/60) of cysts by Western blotting and distributed in the side of "exocyst" layer directing to the parasite, also macrophages were identified in the vicinity of OPN by immunohistochemistry staining. The coexpression of OPN and CD68 was observed by immunofluorescence double labeling and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus 5.1; with special stain techniques, variable degrees of calcium deposits were observed in 80% (48/60) cysts, and the calcium deposits concurrencely found with the OPN expression. The selective distribution of OPN, calcium in the "exocyst" provides a new pathological evidence for the "sub-adventitial cystectomy" we developed. The pericyst of hepatic E. granulosus consists of two detachable layers with different formative mechanisms: the "exocyst" layer directing towards the cyst of parasite was the result of granulomatous reaction; also the results suggest OPN is one regulator in the granulomatous reaction and calcification of "exocyst".

  7. Effects of X-ray on the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rui; Wu, Ge; Wang, Hui; Lu, Pengfei; Li, Jun; Li, Haitao; Ainiwaer, Aimudula; Bai, Yiwei; Shu, Mingyang; Bao, Yongxing; Zhang, Wenbao

    2017-09-21

    Radiotherapy may represent an alternative treatment modality for cystic echinococcosis (CE), but there is no adequate evidence for it up to now. In this study, we aim to investigate the parasiticidal effects of X-ray on the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro. Protoscoleces obtained from sheep naturally infected with CE were cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C in 5% CO 2 . Upon encystation on day 14, the metacestodes were subjected to various intensities of X-ray. Metacestode structures were observed using light microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Real-Time PCR was carried out to determine the expression of EgTPX, EgHSP70, EgEPC1 and Caspase-3. On day 14, encystation was noticed in the majority of protoscoleces in the control group. In the X-ray groups, the encystation rate showed significant decrease compared with that of the control group (P granulosus. Irradiation triggered increased expression of EgTPX, EgHSP70, EgEPC1 and Caspase-3.

  8. Identification of Newly Synthesized Proteins by Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces upon Induction of Strobilation.

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    João Antonio Debarba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. In this work, azidohomoalanine (AHA-specific labeling was used to identify proteins expressed by E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs upon the induction of strobilar development.The in vitro incorporation of AHA with different tags into newly synthesized proteins (NSPs by PSCs was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy. The LC-MS/MS analysis of AHA-labeled NSPs by PSCs undergoing strobilation allowed for the identification of 365 proteins, of which 75 were differentially expressed in comparison between the presence or absence of strobilation stimuli and 51 were expressed exclusively in either condition. These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes.After the controlled-labeling of proteins during the induction of strobilar development, we identified modifications in protein expression. The changes in the metabolism and the activation of control and signaling pathways may be important for the correct parasite development and be target for further studies.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Tamoxifen against Larval Stage Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Elissondo, María Celina; Denegri, Guillermo M.; Goya, Alejandra B.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Chemotherapy currently employs benzimidazoles; however, 40% of cases do not respond favorably. With regard to these difficulties, novel therapeutic tools are needed to optimize treatment in humans. The aim of this work was to explore the in vitro and in vivo effects of tamoxifen (TAM) against E. granulosus. In addition, possible mechanisms for the susceptibility of TAM are discussed in relation to calcium homeostasis, P-glycoprotein inhibition, and antagonist effects on a putative steroid receptor. After 24 h of treatment, TAM, at a low micromolar concentration range (10 to 50 μM), inhibited the survival of E. granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Moreover, we demonstrated the chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive pharmacological effects of the drug. At a dose rate of 20 mg/kg of body weight, TAM induced protection against the infection in mice. In the clinical efficacy studies, a reduction in cyst weight was observed after the administration of 20 mg/kg in mice with cysts developed during 3 or 6 months, compared to that of those collected from control mice. Since the collateral effects of high TAM doses have been largely documented in clinical trials, the use of low doses of this drug as a short-term therapy may be a novel alternative approach for human cystic echinococcosis treatment. PMID:24936598

  10. Evolutionary characterization of Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An

    2016-11-01

    Cyclophyllidean cestodes including Echinococcus granulosus have a smaller genome and show characteristics such as loss of the gut, a segmented body plan, and accelerated growth rate in hosts compared with other tissue-invading helminths. In an effort to address the molecular mechanism relevant to genome shrinkage, the evolutionary status of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which are known as the most potent genomic modulators, was investigated in the E. granulosus draft genome. A majority of the E. granulosus LTR retrotransposons were classified into a novel characteristic clade, named Saci-2, of the Ty3/gypsy family, while the remaining elements belonged to the CsRn1 clade of identical family. Their nucleotide sequences were heavily corrupted by frequent base substitutions and segmental losses. The ceased mobile activity of the major retrotransposons and the following intrinsic DNA loss in their inactive progenies might have contributed to decrease in genome size. Apart from the degenerate copies, a gag gene originating from a CsRn1-like element exhibited substantial evidences suggesting its domestication including a preserved coding profile and transcriptional activity, the presence of syntenic orthologues in cestodes, and selective pressure acting on the gene. To my knowledge, the endogenized gag gene is reported for the first time in invertebrates, though its biological function remains elusive.

  11. Characterization of 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in the Echinococcus granulosus pathogenic larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Aline; Vargas, Daiani M; Monteiro, Karina M; Meneghetti, Bruna V; Dutra, Cristine S; Paredes, Rodolfo; Galanti, Norbel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-04-03

    The 14-3-3 protein family of eukaryotic regulators was studied in Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease. These proteins mediate important cellular processes in eukaryotes and are expected to play important roles in parasite biology. Six isoforms of E. granulosus 14-3-3 genes and proteins (Eg14-3-3.1-6) were analyzed, and their phylogenetic relationships were established with bona fide 14-3-3 orthologous proteins from eukaryotic species. Eg14-3-3 isoforms with previous evidence of expression (Eg14-3-3.1-4) in E. granulosus pathogenic larval stage (metacestode) were cloned, and recombinant proteins were used for functional studies. These protein isoforms were detected in different components of E. granulosus metacestode, including interface components with the host. The roles that are played by Eg14-3-3 proteins in parasite biology were inferred from the repertoires of interacting proteins with each isoform, as assessed by gel overlay, cross-linking, and affinity chromatography assays. A total of 95 Eg14-3-3 protein ligands were identified by mass spectrometry. Eg14-3-3 isoforms have shared partners (44 proteins), indicating some overlapping functions; however, they also bind exclusive partners (51 proteins), suggesting Eg14-3-3 functional specialization. These ligand repertoires indicate the involvement of Eg14-3-3 proteins in multiple biochemical pathways in the E. granulosus metacestode and note some degree of isoform specialization.

  12. Genetic variability of Echinococcus granulosus based on the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Jiahai; Hu, Dandan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Zhongrong; Yang, Aiguo; Deng, Shijin; Guo, Li; Tsering, Dawa; Wang, Shuxian; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the etiological agent of cystic echinococcosis, a major zoonotic disease of both humans and animals. In this study, we assessed genetic variability and genetic structure of E. granulosus in the Tibet plateau, using the complete mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal RNA gene for the first time. We collected and sequenced 62 isolates of E. granulosus from 3 populations in the Tibet plateau. A BLAST analysis indicated that 61 isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (genotypes G1-G3), while one isolate belonged to E. canadensis (genotype G6). We detected 16 haplotypes with a haplotype network revealing a star-like expansion, with the most common haplotype occupying the center of the network. Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were low, while negative values were observed for Tajima's D and Fu's Fs. AMOVA results and Fst values revealed that the three geographic populations were not genetically differentiated. Our results suggest that a population bottleneck or population expansion has occurred in the past, and that this explains the low genetic variability of E. granulosus in the Tibet Plateau.

  13. Molecular characterization and serodiagnostic potential of a novel dithiol glutaredoxin 1 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingju; Yan, Min; Hu, Dandan; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ning; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2016-08-17

    The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is the etiological agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which causes serious morbidity and mortality in many areas. There is no reliable method to monitor sheep CE. Here, we characterize E. granulosus glutaredoxin 1 (Eg-Grx1) and report an improved immunodiagnostic method for CE. We cloned and expressed recombinant Eg-Grx1 and generated antibodies. We analyzed the location of the protein in different parasite stages by fluorescence immunohistochemistry, detected the immunogenicity of recombinant Eg-Grx1, and developed an indirect ELISA (iELISA) for CE serodiagnosis. Eg-Grx1 is a classic dithiol Grx with several GSH-binding motifs. Native Eg-Grx1 protein was distributed in the tegument of protoscoleces, the whole germinal layer, and the parenchymatous tissue of adult worms. Recombinant Eg-Grx1 exhibited good immunoreactivity to CE-infected sheep serum. An iELISA using this antigen showed specificity of 64.3 % (9/14) and sensitivity of 1:3200, and the diagnostic accordance rate was 97.9 % (47/48) compared with the results of necropsy. We characterized a novel Grx (Eg-Grx1) from a parasitic helminth and present a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structure of this protein. The recombinant Eg-Grx1 protein showed good potential serodiagnostic performance, and we established an iELISA method, which may contribute to the surveillance of sheep CE in epidemic areas.

  14. Bioinformatics analysis and construction of phylogenetic tree of aquaporins from Echinococcus granulosus.

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    Wang, Fen; Ye, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Cyst echinococcosis caused by the matacestodal larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Eg), is a chronic, worldwide, and severe zoonotic parasitosis. The treatment of cyst echinococcosis is still difficult since surgery cannot fit the needs of all patients, and drugs can lead to serious adverse events as well as resistance. The screen of target proteins interacted with new anti-hydatidosis drugs is urgently needed to meet the prevailing challenges. Here, we analyzed the sequences and structure properties, and constructed a phylogenetic tree by bioinformatics methods. The MIP family signature and Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites were predicted in all nine EgAQPs. α-helix and random coil were the main secondary structures of EgAQPs. The numbers of transmembrane regions were three to six, which indicated that EgAQPs contained multiple hydrophobic regions. A neighbor-joining tree indicated that EgAQPs were divided into two branches, seven EgAQPs formed a clade with AQP1 from human, a "strict" aquaporins, other two EgAQPs formed a clade with AQP9 from human, an aquaglyceroporins. Unfortunately, homology modeling of EgAQPs was aborted. These results provide a foundation for understanding and researches of the biological function of E. granulosus.

  15. Analysis of the chemical components of hydatid fluid from Echinococcus granulosus

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    Li Juyi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the environment of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus protoscolices and their relationship with their host. Methods Proteins from the hydatid-cyst fluid (HCF from E. granulosus were identified by proteomics. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES was used to determine the elements, an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the types and levels of biochemical indices, and an automatic amino acid analyzer was used to detect the types and levels of amino acids in the E. granulosus HCF. Results I Approximately 30 protein spots and 21 peptide mass fingerprints (PMF were acquired in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE pattern of hydatid fluid; II We detected 10 chemical elements in the cyst fluid, including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc; III We measured 19 biochemical metabolites in the cyst fluid, and the amount of most of these metabolites was lower than that in normal human serum; IV We detected 17 free amino acids and measured some of these, including alanine, glycine, and valine. Conclusions We identified and measured many chemical components of the cyst fluid, providing a theoretical basis for developing new drugs to prevent and treat hydatid disease by inhibiting or blocking nutrition, metabolism, and other functions of the pathogen.

  16. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN

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    SHARBATKHORI, Mitra; TANZIFI, Asal; ROSTAMI, Sima; ROSTAMI, Masoomeh; HARANDI, Majid FASIHI

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country. PMID:27253740

  17. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHOLAMI, Shirzad; JAHANDAR, Hefzallah; ABASTABAR, Mahdi; PAGHEH, Abdolsatar; MOBEDI, Iraj; SHARBATKHORI, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15) were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp) of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach. Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7%) and G3 (33.3%)] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1) had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045). Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047). A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048). Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province. PMID:28096852

  18. Construction of In Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Echinococcus granulosus in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibo; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xuyong; Xia, Jie; Guo, Jun; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hou, Jixue; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Xueling; Wu, Xiangwei

    2016-06-01

    Human hydatid disease (cystic echinococcosis, CE) is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. As the disease mainly affects the liver, approximately 70% of all identified CE cases are detected in this organ. Optical molecular imaging (OMI), a noninvasive imaging technique, has never been used in vivo with the specific molecular markers of CE. Thus, we aimed to construct an in vivo fluorescent imaging mouse model of CE to locate and quantify the presence of the parasites within the liver noninvasively. Drug-treated protoscolices were monitored after marking by JC-1 dye in in vitro and in vivo studies. This work describes for the first time the successful construction of an in vivo model of E. granulosus in a small living experimental animal to achieve dynamic monitoring and observation of multiple time points of the infection course. Using this model, we quantified and analyzed labeled protoscolices based on the intensities of their red and green fluorescence. Interestingly, the ratio of red to green fluorescence intensity not only revealed the location of protoscolices but also determined the viability of the parasites in vivo and in vivo tests. The noninvasive imaging model proposed in this work will be further studied for long-term detection and observation and may potentially be widely utilized in susceptibility testing and therapeutic effect evaluation.

  19. Top Down Proteomics Reveals Mature Proteoforms Expressed in Subcellular Fractions of the Echinococcus granulosus Preadult Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzatto, Karina R; Kim, Kyunggon; Ntai, Ioanna; Paludo, Gabriela P; Camargo de Lima, Jeferson; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-11-06

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease, a neglected zoonosis responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Several molecular mechanisms underlying parasite biology remain poorly understood. Here, E. granulosus subcellular fractions were analyzed by top down and bottom up proteomics for protein identification and characterization of co-translational and post-translational modifications (CTMs and PTMs, respectively). Nuclear and cytosolic extracts of E. granulosus protoscoleces were fractionated by 10% GELFrEE and proteins under 30 kDa were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. By top down analysis, 186 proteins and 207 proteoforms were identified, of which 122 and 52 proteoforms were exclusively detected in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, respectively. CTMs were evident as 71% of the proteoforms had methionine excised and 47% were N-terminal acetylated. In addition, in silico internal acetylation prediction coupled with top down MS allowed the characterization of 9 proteins differentially acetylated, including histones. Bottom up analysis increased the overall number of identified proteins in nuclear and cytosolic fractions to 154 and 112, respectively. Overall, our results provided the first description of the low mass proteome of E. granulosus subcellular fractions and highlighted proteoforms with CTMs and PTMS whose characterization may lead to another level of understanding about molecular mechanisms controlling parasitic flatworm biology.

  20. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

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    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel for Echinococcus granulosus vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Saleh; Pernthaner, Anton; Deng, Qing; Gibson, Blake; Hook, Sarah; Heath, David

    2017-03-15

    The EG95 vaccine is effective in protecting grazing animals from infection with Echinococcus granulosus. Six male lambs were used in the study, two were each vaccinated subcutaneously with 50μg EG95/1mg Quil-A, two animals were each vaccinated with 50μg EG95/1mg Quil-A in 1% chitosan thermolabile gel subcutaneously, and two animals served as non-vaccinated controls. Two vaccinations were given at a 7 week interval. Two vaccinations induced a significantly higher antibody titre in the chitosan group compared with the Quil-A only group. The chitosan vaccine group also had a significantly higher antibody titre compared with a positive control sera from vaccinated and challenged sheep. Incorporating the EG95/Quil-A vaccine in a thermo-responsive chitosan sol-gel stimulated, after the second injection, a high level of antibody absorbance which remained high for at least one year. This response was significantly greater than the response to vaccine without the gel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Shared and non-shared antigens from three different extracts of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus

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    David Carmena

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst fluid (HCF, somatic antigens (S-Ag and excretory-secretory products (ES-Ag of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces are used as the main antigenic sources for immunodiagnosis of human and dog echinococcosis. In order to determine their non-shared as well as their shared antigenic components, these extracts were studied by ELISA-inhibition and immunoblot-inhibition. Assays were carried out using homologous rabbit polyclonal antisera, human sera from individuals with surgically confirmed hydatidosis, and sera from dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus. High levels of cross-reactivity were observed for all antigenic extracts, but especially for ES-Ag and S-Ag. Canine antibodies evidenced lesser avidity for their specific antigens than antibodies from human origin. The major antigenic components shared by HCF, S-Ag, and ES-Ag have apparent molecular masses of 4-6, 20-24, 52, 80, and 100-104 kDa, including doublets of 41/45, 54/57, and 65/68 kDa. Non-shared polypeptides of each antigenic extract of E. granulosus were identified, having apparent masses of 108 and 78 kDa for HCF, of 124, 94, 83, and 75 kDa for S-Ag, and of 89, 66, 42, 39, 37, and 35 kDa for ES-Ag.

  3. Genetic variability of Echinococcus granulosus from the Tibetan plateau inferred by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Nie, Hua-Ming; Jiang, Zhong-Rong; Yang, Ai-Guo; Deng, Shi-Jin; Guo, Li; Yu, Hua; Yan, Yu-Bao; Tsering, Dawa; Kong, Wei-Shu; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, De-Ying; Wang, Shu-Xian; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-09-01

    To analyse genetic variability and population structure, 84 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) collected from various host species at different sites of the Tibetan plateau in China were sequenced for the whole mitochondrial nad1 (894 bp) and atp6 (513 bp) genes. The vast majority were classified as G1 genotype (n=82), and two samples from human patients in Sichuan province were identified as G3 genotype. Based on the concatenated sequences of nad1+atp6, 28 different haplotypes (NA1-NA28) were identified. A parsimonious network of the concatenated sequence haplotypes showed star-like features in the overall population, with NA1 as the major haplotype in the population networks. By AMOVA it was shown that variation of E. granulosus within the overall population was the main pattern of the total genetic variability. Neutrality indexes of the concatenated sequence (nad1+atp6) were computed by Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests and showed high negative values for E. granulosus, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. FST and Nm values suggested that the populations were not genetically differentiated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus infections of dogs in the Durazno region of Uruguay.

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    Parada, L; Cabrera, P; Burges, C; Acuña, A; Barcelona, C; Laurenson, M K; Gulland, F M; Agulla, J; Parietti, S; Paolillo, E

    1995-04-15

    The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in domestic dogs was examined in three dog populations in the Durazno region of Uruguay. The prevalence was 19.7 per cent in 704 dogs successfully purged with arecoline hydrobromide. Higher prevalences were detected in dogs from the rural area (30.0 per cent) and the village of La Paloma (25.9 per cent) than in the town of Sarandi del Yi (7.9 per cent). The frequency distribution of E granulosus was overdispersed (k, the negative binomial parameter = 0.08), with only a few animals harbouring heavy infections. The results of a questionnaire showed that the prevalence was greatest in male dogs, in dogs that were not kennelled, in dogs that had access to fields and in dogs that were not dosed with praziquantel. Dogs that were given raw sheep offal by their owners were no more likely to be parasitised than other dogs; this may reflect the inaccuracy of the owners' replies, or that the dogs were being infected outside their home.

  5. Immunological assessment of exposure to Echinococcus granulosus in a rural dog population in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Parada, L; Acuna, A; Burges, C; Laurenson, M K; Gulland, F M; Reichel, M P; Paolillo, E

    1994-12-01

    An ELISA was used to screen a dog population in Uruguay (Sarandi Del Yi, Durazno District) for the prevalence of specific serum antibodies (IgG, IgA and IgE) to Echinococcus granulosus. The sensitivity (61%) and specificity (97%) of the ELISA were determined using well-defined serum groups. A total of 408 dogs from Sarandi del Yi and environs were screened serologically, and 29.7% (8.6-13.8% for each antibody class) of dogs had positive levels of antibody to E. granulosus. This antibody prevalence (exposure) was significantly higher than the percentage of dogs found to be positive for E. granulosus worms by arecoline purgation (7.6%). This level of exposure to E. granulosus determined by ELISA is considered unacceptable from a public health perspective. Measures will now focus on obtaining data on the true prevalence of current infection in this dog population and on determining the transmission patterns of the disease in this endemic region.

  6. Estructura del quiste hidatídico producido por Echinococcus oligarthrus en el hospedero intermediario Proechimys c.f. guairae (rata espinosa) en Casanare, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gerzain Rodríguez; Margarita Tamayo; Jorge Boshell

    2000-01-01

    La equinococosis es un parasitismo grave producido en el hombre y en los animales por larvas de tenias del género Echinococcus que se desarrollan en el higado, el pulmón, el bazo y en otras visceras y tejidos. De las cuatro tenias dei género Echinococcus, tres se presentan en Suramerica: E granulosus, E. vogeli y E. oligarihrus. En Colombia se han informado casos en humanos y en animales cuyo agente etiológico más frecuente es E. vogeli. En este trabajo presentamos la estructura macroscópica,...

  7. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  8. The occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs and cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep in Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Sherifi, Kurtesh

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were carried out during the period March 2003 – February 2004 to assess the occurrence of echinococcosis in dogs and cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep. Additionally, the incidence of surgically treated-hydatidosis patients was investigated. Shedding of taeniid eggs was found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs, using the flotation-ovassay technique. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris vulpis 87 (28.5%), Toxocara canis 42 (13...

  9. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid eggs. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally... powdered. Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid eggs may be reduced by one of the optional...

  10. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG WEIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...

  11. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  12. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  13. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in

  14. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  15. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  16. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  17. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  18. Haugh Unit: Gold Standard of Egg Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossibl...

  19. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  20. Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorschip?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Fox, C.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; O'Brien, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The daily mortality rate of cohorts of plaice eggs in the Irish Sea is estimated throughout the spawning season in 1995 and 2000, using general additive models of egg production. Daily mortality (z) was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.29. Mortality rates declined through the season in 1995 but not

  1. On eggs of some British Guyana Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1889-01-01

    They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.

  2. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... production of oocytes to egg-laying on selected sites (Alle- mand 1976b; Yang et al. .... (vii) Is the egg-laying rhythm regulated by hormones? .... were shown to be induced by factors synthesized in the re- productive tract of the ...

  3. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  4. Comparison of two procedures for labelling the surface of the hydatid disease organism, Echinococcus granulosus, with /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, D.P.; McLaren, D.J.; Clark, N.W.T.; Parkhouse, R.M.E.

    1987-03-01

    Living, intact protoscoleces of the British horse and sheep strains of Echinococcus granulosus were subjected to surface radioiodination procedures using /sup 125/I and Iodogen and /sup 125/I-Bolton Hunter reagent. Subsequent combined electron microscopy and autoradiography revealed specific surface membrane labelling with the Iodogen procedure, but significant tegumental labelling with the Bolton-Hunter reagent. The two parasite strains yielded different profiles of electrophoretically separated labelled proteins; the Iodogen method, not surprisingly, resulted in a less complex pattern of labelled polypeptides than the Bolton and Hunter reagent.

  5. A comparison of two procedures for labelling the surface of the hydatid disease organism, Echinococcus granulosus, with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, D.P.; McLaren, D.J.; Clark, N.W.T.; Parkhouse, R.M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Living, intact protoscoleces of the British horse and sheep strains of Echinococcus granulosus were subjected to surface radioiodination procedures using 125 I and Iodogen and 125 I-Bolton Hunter reagent. Subsequent combined electron microscopy and autoradiography revealed specific surface membrane labelling with the Iodogen procedure, but significant tegumental labelling with the Bolton-Hunter reagent. The two parasite strains yielded different profiles of electrophoretically separated labelled proteins; the Iodogen method, not surprisingly, resulted in a less complex pattern of labelled polypeptides than the Bolton and Hunter reagent. (author)

  6. OBTENCIÓN DE echinococcus GRANULOSUS EN CANINOS INFECTADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE CON PROTOESCÓLICES DE QUISTES HIDATÍDICOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales G., Sofía; Gavidia C., César; Lopera B., Luis; Barrón G., Eduardo; Ninaquispe B., Berenice; Calderón S., Carmen; Gonzáles Z., Armando

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo reproducir experimentalmente el ciclo biológico del Echinococcus granulosus en perros. Se utilizó 12 perros (4-50 meses de edad) que fueron infectados experimentalmente con 80,000 a 308,000 protoescólices de quistes hidatídicos de pulmón e hígado de ovinos procedentes de Junín y Ayacucho. Los perros se sacrificaron 28 a 39 días post infección (p.i). El intestino delgado se dividió en tres porciones iguales (anterior, media y posterior). Los parásitos fuer...

  7. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  8. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  9. Bioresonance method influencing the egg quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakova, A.; Kovalev, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    At 2 poultry yards with capacity of 30 thousand laying hens an experiment was undertaken to study the bioresonance effect on 18-week-old poultry (experimental poultry yard, EPY) to obtain eggs of high biological value by activating the assimilation by poultry of a microelement complex from food. At the EPY hens received a vitamin-mineral complex Lifepac senior (produced in France) treated with electromagnetic radiation. At the control poultry yard (CPY) this method was not used. The first egg collection was conducted from hens at the age of 28 weeks, the second one – at the age of 3-4 weeks and the third one – at the age of 52 weeks. The keeping and feeding conditions at the two poultry yards were the same. The contents of water, protein, fat in the eggs of CPY and EPY were practically the same, but the level of microelements in the EPY eggs was higher than in CPY eggs. It was observed so as to maintain high level of microelements in eggs it is required to a bioresonance effect throughout the egg laying period. So, the level of manganese in eggs of EPY and CPY at week 52 was 0.024 and 0.003 mg%, iron – 3.74 and 1.48 mg%, zinc – 1.23 and 0.87 mf%, copper – 0.078 and 0.069 mg%, respectively. The transition of microelements from food into eggs also was % to the control: iron – 2.55, manganese – 10.0, zinc – 1.44, copper – 1.35, potassium – 1.33, calcium – 1.05, phosphorus – 1.15, sodium – 1.16. Thus, the bioresonance method for keeping laying hens makes it possible to obtain food eggs of the desired chemical composition

  10. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  11. Echinococcus canadensis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a valid species consisting of the mitochondrial genotypes G6, G7, G8 and G10

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial genotypes G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain...

  12. Evaluation of three PCR assays for the identification of the sheep strain (genotype 1) of Echinococcus granulosus in canid feces and parasite tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufana, Belgees S; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Naidich, Ariel; Buishi, Imad; Lahmar, Selma; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Jenkins, David J; Combes, Benoit; Wen, Hao; Xiao, Ning; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira; Qiu, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    The performance of 3 PCR assays for the identification of the G1 sheep genotype of Echinococcus granulosus was evaluated using tissue and canid fecal samples. The "Dinkel" and "Stefanić" primers were the most sensitive in detecting E. granulosus DNA in feces of necropsied dogs (73.7% and 100%,

  13. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from Bulgarian human cystic echinococcosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Irina; Spiliotis, Markus; Wang, Junhua; Muhtarov, Marin; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaro; Rainova, Iskra; Gottstein, Bruno; Boubaker, Ghalia

    2017-03-01

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in Bulgaria, there is still scarce information about species and/or genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus complex that infect humans. Our study tackled the genetic diversity of E. granulosus complex in a cohort of 30 Bulgarian CE patients. Ten animal E. granulosus isolates from neighboring Greece were additionally included. Specimens were comparatively analyzed for partial sequences of five mitochondrial (mt) (cox I, nad I, rrnS, rrnL, and atp6) and three nuclear (nc) genes (act II, hbx 2, and ef-1α) using a PCR-sequencing approach. All 30 Bulgarian isolates were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and were showing identical sequences for each of the three examined partial nc gene markers. Based upon concatenated sequences from partial mtDNA markers, we detected 10 haplotypes: 6 haplotypes (H1-H6) clustering with E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and 4 haplotypes (H9-H13) grouping with E. granulosus s.s. (G3), with H1 and H10 being the most frequent in Bulgarian patients. The haplotypes H1, H4, and H11 were also present in Greek hydatid cyst samples of animal origin. In conclusion, E. granulosus s.s. (G1 and G3 genotypes) is the only causative agent found so far to cause human CE in Bulgaria. However, further studies including larger sample sizes and other additional geographic regions in Bulgaria will have to be performed to confirm our results.

  14. Multilocus sequence analysis of Echinococcus granulosus strains isolated from humans and animals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmanesh, Bahram; Mirhendi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Shahram; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is now considered a complex consisting of at least four species and ten genotypes. Different molecular targets have been described for molecular characterization of E. granulosus; however, in almost all studies only one or two of the targets have been used, and only limited data is available on the utilization of multiple loci. Therefore, we investigated the genetic diversity among 64 strains isolated from 138 cyst specimens of human and animal isolates, using a set of nuclear and mitochondrial genes; i.e., cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), ATPase subunit 6 (atp6), 12S rRNA (12S), and Actin II (act II). In comparison to the use of molecular reference targets (nad1 + cox1), using singular target (act II or 12S or atp6) yielded lower discriminatory power. Act II and 12S genes could accurately discriminate the G6 genotype, but they were not able to differentiate between G1 and G3 genotypes. As the G1 and G3 genotypes belong to the E. granulosus sensu stricto, low intra-species variation was observed for act II and 12S. The atp6 gene could identify the G3 genotype but could not differentiate G6 and G1 genotypes. Using concatenated sequence of five genes (cox1 + nad1 + atp6 + 12S + act II), genotypes were identified accurately, and markedly higher resolution was obtained in comparison with the use of reference markers (nad1 + cox1) only. Application of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to large-scale studies could provide valuable epidemiological data to make efficient control and management measures for cystic echinococcosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas

    2018-05-19

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.

  17. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  18. A genetic comparison of human and wildlife isolates of Echinococcus granulosus in Queensland: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, M; Bowles, J; Prociv, P; McManus, D P

    1992-01-06

    To test the hypothesis that the hydatid parasite infecting macropods and dingoes in Queensland is a sylvatic strain of Echinococcus granulosus, distinct from the domestic strain which produces cysts in sheep and humans. Molecular biological techniques were used to compare DNA isolated from hydatid cysts from humans, local macropods and sheep from New South Wales and the United Kingdom, as well as from adult tapeworms in dingoes. The human cysts were surgically resected from two patients seen with hydatidosis in Brisbane teaching hospitals over a one-year period. Neither patient had had previous contact with sheep farms. Macropods and dingoes were shot randomly in the localities where the patients presumably acquired their infections. Sheep liver cysts were obtained from abattoirs. Studies comprised extraction of DNA from cysts, digestion by a series of restriction endonucleases, slab gel electrophoresis. Southern blotting and then hybridisation with defined DNA probes. Polymerase chain reaction, in combination with direct DNA sequencing, was used to compare DNA from cysts and adult worms from dingoes. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of DNA from all cysts and a defined mitochondrial DNA sequence from all sources were indistinguishable. This finding is significant as both techniques can clearly distinguish between genetically distinct, well characterised strains of E. granulosus. Hydatid cysts are prevalent in some macropod populations and adult worms are common in dingoes. Since there are relatively few sheep-rearing areas in Queensland, contact with wild animals may be the main source of human hydatid infection in this State. The strain of E. granulosus in both patients was genetically indistinguishable from that found in macropods, dingoes and sheep from New South Wales and the United Kingdom. This strongly suggests that the domestic strain of E. granulosus, or a form very close genetically, freely infects Australian wildlife, and

  19. Genetic variations among Echinococcus granulosus isolates in Egypt using RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Hoda A

    2012-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by hydatid cysts, is a widespread and hazardous disease in humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic variations among Echinococcus granulosus cyst strains isolated from sheep, camel, pig, and donkey using RAPD-PCR analysis. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the PCR reactions. The screened primers gave total patterns ranging from 27 to 39 reproducible bands for each isolate. Each population isolate gave its specific pattern. Although distinct polymorphic patterns were obtained among the four isolates, there were several shared bands among them in each primer used. A comparison of the different RAPD-PCR patterns showed that primers P1, P3, and OPH 04 yielded band patterns that revealed a high degree of divergence among the four isolates of E. granulosus that allowed easy distinction between them. The remaining primers (P2, P4, P5, and OPH14) amplified DNA fragments that were common to two or more isolates but diversified in the other two or three isolates. The study revealed that the most closely related isolates were of donkey and camel where the similarity coefficent between them ranging from 53 % to 78 %, followed by isolates of pig and sheep (sc = 40 % to 68 %), while the similarity coefficent between isolates of camel and sheep was 33-45 %, between camel and pig was 36 to 57 %, between donkey and pig was 37 to 52 %, and between donkey and sheep was 35 to 54 % which means that they more or distant from each other. In conclusion, hydatid cysts isolated from camel may have the genotypic characters of donkey strain.

  20. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  1. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium and Egg Activation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Caroline V.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In many animals, a rise in intracellular calcium levels is the trigger for egg activation, the process by which an arrested mature oocyte transitions to prepare for embryogenesis. In nearly all animals studied to date, this calcium rise, and thus egg activation, is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. However in the insects that have been examined, fertilization is not necessary to activate their oocytes. Rather, these insects’ eggs activate as they transit through the female’s reproductive tract, regardless of male contribution. Recent studies in Drosophila have shown that egg activation nevertheless requires calcium and that the downstream events and molecules of egg activation are also conserved, despite the difference in initial trigger. Genetic studies have uncovered essential roles for the calcium-dependent enzyme calcineurin and its regulator calcipressin, and have hinted at roles for calmodulin, in Drosophila egg activation. Physiological and in vitro studies have led to a model in which mechanical forces that impact the Drosophila oocyte as it moves through the reproductive tract triggers the influx of calcium from the external environment, thereby initiating egg activation. Future research will aim to test this model, as well as to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytoplasmic calcium flux and mode of signal propagation in this unique system. PMID:23218670

  3. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  4. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  5. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  6. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  7. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  8. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A canine purgation study and risk factor analysis for echinococcosis in a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budke, C.M.; Campos Ponce, M.; Qian, B.F.; Torgerson, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan plateau of western China has been shown to have a very high prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. The domestic dog is suspected to be the primary definitive host for

  10. Allergy to egg proteins in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Góngora-Meléndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1, ovoalbumin (Gal d2, ovotransferrin (Gal d3, lysozyme (Gal d4 and albumin (Gal d5. Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical Revista México 235 Góngora-Meléndez MA y col. Alergia a las proteínas del huevo en edad pediátrica Revista México diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  11. Construction and Identification of a Recombinant Plasmid Encoding Echinococcus granulosus Oncosphere Antigen (EG95Abstract Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE, as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented cont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh MAZAHERI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Cystic echinococcosis (CE, as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented control programs, few countries have been able to decrease or eliminate this infection. Vaccination of the intermediate host offers an additional strategy to control the parasite transmission and EG95 antigen is considered more than the others in the vaccine issue. According to the high protection induced by the EG95 recombinant vaccine, this study was designed to construct recombinant plasmid formulation of EG95 antigen.Methods: In 2015, the Echinococcus granulosus eggs were recovered from an infected dog in Parasitological laboratory of Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. Following hatching, the oncospheres of E. granulosus were activated to increase the presence of the desired mRNA. The extracted mRNA was transcribed to the cDNA which used as template in RT-PCR. Then the EG95 gene cloned into pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmids expression was  investigated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Results:  The recombinant plasmid encoding EG95 antigen was successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. In vitro expression of the EG95 antigen was confirmed in prokary­otic and eukaryotic systems by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis.Conclusion: Because of potential advantages of DNA vaccines, including ability to induce long-term immune responses, low production cost and stability in different temperatures, this study carried out to construct the EG95 gene into a vector. This recombinant vector can be evaluated in further studies as a DNA vaccine may provide new prospects for the development of a vaccine against cystic hydatid disease.

  12. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of FTA® card methodology for sampling and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Franck; El Berbri, Ikhlass; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; El Mamy, Ahmed Bezeid; Traore, Abdallah; Fihri, Ouafaa Fassi; Petavy, Anne-Françoise; Dakkak, Allal; Umhang, Gérald

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus widely distributed in Africa. Monitoring of this parasite requires access to cyst samples on intermediate hosts observed at the slaughterhouse. In order to facilitate sampling in the field and analysis, the French National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp. has developed a tissue derived from DNA sampling with FTA ® card technology. The DNA samples were taken by applying the FTA ® paper on the germinal layer after opening the cysts. The sampling technique was validated using frozen cysts (n = 76) stored in the laboratory and from field samples (n = 134) taken at the slaughterhouse by veterinarian technicians during meat inspection in Morocco, Mali and Mauritania. DNA was extracted after several weeks of storage at room temperature. PCR assays were performed using primers for generic cestode (cox1) and amplified fragments were sequenced. All samples taken in the lab and 80% of field samples were capable of molecular characterization. Cyst-derived DNA from FTA ® samples can be useful for easy sampling, storage and rapid, safe and cheap shipment. The use of the FTA methodology will facilitate studies in the field to investigate the presence and genetic characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in African countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  15. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  16. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  17. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chr...

  18. ACTION EGG PRODUCTION C.F. Saunders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major changes have occurred in the structure and opera- tion of the egg ... small backyard flock supplying food to the family still exists. ... non-industry flock still influences seasonal de- mand. ... living and changing eating habits developing.

  19. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  20. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  1. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  2. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  3. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mityay I.S.; Matsyura A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similar...

  4. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Mityay; A. V. Matsyura

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa,...

  5. [Preservation of live eggs of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wei-ming; Xie, Shu-ying; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Wei-sheng; Hu, Ren-mei; Ge, Jun; Zeng, Xiao-jun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the preservation time and activity of miracidium hatching from schistosome eggs preserved in different solutions, so as to obtain the optimal preservation conditions and then provide quality control products for field application. The rectum stool of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum was collected and the coarse fecal residue was removed with a series of sample sieves of 80, 100, 160 and 200 meshes respectively, and then the schistosome eggs were concentrated with the sample sieve of 260 meshes. The concentrated eggs were preserved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 1.2% sodium chloride solution, phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS, PH 7.2), 1.0% sucrose solution, and Mili-Q water, respectively, and then were conserved in a 4 °C refrigerator and 15 °C constant temperature incubator, respectively. The preserved eggs were hatched in different time (7-day interval) , the vitality and quantity of the miracidia were observed, and the hatching rates were calculated. Under the condition of 4 °C, the hatching rates of eggs dropped to 0 in 1.0% sucrose solution and 1.2% sodium chloride solution at the 49th and 126th day, respectively, and the hatching rates of eggs in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and PBS solution dropped to 10% at the 112th day, and the activity of miracidium was weakened since 140th. In the Mili-Q water, the hatching rate dropped less than 10% at the 196th day and the activity of miracidia was weakened since the 280th day. Under the condition of 15 °C, the hatching rate of eggs in different solutions gradually dropped to 0 from the 49th day to 105th day. The eggs preserved in Mili-Q water at the temperature of 4 °C can be used as the positive reference for hatching tests within 196 days.

  6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  7. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  8. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  9. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  10. Effect of commercial diets on egg quality characteristics | Ayanwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four commercial feeds in Niger State Nigeria on egg quality characteristics was studied. The feed designated diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 were fed to Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens and their eggs were collected as from 38 weeks of age for 4 weeks. A total of 384 eggs were analysed for both external and internal egg ...

  11. Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forced-moult groups T2 and T3 stopped egg production by 6 days of moult induction and resumed egg production by day 25. T2 and T3 attained a peak egg production of 71% by the second month following resumption of lay. On the other hand, in the T1 egg production progressively decreased with age.

  12. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  13. Effect of genotype on egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genotypes were Pearl x Pearl (PL x PL), Black x Black (BL x BL) and Pearl x Black (PL x BL). ... The external and shell quality parameters measured were egg weight (EWGT), egg length (ELGT), egg width (EWDT), egg shape index (ESPI), shell weight (SWGT), and shell thickness (STKN) while the internal traits were ...

  14. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  15. Comparison of ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured materials from Echinococcus granulosus by measuring expression levels of five genes putatively involved in the development and maturation of adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Mehdi; Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia; Taheri, Elham; Almani, Pooya Ghaseminejad; Tohidi, Farideh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Gottstein, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Parts of the natural life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus can be retraced in vitro such as the development of protoscoleces into semiadult worms with three or more proglottids, or the redifferentiation of in vitro cultured protoscoleces into metacestode-like cystic structures. Most in vitro generated samples share-at the microscopical level-high similarities with those naturally grown, but developmental differences have also been documented, such as missing egg production in in vitro grown adults or unusual bladder/vesicle formation in protoscoleces cultured into the metacestode direction. The aim of the present study was to explore how far different in vitro generated stage-specific materials/structures match the natural situation on the transcriptome level, based on testing five exemplarily chosen different genes: the frizzled receptor eg-fz4 (posterior marker), the FGF receptor-like factor eg-fgfrl (anterior association), the cell differentiation protein eg-rcd1 (part of the CCR4-NOT complex, a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression), the rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma serin/threonin kinase eg-braf (part of the MAPK pathway involved, e.g., in EGF signaling) and the co-smad eg-smadD (downstream factor of TGFβ/BMP2/activin signaling). These genes-tested via qPCR-were selected such as to allow a discussion on their potential role in the development of E. granulosus into the adult stage. Thus, testing took place with three ex vivo isolated samples, namely (i) egg-containing adult worms, (ii) invaginated protoscoleces, and (iii) protoscolex-free germinal layer tissue. Respective data were compared (a) with in vitro generated metacestode-like microcysts developed from protoscolices, and (b) different development stages of protoscoleces in vitro cultured toward adult maturation. As a finding, only eg-smadD and partially eg-fz4 showed high expression similarities between ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured E. granulosus, thus suggesting a putative role in

  16. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...

  17. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  18. The preliminary studies on parasitization of Trichogramma chilonis on Helicoverpa armigera eggs and eggs from irradiated Helicoverpa armigera moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Endong; Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Liu Qiongru; Wang Huasong

    2002-01-01

    The parasitization rates of Trichogramma chilonis on 250 Gy irradiated and unirradiated fresh eggs of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were not significantly different. The parasitization rate on irradiated chill-stored eggs of H. armigera was lower than that on irradiated fresh eggs. The parasitization rates on eggs from 250 Gy irradiated H. armigera moths depended on their embryonated rates

  19. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  20. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernández, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ∼10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome