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Sample records for echinacea purpurea extract

  1. Echinacea purpurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function.

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    Benson, Jenna M; Pokorny, Amanda J; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Shepherd, David M

    2010-05-01

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echinacea purpurea aerial extract alters course of influenza infection in mice.

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    Fusco, Dahlene; Liu, Xinyan; Savage, Caroline; Taur, Ying; Xiao, Weilie; Kennelly, Edward; Yuan, Jianda; Cassileth, Barrie; Salvatore, Mirella; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A

    2010-05-21

    Influenza infection is a major clinical problem and Echinacea purpurea, a widely consumed botanical product, is purported to alter the course of respiratory infections including influenza. Mice infected with WSN influenza A and treated with E. purpurea polysaccharide extract had less weight loss than untreated mice but similar pulmonary viral titers. Echinacea-treated mice had lower systemic and pulmonary KC and IL-10 levels and lower systemic IFN-gamma levels following influenza infection. These suggest that E. purpurea alters the clinical course of influenza infection in mice through modulation of cytokines and not direct antiviral activity. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic and antiproliferative activities of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia extracts.

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    Aarland, Rayn Clarenc; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel Ernesto; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar Del Carmen; Díaz de León-Sánchez, Fernando; Pérez-Flores, Laura Josefina; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) and hypoglycaemic effect (33 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) were determined in three Echinacea extracts which were labelled as A, B and C (A, roots of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench; B, roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of Echinacea purpurea; C, aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea and roots of Echinacea angustifolia DC). Extract C showed higher density (0.97 g/mL), dry matter (0.23 g/mL), phenols (137.5 ± 2.3 mEAG/mL), flavonoids (0.62 ± 0.02 mEQ/mL), and caffeic acid (0.048 mg/L) compared to A and B. A, B presented 11 alkylamides, whereas C presented those 11 and three more. B decreased the oedema (40%) on day 2 similar to indomethacin. A and C showed hypoglycaemic activity similar to glibenclamide. Antiproliferative effect was only detected for C (IC50 270 μg/mL; 8171 μg/mL; 9338 μg/mL in HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-15, respectively). The difference in the chemical and pharmacological properties among extracts highlights the need to consider strategies and policies for standardization of commercial herbal extracts in order to guarantee the safety and identity of this type of products.

  4. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander on HSV-1 multiplication

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    Maliheh Farahani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of HSV-1 infections with the available chemical drugs may have some problems such as drug resistance and virus latency. Therefore, there is a requirement for new antiherpes drugs in today's world. The present study was carried out to analyze the inhibitory effect of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander plants with ethnomedical background on HSV-1 replication. Methods: Plants were extracted by decoction method to obtain aqueous extract. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line by CPE (cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral effect of the plant extracts were determined by the virus cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Results: Nerium oleander extract had the highest toxicity (>0.1 μg/ml on Hep-2 cells and Echinacea purpurea extract exhibited significant antiherpes effect at nontoxic concentrations used on the cell lines. Findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Conclusion: Echinacea purpurea plant had no any effect on cells at nontoxic concentrations and inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Further research is needed to find out the anti herpetic mechanism of this plant.

  5. Echinacea purpurea: A Proprietary Extract of Echinacea purpurea Is Shown to be Safe and Effective in the Prevention of the Common Cold.

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    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The research study in this review represents the largest clinical trial to date that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Echinacea purpurea for prophylactic treatment of the common cold, in addition to investigating its risk-benefit in a long-term treatment period. The clinical application of the proprietary standardized Echinacea purpurea extract(Echinaforce) demonstrated efficacy as a preventive cold treatment option over a 4-month duration. This study showed that Echinacea’s long-term prevention was associated with a reduction in the total number of cold episodes, a reduction in the number of days with colds, and a reduction in cold episodes requiring additional medication. Furthermore, the Echinacea test agent inhibited virally confirmed colds, exhibited maximal effects on recurrent infections, and demonstrated that its preventive effects increased relative to therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. In summary, Echinacea purpurea when taken as recommended for the prevention of the common cold appears to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  6. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

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    Elahe Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  7. Effects of supplemented diets by levamisole and Echinacea purpurea extract on growth and reproductive parameters in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare

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    Milad Kasiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation the effects of supplemented diets by levamisole andEchinacea purpurea (Moench, 1794 extract on growth and reproductive parameters in angelfish,Pterophyllum scalare (Lictenstein, 1823. 54 Uniform angelfish (average weight 3.8±0.29 g wereselected. The fishes were fed by three diets which included commercial extruder diet (control,commercial extruder diet supplemented by 0.25 ppt levamisole (T1 and commercial extruder dietsupplemented by 0.25 ppt Echinacea purpurea extract (T2. The experiment was conducted for 3 months.The weight gain in T2 was significantly higher than other groups (p0.05 in fecundity and hatching rate among groups but the best survival of yolk-sacabsorption period was found in group fed supplemented diet by Echinacea extract (pEchinacea extract supplementation andlarval survival can be promoted by it.

  8. The effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract on experimental prostate hyperplasia.

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    Skaudickas, D; Kondrotas, A J; Kevelaitis, E; Venskutonis, P R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The animals were administered 50 mg/kg of extract preparation for 4 and 8 weeks and the prostate mass and structural degenerative changes were evaluated in the course of the experiment. The administration of E. purpurea extract to rats with hyperplasia for 4 and 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland. The present investigation suggests extract of purple coneflower prevents the development of BPH. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluating the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and Echinacea purpurea plant extract in broilers against Eimeria acervulina.

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    Orengo, J; Buendía, A J; Ruiz-Ibáñez, M R; Madrid, J; Del Río, L; Catalá-Gregori, P; García, V; Hernández, F

    2012-04-30

    Coccidiostats could be phased out as feed additives before 1 January 2013 for public health and food safety reasons, and, as a replacement, bioactive compounds found in plants are currently being investigated since they are more likely to be found acceptable by consumers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and Echinacea purpurea plant extract (EP) as additives by analyzing the performance traits, oocyst excretion and intestinal lesions following experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina. A total of 72 Ross male broilers were raised from 1 to 35 d and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: control, without additives (C); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde (CIN); 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (EP); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde plus 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (CIN+EP). At 25 d, 12 chickens per treatment were orally infected with E. acervulina. Coccidia infestation led to lower performance but with no significant differences between the infected groups. Oocyst output reached its peak from 6 to 9 d post-infection in all treatments. At duodenal level, gross lesion scores were lower for cinnamaldehyde diets (P0.05). Scoring methods for macro- and microscopic lesions showed a positive linear relationship (G=+0.70). Further studies are necessary to assess the possible anticoccidian action of the cinnamaldehyde and its value as an alternative or adjunct in therapeutic or prophylactic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic immunomopharmacological effects of N-alkylamides in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts.

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    Chicca, Andrea; Raduner, Stefan; Pellati, Federica; Strompen, Thomas; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Schoop, Roland; Gertsch, Jürg

    2009-07-01

    Echinacea purpurea extracts are used in the production of standardized herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections. Unsaturated N-alkylamide lipids, the main constituent of E. purpurea and E. angustifolia preparations capable of activating the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) have been suggested to play a role as potential anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory principles. Here we show that ethanolic E. purpurea radix and herba extracts produce synergistic pharmacological effects on the endocannabinoid system in vitro. Superadditive action of N-alkylamide combinations was seen at the level of intracellular calcium release as a function of CB2 receptor activation. Likewise, synergism of the radix and herba tinctures was observed in experiments measuring LPS-stimulated cytokine expression from human PBMCs. While the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly superstimulated, the expression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha protein was inhibited more strongly upon combination of the extracts. We show that N-alkylamides act in concert and exert pleiotropic effects modulating the endocannabinoid system by simultaneously targeting the CB2 receptor, endocannabinoid transport and degradation.

  11. The effect of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract on rat cytochrome P450 expression level.

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    Mrozikiewicz, P M; Bogacz, A; Karasiewicz, M; Mikolajczak, P L; Ozarowski, M; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, A; Czerny, B; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Grzeskowiak, E

    2010-08-01

    It is claimed that application of botanical supplements or herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs that are cytochrome P450 enzymes substrates may induce significant herb-drug interactions and may alter pharmacotherapy. Echinacea preparations are one of the best selling products in the Europe and their medicinal use is still increasing but data about interactions of Echinacea extract with CYP enzymes are limited. In this study, we have investigated potential influence of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract containing 3.7% polyphenolic compounds on the mRNA expression level of major CYP450 enzymes using animal model. Total RNA was isolated from the rat liver tissue according to the manufacturer's protocol. Complementary DNA was synthesized from a mature mRNA template using reverse transcription. The level of mRNA expression in liver was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR using specific target primers for CYP450 genes. In this study, it was demonstrated a significant increase of rat CYP2D1 and CYP1A1 expression level by 40% (p = 0.007) and 80% (p = 0.01), respectively. A weak inductory effect of the extract was observed for CYP1A2 by 16% (p > 0.05) compared with the control group. The levels of rat CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA were reduced by 41% (p Echinacea ethanolic extract. CYP2D2 and CYP2C6 activities were also inhibited by extract but in a lesser degree than CYP3A1 activity. Moreover, very little or no inhibition was noted for CYP2E1 both after 3 and 10 days of treatment. Our in vivo data indicate that the Echinacea ethanolic extract can potently inhibit the expression of CYP3A1/2 and can also induce of CYP1A1, CYP2D1. These findings suggest that Echinacea extract may influence the P450-mediated metabolism of different drugs and may initiate chemical carcinogenesis by activation of some compounds to their carcinogenic metabolites. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC-ESI-MS.

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    Spelman, Kevin; Wetschler, Matthew H; Cech, Nadja B

    2009-07-12

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures commonly employed by the dietary supplements industry. To accomplish this goal, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was validated for quantitative analysis of several E. purpurea alkylamides. Using this method, at least 15 alkylamides were identified and it was shown that fresh and dry E. purpurea extracts prepared from equivalent amounts (dry weight) of roots, with exceptions, exhibited similar yield of specific alkylamides. However, the amount of total dissolved solids in the dry extract was higher (by 38%) than the fresh extract. Two extracts prepared from dried roots at different ratios of root:solvent (1:5, w:v and 1:11, w:v) were similar in yield of total dissolved solids, but, there were differences in quantities of specific alkylamides extracted using these two root:solvent ratios. In addition, the important bioactive dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides are fully extracted from dry E. purpurea root in 2 days, suggesting that the manufacturing practice of macerating Echinacea extracts for weeks may be unnecessary for optimal alkylamide extraction. Finally, the identification of a new alkylamide has been proposed. These results demonstrate the differences of the described extractions and utility of the analytical methods used to determine the wide-ranging individual alkylamide content of commonly consumed Echinacea extracts.

  13. Activities and Prevalence of Proteobacteria Members Colonizing Echinacea purpurea Fully Account for Macrophage Activation Exhibited by Extracts of This Botanical.

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    Haron, Mona H; Tyler, Heather L; Pugh, Nirmal D; Moraes, Rita M; Maddox, Victor L; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-09-01

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously, we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be accounted for by total bacterial load within the plant material. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that the type of bacteria, in addition to bacterial load, is necessary to fully account for extract activity. Bacterial community composition within commercial and freshly harvested (wild and cultivated) E. purpurea aerial samples was determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial isolates representing 38 different taxa identified to be present within E. purpurea were acquired, and the activity exhibited by the extracts of these isolates varied by over 8000-fold. Members of the Proteobacteria exhibited the highest potency for in vitro macrophage activation and were the most predominant taxa. Furthermore, the mean activity exhibited by the Echinacea extracts could be solely accounted for by the activities and prevalence of Proteobacteria members comprising the plant-associated bacterial community. The efficacy of E. purpurea material for use against respiratory infections may be determined by the Proteobacterial community composition of this plant, since ingestion of bacteria (probiotics) is reported to have a protective effect against this health condition. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

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    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...

  15. Echinacea purpurea root extract enhances the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

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    Shin, Dong-Mi; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Kim, Wonkyun; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been shown to have anti-diabetic activities; for example, it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Adipogenesis has been used to study the insulin signaling pathway and to screen anti-diabetic compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of E. purpurea (EEEP) and its constituents on the insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When adipocyte differentiation was induced with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the cellular triglyceride content were significantly increased by EEEP. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with EEEP were gradually increased as compared with control cells. Fat accumulation and triglyceride content of adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly increased as compared with control cells. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly higher than in control cells. These results suggest EEEP promotes the adipogenesis that is partially induced by insulin and that dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide appears to be responsible for EEEP-enhanced adipocyte differentiation.

  16. Effects of phenytoin and Echinacea purpurea extract on proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.

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    Hu, Xiao; Chen, Zhenguo; Mao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Shijie

    2011-05-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects. Several environment factors are involved in the disorder, such as smoking, vitamin deficiency and teratogens. We investigated the teratogenic agent phenytoin and extract of the immunostimulant Echinacea purpurea in the etiology of cleft palate associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells. We measured the effects of phenytoin, E. purpurea extract, and the mixture of phenytoin and E. purpurea extract on the cell viability of MEPM cells by CCK-8 assay and on the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPM cells by BrdU labeling assay, flow cytometry, and TUNEL assay. Exposure to phenytoin for 24 h inhibited cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis of MEPM cells, and E. purpurea extract had the reverse effect. Importantly, treatment with the mixture of phenytoin and E. purpurea extract increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of MEPM cells as compared with treatment with phenytoin alone. The teratogenic effect of phenytoin on cleft palate is associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPM cells, and E. purpurea extract may have a protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Oral Echinacea purpurea extract in low-grade, steroid-dependent, autoimmune idiopathic uveitis: a pilot study.

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    Neri, Pier Giorgio; Stagni, Edoardo; Filippello, Massimo; Camillieri, Giovanni; Giovannini, Alfonso; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo

    2006-12-01

    The aim of to test efficacy and safety of Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) extract in the control of low-grade uveitis. Fifty-one (51) patients with low-grade, steroid dependent, autoimmune uveitis were recruited; posterior uveitis was excluded. The start therapy was represented by topical desamethazone for anterior uveitis and oral prednisone, rapidly tapered, for anterior uveitis with inflammatory scores equal to +2 and in all cases of intermediate uveitis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease or improvement was defined as a reduction or increase of 2 or more letters seen from the initial BCVA; ETDRS chart was used. Thirty-two (32) patients (21 with anterior uveitis and 11 with intermediate uveitis) received Echinacea (150 mg twice/day) as add-on therapy, whereas 20 patients (10 with anterior uveitis and 9 with intermediate uveitis) were treated with the conventional steroid therapy alone. Thirty-one (31) patients showed anterior uveitis and 20 intermediate uveitis. The follow-up duration was 9 months. At the last follow-up, 19/21 patients with anterior uveitis and 9/11 with intermediate uveitis treated with echinacea presented uveitis settled, with a steroid-off time of 209 and 146 days, respectively. BCVA was stable or improved in 19/21 of anterior uveitis and 9/11 of intermediate uveitis. No adverse reactions supposed to be resulting from commercial-grade echinacea were recorded. Patients who did not receive echinacea required a longer treatment period with steroids with a steroid-off time of 121 and 87 days. Systemic echinacea appears safe and effective in the control of low-grade autoimmune idiopathic uveitis.

  18. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

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    Fernando Chaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  19. Study the Effect of Echinacea Purpurea Extract on Cellular Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and Splenocyte Proliferation in BALB/c Mice

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    Z.M. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Purple cone flower plant (Echinacea purpurea is one of the mostimportant Herbal products in many countries. Up to now a lot of experimentsdemonstrated the controversial effects of this herb on immune system . In thisresearch we study the in vivo and in vitro effect of Iranian E.purpurea extract oncellular immunity.Materials and Methods: At first we determined the lethal dose of E.purpurea extract after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice. Then we made five groups of mice and treat them by four times intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml extract at different doses (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50 mg/ml during two weeks. Splenocyte proliferation response to extract was assessed by MTT method. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTHresponse was evaluated by priming mice with 1×108 Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC injected subcutaneously in the back on day 7after treatment.Results: As a result no significant variation in weight and spleen index of test groups to control was observed. Splenocyte proliferation and DTH response of test groups to control increased significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: However these data confirmed the results of previous studies, inaddition presented the first results about significant increase in DTH response that could not be seen before. Scince the main reason of this difference refers to active compounds of herb extract, comparing effective component of this extract with that of E.purpurea cultivated in other geographical condition will consider as the next studies.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Echinacea purpurea flower extracts and cichoric acid on human colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis.

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    Tsai, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Yi-Fu Chen, Jeff; Chan, Kung-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Dun

    2012-10-11

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal supplement that acts as immunostimulant. It has been used to treat common cold, coughs, bronchitis and upper respiratory infections. It is also a popular product used in anticancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of Echinacea on cancer cells are still not clear. The aims of this study were to provide a preliminary validation of the effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extract of Echinacea purpurea flowers and its major compound, cichoric acid, on human colon cancer cells Caco-2 and HCT-116. The cytotoxic effects of Echinace flower extracts and cichoric acid on cell viability, telomerase activity, DNA fragmentation, β-catenin, caspase-9, and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) of human colon cancer cell were examined. The results showed a significant inhibition of proliferation in E. purpurea flower extract and cichoric acid in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cichoric acid treatment decreased telomerase activity in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, cichoric acid effectively induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which were characterized by DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9, cleavage of PARP and downregulation of β-catenin. Our data indicate that cichoric acid has a strong growth-inhibitory effect against colon cancer cells, presumably resulting from the reduced telomerase activity and the induction of apoptosis. The exact mechanism of action should still be determined in future studies. Overall, the effects of 50% aqueous ethanol extract of E. purpurea flowers and cichoric acid may have provided in vitro evidence for the use as chemotherapeutic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of immunopathologic effects of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea in mice after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida serotype A.

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    Rezaie, A; Gharibi, D; Ghorbanpoor, M; Anbari, S; Pourmahdi Broojeni, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the immunopathological effects of aqueous Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on mice experimentally challenged with Pasteurella multocida serotype A, forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. The groups included a control group (received sterile distilled water 2 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally), a PMA group (received sterile distilled water as the control group and after 2 weeks, 5.6 × 10(3) CFU/ml of P. multocida serotype A, intranasally), an EPE+PMA group (received E. purpurea extract intraperitoneally 2 times/week for 2 weeks and then challenged as the PMA group) and an EPE group (received E. purpurea extract as EPE+PMA group and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally). After 24 and 48 h post challenge, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and analyzed for bacterial counts in their lungs and livers, TNFα serum levels and histapathological changes. The results showed significant differences in lung bacterial counts between PMA and EPE+PMA groups. TNFα serum level was significantly higher in the PMA group. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of neutrophils in alveolar septa and hyperemia in the PMA group. In addition, the criteria of bronchopneumonia were partially recovered in the EPE+PMA compared to the PMA group. According to the results, it seems that E. purpurea extract has an immunomodulatory effect and can be used to prevent or control of pneumonia caused by Pasteurella.

  2. Effects of extracts from Echinacea purpurea (L) MOENCH on mice infected with different strains of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Cosmo, Maria Luiza Antonio; Reis, Michelle de Paula; Dos Santos, Pamela Secundo; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, due to the growing concern about recurrent epidemics by Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in Brazil, there has been an increase in the use of different preparations obtained from Echinacea purpurea in order to test their effectiveness against these infections. Although studies have suggested the beneficial effects of this species against the influenza virus, no data are available on the use of E. purpurea aqueous extract in T. gondii infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of its administration in Swiss mice submitted to acute and prolonged infection with different T. gondii strains. This study showed that E. purpurea extract induced a significant reduction in the number of tachyzoites in the peritoneal fluid and liver imprints from mice infected by the RH strain. Moreover, prolonged treatment significantly increased the number of brain cysts of animals infected with ME 49 strain. The results obtained in this study suggest that the crude extract obtained from E. purpurea has important protective activities against infection with different T. gondii strains.

  3. Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antihypertensive Properties of Echinacea purpurea Flower Extract and Caffeic Acid Derivatives Using In Vitro Models.

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    Chiou, Shiow-Ying; Sung, Jih-Min; Huang, Po-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Dun

    2017-02-01

    The extraction yield, total phenols, caffeic acid derivatives (CAD), and antioxidant properties of 50% ethanolic Echinacea purpurea flower extract were determined. The in vitro inhibitory effects of 50% ethanolic extract and CAD on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) linked with type 2 diabetes were also investigated. The extraction yield, total phenols, and total CAD of the extract were 27.04%, 195.69 mg CAE/g and 78.42 mg/g, respectively. Cichoric acid (56.03 mg/g) was the predominant CAD compound in the extract. The extract exhibited good antioxidant properties. The extract and CAD inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the tested samples, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (IC50 of 1.71-1.81 mg/mL) had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, cichoric acid (IC50 of 0.28 mg/mL) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Both chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (IC50 of 0.11-0.14 mg/mL) demonstrated higher ACE-inhibitory activity. The in vitro results suggest that E. purpurea extract and CAD have good potential for managing hyperglycemia and hypertension. Overall, the data suggest it is a choice for developing antihyperglycemia and antihypertension compounds from field-grown E. purpurea.

  4. Effects of cichoric acid extract from Echinacea purpurea on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

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    Jiang, Ling; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Zhang, Xiaosu; Yu, Deqiang; Yin, Yanyan; Xie, Zhongwen; Yuan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Cichoric acid extract (CAE) from Echinacea purpurea L. was used to investigate the anti-arthritic effect by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. The hind paw swelling volume and the body weight were measured and recorded. All the drug solutions were administered orally to rats for a total of 28 days. On day 28, the rats were anaesthetized and decapitated. The thymus and spleen were weighed for the determination of the organ index. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) in the serum was measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Total and phosphor-NF-κB and Cox-2 protein expression in synovial tissues were determined by histological slides quantification and western blot analysis. Our data showed that administration of all doses of CAE (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) significantly decreased the paw swelling, restored body weight gain and decreased the organ index of the thymus and spleen compared with that of the CIA group. CAE (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the levels of TNFα, IL-1β and PGE-2 in serum compared with the CIA group. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that CAE has obvious anti-arthritic activity. In addition, CAE (32 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), TNFα and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in synovium tissues of the ankle joint compared with the CIA group. Furthermore, CAE administration significantly decreased the protein expression of phosphor-NF-κB and Cox-2 in synovium tissues of the knee joint compared with the CIA group. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of CAE may account for its anti-arthritic effect, and CAE could be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  5. Echinacea purpurea Extract Polarizes M1 Macrophages in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Through the Activation of JNK.

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    Fu, Aikun; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Chen, Hongliang; Zheng, Shasha; Li, Yali; Xu, Xin; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Echinacea purpurea is an indigenous North American purple cone flower used by North Americans for treatment of various infectious diseases and wounds. This study investigated the effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Echinacea purpurea (EE) on the polarization of macrophages. The results showed that 100 µg/mL of EE could markedly activate the macrophage by increasing the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, EE upregulated the markers of classically activated macrophages (M1) such as CCR7 and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, TNF-αand NO. The functional tests showed that EE enhanced the phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal activity of macrophage against ST. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JNK are required for EE-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production. Together, these results demonstrated that EE can polarize macrophages towards M1 phenotype, which is dependent on the JNK signaling pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2664-2671, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

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    Daniel A Todd

    Full Text Available Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can

  7. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Daniel A; Gulledge, Travis V; Britton, Emily R; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Cech, Nadja B

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  8. A Comparison Study of the Effects of Echinacea purpurea Ethanolic Extract and Mesna on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Macroscopic Fetal Defects in Rats

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    Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s There are some reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Echinacea purpurea extract is antioxidative and immunomodulator drug. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate is used for decreasing side effects of CPA, especially hemorrhagic cystitis. In this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of CPA. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into 4 groups. The first group (control group received normal saline and the other groups received CPA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 13th day of gestation. Mesna and E. purpurea extracts were administrated at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg by IP injection, respectively, along with it and 12 hr later, after CPA injection. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested and after determination of gross malformations they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. ResultsCleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only CPA, CPA with mesna and CPA with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum, and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract.ConclusionE. purpurea has significant effect on preventing CPA-induced malformations and better prophylactic effect than mesna on cases like CPA-induced cleft palate.

  9. Skin improvement and stability of Echinacea purpurea dermatological formulations.

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    Yotsawimonwat, S; Rattanadechsakul, J; Rattanadechsakul, P; Okonogi, S

    2010-10-01

    Echinacea purpurea contains many beneficial constituents for protection of skin from oxidative stress and for improving hydration of skin. This study aimed to investigate the stability and dermatological efficacy of E. purpurea cream and gel. Echinacea purpurea extract was incorporated into suitable cream and gel bases. Stability of the extract in the formulations was investigated by determining its residual total phenolic content and antioxidant activity after storage at 4°C, 30°C and 40°C for 6 months. The effect of those formulations on skin irritation, hydration level and wrinkle reduction was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers, aged 25-40 years. The shelf lives of E. purpurea cream and gel in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were only 2 and 4 months respectively at 4°C and could be extended up to 7 months by incorporation of α-tocopherol or disodium editate. The corneometer hydration indices increased up to 10.6 AU and 11.4 AU, and the wrinkles decreased 9.47% and 14.92% because of the application of E. purpurea cream and gel for 1 month. Both formulations showed no irritation to skin. Echinacea purpurea cream and gel developed in this study were effective in improving skin hydration and reducing wrinkle, but showed low storage stability.

  10. [Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea].

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    Wang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yong-zhi; Xuan, Ji-ping; Guo, Zhong-ren; Qiao, Yu-shan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the salt tolerance of Echiancea purpurea and its mechanism. Echiancea purpurea was used as test material in this study and six salinity levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl) were set. Effects on seed germination and salt tolerance relevant physiological and biochemical indexes of Echiancea purpurea were studied. Salt stress suppressed the germination of Echiancea purpurea seeds, induced osmotic adjustment substances proline, soluble sugar and K+ to increase, and activities of POD and SOD to rise, and meanwhile resulted in accumulation of Na+ and decrease of K+/Na+. Echiancea purpurea can tolerant salt stress to a certain degree, but in case of high salt concentrations, severe salt injury would remarkably suppress the growth of Echinacea purpurea.

  11. Immune enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea root extract by reducing regulatory T cell number and function.

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    Kim, Hyung-Ran; Oh, Sei-Kwan; Lim, Woosung; Lee, Hyeon Kook; Moon, Byung-In; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2014-04-01

    Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPs) have been traditionally used for the treatment of various infections and also for wound healing. Accumulating evidence suggests their immunostimulatory effects. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play a key role in immune regulation in vivo. However, there have been no reports so far on the effects of EP on the frequency or function of Tregs in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the quantitative and functional changes in Tregs by in vivo administration with EP. The frequencies of CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the spleens of BALB/c mice administered with EP for 3 weeks were investigated by flow cytometry. The suppressive function of CD4CD25+ Tregs in association with the proliferative activity of CD4+CD25 effector T cells (Teffs) and the feeder function of CD4 antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were analyzed by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-dilution assay. The results showed a lowered frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+ Tregs and attenuated suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs, while the feeder function of APCs was enhanced in the EP-administered mice. On the other hand, the proliferative activity of Teffs was not significantly different in the EP-administered mice. The results suggest that decreased number and function of Tregs, in association with the enhanced feeder function of APCs, may contribute to the enhancement of immune function by EP.

  12. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines.

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    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; He, Xiao Qiong

    2016-04-01

    Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect). Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939) and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP)). However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC. Further animal

  13. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines

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    Simon Angelo Cichello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect. Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939 and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP. However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC

  14. Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses.

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    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wang, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Bi-Xue; Aravindaram, Kandan; Hwang, Pei-Ing; Wu, Han-Ming; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2010-11-01

    Several Echinacea species have been used as nutraceuticals or botanical drugs for "immunostimulation", but scientific evidence supporting their therapeutic use is still controversial. In this study, a phytocompound mixture extracted from the butanol fraction (BF) of a stem and leaf (S+L) extract of E. purpurea ([BF/S+L/Ep]) containing stringently defined bioactive phytocompounds was obtained using standardized and published procedures. The transcriptomic and proteomic effects of this phytoextract on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were analyzed using primary cultures. Treatment of BMDCs with [BF/S+L/Ep] did not significantly influence the phenotypic maturation activity of dendritic cells (DCs). Affymetrix DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses of genes differentially expressed in DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] for 4 or 12 h revealed that the majority of responsive genes were related to cell adhesion or motility (Cdh10, Itga6, Cdh1, Gja1 and Mmp8), or were chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl7) or signaling molecules (Nrxn1, Pkce and Acss1). TRANSPATH database analyses of gene expression and related signaling pathways in treated-DCs predicted the JNK, PP2C-α, AKT, ERK1/2 or MAPKAPK pathways as the putative targets of [BF/S+L/Ep]. In parallel, proteomic analysis showed that the expressions of metabolic-, cytoskeleton- or NF-κB signaling-related proteins were regulated by treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep]. In vitro flow cytometry analysis of chemotaxis-related receptors and in vivo cell trafficking assay further showed that DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] were able to migrate more effectively to peripheral lymph node and spleen tissues than DCs treated as control groups. Results from this study suggest that [BF/S+L/Ep] modulates DC mobility and related cellular physiology in the mouse immune system. Moreover, the signaling networks and molecules highlighted here are potential targets for nutritional or clinical application of Echinacea or other candidate medicinal

  15. The effect of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel.

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    Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Rosing, Hilde; Burgers, Jacobus A; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Keessen, Marianne; Marchetti, Serena; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-09-01

    The herbal medicine Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) both in vitro and in humans. This study explored whether E. purpurea affects the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel in cancer patients. Ten evaluable cancer patients received docetaxel (135 mg, 60 min IV infusion) before intake of a commercially available E. purpurea extract (20 oral drops three times daily) and 3 weeks later after a 14 day supplementation period with E. purpurea. In both cycles, pharmacokinetic parameters of docetaxel were determined. Before and after supplementation with E. purpurea, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of docetaxel was 3278 ± 1086 and 3480 ± 1285 ng ml(-1) h, respectively. This result was statistically not significant. Nonsignificant alterations were also observed for the elimination half-life (from 30.8 ± 19.7 to 25.6 ± 5.9 h, P = 0.56) and maximum plasma concentration of docetaxel (from 2224 ± 609 to 2097 ± 925 ng ml(-1) , P = 0.30). The multiple treatment of E. purpurea did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in this study. The applied E. purpurea product at the recommended dose may be combined safely with docetaxel in cancer patients. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

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    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses

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    Wang Bi-Xue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Echinacea species have been used as nutraceuticals or botanical drugs for "immunostimulation", but scientific evidence supporting their therapeutic use is still controversial. In this study, a phytocompound mixture extracted from the butanol fraction (BF of a stem and leaf (S+L extract of E. purpurea ([BF/S+L/Ep] containing stringently defined bioactive phytocompounds was obtained using standardized and published procedures. The transcriptomic and proteomic effects of this phytoextract on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs were analyzed using primary cultures. Results Treatment of BMDCs with [BF/S+L/Ep] did not significantly influence the phenotypic maturation activity of dendritic cells (DCs. Affymetrix DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses of genes differentially expressed in DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] for 4 or 12 h revealed that the majority of responsive genes were related to cell adhesion or motility (Cdh10, Itga6, Cdh1, Gja1 and Mmp8, or were chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl7 or signaling molecules (Nrxn1, Pkce and Acss1. TRANSPATH database analyses of gene expression and related signaling pathways in treated-DCs predicted the JNK, PP2C-α, AKT, ERK1/2 or MAPKAPK pathways as the putative targets of [BF/S+L/Ep]. In parallel, proteomic analysis showed that the expressions of metabolic-, cytoskeleton- or NF-κB signaling-related proteins were regulated by treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep]. In vitro flow cytometry analysis of chemotaxis-related receptors and in vivo cell trafficking assay further showed that DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] were able to migrate more effectively to peripheral lymph node and spleen tissues than DCs treated as control groups. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that [BF/S+L/Ep] modulates DC mobility and related cellular physiology in the mouse immune system. Moreover, the signaling networks and molecules highlighted here are potential targets for nutritional or clinical

  18. The effect of Echinacea purpurea aerial organ dried extract vs. Zinc oxide on skin wound healing in rat: a morphometric & histopathologic study

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    Delazar A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Because of eventual side effects of chemical drugs, the efficacy of natural wound healing accelerators in long-term diseases and some situations is demanded to practitioners. The initial aim of our study was to assess full thickness excisional skin wound healing and inflammation diminution, Morphometrically and Histopathologically, after topical application of dried extract of Echinacea purpurea aerial part in rats, compared with zinc oxide. "nMethods: Sixty wistar rats received four full thickness excisional wounds with the aim of surgical punch on the back skin under surgical anesthesia. All rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2 and 3, of Echinacea purpurea, zinc oxide and control, respectively. All of them were treated topically once a day for 21 uninterrupted days. Healing of the wounds was daily measured by taking digital photographs and analysis. Histopathologic assessment was carried out in the 0th, 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of treatment period as well, and wound healing was assessed using 1 to 6 healing grades. "nResults: According to Morphometric findings, the wound contraction rate in group 1 after 21 days of skin punching, with wound size of 0.18±0.03 mm2 in contrast with group 2, 2.81±0.21mm2, was much higher than that in other groups. Group 1 with wound contraction rate of 2.5 times in the day 7 and 3 times in the day 14 more than group 2, had the best wound contraction (p<0.01. histopathologic assessment revealed that, overall healing rate in the group 1 was highest (p<0.01. "nConclusion: Echinacea purpurea dried herbal extract could be a new capable remedy to accelerate skin wound healing because of its potential anti-phlogosis and wound healing stimulatory properties.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Rat Plasma Using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Echinacea purpurea Extract

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    Yan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the concentration of seven phenolic acids (syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. After mixing with the internal standard (IS, butylparaben, plasma samples were prepared by liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separation was performed using the Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm with a gradient system consisting of solution A (0.1% acetic acid in water and solution B (methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode with electrospray ionization (ESI. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic properties of the seven compounds after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract in rats.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Phenolic Acids in Rat Plasma Using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Echinacea purpurea Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Libo; Gao, Mingjie; Wang, Liqian; Gan, Chunli; Yang, Chunjuan

    2017-09-07

    A rapid and sensitive Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the concentration of seven phenolic acids (syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. After mixing with the internal standard (IS), butylparaben, plasma samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separation was performed using the Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) with a gradient system consisting of solution A (0.1% acetic acid in water) and solution B (methanol) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI). The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetic properties of the seven compounds after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract in rats.

  1. Research on the biology of Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available In the second year of vegetation, after emergence, Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, form a leaf rosette and the first floral shoots appear in June. Plant vigour is significantly higher in Echinacea purpurea than in E. pallida, saved for roots. E. pallida is tetraploid, 2n=4x=44 chromosomes, of small size, between 5,87 and 3,04 microns, relatively easy to individualize by their shape and size.

  2. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in combination with meglumine antimoniate on treatment of Leishmania major-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mohseni, Mobin; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Shahriarirad, Reza; Asgari, Qasem

    2017-01-01

    Progressive resistance of Leishmania parasite to available drugs including, meglumine antimoniate, has been reported from various regions of the world, especially Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in a combination therapy with glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Hydroalcoholic extract of E. purpurea was prepared from the plant. Amastigote form of L. major was inoculated to the tail base of thirty mice. After their tails became wounded, mice were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control and the second group received 100 mg/kg of Echinacea extract (orally). The third group was treated by meglumine antimoniate with dose of 20 mg/kg. Combination therapy was used for group four, five, and six where the mice received a different concentration of extract (100-200 mg/kg) and glucantime (10-20 mg/kg). The size of the cutaneous lesion on tail base was measured regularly. Findings were analyzed by SPSS software and using Kruskal-Wallis test. The sizes of the lesion were increased in all mice of control group by the time. The mean size of lesions in mice receiving the extract and/or receiving the extract along with meglumine antimoniate was lower than those of control mice, but the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the differences between the group of mice which received meglumine antimoniate alone, and the rest of groups were statistically significant (P purpurea extract in doses which have been used in this study and combination with meglumine antimoniate was not much effective against L. major in BALB/C mice.

  3. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Tawfik, Sameh S.; Zahran, Ahmed M.

    2007-01-01

    Echinacea (E.) purpurea herb is commonly known as the purple coneflower, red sunflower and rudbeckia. In this paper, we report the curative efficacy of an Echinacea extract in γ-irradiated mice. E. purpurea was given to male mice that were divided into five groups (control, treated, irradiated, treated before irradiation & treated after irradiation) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks before and after irradiation with 3 Gy of γ-rays. The results reflected the detrimental reduction effects of γ-rays on peripheral blood hemoglobin and the levels of red blood cells, differential white blood cells, and bone marrow cells. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) level, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSPx) activities and DNA fragmentation were also investigated. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to explore the structural changes in liver tissues. Significant changes were observed in the microenvironment of the major constituents, including tyrosine and protein secondary structures. E. purpurea administration significantly ameliorated all estimated parameters. The radio-protection effectiveness was similar to the radio-recovery curativeness in comparison to the control group in most of the tested parameters. The radio-protection efficiency was greater than the radio-recovery in hemoglobin level during the first two weeks, in lymphoid cell count and TBARs level at the fourth week and in SOD activity during the first two weeks, as compared to the levels of these parameters in the control group. PMID:17993747

  4. Research on the biology of Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea angustifolia (Dc. Moench and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species have been highly appreciated for their therapeutic qualities, both of them belong to the few plants of immunostimulative and antiviral properties. The adaptation and cultivation process of these plants has been initiated for medical purposes at the Cluj-Napoca Agronomy Institute. The biological researches evidenced the two species, multiplied by nursery transplant, formed a rosette of leaves during their first year of plantation. The first floral offshoots in Echinacea purpurea were seen during the months September and October (in approximately 40 percent of plants. Flowering Echinacea angustifolia appeared only sporadically the first year of cultivation. Leaves number and plant mass in both species increased markedly the first year of vegetation starting from August. Herba and radix ratio represented 74 percent and 26 percent respectively of the whole plant mass in Echinacea angustifolia and 87 percent and 13 percent respectively in Echinacea purpurea.

  5. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  6. Alkamide Stability in Echinacea purpurea Extracts with and without Phenolic Acids in Dry Films and in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Murphy, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of the major alkamides in E. purpurea extracts was monitored under four different accelerated storage conditions, phenolic-depleted and phenolic-rich dry E. purpurea extracts and phenolic-depleted and phenolic-rich DMSO E. purpurea extracts at 70, 80, and 90 °C. Degradation of alkamides followed apparent first-order reaction rate kinetics. Alkamides degraded faster in dry films than in DMSO solution. The phenolic acids acted as antioxidants by limiting the loss of the alkamides in dry E. purpurea extracts. In contrast, E. purpurea alkamides in DMSO degraded faster when the phenolic fraction was absent. The overall order of degradation rate constants was alkamides 1 ≈ 2 ≈ 6 > 9 ≈ 8 > 3 ≈ 5 ≈ 7. The energy of activation (Ea) predicted for alkamide degradation averaged 101 ± 12 kJ/mol in dry films ± phenolic acids, suggesting the oxidation mechanism was the same under both conditions. In DMSO solutions, Ea values were about one-half of those in dry films (61 ± 14 kJ/mol), suggesting a different mechanism for alkamide oxidation in solution compared to dry. Predicted half-lives for alkamides in extracts suggested very good stability. PMID:17199322

  7. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya S. Georgieva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids of propolis were found to be higher than Echinacea. The E.purpurea extract exhibited nearly 10 times lower antioxidant content in comparison with the propolis extracts. The 70% ethanol extract of propolis presented maximum antioxidant content, and the IC50 concentration was found to be higher in the 96% ethanol extract. However, both of the propolis extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activities. Conclusions: In the present study, the extracts of Echinacea purpurea and propolis were studied as sources of natural antioxidants. The results from the antioxidant assays show that all extracts can act as radical scavengers to a certain extent. They exhibit potent antioxidant activity in different solvent concentrations. Further studies in this area are in progress. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 51-56

  8. Effect of Echinacea purpurea on Control of Leishmania major Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

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    MS Sadati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and is endemic in some areas of Iran. Echinacea purpurea is a native plant from North America which is one of the most important medical herbs known with immuno-stimulant properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea on prophylaxis and treatment of Leishmania cutaneous lesions. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009, eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups. Group one received Echinacea purpurea extract (200 mg/ml in their water, for 2 weeks before parasite injection, while group two were first injected with parasite amastigotes, followed by administration of Echinacea purpurea extract for 2 weeks. Group three was the control group, which received parasites, but not the extract. The size of Leishmania lesions in the tail base, right and left foot were measured with vernier caliper. The lesion areas were calculated and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean of lesion size in each group of mice were compared and analyzed. No significant differences in the lesions size were found between the three mice groups. Therefore, Echinacea purpurea extract was not effective against Leishmania major based on the findings of this study. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Echinacea extract is not effective in treatment or prophylaxis of leishmaniasis in mice. Yet, further studies are needed to determine the effects of other extracts of this plant.

  9. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Manayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists′ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant′s mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  10. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  11. Activation of PPARgamma by Metabolites from the Flowers of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Sidsel;

    2009-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizing drugs that target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. An n-hexane extract of the flowers of Echinacea purpurea was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. Bioassay-guided fractionations yielded...... differentiation. Compound 5 was further shown to increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The data suggest that flowers of E. purpurea contain compounds with potential to manage insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  12. UPAYA PENGAKARAN Echinacea purpurea L DENGAN AUKSIN SECARA KULTUR JARINGAN

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    Heru Sudrajat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, to meet the needs of botanicals medicinal plants the cultivation directed, require good quality and uniform seeds on form and time.    Tissue culture research to from root of Echinacea purpurea L by the provision of IBA and NAA will be conducted.This recearched aimed to develop an and cultivate qualified Echinacea purpurea L as the raw material for drug foemulation. Tissue culture techniques has  more advantage because it is not affected by the climate, relatively fast production, free contamination of microbial and do not require large tracts of land. The research was carried out considering the need to be developed and cultivated plant Echinacea purpurea L qualified as raw material for the drug tissue culture techniques has advantages because it is not affected by the climate with relatively fast production time, free of microbial contamination and do not require large tracts of land. Shoots multipication done on MS medium using growth regulators GA3with concentration of 3 mg / l. Research foor rof induction on Echinacea purpurea L shoot made by adding growth regulators of IBA and NAA with concentrations with 0, 2, 4 and 6 mg / l respectively. The 2 months incubation periods produced tehe best root induction on the additon of IBA 4 mg / l. It producted 16 roots with a length of 4 cm and relatively lagre in size.Keywords: Echinacea purpurea L., tissue culture, IBA, NAA, plant growth regulators

  13. Сравнительный фитохимический анализ цветков rudbeckia hirta l. и echinacea purpurea l.

    OpenAIRE

    Лукашов, Р. И.; Д. В. Моисеев

    2012-01-01

    The botanical characteristic of Echinacea purpurea L. as the inserted species form the Republic of Belarus is given. Identification of raw Echinacea purpurea L. harvested in the territory of the Republic of Belarus is held. The alcohols extracts of Echinacea purpurea L. contained a significant amount of hydroxycinnamic acids and a few amount flavonoids. The flavonoid composition of Rudbeckia hirta L. compared with the composition of Echinacea purpurea L. flavonoids is more var...

  14. Echinacea purpurea and P-glycoprotein drug transport in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torstein Schrøder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-01-01

    Echinacea is widely used as a medical herbal product, but its interaction potential with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has not yet been evaluated. The interaction potential of Echinacea purpurea towards P-gp mediated drug transport was studied in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Digoxin (30 nm) was used as a substrate and verapamil as a control inhibitor. Ethanol, 0.8%, needed for herbal extraction and compatibility with the commercial products, inhibited the net digoxin flux by 18%. E. purpurea influenced to a higher degree the B-A transport of digoxin than the A-B transport. A minor increase in net digoxin flux was observed at low concentrations of E. purpurea, an effect anticipated to be allosteric in nature. At higher concentrations, from 0.4 to 6.36 mg dry weight/mL, a statistically significant linear dose-related decrease was observed in the net digoxin flux, indicating a dose dependent E. purpurea inhibition of P-gp. Both Vmax and Km of the net digoxin flux, calculated to 23.7 nmol/cm2/h and 385 microm, respectively, decreased in the presence of E. purpurea in an uncompetitive fashion. Although the effects of Echinacea purpurea on systemic P-gp mediated drug transport are probably limited, an influence on drug bioavailability can not be excluded. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

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    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  16. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Ewa; Sommer, Ewa; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Balan, Barbara; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins) exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in human also

  17. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  18. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksić, Gordana; Petrović, Sandra; Joksić, Ivana; Leskovac, Andreja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were taking two 275 mg Echinacea tablets b.i.d., according to a pharmacist's recommendation. All parameters were analysed before and after the two-week treatment. At the end of the treatment lymphocyte CA frequency dropped significantly, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The inverse lymphocyte-to-granulocyte ratio at the beginning of the study changed to normal at its end. In conclusion, biological effects observed after administration of Echinacea purpurea preparation suggest that it may be beneficial for the prevention of adverse health effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation.

  19. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Richard A; Aldous, Michael B; Worden, Katherine A; Grant, Kathryn L

    2008-10-02

    Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 - 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12-60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male) were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation) plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo) was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments) were offered over 3 months. No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42). OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10). In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465.

  20. Investigation of phenolic constituents in Echinacea purpurea grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chen; Zeng, Jian-Guo; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shou-Zhou

    2007-12-01

    Echinacea is a North American native medicinal herb. In 1990 s, it was introduced in China. Nowadays, Echinacea is growing successfully in a number of places in China, and has been used as a crude drug. However, the phytochemical variation in the plant grown in China has not been studied. In this study, the contents of total phenolics and caffeic acid derivatives in aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea grown in China were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and colorimetric analysis. The effects of different drying methods on the components were also studied. The results show that the content of caffeic acid derivatives in E. purpurea reached its highest in the middle stage of full blossoming. The content of caffeic acid derivatives in fresh raw material was generally higher than that in dried raw material. There was no significant difference in the content of caffeic acid derivatives among three geographical populations of E. purpurea. Furthermore, the developmental pattern of total phenolics in E. purpurea was the same as that of caffeic acid derivatives. The stage of mid-bloom is an optimal harvesting period for both caffeic acid derivatives and total phenolics. In addition, the results show that the fresh raw material is the optimal material for pharmaceutical purposes, and that the optimal pharmaceutical parts are the roots, leaves and flowers.

  1. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic compounds and phenolic acids in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maria O; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-12-12

    Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for 4 years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes, and ketoalkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during 1 year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, three ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter, and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all of the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. The optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines; hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.

  2. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench

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    Balciunaite Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66–6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  3. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balciunaite, Gabriele; Juodsnukyte, Jovita; Savickas, Arunas; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Siatkute, Luka; Zvirblyte, Gitana; Mistiniene, Edita; Savickiene, Nijole

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66-6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.

  4. Age of planted Echinacea purpurea: The factor of seed yield and quality

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    Jevđović Radosav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Results for yield and quality of echinacea purpurea seed obtained from age of plants one, two, three, four and five year are presented. In the laboratory experiments germination energy (GE, total germination (TG and weight seed was examined. The highest yield of seed was achieved in three-year echinacea purpurea plants, and the lowest yield was achieved in one-year plants. Age of planted established influence significant on total germination. This parametar the highest of seed in three-year plants and the lowest of seed in five-year echinacea purpurea plants. The highest of germination energy of seed established for the seed deriving from three-year echinacea purpurea planted, and the lowest in one-year plants. The absolute mass of seeds the highest in one-year plants, and the lowest for the seed deriving from five-year echinacea purpurea planted. .

  5. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of four phenol compounds in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract.

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    Gan, Chunli; Liu, Lu; Du, Yan; Wang, Liqian; Gao, Mingjie; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Chunjuan

    2016-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, and caffeic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract using butylparaben as the internal standard. Samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separations for analytes were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (1.8 μm 2.1 × 100 mm) using a gradient elution program with acetonitrile/10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification of each analyte was not higher than 10.85 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday precisions was less than 14.69%. The relative errors of accuracies were in the range of -13.80 to 14.91%. The mean recoveries for extraction recovery and matrix effect were higher than 80.79 and 89.98%, respectively. The method validation results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive, specific, and reliable, which was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of four components after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea.

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    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P purpurea methanol-derived extracts, evaluated in both chemical (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) [ABTS] and oxygen radical absorption capacity [ORAC] assay) and in cell culture models (RAW264, 7 macrophage, H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular oxidation, and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced nitric oxide production), was not adversely affected by the application of HHP at both 2 and 5 min at 600 mPa. Furthermore, HHP did not affect the capacity of E. purpurea extracts to suppress nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophage cells. Therefore, our results show that HHP is an effective pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  7. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial

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    Worden Katherine A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 – 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12–60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments were offered over 3 months. Results No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42. OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10. Conclusion In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465

  8. Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower in Infectious Diseases

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    James B. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  9. Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses.

  10. Echinacea purpurea L. in children: safety, tolerability, compliance, and clinical effectiveness in upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Paul Richard; Smith, Fraser; Schusky, Read Weaver

    2007-11-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench was mistakenly taken from North America to Germany in 1939 where it was cultivated and various extractions were prepared and subsequently used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. Parents often administer Echinacea to their children, but safety data on the use of Echinacea in Canadian children is lacking. A screening history, physical examination, and daily record of symptoms from an initial visit through to a the follow-up visit 13 days later were used to increase patient safety. Each subject was administered an aerial part Echinacea extract. The dose was based on age (2.5 mL three times per day for children aged 2-5 years, and 5 mL two times per day for children aged 6-12 years) and administered for 10 days in an open-label trial. A rating scale was used to measure tolerance to the treatment. We assessed the safety and compliance of use of the Echinacea extract by measuring the amount of extract returned at the end of the study, having the parents complete and return a daily symptom diary, and recording the subjects' use of other natural health products or medications during the trial. Clinical effectiveness of the Echinacea extract could not be accurately assessed because of the small trial size and because the extract had been administered when some of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection that had begun 1 or more days prior to the study; however, each subject's symptoms improved. No allergic or adverse reaction occurred and no safety issues arose.

  11. Herb-drug interaction between Echinacea purpurea and darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Barbanoj, Manuel José; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of Echinacea purpurea, a commonly used botanical supplement, to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy including darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root extract capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 6 h) from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on days 0 (darunavir-ritonavir) and 14 (darunavir-ritonavir plus echinacea). Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 with the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 49 (range, 43 to 67) years, and the body mass index was 24.2 (range, 18.7 to 27.5) kg/m(2). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for darunavir coadministered with echinacea relative to that for darunavir alone was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.63-1.12) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval, 0.90 (90% CI, 0.74-1.10) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, and 0.98 (90% CI, 0.82-1.16) for the maximum concentration. In summary, coadministration of E. purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir was safe and well tolerated. Individual patients did show a decrease in darunavir concentrations, although this did not affect the overall darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Although no dose adjustment is required, monitoring darunavir concentrations on an individual basis may give reassurance in this setting.

  12. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Darunavir-Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Patients▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Barbanoj, Manuel José; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of Echinacea purpurea, a commonly used botanical supplement, to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy including darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root extract capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 6 h) from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on days 0 (darunavir-ritonavir) and 14 (darunavir-ritonavir plus echinacea). Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 with the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 49 (range, 43 to 67) years, and the body mass index was 24.2 (range, 18.7 to 27.5) kg/m2. Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for darunavir coadministered with echinacea relative to that for darunavir alone was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.63-1.12) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval, 0.90 (90% CI, 0.74-1.10) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, and 0.98 (90% CI, 0.82-1.16) for the maximum concentration. In summary, coadministration of E. purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir was safe and well tolerated. Individual patients did show a decrease in darunavir concentrations, although this did not affect the overall darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Although no dose adjustment is required, monitoring darunavir concentrations on an individual basis may give reassurance in this setting. PMID:21078942

  13. Echinacea pupurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function

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    Benson, Jenna M.; Pokorny, Amanda J.; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B.; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48 h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-α increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4+ T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. PMID:20149833

  14. Assessment of the effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench on apoptotic and mitotic activity of liver cells during intoxication by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalinskiene, Alina; Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Abdrakhmanov, Oleg; Kregzdyte, Rima; Sadauskiene, Ilona; Ivanov, Leonid; Savickiene, Nijole; Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickas, Arunas

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is an important industrial pollutant, although its mechanism of toxicity has not been completely clarified. Cd(2+) is toxic to a wide range of organs and tissues, however, the primary target organs of Cd(2+) toxicity are the liver and kidney. Echinacea purpurea stimulating one or another tread of the immune system stimulates the expression of immunoglobulins and interferons. The experiments were performed on white laboratory mice using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 0.05 LD(50) amount of CdCl(2) solution. Two groups of mice were injected by Echinacea purpurea liquid extract: one 0.05 LD(50) and the other 0.1 LD(50). In this article, the Cd(2+) distribution in internal organs, its effect on the mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells, as well as effects of Echinacea purpurea liquid extract on Cd(2+)-induced changes in mice were investigated. Cd(2+) concentration in mice blood, liver, and kidney was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Long-term injections of extract of Echinacea purpurea combined with Cd(2+)Cl(2) leads to the significant increase of Cd(2+) concentration in blood and investigated organs of experimental mice. Mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells was expressed as the estimated number of mitotic and apoptotic liver cells in randomly selected reference areas in histological slide. Echinacea purpurea decreases the mitotic activity of liver cells induced by Cd(2+) and increases apoptotic activity of the liver cells.

  15. Herb-drug interaction between Echinacea purpurea and etravirine in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement Echinacea purpurea to interact with etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with etravirine (400 mg once daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root/extract-containing capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 8 h) for 14 days. Etravirine concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after a morning dose of etravirine on day 0 and etravirine plus E. purpurea on day 14. Individual etravirine pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range, 41 to 50), and the median body weight was 76 kg (interquartile range, 68 to 92). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for etravirine coadministered with E. purpurea relative to etravirine alone was 1.07 (90% CI, 0.81 to 1.42) for the maximum concentration, 1.04 (90% CI, 0.79 to 1.38) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, and 1.04 (90% CI, 0.74 to 1.44) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In conclusion, the coadministration of E. purpurea with etravirine was safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients; our data suggest that no dose adjustment for etravirine is necessary.

  16. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Etravirine in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement Echinacea purpurea to interact with etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with etravirine (400 mg once daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root/extract-containing capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 8 h) for 14 days. Etravirine concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after a morning dose of etravirine on day 0 and etravirine plus E. purpurea on day 14. Individual etravirine pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range, 41 to 50), and the median body weight was 76 kg (interquartile range, 68 to 92). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for etravirine coadministered with E. purpurea relative to etravirine alone was 1.07 (90% CI, 0.81 to 1.42) for the maximum concentration, 1.04 (90% CI, 0.79 to 1.38) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, and 1.04 (90% CI, 0.74 to 1.44) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In conclusion, the coadministration of E. purpurea with etravirine was safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients; our data suggest that no dose adjustment for etravirine is necessary. PMID:22869560

  17. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  18. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  19. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  20. Secondary Metabolites from Fungal Endophytes of Echinacea purpurea Suppress Cytokine Secretion by Macrophage-Type Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amninder; Oberhofer, Martina; Juzumaite, Monika; Raja, Huzefa A; Gulledge, Travis V; Kao, Diana; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-01-01

    Botanical extracts of Echinacea purpurea have been widely used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections. We sought to chemically examine fungal endophytes inhabiting E. purpurea, and to identify compounds produced by these endophytes with in vitro cytokine-suppressive activity. Twelve isolates from surface sterilized seeds of E. purpurea were subjected to fractionation and major components were isolated. Sixteen secondary metabolites belonging to different structural classes were identified from these isolates based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. The compounds were tested for their influence on cytokine secretion by murine macrophage-type cells. Alternariol (1), O-prenylporriolide (4), porritoxin (10) β-zearalenol (13), and (S)-zearalenone (14) inhibited production of TNF-α from RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS in the absence of any significant cytotoxicity. This is the first report of a cytokine-suppressive effect for 4. The results of this study are particularly interesting given that they show the presence of compounds with cytokine-suppressive activity in endophytes from a botanical used to treat inflammation. Future investigations into the role of fungal endophytes in the biological activity of E. purpurea dietary supplements may be warranted.

  1. [Chemical constituents from the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Feng, Feng

    2013-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea. The compounds were separated and purified by repeatedly silica gel, ODS, D101 macroporous resin, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as (2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol (1), (5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1, 5-trimethylcyclohexanone (2), (3S, 6E, 10R)-3, 10, 11-trihydroxy-3, 7, 11-trimethyl-dodeca-1, 6-diene (3), negunfurol (4), schensianol A (5), ent-4 (15) -eudesmene-1beta, 6alpha-diol (6), (E) -5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7), syringaresinol (8), quercetin (9), ethyl laurate (10), ethyl caffeate (11), ferulic acid (12), alpha-spinasterol (13), stigmasterol (14), beta-daucosterol (15), octacosanoic acid (16). Compound 1 - 5 are isolated from the Asteraceae for the first time, compound 6 ,7, 9, 10, 12 are isolated from genus of Echinacea for the first time, compound 15, 16 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  2. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea L.) Extracts Obtained by Classical and Ultrasound Extraction%用传统和超声提取的松果菊(紫锥菊属)的抗氧化和抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivana Stanisavljevi(c); Sa(s)a Stoji(c)evi(c); Dragan Velickovi(c); Vlada Vcljkovi(c); Miodrag Lazi(c)

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Echinacea purpurea L. (Asteraceae) extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound solvent extraction were compared. The dry aerial part of plant was extracted by 70% ctha-nol at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 10 (m/v) and 25℃. The extract obtained by classical solvent extraction contained 29% larger amounts of phenolic compounds and 20% higher content of flavonoids. 2,2-diphenyl-l-picril hydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging reached 93.6% and the values of EC50 were (34.16±0.65) μg·ml-1and (65.48±1.12) μg·ml-1 for the extracts obtained by the classical and ultrasound extractions, respectively. The extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed a considerable growth inhibition on Candida albicans and Saccharo-myces cerevisiae, while no growth inhibition zones were observed for Aspergillus niger. The diameters of inhibition zone observed for all the microorganisms were larger for extracts obtained by classical extraction than those by ultrasoud extraction.

  3. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jawad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the safety (risk and efficacy (benefit of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions. Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P<0.05. Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  4. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, M; Schoop, R; Suter, A; Klein, P; Eccles, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety (risk) and efficacy (benefit) of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root) or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions). Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  5. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deqiang; Yuan, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Tai, Yuling; Yang, Xiumei; Hu, Fang; Xie, Zhongwen

    2013-03-01

    Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (Ppurpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. GAMMA RADIATION EFFECT ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY IN HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA L., MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Artenie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we were focused on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in Hypericum perforatum L and Echinacea purpurea L., Moench plantlets, obtained from seeds irradiated with gamma rays before germination.Total activity as well as specific activity of SOD in Hypericum perforatum L. plantlets shows an inhibition, which becames higher at higher irradiation doses. For Echinacea purpurea L. species, gamma radiation shows a slowly stimulative effect of total activity of SOD for some of the higher doses, but the specific enzyme activity is inhibated for all irradiation doses applyed on non-germinated irradiated seeds.

  8. Dietary Echinacea purpurea during murine pregnancy: effect on maternal hemopoiesis and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, G; Johns, T; Miller, S C

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Echinacea sp. plants in several disease conditions, including insect bites, respiratory ailments, and even cancer and AIDS, have been touted for decades. Echinacea sp.-based phytoceuticals are among the top selling herbals in the Western marketplace today. However, evidence is very scant concerning the effects of using Echinacea species herbals during pregnancy. While available data indicates that fetal malformations do not occur during pregnancy in humans consuming this herb, there are no formal studies aimed at assessing the possibility that consuming Echinacea herbals may promote spontaneous abortions, thereby reducing the number of live births upon which to assess the presence or absence of malformations. We undertook a study in which pregnant mice were fed daily Echinacea purpurea from pregnancy onset until gestational days 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Maternal spleen and bone marrow were taken for enumeration of cells in each of five separate hemopoietic lineages/organ, and fetal status was recorded. The data indicate that the significant, pregnancy-induced elevation in splenic lymphocytes and nucleated erythroid cells was all but eliminated in those females which consumed E. purpurea daily throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, consuming E. purpurea during pregnancy reduced the number of viable fetuses. The data may be extrapolated to suggest that in humans, abstention from consuming Echinacea products during the early/mid stages of pregnancy, may be prudent.

  9. Isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from Echinacea purpurea protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zeng-guang; Liu, Chun-zhao; Murch, Susan I; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-01-01

    A plant regeneration system from the isolated protoplasts of Echinacea purpurea L. using an alginate solid/liquid culture is described in the chapter. Viable protoplasts were isolated rom 100 mg of young leaves of 4-wk-old seedlings in an isolation mixture containing 1.0% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% pectinase, and 0.3 mol/L mannitol. After isolation and purification, the mesophyll protoplasts were embedded into 0.6% Na-alginate at the density 1 x 10(-5) mL and cultured in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium supplemented with 0.3 mol/L sucrose, 2.5 micromol/L benzylaminopurine (BA), and 5.0 micromol/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The visible colonies were present after 4 wk of culture. The protoplast-derived clones were transferred onto gellan gum-solidified basal medium supplemented with 1.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and formed compact and green calli. Shoot development was achieved by subculturing the calli onto the same basal medium supplemented with 5.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L IBA. Further subculture onto basal medium resulted in the regeneration of complete plantlets.

  10. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  11. Characterization and immunolocalization of arabinogalactan-proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, Andreas; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2009-11-01

    From the high molecular weight fraction of an aqueous extract from roots of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), a class of proteoglycans proposed to be involved in cell differentiation and plant growth, were purified and characterized with regard to amino acid composition and structure of the polysaccharide moiety. The protein content of the AGP was 5.0 % (w/w) with the dominating amino acids Glx, Hyp, Asx, Ser, Thr and Ala. The highly branched polysaccharide moiety shows a linkage composition typical of AGPs with 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,3,6-linked galactopyranosyl residues and arabinofuranosyl residues predominantly as terminal and 1,5-linked residues. Terminal units of glucuronopyranose acid were also detected. Furthermore, a new method for the localization of AGPs in plant tissue has been developed. The synthetic (beta- D-Glc)(3) Yariv phenylgycoside (betaGlcY) is known to specifically bind to AGPs. For immunolocalization, polyclonal betaGlcY-antibodies have been generated and were used to label Yariv-treated thin sections of roots from E. purpurea. After addition of the FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, the sections were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. AGPs are detected mainly in the central cylinder in the area of the xylem. Cell walls of vessels and tracheids are strongly labelled, especially at the inner area of the wall. Furthermore, there is intense labelling of the pit canals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  12. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  13. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleschka, Stephan; Stein, Michael; Schoop, Roland; Hudson, James B

    2009-11-13

    Influenza virus (IV) infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV) in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu (oseltamivir) is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce, EF) in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV) of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1), were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options for IV replication and dissemination.

  14. HPLC method validated for the simultaneous analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides in Echinacea purpurea plants and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Per; Johnsen, Søren; Christensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine caffeic acid derivatives, for example, cichoric acid, and alkamides in plant parts and herbal products of Echinacea purpurea. The method consists of an extraction procedure whereby the hydrophilic...... phenolics as well as the lipophilic alkamides are released from the samples, followed by the analytical HPLC procedure for quantitative determination of these compounds. The method is the first one validated for the determination of these two groups of compounds in the same procedure. Naringenin has been...

  15. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Anders; Hovhannisyan, Areg; Jamalyan, Kristina; Narimanyan, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Kan Jang® oral solution (KJ) is a fixed combination of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Justicia adhatoda L. leaf, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench root, and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms root. It is approved in Scandinavia as an herbal medicinal product for respiratory tract infection treatment. The present clinical trial aimed to compare the antitussive effect of KJ with placebo (PL) and bromhexine (BH) among patients of 18-65 years old with non-complicated upper respiratory infections (URI; i.e., common cold). We performed a parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in in 177 patients with acute URI over a 5 day period. We investigated the antitussive effects of a KJ (30 ml/day; 762 mg genuine extracts with standardized contents of 0.2 mg/ml vasicine, 0.8 mg/ml chicoric acid, and 0.03 mg/ml eleutherosides B and E), bromhexine hydrochloride (24 mg/30 ml/day) and PL on cough and blood markers. The primary outcome was cough relief, which was assessed as the change of cough frequency from baseline (cough index). Secondary outcomes were safety with regards to reported adverse events (AEs) and hematological data. Both KJ and BH relieved cough more effectively than placebo. On the third and fourth days of treatment, we observed faster improvement in the group receiving KJ compared to in the groups receiving BH (100%) or PL (100%), indicating a slightly shorter recovery time in the KJ group. KJ showed a good tolerability and safety profile. KJ exerted significant antitussive effects in URI. The present data further support the therapeutic use of KJ in upper respiratory tract infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of chemically characterized fractions from aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on myelopoiesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Baraka, Hany N; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Widrlechner, Mark P; Sayed, Khalid A El; Meyer, Sharon A

    2011-11-01

    Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments. A 75% ethanolic extract at 50 mg dried weight (derived from 227 mg aerial parts) per kg body weight increased GM-CFCs by 70% but at 100 mg/kg was without effect. Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of E. angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia and E. purpurea from the USDA North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station increased GM-CFCs by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, at 200 mg/kg (~1400 mg/kg plant material). Extract from another USDA E. angustifolia was inactive. Proton and APT NMR, MS, and TLC indicated alkylamides and caffeic-acid derivatives (CADs) present in ethanolic extracts of both the commercial and USDA-derived material. Cichoric and caftaric acids were prominent in both E. purpurea ethanolic extracts but absent in E. angustifolia. Aqueous extract of the commercial material exhibited polysaccharide and CAD signatures and was without effect on GM-CFCs. A methanol-CHCl3 fraction of commercial source, also inactive, was almost exclusively 1:4 nonanoic: decanoic acids, which were also abundant in commercial ethanolic extract but absent from USDA material. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an ethanolextractable myelostimulatory activity in Echinacea aerial parts that, when obtained from commercial herbal supplements, may be antagonized by medium-chain fatty acids presumably derived from a non-plant additive. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of Chloroform Extract of Echinacea Purpurea on the Mouse’s Mono-Macrophage System%紫锥菊提取物对小鼠单核巨噬细胞系统功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江涛; 刘珂

    2001-01-01

    用昆明种小鼠进行碳粒廓清实验,观察烟台从加拿大引种的紫锥菊的氯仿提取物对小鼠单核巨噬细胞系统功能的影响.结果显示:该提取物在0.025,0.25,2.5,和22 μg/g四种剂量时,对正常昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能都没有显著影响;在0.025 μg/g剂量时,对氢化可的松免疫抑制的昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能有显著影响,可使该种小鼠下降了的碳粒廓清能力恢复到正常水平,这种作用与10 mg/g剂量的黄芪注射液的作用相当;但在0.25和 2.5 μg/g剂量时,对氢化可的松免疫抑制的昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能没有显著影响.说明该引种的紫锥菊有可能成为我国的一种新的药用植物资源,其氯仿提取物有可能被开发成一种免疫恢复剂.%Carbon clearance test is carried out in Kunming mice to observe the effect of the chloroform extract of the Yantai-introduced-from-Canada-Echinacea purpurea on the function of mono-macrophage system. The results show that this extract has no significant effect on the function of the normal Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system at the dosages of 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 22 μg/g;at the dosage of 0.025 μg/g,it has a significant effect on the function of the hydrocortisone-immune-inhibited-Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system,it recovers the mice's reduced carbon clearance ability to the normal level and the effect is comparable to that of the Huang-Qi injection at the dosage of 10 mg/g; but at the dosages of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/g,it has no significant effect on the function of the hydrocortisone-immune-inhibited-Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system. The results imply that the introduced Echinacea purpurea may become a new medicinal plant resource of this country and the chloroform extract may be developed into an immune restorer.

  18. Alkamides and a neolignan from Echinacea purpurea roots and the interaction of alkamides with G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Judit; Rédei, Dóra; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál; Freund, Tamás F; Haller, József; Bojnik, Engin; Benyhe, Sándor

    2011-10-01

    Multiple chromatographic separations of the CHCl₃-soluble extract of the roots of Echinacea purpurea led to the isolation of 19 compounds. Four natural products, three alkamides and nitidanin diisovalerianate, were identified, and five further compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Additionally, 10 known E. purpurea metabolites were isolated. The structures were determined by mass spectrometry and advanced 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The bioactivity of the isolated compounds was studied in [³⁵S]GTPγS-binding experiments performed on rat brain membrane preparations. Both partial and inverse agonist compounds for cannabinoid (CB1) receptors were identified among the metabolites, characterized by weak to moderate interactions with the G-protein signaling mechanisms. The G-protein-modulating activities of the Echinacea compounds are rather far from the full agonist effects seen with the CB1 receptor agonist reference compound arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA). However, upon coadministration with ACEA, a number of them proved capable of inhibiting the stimulation of the pure agonist, thereby demonstrating cannabinoid receptor antagonist properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A C-banded karyotype of mitotic chromosomes in diploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea. The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.

  20. Chromatographic methods for metabolite profiling of virus- and phytoplasma-infected plants of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Epifano, Francesco; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Orlandini, Giulia; Cavicchi, Lisa; Genovese, Salvatore; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania; Curini, Massimo; Bertaccini, Assunta; Bellardi, Maria Grazia

    2011-10-12

    This study was focused on the effects of virus and phytoplasma infections on the production of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, and essential oil. The identification of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and MS(2). Quantitative analysis of these compounds was carried out using HPLC-DAD. The results indicated that the presence of the two pathogens significantly decreases (P purpurea essential oil enabled the identification of 30 compounds. The main significant differences (P purpurea secondary metabolites, which is an important issue in defining the commercial quality, market value, and therapeutic efficacy of this herbal drug.

  1. The protective effect of Echinacea spp. (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) in a rat colitis model induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Zeynal; Ergul, Bilal; Sarikaya, Murat; Filik, Levent; Gonultaş, Mehmet Alparslan; Hucumenoglu, Sema; Can, Murat

    2014-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease that causes an inflammatory condition in the colon. Several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) are crucial components of these inflammatory pathways. New therapeutic strategies are needed for improved clinical outcomes in UC and with less adverse effects. That is why alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used with favorable effects in the treatment of UC. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp in an experimental rat colitis model induced by acetic acid (AA). Acetic acid was given via a rectal route to induce acute colitis in rats. Rats were placed in four groups: control, Echinacea, Echinacea-colitis and colitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β and TGF-β levels were measured. Histopathological comparison of the groups was also performed. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly higher in the colitis group compared to the control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (pEchinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p>0.07). The inflammatory mediators IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly elevated in the colitis group compared to the other groups (pEchinacea spp. may likely have some therapeutic favorable effects in the management of UC.

  2. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  3. Isomeric C12-alkamides isolated from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) exhibit characteristics of a PPARγ partial agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota; Wolber, Gerhard

    Nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ is predominantly found in adipose tissue and plays a role in regulating adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ belongs to the superfamily of transcription factors that bind DNA and regulate transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. A dichloromethane extract...... of Echinacea purpurea roots increasing glucose uptake (GU) and activating PPARγ was subjected to bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. Basal and insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and PPARγ transactivation assay were used to assess the bioactivity of extract, fractions and isolated metabolites....... Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and -linolenic acid were isolated from active fractions. The compounds were found to activate PPARγ but only the isomeric alkamides were able to increase basal and insulin-dependent GU...

  4. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench modulates human T-cell cytokine response☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fabiana N.; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Lin, Hong; Lau, Clara B.S.; Kennelly, Edward J.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the composition of a neutral and weakly acidic water-soluble extract from Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EchNWA) previously shown to modify murine influenza infection, and to assess immunomodulatory effects on human T-cells. EchNWA extract from fresh aerial parts was extracted with water, ethanolic precipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical profile of EchNWA was characterized by chromatography (size-exclusion, HPLC, GC–MS), and small molecule finger-print analysis performed by HPLC–PDA. Jurkat T-cells at high and low cell density were pretreated or not with doses of EchNWA, followed by activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFNg) cytokine secretions were measured by multi-cytokine luminex technology. Results showed that EchNWA contains 80% polysaccharides, predominantly a 10 kDa entity; phenolic compounds, cynarin, cichoric and caftaric acids, but no detectable alkylamides. Cytokine production required stimulation and was lower after PMA+I activation in high-density compared to low-density conditions. EchNWA mediated a strong dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of IL-2 and IFNg response to PMA+I. EchNWA alone did not stimulate T-cells. EchNWA enhanced mean fluorescence intensity of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells activated by PMA+1 or ionomycin alone. Conversely EchNWA mediated modest but significant suppression of IFNg response and reduced the percentage of CD25+ T-cells under low-density conditions. Conclusions are that EchNWA polysaccharides, but not phenolic compounds have dose-related adjuvant effects on human T-cell cytokine responses characterized by enhancing and suppressive effects that are regulated by T-cell density. PMID:24434371

  5. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench modulates human T-cell cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fabiana N; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Lin, Hong; Lau, Clara B S; Kennelly, Edward J; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the composition of a neutral and weakly acidic water-soluble extract from Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EchNWA) previously shown to modify murine influenza infection, and to assess immunomodulatory effects on human T-cells. EchNWA extract from fresh aerial parts was extracted with water, ethanolic precipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical profile of EchNWA was characterized by chromatography (size-exclusion, HPLC, GC-MS), and small molecule fingerprint analysis performed by HPLC-PDA. Jurkat T-cells at high and low cell density were pretreated or not with doses of EchNWA, followed by activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFNg) cytokine secretions were measured by multi-cytokine luminex technology. Results showed that EchNWA contains 80% polysaccharides, predominantly a 10kDa entity; phenolic compounds, cynarin, cichoric and caftaric acids, but no detectable alkylamides. Cytokine production required stimulation and was lower after PMA+I activation in high-density compared to low-density conditions. EchNWA mediated a strong dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of IL-2 and IFNg response to PMA+I. EchNWA alone did not stimulate T-cells. EchNWA enhanced mean fluorescence intensity of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells activated by PMA+1 or ionomycin alone. Conversely EchNWA mediated modest but significant suppression of IFNg response and reduced the percentage of CD25+ T-cells under low-density conditions. Conclusions are that EchNWA polysaccharides, but not phenolic compounds have dose-related adjuvant effects on human T-cell cytokine responses characterized by enhancing and suppressive effects that are regulated by T-cell density. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of liver enzymes by an Iranian preparation of Echinacea purpurea

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    A. Manayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV.  In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.

  7. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

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    Hwang Pei-Ing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs, the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we investigated the specific and differential gene expression in human immature DCs (iDCs in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, that we denoted [BF/S+L/Ep]. Results Affymetrix DNA microarray results showed significant up regulation of specific genes for cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-18 and chemokines (CXCL 2, CCL 5, and CCL 2 within 4 h after [BF/S+L/Ep] treatment of iDCs. Bioinformatics analysis of genes expressed in [BF/S+L/Ep]-treated DCs revealed a key-signaling network involving a number of immune-modulatory molecules leading to the activation of a downstream molecule, adenylate cyclase 8. Proteomic analysis showed increased expression of antioxidant and cytoskeletal proteins after treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep] and cichoric acid. Conclusion This study provides information on candidate target molecules and molecular signaling mechanisms for future systematic research into the immune-modulatory activities of an important traditional medicinal herb and its derived phytocompounds.

  8. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

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    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  9. Root colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus increases growth and secondary metabolism of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

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    Araim, Ghada; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Charest, Christiane

    2009-03-25

    Purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, is an important phytomedicinal species that contains phenolics and alkamides with antipathogenic properties. This study aimed to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the physiology and biochemistry of E. purpurea. It was hypothesized that AM colonization enhances the growth and secondary metabolism in E. purpurea. In this regard, a 13-week factorial greenhouse experiment was performed with E. purpurea, inoculated (or not) with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Overall, the results indicated that AM colonization significantly increased the mass of shoots and roots and the concentrations of proteins and most of the phenolics in the roots. Hence, the selected trait of mycorrhiza could play an important role in optimizing the growth of E. purpurea by inducing the production of secondary phytomedicinal metabolites.

  10. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  11. Echinacea purpurea supplementation does not enhance VO2max in distance runners.

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    Baumann, Cory W; Bond, Kelsey L; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Doyle, J Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Oral supplementation of Echinacea purpurea (ECH) has been reported to increase levels of serum erythropoietin and as a result improve endurance performance in untrained subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECH supplementation alters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in trained endurance runners. Using a double-blind design, 16 trained endurance runners (9 ECH and 7 placebo [PLA]) supplemented with either 8,000 mg·d(-1) of ECH or wheat flour (PLA) for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic treadmill tests and blood samples were measured before and after supplementation to determine VO2max, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb). VO2max, Hct, and Hb did not differ between the ECH and PLA groups before or after supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of ECH failed to improve VO2max (67.37 ± 4.62 vs. 67.23 ± 5.82 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), Hct (43.57 ± 2.38 vs. 42.85 ± 1.46%), or Hb (14.93 ± 1.27 vs. 15.55 ± 0.80 g·dL(-1)) from baseline measurements. Echinacea purpurea supplementation of 8,000 mg·d(-1) for 6 weeks failed to increase VO2max, Hct, or Hb in trained endurance runners and thus does not seem to influence physiological variables that affect distance running performance.

  12. Antibodies against Yariv's reagent for immunolocalization of arabinogalactan-proteins in aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Esther Marie; Gramann, Jean Christian; Classen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins are glycoproteins that occur in higher plants and are involved in important processes like cell differentiation and plant growth. In the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea L., they belong to the putative immunomodulating compounds and are structurally well characterized. For microscopic localization of arabinogalactan-proteins, synthetic (β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside that specifically binds to most plant arabinogalactan-proteins was used to label arabinogalactan-proteins in fresh cut sections of stems and petioles of Echinacea purpurea. Polyclonal antibodies against (β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside were used to detect the arabinogalactan-protein-(β-D-Glc)3 Yariv phenylglycoside complex. After addition of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibodies, the sections were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Arabinogalactan-proteins are localized mainly in the central cylinder in the collateral vascular bundles, especially in the area of the xylem. In cell walls of fully differentiated vessels and tracheids, arabinogalactan-proteins have been detected mainly at the inner area of the wall close to the cell lumina. Intense labeling occurs around pit canals connecting adjacent vessels. Furthermore, arabinogalactan-proteins are present in the lumina of cells of the sclerenchyma caps and in companion cells of the phloem. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  14. Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra

    2010-04-23

    A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Echinacea Purpurea on Wound Healing after Arsenic Induced Skin Necrosis

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    Annahita Rezaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of healing effects of Echinacea extract in Arsenic induced dermal necrosis in rat is the objective of this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 male Wistar rats were divided to 2 groups. Dermal necrosis was induced by subcutaneously arsenic injection (4mg/kg for 10 days. In group 2, after arsenic receiving, Echinacea were injected intraperitoneally (400mg/kg. After last day of injection, rats were euthanizes and pathologic samples were collected from dermal ulcers.Results: Histopathologic results revealed necrosis of different dermal layers in arsenic group. There were inflammatory exudates instead of impaired structures. In group 2, there were granulation tissue with high cellularity and new vessels.Conclusion: According to this research findings arsenic can induce dermal necrosis which is a good animal model for dermatologic researches and also Echinacea has healing effects and can protect and limit the Arsenic effects.

  16. Characters with multiple usages- phenotypic variability analysis at Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench species

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    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Merging aesthetics with utility, some medicinal plants can benefit both of a high production and decoration potential. This calls for diversification of improvement directions of the species. Through this article we suggest one of these species, Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench. This is considered to be important at this time, acquisition of new biological forms - varieties in this species, which show multiple attributes utility based on key biological characteristics, agronomic, physiological, biochemical and agrochemical (medicinal, decorative, culinary etc.. To achieve this goal, studies were undertaken, given in this article, which is the starting point for selecting characters representative for our targets.The results presented in this study reveal a pronounced genetic polymorphism showing the selection operation can use the original material for a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of valuable genotypes that could be approved.

  17. Isomeric C12-alkamides from the roots of Echinacea purpurea improve basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Dorota; El-Houri, Rime B; Borkowski, Kamil; Petersen, Rasmus K; Fretté, Xavier C; Wolber, Gerhard; Grevsen, Kai; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections and the common cold. Recent investigations have indicated that E. purpurea also has an effect on insulin resistance. A dichloromethane extract of E. purpurea roots was found to enhance glucose uptake in adipocytes and to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The purpose of the present study was to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the potential antidiabetic effect of the dichloromethane extract using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to assess the bioactivity of extract, fractions and isolated metabolites. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transactivation assay was used to determine the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activating properties of the extract, active fractions and isolated metabolites. Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and α-linolenic acid were isolated from the active fractions. The isomeric C12-alkamides were found to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, to increase basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and to exhibit characteristics of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ partial agonist. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. KERAGAMAN GENETIK AKSESI EKINASE (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench HASIL SELEKSI MASSA TAHUN I MELALUI ANALISIS RAPD

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    Dyah Subositi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ekinase (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench a medicinal plant that has immunostimulatory activity. This plant has been cultivating in Tawangmangu region by Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Office since 2002. Ten accessions of E. purpurea were found based on their morphological variation, three accessions of them are selected as promising accessions namely BH2, BHU3 dan BHU5. The objective of this research was to observe the genetic diversity of  those  promising accessions and 8 variants accession from mass selection year I using RAPD analysis. Those accessions were amplified using 10 RAPD primers. A total of 64 scorable fragments were generated from 9 RAPD primers, among which 48 fragments (75% were polymorphic. The Dice coefficient was used to calculated the genetic similarity and UPGMA was used to generate the dendogram. The genetic similarity index among accessions evaluated ranged from 75,49-84,21% thus indicating that low level of genetic diversity. RAPD analysis proved to be efficient for genetic diversity of ekinase accessions from mass selection year I.

  19. Gibberellic acid increases secondary metabolite production in Echinacea purpurea hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bilal H; Stiles, Amanda R; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is reported to have diverse effects on hairy root cultures of many plant species; therefore, the effects of GA(3) on the growth, secondary metabolite production (caffeic acid derivatives and lignin), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and free radical scavenging activity of light-grown Echinacea purpurea L. hairy roots were investigated. Eight concentrations of GA(3), ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 μM, were added to shake flask cultures. The moderate GA(3) concentration, 0.025 μM, resulted in the highest concentrations of cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid, as well as increased PAL activity, cell viability, and free radical scavenging activity, while higher and lower GA(3) concentrations resulted in reduced levels compared to the control (lacking GA(3)). The moderate GA(3) concentration also affected root morphogenesis; supplementation with 0.025 μM GA(3) resulted in the development of thick, dense, purple-colored roots, while roots exposed to the higher and lower concentrations of GA(3) were thin and off-white. This study demonstrates that supplementation with GA(3) may be an excellent strategy to optimize the production of secondary metabolites from E. purpurea hairy root cultures; however, the GA(3) concentration is a critical factor.

  20. Phytopharmacologic preparations as predictors of plant bioactivity: A particular approach to Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Cristiana; Martins, Natália; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed a multitude of health benefits of plant products and their derived formulations. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is a good example, widely used due to its therapeutic properties. In the present study, the chemical composition of the different samples and antioxidant properties of E. purpurea hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from dry or fresh raw material were evaluated and compared with dietary supplements based on the same plant (tablets and syrup), to determine the most active phytopharmacologic preparation or formulation. Chemical composition of the different samples was assessed through the determination of free sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The in vitro antioxidant properties were determined using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of b-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determined. Overall, the hydroethanolic extract of fresh plant revealed the highest activity, directly related with its higher contents in phenolic (229.22 ± 4.38 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL), flavonoids (124.83 ± 7.47 mg GAE/mL), organic acids (8.89 ± 0.10 g/100 g), and tocopherols (4.55 ± 0.02 mg/100 g). Tablets followed by syrup revealed the worst effect, positively correlated with the lowest abundance in bioactive molecules. The weak in vitro antioxidant potential of commercial phytopharmacologic formulations could be related to their chemical composition, including the addition of excipients. Further studies are necessary to deepen knowledge on this area, namely focusing on in vivo experiments, to establish upcoming guidelines to improve the quality and bioavailability of phytopharmacologic formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total bacterial load within Echinacea purpurea, determined using a new PCR-based quantification method, is correlated with LPS levels and in vitro macrophage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Nirmal D; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies indicate that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea depends on bacterial components. In the present study, total bacterial load was determined within E. purpurea samples and ranged from 6.4 × 10(6) to 3.3 × 10(8) bacteria/g of dry plant material. To estimate total bacterial load, we developed a PCR-based quantification method that circumvents the problems associated with nonviable/nonculturable cells (which precludes using plate counts) or the coamplification of mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA with the use of universal bacterial primers (which precludes the use of qPCR). Differences in total bacterial load within Echinacea samples were strongly correlated with the activity (NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells) and content of bacterial lipopolysaccharides within extracts of this plant material. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bacteria within Echinacea are the main source of components responsible for enhancing innate immune function. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The antioxidant effect of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea in rat colitis model induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Z; Ergul, B; Sarikaya, M; Filik, L; Gonultas, M Alparslan; Hucumenoglu, S; Can, M

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, and reactive oxidative metabolites (ROMs) play an important role in its pathogenesis. Alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis for better clinical outcome of ulcerative colitis and less adverse effects. Echinacea has many features including antioxidant and wound-healing properties. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp. on experimental colitis model induced by acetic acid in Wistar albino rats. Acute colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid. Rats were divided into four groups, namely control, Echinacea-administered, Echinacea-administered-colitis and colitis. Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status were assayed in tissue samples. Histopathological evaluation was also performed. Macroscopic and microscopic scores were significantly higher in colitis group compared to control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p > 0.3, p > 0.22). Malondialdehyde levels were elevated in colitis group compared to other groups (p Echinacea group compared with other groups and also significantly higher in Echinacea-colitis group compared with colitis group (p Echinacea may possibly have some therapeutic usefulness in the management of ulcerative colitis (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 35).

  3. Efficient counter-current chromatographic isolation and structural identification of two new cinnamic acids from Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Li, JiaYin; Li, MiLu; Hu, Xia; Tan, Jun; Liu, Zhong Hua

    2012-10-01

    Two new cinnamic acids, 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-isoferuloyltartaric (3), and 2, 3-di-O-isoferuloyltartaric acid (5), along with three known caffeic acids, cichoric acid (1), 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-feruloyltartaric acid (2) and 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-p-coumaroyltartaric acid (4), have been successfully isolated and purified from Echinacea purpurea. In this study, we investigated an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of cinnamic acids from E. purpurea by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent composed of n-hexane-ethyl-acetate-methanol-0.5% aqueous acetic acid (1:3:1:4, v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. From 250 mg of crude extracts, 65.1 mg of 1, 8.3 mg of 2, 4.0 mg of 3, 4.5 mg of 4, and 4.3 mg of 5 were isolated in one-step, with purities of 98.5%, 97.7%, 94.6%, 94.3%, and 98.6%, respectively, as evaluated by HPLC-DAD. The chemical structures were identified by electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. HSCCC was very efficient for the separation and purification of the cinnamic acids from

  4. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

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    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  5. Induction of Tetraploids from Petiole Explants through Colchicine Treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x=22 Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA, 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x=44 shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  6. Effect of Echinacea purpurea L. on oxidative status and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu Tai; Ciou, Jhih Ying; Chen, Chung Li; Yu, Bi

    2013-01-15

    Echinacea purpurea L. (EP) is a popular herbal antioxidant and immunomodulator. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EP on meat quality and oxidative status in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (1-day-old) male broilers (Arbor Acres) were randomly allocated to five groups including the control (corn-soybean meal diet) and 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP powder groups, with two replicates per treatment group. The results indicated that the addition of 0.5% and 1.0% EP significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets at 35 days old. For fillet colour, L* (lightness) values were lower, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher with EP supplementation. Lower crude fat contents were observed in EP groups in comparison with control at 35 days of age in breast and thigh fillets, respectively. Production of malondialdehyde was slightly reduced in serum of EP supplemented birds compared to the control group. Results for Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher for the 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP supplemental groups than control group in serum. Liver and spleen tissues results showed that the antioxidative enzymes activities were higher with EP powder at 35 days of age. Dried EP can be used as a feed additive to improve the meat quality and oxidative status in Arbor Acres broilers. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Synergetic effects of oral administration of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea on immune response in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; khayat-Nuri, Hadi; Abadi, Narges; Ghavami, Siavash; Golabi, Mostafa; Shanebandi, Dariush

    2011-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea (EP), separately and together on the immune response of the rat as a laboratory model. In this experiment, 40 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into four groups (n=10). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), EP (500 mg/kg), levamisole (2 mg/kg) and EP (500 mg/kg) with levamisole (2 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of 4 weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), haematocrit (HCT), differential and total white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), total protein, albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The results of the study showed that the gamma globulin level, WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with normal saline group during the study. According to the results, each of the mentioned agents had a stimulant effect on the immune system separately and together on rats. In the group that received EP and levamisole simultaneously, these effects were synergistically increased. These compounds, by increasing the mentioned factors, will probably affect the immune system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Antagonistic interactions between endophytic cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Mengoni, Alessio; Bosi, Emanuele; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied the antagonistic interactions existing among cultivable bacteria isolated from three ecological niches (rhizospheric soil, roots and stem/leaves) of the traditional natural medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. The three compartments harboured different taxonomic assemblages of strains, which were previously reported to display different antibiotic resistance patterns, suggesting the presence of differential selective pressure due to antagonistic molecules in the three compartments. Antagonistic interactions were assayed by the cross-streak method and interpreted using a network-based analysis. In particular 'within-niche inhibition' and 'cross-niche inhibition' were evaluated among isolates associated with each compartment as well as between isolates retrieved from the three different compartments respectively. Data obtained indicated that bacteria isolated from the stem/leaves compartment were much more sensitive to the antagonistic activity than bacteria from roots and rhizospheric soil. Moreover, both the taxonomical position and the ecological niche might influence the antagonistic ability/sensitivity of different strains. Antagonism could play a significant role in contributing to the differentiation and structuring of plant-associated bacterial communities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilanthi, Dahanayake; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x = 22) Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA), 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L) of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x = 44) shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature.

  11. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L

    2007-11-01

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O3) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O3 in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O3 interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O3 effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent.

  12. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Chien-Yu; Staniforth, Vanisree; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Hou, Chia-Chung; Wu, Han-Ming; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Chun-Houh; Hwang, Pei-Ing; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs...

  13. Radioprotection effect on irradiation mice of haemopoietic cell of echinacea purpurea(north American herb) by the celiac medication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kiyoto; Gu, Yeunhwa; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Park, Sangrea; Trai, Kaoru; Tanaka, Kenichirou; Tajima, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Suzuki, Ikukatsu [Suauka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Mishima, Satoshi [Api Co., LTD., Kifu (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The medicine that suspension made phosphoric acid saline make the dryness leaf powder of Echinacea purpurea which is typical north American herb in medical herb with the multiple seeds muddy, in the ICR male mouse (age of five weeks). It period in three times a week, eight weeks, and Celiac Medication was given. (360mg/kg/mouse). 2Gy irradiated it by the X-ray irradiation device (200kV, 0.35Gy/min) for the Echinacea purpurea medication the third week. Collecting blood was done in the sutra time target from the day before X-ray irradiation, and a change in the corpuscle number (the number of the leukocyte, the number of the lymphocyte, the number of the granulocytes, the number of monocyte) was observed. The number of the leukocytes of the non-medication control group faced, and increase in the number of the leukocytes in the medication group wasn't recognized with the thing before the X-ray irradiation as a result. It faced though the number of the leukocytes decreased remarkably due to the radiation irradiation in the non-medication control group, and the decrease was controlled as for the medication group. The recovery of the number of the leukocytes of the medication group in the group after the X-ray irradiation showed a tendency of becoming early in comparison with the non-medication control group. As for the number of the lymphocyte except for the leukocyte, the number of the granulocyte, the number of monocyte as well, it could get the same result as the number of the leukocytes. Than the above result, Echinacea purpurea toward the mice blood cell. Effect on radiation protection along with effect on repression of a blood number decrease due to the irradiation manufactured by was suggested.

  14. Echinacea Purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) but does not alter Lopinavir-Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Stevenson, James M.; Candidate, Pharm.D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir, and on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using the probe substrates midazolam, and fexofenadine, respectively. Design Open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a Federal Government research hospital. Subjects Thirteen (8 males) healthy volunteers (median age: 31 yrs). Measurements and main results Healthy volunteers received lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily for 30 days. On study day 16, subjects began taking Echinacea purpurea 500 mg three times daily, which they continued for four weeks, the first two weeks in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (pre and post-Echinacea, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters using non-compartmental methods. Study subjects also received single doses of midazolam (8 mg orally) and fexofenadine (120 mg orally) before- and after 28 days of Echinacea purpurea to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, respectively. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 2 weeks of Echinacea coadministration. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 90% CI) for lopinavir area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to 12 hrs (AUC0–12) and maximum concentration (post-Echinacea/pre-Echinacea) were 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) and 1.00 (0.88, 1.12), respectively (P > 0.05). Conversely, GMRs (90% CIs) for midazolam AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and oral clearance were 0.73 (0.61, 0.85) (P = 0.008) and 1.37 (1.10, 1.63) (P = 0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ pre- and post-echinacea administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to

  15. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  16. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  18. THE EFFECT OF THE TREATMENTS WITH GAMMA RADIATIONS ON THE CONTENT OF NUCLEIC ACIDS TO THE SPECIES OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L. AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Ichim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The gamma radiations determined to the species of Echinacea purpurea (L Moench on increase of the quantity of DNA, comparatively to control and to the species of Hypericum perforatum (L., the decrease of the quantity of DNA (excepting the30 Gy dose witch hand a stimulative effect.

  19. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  20. Effects of Sucrose and Other Additives on In Vitro Growth and Development of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanayake Nilanthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower is being used for the preparation of more than 240 extracts, salves, and tinctures to help cure diseases like rabies, cold, and upper respiratory infections. Hence, efforts were made to develop a culture medium for successful in vitro culturing of cornflower and to regenerate buds and induce roots to enable mass propagation of selected clones. Of the three levels of sucrose tested as a supplement to MS media (Murashige and Skoog’s medium, 1962 3% showed better rooting of buds and appeared morphologically normal and identical as compared to those grown at higher and lower concentrations (2 and 4%. The additives hydrolyzed lactabumin (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1, peptone (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1, and yeast (0.0, 100, 300, and 900 mgL−1 to media containing 0.3 mgL−1 BA (6-benzyladenine and 0.01 mgL−1 NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid-plant growth regulators has negatively influenced proliferation of shoots. The higher concentrations of the above have delayed the development of plantlets. Shoot multiplication was enhanced by coconut water with 2% being the best among 4 and 8% tested. Shoot organogenesis was not influenced by copper sulphate (0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 mgL−1 and silver nitrate (0.0, 0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 mgL−1 supplements and at higher concentrations of the above inhibited plant growth.

  1. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of the Echinacea purpurea constituent undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Sparidans, Rolf W; Meijerman, Irma; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2011-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea is one of the most popular herbal medicines and is known for its immunostimulatory effects. Alkylamides are the main lipophilic components of E. purpurea that contribute to its pharmacological actions. For quantification in human plasma of one of these alkylamides, undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated. Plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of diethyl ether and n-hexane (50:50, v/v). Dried extracts were reconstituted in 50 μL of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) after which 15 μL of sample was injected into the HPLC system. HPLC was performed using a Polaris 3 C18-A column (50 mm×2 mm ID) and isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Subsequently, electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode followed by tandem mass spectrometry was performed for detection. The total run time was 3 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 0.05 to 50 ng/mL for undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, with 0.05 ng/mL being the lower limit of quantification using 1.0 mL plasma samples. Inter-assay inaccuracy (±12.7%), within-day and between-day precisions (CV≤8.23%) were acceptable. Further, undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide was found to be chemically stable under relevant conditions. Finally, the applicability of this assay has been successfully demonstrated in a pharmacokinetic experiment in which a human volunteer ingested a commercial extract of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRODUCCIÓN DE Echinacea purpurea EN TRES LOCALIDADES DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Loaiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la producción de la planta medicinal Echinacea purpurea en 3 localida- des de Costa Rica: Los Santos, a 1650 msnm, temperatura máxima de 26,5°C y mínima de 15,5°C, precipitación promedio de 2635 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arcillo-arenosos de alta fertilidad; Santa Bárbara, a 1250 msnm,temperatura máxima de 27,4°C y mínima de 16,9°C, precipitación promedio de 2924 mm año -1, y suelos francos de fertilidad media; y, Ojo de Agua a 850 msnm, temperatura máxima de 29,1°C y mínima de 19,1°C, precipitación promedio de 2302 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arenosos de fertilidad baja. La mayor cantidad de follaje y raíz se produjo en la zona de Los Santos, seguida por Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente. Aun cuando en la zona de Los Santos la densidad de siembra fue solo de 112500 plantas ha-1 comparada con 243000 plantas ha-1 en las otras 2 localidades; parece que las condiciones climáticas prevalecientes a la altura de Los Santos, así como las prácticas culturales utilizadas, favorecieron no sólo la producción de materia seca sino también la acumulación de los metabolitos secundarios de interés. El ingreso económico neto obtenido en la zona de Los Santos fue 47 y 59% mayor que en Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente.

  3. Effect of gibberellic acid, stratification and salinity on seed germination of Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Shamila Yadolahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the appropriate treatment for breaking dormancy and the effect of salinity on seed germination of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus, in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, five levels of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg×L−1 with four levels of cold moist stratification period of seeds at 5°C (0, 5, 10 and 15 days were launched. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. The statistical analysis showed that concentration of 250 mg×L−1 GA3 with 10 days of cold moist chilling significantly increased the percentage of germination of normal seedlings and reduced the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, the seeds were chilled for 10 days at 5°C and half of them treated with 250 mg×L−1 GA3 for 24 hours. The seeds treated with GA3, and those non-treated were subjected to NaCl for salinity stress. The experiment was conducted using five salinity levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl in four replications in a completely randomized design. The results showed that purple coneflower is highly sensitive to salinity in the germination stage. The results also showed that by increasing salinity levels, the percentage of germination and normal seedlings significantly decreased and the mean time to germination increased, compared to the control treatment. But the seeds treated with GA3 showed higher viability and better performance under salinity stress condition.

  4. Echinacea purpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alter lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y; Alfaro, Raul M; Stevenson, James M; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    . To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir and on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein activity by using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Outpatient clinic in a federal government research center. Thirteen healthy volunteers (eight men, five women). Subjects received lopinavir 400 mg-ritonavir 100 mg twice/day with meals for 29.5 days. On day 16, subjects received E. purpurea 500 mg 3 times/day for 28 days: 14 days in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir and 14 days of E. purpurea alone. In order to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activity, subjects received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, respectively, before and after the 28 days of E. purpurea. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (before and after E. purpurea administration, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hours to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental methods. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 14 days of E. purpurea coadministration. The post-echinacea: pre-echinacea geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for lopinavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-12 hours and for maximum concentration were 0.96 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.10, p=0.82) and 1.00 (90% CI 0.88-1.12, p=0.72), respectively. Conversely, GMRs for midazolam AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity and oral clearance were 0.73 (90% CI 0.61-0.85, p=0.008) and 1.37 (90% CI 1.10-1.63, p=0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ before and after E. purpurea administration (p>0.05). Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to the presence of the potent CYP3A inhibitor, ritonavir. Echinacea purpurea

  5. Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects and alleviate clinical symptoms of atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Soeberdt, Michael; Knie, Ulrich; Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, Stephan; Abels, Christoph; Bíró, Tamás

    2017-05-27

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. There is still an unmet need for topical anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic substances exhibiting an excellent safety profile. The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate various aspects of cutaneous barrier and immune functions, thus targeting it may be a valid approach for alleviating the symptoms of AE. To assess the putative efficacy of Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides (Ec. extract) activating cannabinoid (CB)-2 receptors in exerting anti-inflammatory effects and alleviating symptoms of AE. In vitro anti-inflammatory efficiency was investigated by monitoring the effects of Ec. extract on poly-(I:C)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (Q-PCR) and release (ELISA) of HaCaT keratinocytes. Irritancy and sensitization potential (assessed by Human Repeat Insult Patch Test; Clinical trial 1); clinical efficiency in alleviating symptoms of AE (Clinical trial 2) as well as effects on human skin structure and lipid content (Clinical trial 3 followed by transmission electron microscopy and HPTLC) were investigated in randomized double blind clinical trials. Ec. extract significantly reduced mRNA expression as well as release of poly-(I:C)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in keratinocytes. Thus, not surprisingly, the well-tolerated (Clinical trial 1) Ec. extract-based cream reduced local SCORAD statistically significantly, not only compared to baseline, but also compared to the comparator (Clinical trial 2). Of great importance, besides the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, administration of the Ec. extract-based cream also resulted in significantly higher levels of overall epidermal lipids, ceramide EOS (ω-esterified fatty acid+sphingosine sphingoid base), and cholesterol at Day 15 compared to baseline as well as significantly greater numbers of intercellular lipid lamellae in the intercellular space (Clinical trial 3). The investigated Ec. extract shows great

  6. Influence of Echinacea extract pre- or postnatal supplementation on immune and oxidative status of growing rabbits

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    Salem M.A. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate the effect of Echinacea purpurea (E root extract supplementation on the immune response and antioxidant status of growing New Zealand White rabbits. The study started with twenty pregnant does divided into two groups (10 each: the control (MC group and the E-treated (MT group. Twenty pups obtained from both the MC and MT does were divided into four sub-groups (n=10 each: (i PCMC (control pups from control mothers, (ii PTMC (E-treated pups from control mothers, (iii PCMT (control pups from E-treated mothers, and (iv PTMT (E-treated pups from E-treated mothers. Treatment with Echinacea showed, at the end of the fattening period, as compared to the control, a reduction in the mortality rate in the PTMC and PTMT groups and significantly increased body weight and red blood cells; the percentage of packed cell volume increased significantly in the PTMT group at the end of the experiment as compared to the PCMC group. The white blood cell count and particularly the percentage of lymphocytes increased (P<0.05 in the PTMC and PTMT groups while the percentage of neutrophils decreased (P<0.05. Plasma total protein (TP, serum total IgG, serum glutathione and nitric oxide increased (P<0.05 while the serum albumin/globulin ratio and malondialdehyde (MDA decreased (P<0.05 in the PTMC and PTMT groups. Our results suggest that Echinacea purpurea extract supplementation to pregnant and weaned rabbits might enhance the immune function and increase the activities of the antioxidant defence system in addition to the reduction of mortality rate after weaning, which is a strategy to improve growth performance and animal health when fattening rabbits for production.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with Echinacea purpurea on vaccine efficacy against infection with Flavobacterium columnare in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, L; Puk, K; Walczak, N; Oniszczuk, T; Oniszczuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary Echinacea purpurea (EP) on the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a Flavobacterium columnare vaccine was investigated. Two hundred D. rerio with an average weight of 290 ± 40 g were selected and fed different levels of E. purpurea (5 g kg(-1) diet--group 1, 10 g kg(-1) diet--group 2, 20 g kg(-1) diet--group 3, 30 g kg(-1) diet--group 4, and 0 g kg(-1) diet--group 5). Experimental feeding was begun 3 weeks prior to bath immunization and continued until the end of the experiment. Twenty-eight days after immunization the fish were challenged by bath immersion with F. columnare at a concentration of 1 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The relative percent survival of the experimental groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) was 5.0, 6.0, 30.0, 36.0 and 5.0, respectively. In conclusion, diet supplementation with E. purpurea may effectively enhance the response of zebrafish to a F. columnare vaccine.

  8. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and choice of substrate for the evaluation of herbal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torstein Schrøder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-11-01

    The in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition profiles of Echinacea purpurea, St. John's wort and ketoconazole were evaluated by three different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC), 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ) and testosterone. St. John's wort and ketoconazole produced similar inhibition profiles regardless of substrate. For E. purpurea, testosterone metabolism showed a much lower CYP3A4 inhibition (IC(50) 5394 microg/ml) compared to the fluorescent substrates BFC and BQ (IC(50) 354 and 452 mg/ml, respectively). It is suggested that the substrate/assay-dependent effects may arise from a complex nature of E. purpurea constituents, involving different CYP3A4 substrate binding sites. The choice of substrate might thus be essential for evaluation of the inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism for some herbs. A weak inhibition potential of E. purpurea towards CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in vitro was confirmed by the use of three different substrates.

  9. The effect of Echinacea Purpura hydroalcoholic extract on the blood parameters in mice

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    mehrdad Modaresi

    2012-07-01

    Results: The study of blood parameters showed that the extract increased markedly in the total number of white blood cells in each of 4 treatment groups in comparison with control group. The number of neutrophiles decreased significantly in each of 4 treatment groups in comparison with control group, but the significant difference wasn’t noticed in monocytes. The number of red blood cells increased significantly in groups 1 , 2 in comparison with the control group, but in groups 3 and 4 there was no significant difference. In this study, the extract had no statistical significant effect on the mean of hematocrit, hemoglobin and the index of red blood cells (MCV,MCH,MCHC. Conclusion: The extract of Echinaceae purpurea can support the system of immunity by increasing the number of white blood cells and can be effective in hematopoiesis by increasing the number of red blood cells.

  10. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Aasen, Torstein; Molden, Guri; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-11-01

    The multiherbal product Sambucus Force contains Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra as its main constituents. The aims of this study were to evaluate Sambucus Force's inhibition potential and inhibition mechanisms towards CYP3A4, and to evaluate the inhibitory co-contribution of E. purpurea and S. nigra. Metabolic studies were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4, with testosterone as substrate. Sambucus Force inhibited CYP3A4 activity with a mean (95% confidence interval) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) value of 1192 (1091-1302) µg/mL. The inhibitory potency seems exclusively to be exerted by E. purpurea, implicating an insignificant inhibition by S. nigra. The inhibition by E. purpurea as a single herb was in agreement with mechanism-based inhibition with heterotropic positive cooperative effects. Echinacea purpurea acted differently in the multiherbal product, which showed a dual inhibition profile with both an uncompetitive (substrate-dependent) inhibition and a time-dependent (substrate-independent) inhibitory mechanism. These mechanistic differences are suggested to be caused by herb-herb interactions in the multiherbal product. The CYP3A4 inhibition of Sambucus Force in vitro is considered relatively weak, but recommended high herbal dosages might enhance the potential for clinical interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Research Progress of Introduced Echinacea purpurea%我国引种药用植物紫锥菊研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 周凤琴

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊全草药用价值广泛,在欧美颇负盛名.上世纪90年代始引种我国.从栽培学、化学成分、质量评价和药理活性方面综述了紫锥菊引种至我国10余年来的研究成果,为紫锥菊在我国进一步的开发应用提供理论依据.%This article reviews the research of Echinacea purpurea introduced to China for more than ten years,including cultivation techniques, chemical composition, pharmacological activity and so on. It provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of Echinacea purpurea.

  12. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  13. Echinacea purpurea and Allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, S M; Mohamed, M F

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echinacea (E) and garlic (G) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seven treatments were designed including a control (C). Fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. Echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). Neutrophil adherence and haematocrit values increased in both supplemented groups with prolonging period of application. The neutrophils adherence was significantly increased in all treatments except group administered echinacea for 1 month. The lymphocytic counts were significantly (p echinacea for 1 and 2 months when compared with the control and/or other treatments. The gain in the body weight and specific growth rate was significantly increased in all supplemented groups (p 85%) in all the supplemented groups. The percentage of protection, after challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was the highest in groups supplemented with echinacea and garlic for 3 months after summer and winter seasons. It could be concluded that echinacea and garlic improve the gain in body weight, survival rate and resistance against challenge infection. Both compounds showed extended effects after withdrawal and improved resistance to cold stress during the winter season. However, a full commercial cost benefit analysis is necessary before recommending their application in aquaculture. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. In vitro and in vivo studies of the immunomodulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea on dendritic cells

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    N.E. El-Ashmawy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the immunomodulatory mechanisms of E. purpurea impact generation fate of DCs rather than differentiation stages. The results obtained in the in vivo study utilizing murine splenic DCs supported those observed in vitro.

  15. Prevention of influenza virus induced bacterial superinfection by standardized Echinacea purpurea, via regulation of surface receptor expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalanathan, Selvarani; Schoop, Roland; Suter, Andy; Hudson, James

    2017-04-02

    Viral infections may predispose the airways to secondary bacterial infections that can lead to unfavorable progression of principally self-limiting illnesses. Such complicated respiratory infections include pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media, and sepsis, which cause high morbidity and lethality. Some of the pathogenic consequences of viral infections, like the expression of bacterial adhesion receptors and the disturbance of physical barrier integrity due to inflammation, may create permissive conditions for co-infections. Influenza virus A (H3N2) is a major pathogen that causes secondary bacterial infections and inflammation that lead to pneumonia. The herbal medicine Echinacea purpurea, on the other hand, has been widely used to prevent and treat viral respiratory infections, and recent clinical data suggest that it may prevent secondary infection complications as well. We investigated the role of standardized E. purpurea (Echinaforce(®) extract or EF) on H3N2-induced adhesion of live nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Staphylococcus aureus, along with the expression of bacterial receptors, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), fibronectin, and platelet activating factor receptor (PAFr), by BEAS-2B cells. Inflammatory processes were investigated by determining the cellular expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) and NFκB p65. We found that influenza virus A infection increased the adhesion of H. influenzae and S. aureus to bronchial epithelial cells via upregulated expression of the ICAM-1 receptor and, to some extent, of fibronectin and PAFr. Echinaforce (EF) significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1, fibronectin, and PAFr and consequently the adhesion of both bacterial strains. EF also effectively prevented the super-expression of inflammatory cytokines by suppressing the expression of NFκB and possibly TLR-4. These results indicate that E. purpurea has the potential to reduce the

  16. Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Echinacea purpurea for the production of caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Echinacace purpurea (purple cone flower) is an important medicinal plant, and widely used for phytochemical purposes. The roots are traditionally used in herbal medicines and dietary supplements as an immunostimulant in treating inflammatory and viral diseases. Extensive research work has been carried out on both the induction of adventitious roots from E. purpurea as well as established small-scale (shake flask) to large-scale (bioreactor) cultures for the production of adventitious root biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. This chapter describes the methodologies of induction of adventitious roots from explants of E. purpurea, propagation of adventitious roots in suspension cultures, estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. The detailed methodology for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of caffeic acid derivatives present in the adventitious roots is also discussed.

  17. The bioanalysis of the major Echinacea purpurea constituents dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides in human plasma using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Rosing, Hilde; Meijerman, Irma; Sparidans, Rolf W; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2012-08-01

    Alkylamides are a group of active components of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea), which have immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. For the most abundant alkylamides, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides (DTAI), an LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated for quantification in human plasma. This assay will be used to support a clinical interaction study with E. purpurea. A 300 μL plasma aliquot underwent liquid-liquid extraction with diethylether-n-hexane (50:50, v/v). After evaporization and reconstitution in 100 μL of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) 20 μL of sample were injected into the HPLC system. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Polaris 3 C18-A column (50 mm × 2 mm ID, particle size 3 μm), a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid during the first 5 min. Hereafter, gradient elution was applied for 0.5 min, followed by restoration of the initial isocratic conditions. The total run time was 7.5 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 0.01 to 50 ng/mL for DTAI, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.01 ng/mL. Validation results show that DTAI can be accurately and precisely quantified in human plasma. DTAI also demonstrated to be chemically stable under relevant conditions. Finally, the applicability of this assay has been successfully demonstrated by measuring the plasma concentration of DTAI in patients after ingestion of a commercial extract of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots in haploid, diploid and tetraploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

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    Rong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haploid, diploid and tetraploid shoots of Echinacea purpurea L. sharing the same genome were cultured in medium and their rooting response to the composition of the culture medium was investigated. It was found that in medium without growth regulators, haploid shoots could initiate roots quite efficiently with the shortest time required for the emergence of roots and with the highest rooting rate; the response of the diploids was similar to that of the haploids and largely different from that of the tetraploids. The tetraploids obviously required longer time for the initiation of roots and had the lowest rooting rate. Supplementing the medium with 0.05 and 0.15 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid or 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA had little positive effect on the rooting of diploid shoots and, in some cases, had even negative effect on the rooting of haploid shoots, but enhanced effectively the rooting of the tetraploid shoots. By supplementing the medium with 0.3 mg/L IBA, the time required for the emergence of roots from the tetraploid shoots was shortened and the rooting rate was increased largely. As a result, healthy tetraploid plantlets with fully developed root system could be efficiently propagated.

  19. Transformación genética de Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia mediante Agrobacterium rhizogenes

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    Jorge Loaiza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secciones de tallos de vitroplántulas de Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia fueron inoculadas con Agrobacterium rhizogenes cepa SV3101, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas transformadas. Se evaluó el efecto de la acetosiringona en combinación con floroglucinol sobre la transformación. El proceso de transformación aumentó proporcional y significativamente conforme se incrementó las concentraciones de ambos productos; llegándose a obtener un 100% de trasformación cuando se usó 200 μM de acetosiringona en combinación con 50 mg l –1 de floroglucinol. La eliminación de la bacteria se logró con 6 ml l-1 del Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM. También, se logró el cultivo in vitro de sólo raíces trasformadas, las cuales incrementaron su peso seco 11 veces en un periodo de 24 días de cultivo, momento en el cual se hace necesario iniciar un nuevo cultivo.

  20. Impact of UV-B radiation on some biochemical changes and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture

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    Hossam H. Manaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of UV-B light force, exposure time and incubation period on producing caffeic acid derivatives and growth parameters in Echinacea purpurea callus and suspension culture were assessed. UV-B led to an increment of all growth parameters and antioxidant activity in callus and cell suspension and caffeic acid derivatives in cell suspension by increasing incubation period. The reverse was true for G-POD activity in cell suspension and PAL activity in both types of cultures. Incubation period 2 weeks was more effective in caffeic acid, total phenols and G-POD activity in callus cells and incubation period one week only for total phenols in cell suspension. The two exposure times 2 and 4 h increased antioxidant activity in the two types of cultures. Exposure time 2 h led to increase caffeic acid and total phenols in callus cells. The maximum increase in caffeic acid, total phenols and PAL activity in cell suspension was achieved by 4 h exposure time. Likewise, using 2 UV-B lamps for 2 h was the most effective in creating more biochemical components than the other treatments.

  1. Bauer ketones 23 and 24 from Echinacea paradoxa var. paradoxa inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and cytokines in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In our study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinacea species and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were scr...

  2. Chemical and pharmacological profiles of Echinacea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Peter; Šutovská, Martina; Kocmálová, Michaela; Fraňová, Soňa; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman

    2015-08-01

    Echinacea purpurea has a long history in traditional medicine. To verify the pharmacological efficacy of active principles, a polysaccharide-phenolic-protein complex has been isolated from flowering parts of herb by alkaline extraction. It showed on GPC and HPLC one peak of molecular mass around 10 kDa. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed carbohydrate, phenolic and protein contents in Echinacea complex. Pharmacological tests have shown its marked cough suppressing and bronchodilatory effects. The antitussive effect of Echinacea was similar to the narcotic drug codeine and the bronchodilatory effect was more significant than salbutamol, the antiasthmatic drug used in a clinical practice. Pharmacodynamic study shows the beneficial effects of Echinacea complex on the respiratory system and highlights the great potential for development of antitussive and bronchodilatory drugs from natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Echinacea purpurea Moench Based on SRAP%紫锥菊遗传多样性的S RA P分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜

    2014-01-01

    采用SRAP分子标记技术,对14份引种紫锥菊材料的遗传多样性进行分析。结果显示,9对SRAP引物组合扩增出171条带,多态性比率为80.7%,说明SRAP可应用于紫锥菊种内遗传多样性分析;聚类分析表明紫锥菊样品间的亲缘关系与种质来源地存在一定的相关性。%The sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP)molecular marker was used to detect the genetic diversity among 14 introduced Echinacea purpurea from different germplasm sources.The results showed that 171 bands were obtained by 9 pairs of SRAP primers.The percentage of polymorphic bands was 80.7%.It indicated that the SRAP markers could be used for intraspecific genetic diversity analysis of Echi-nacea purpurea.Cluster analysis showed that there was certain correlation between the genetic relationship and germplasm sources.

  4. Evaluation of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Shoot and Root Characteristics of Echinacea purpurea

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    morteza Goldani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple coneflower with scientific name Echinacea purpurea (L. is an herbaceous perennial plant native to North America and is the one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. Root of Echinacea purpurea is commonly used around the world for stimulation of immune system. It is used as herbal medicine in respiratory infections, against malignant tumors and several inflammatory conditions However, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main elements that make up the proteins in plants and herbs for natural growth, especially is necessary in their productive organs. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus are important in continuation of flowering, the flowers fresh and dry weight and in essential oil. Fertilization of E. purpurea plants indicated that in absence or at low levels of nitrogen fertilization (0 and 100 kg acre-1, the addition of 50 and 100 kg acre-1 of potassium increased aerial parts, flower heads and root yield. Another report indicated that highest aerial biomass and root yield in E. purpurea was obtained with 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at constant rates of phosphorus and potassium. Polyphenol content was not influenced by nitrogen fertilization and values fluctuated between 2.4 and 5.4 % in the aerial part at flowering and between 1.6 and 3.5 % in the roots. Fertilization with nitrogen caused a decrease in the concentrations of echinoside. Echinoside content was 1.16 % without nitrogen fertilization, and 0.94 % with nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of coneflower, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were included three levels of nitrogen (0, 1 and 2 gr urea per kilogram of soil and three levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 0.75 and 1.5 gr of phosphate (P2O5 per kg of soil. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied

  5. Echinacea species of medicinal use

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    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea species come from North America. Preparations of Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are used in healing many diseases owing to their immunostimulative, antivirus and bacteria, scarifying and anti-inflammatory properties. Echinacea pallida Nutt. displays tap root, linear spear-shaped leaves. Seedling plantation with both species is performed in May and spacing of 50 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants per row. Harvest takes place in the 2-nd year of flowering.

  6. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea-associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, opportunistic pathogens of Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Maggini, Valentina; Bosi, Emanuele; Mocali, Stefano; Emiliani, Giovanni; Perrin, Elena; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-03-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (Bcc) represent a serious threat for immune-compromised patient affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) since they are resistant to many substances and to most antibiotics. For this reason, the research of new natural compounds able to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains has raised new interest during the last years. A source of such natural compounds is represented by medicinal plants and, in particular, by bacterial communities associated with these plants able to produce molecules with antimicrobial activity. In this work, a panel of 151 (endophytic) bacteria isolated from three different compartments (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea were tested (using the cross-streak method) for their ability to inhibit the growth of 10 Bcc strains. Data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from the roots of E. purpurea are the most active in the inhibition of Bcc strains, followed by bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric soil, and endophytes from stem/leaf compartment. At the same time, Bcc strains of environmental origin showed a higher resistance toward inhibition than the Bcc strains with clinical (i.e. CF patients) origin. Differences in the inhibition activity of E. purpurea-associated bacteria are mainly linked to the environment -the plant compartment- rather than to their taxonomical position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Echinacea in infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Widrlechner, Mark P; LaLone, Carlie A; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Solco, Avery KS; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Leng, Qiang; Hebert, Steven C; Maury, Wendy J; Price, Jason P

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing studies have developed strategies for identifying key bio-active compounds and chemical profiles in Echinacea with the goal of improving its human health benefits. Antiviral and antiinflammatory–antipain assays have targeted various classes of chemicals responsible for these activities. Analysis of polar fractions of E. purpurea extracts showed the presence of antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that polyphenolic compounds other than the known HIV inhibitor, cichoric acid, may be involved. Antiinflammatory activity differed by species, with E. sanguinea having the greatest activity and E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. simulata having somewhat less. Fractionation and studies with pure compounds indicate that this activity is explained, at least in part, by the alkamide constituents. Ethanol extracts from Echinacea roots had potent activity as novel agonists of TRPV1, a mammalian pain receptor reported as an integrator of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia and a prime therapeutic target for analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. One fraction from E. purpurea ethanol extract was bioactive in this system. Interestingly, the antiinflammatory compounds identified to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production differed from those involved in TRPV1 receptor activation. PMID:18258644

  8. Determination of cichoric acid in introducing plant of Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊中菊苣酸的定性定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 聂斌; 武力; 曾振灵; 吴鸿; 陈建新

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立薄层色谱法(TLC)和高效液相色谱法(HPLC),对紫锥菊不同部位中的菊苣酸进行分析,为紫锥菊质量标准的建立提供依据.方法:TLC鉴别紫锥菊根、茎、叶、花中的菊苣酸;HPLC测定以上各部位中菊苣酸的含量,色谱柱为XTerra C18柱( 150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸水溶液(23:77),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长为326 nm.结果:TLC中菊苣酸的斑点清晰可辨,Rf值为0.72; HPLC测得菊苣酸的进样浓度在0.5~100 μg·mL-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r =0.9999),方法的平均回收率(n=3)为95.3%( RSD= 3.6%),紫锥菊根、茎、叶、花中的菊苣酸含量分别为12.1,0.68,5.60,2.47 mg·g-1.结论:该检测方法简便可行,可用于紫锥菊中菊苣酸的质量控制.%Objective:To establish TLC and HPLC methods to analyze cichoric acid in different parts of Echinacea purpurea. Methods: TLC was adopted to rapidly identify the cichoric acid of different parts of Echinacea purpurea, including root, stem, leaf and flower, and HPLC was adopted to determine the content of cichoric acid in different parts of the plant. The column of Xterra C18( 150 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm) was adopted,with mixture of acetonitrile -0. 1 % phosphoric acid (23: 17) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min -1, and the UV detector was set at 326 nm. Results;The cichoric acid dot of TLC was clear and the Rf value was 7. 2. For HPLC determination,a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 5 - 100 μg · mL-1 ( r = 0. 9999 ) and ideal average recovery (95. 3% , RSD = 3.6% ,n =3) were obtained. The content of the cichoric acid in root, stem,leaf and flower of Echinacea purpurea was 12. 1,0.68,5.60,2.47 mg · g-1 respectively. Conclusion:The method is simple,and can be used to control quality of cichoric acid in Echinacea purpurea.

  9. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of the antimicrobial producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3 isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea: insights into its biotechnological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in plant microbiota; however, despite medicinal plant relevance, very little is known about their highly complex endophytic communities. In this work, we report on the genomic and phenotypic characterization of the antimicrobial compound producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. In particular, EpRS3 is able to inhibit growth of different bacterial pathogens (Bcc, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) which might be related to the presence of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of different types of secondary metabolites. The outcomes presented in this work highlight the fact that the strain possesses huge biotechnological potential; indeed, it also shows antimicrobial effects upon well-described multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogens, and it affects plant root elongation and morphology, mimicking indole acetic acid (IAA) action. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following......-40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were...

  11. Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C to alleviate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaniah, F; Wiyono, W H; Yunus, F; Setiawati, A; Totzke, U; Verbruggen, M A

    2011-10-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) frequently cause exacerbations of chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stimulation of the innate immune system may provide an early defence against such infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether Echinacea purpurea (EP) along with micronutrients may alleviate COPD exacerbations caused by acute URTI. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in COPD patients with acute URTI. Patients were given ciprofloxacin for 7 days and additionally one tablet per day of EP, of EP along with zinc, selenium and ascorbic acid (EP+), or of placebo until day 14. Serum levels of TNF α and interleukins 1β, 6 and 10 were measured before and after treatment. Until week 4 post-end of treatment, all patients had to daily report on COPD symptoms in diaries. In total, 108 mostly male patients with a mean age of 65·8 years (40-81 years) were enrolled. Patients of the three treatment arms did not vary significantly in baseline characteristics. EP+, but not EP resulted in significantly less severe and shorter exacerbation episodes following URTI as compared with placebo suggesting a synergistic effect of Echinacea and micronutrients. Large variations in biomarkers in-between and within groups were unrelated to treatment. Study medication was safe and well tolerated with overall 15 adverse events one of which was serious. Among those, sleeping disorders were most frequent and likely related to the underlying disease. The combination of EP, zinc, selenium and vitamin C may alleviate exacerbation symptoms caused by URTI in COPD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the interactions among Echinacea, zinc, selenium and vitamin C. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Study on the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.on edible oils%紫花松果菊挥发油的油脂抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳; 杨秀梅; 江玲; 余德强; 袁艺

    2013-01-01

    Peroxide value, acid value and TBA value as indexes, rapeseed oil and lard as mediums, compared with the synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA.the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard was studied.The results showed that within the scope of the study,the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon rapeseed oil and lard were existed and were enhanced with the increasing amout.The antioxidant effect was obvious on rapeseed oil with the addition of 2g/kg volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.and the influence was almost equivalent to 0.2g/kg BHT and BHA.The antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea Lon lard was less than rapeseed oil.%以过氧化值、酸值及TBA值为指标,以菜籽油和猪油为介质,并与人工合成抗氧化剂BHT和BHA进行对照,研究了紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油的抗氧化性能结果表明:在所研究的浓度范围内,紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油和猪油均具有一定的抗氧化作用,且具有剂量效应关系其中,添加量为2g/kg的紫花松果菊挥发油对菜籽油的抗氧化效果较为明显,几乎等效于0.2g/kg BHT和BHA的抗氧化作用.紫花松果菊挥发油对猪油的抗氧化效果则不及对菜籽油的抗氧化效果明显.

  13. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankti P. Dalwadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg, leaves (400mg/kg and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg.Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by intraperitoneal administration at the dose of 1g/kg. Blood was withdrawn through retro orbital puncture at 15& 24 hrs intervals. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts were evaluated by estimation of lipid profiles.Results: Estimation of lipid profile shows that Tephrosia purpurea stem extract (500mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea leaves extract (400mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract (300mg/kg shows the less significant antihyperlipidemic activity. While Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract at the dose of 600mg/kg shows potent antihyperlipidemic activity. It decreases TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and increases HDL levels. Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract 600 mg/kg shows significant antihyperlipidemic activity as standard drug Atorvastatin.Conclusion: Hydro methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea whole plant inhibits cholesterol and triglycerides synthesis. Increasing in stimulation of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase  is responsible for plasma triglycerides hydrolysis. The elevation of serum cholesterol levels following i.p. injection of Poloxomer 407 solution to rats was due to stimulation of 3-hydroxy-3-rmethylglutaryl-Co-enzyme A (HMG-Co A reductase activity in the liver by the Poloxomer. Hydro methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Showed lowering of TG levels by increasing the lipoprotein lipase activities. The cholesterol lowering effect of Tephrosia purpurea extract were observed in rats treated with the Poloxomer 407 by the

  14. 两引种地紫锥菊扫描电镜的观察研究%Studies on the introduced Echinacea purpurea from two provinces by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅; 周凤琴

    2012-01-01

    目的:为引种紫锥菊药材鉴定提供微形态依据.方法:采用扫描电子显微镜技术对怀柔和桐城两引种地紫锥菊叶片和花粉粒进行观察和比较.结果:两引种地紫锥菊在叶片微形态上具有相似性,但花粉粒在萌发孔类型和极面观形状上差异较大,存在一定的分化.结论:不同引种地紫锥菊的花粉粒微形态特征存在差异,可为不同引种地紫锥菊的鉴别和分类提供参考依据.%Objective: To provide infrastructure basis for identification of the Echinacea purpurea. Methods: Ultrastructural observations were carried out for leaf and pollen from two provinces by scanning electron microscope. Results: The ultrastruclures are similar in leaf but different in pollen from two provinces. Conclusion: The exterior ultrastructure of Echinacea purpurea from two provinces showed the characteristics of diversity. The results of the study could be used for the identification of the introduced Echinacea purpurea from different provinces.

  15. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,

  16. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Jugla

  17. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolau Basil J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2 receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. Methods A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s responsible for this bioactivity. Results A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the

  18. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lankun; Rowe, Eric W; Jeftinija, Ksenija; Jeftinija, Srdija; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil J; McKay, Jodi; Kohut, Marian; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2010-11-23

    With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s) responsible for this bioactivity. A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the components thought to be responsible for the major

  19. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  20. Isolation of Caftaric Acid, Cichoric Acid and Echinacoside from Echinacea purpurea by Flash Chromatography%快速制备液相色谱分离紫锥菊中咖啡酰基酒石酸、菊苣酸和松果菊苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春燕; 徐新军; 谢鸷生; 杨梅; 黄洁云; 林妙卿; 杨得坡

    2012-01-01

    Objective To set up an efficient and fast method to isolate the major constituents (caftaric acid, cichoric acid and echinacoside) from Echinacea purpurea by using flash chromatography. Methods Echinacea purpurea extract was dispensed in water, and then was extracted with ethyl acetate for obtaining ethyl acetate fraction 1(F1). The remained solution was adjusted to pH value being 3, and then was extracted with ethyl acetate for obtaining ethyl acetate fraction 2 (F2). After that, F1 and F2 were isolated by flash chromatography. Results Three compounds were isolated and I-dentified as caftaric acid (purity being 99.51 %), cichoric acid (purity being 98.02 %) and echinacoside (purity being 96.30%) by UV, IR, MS and NMR. Conclusion The isolation of caftaric acid, cichoric acid and echinacoside from Echinacea purpurea by adjusting pH value and using flash chromatography is simple, fast and efficient, and the obtained compounds have high purity, which can be used to prepare the reference substances.%目的 建立快速制备液相色谱高效、快速分离制备紫锥菊中的主要成分咖啡酰基酒石酸、菊苣酸和松果菊苷的工艺.方法 通过调节紫锥菊浸膏水溶液的pH,分别以乙酸乙酯萃取,得中性乙酸乙酯层1(F1)和酸性乙酸乙酯层2(F2),然后,采用快速制备液相色谱分别对两个乙酸乙酯层进行分离,得到3个化合物.结果 经UV、IR、MS和NMR鉴定,HPLC测定纯度,3个化合物分别为咖啡酰基酒石酸(99.51%)、菊苣酸(98.02%)和松果菊苷(96.30%).结论 通过调节pH预处理和采用快速制备液相色谱从紫锥菊中分离纯化咖啡酰基酒石酸、菊苣酸和松果菊苷的方法简便、快速,所得产物纯度较高,可用于对照品的制备.

  1. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pankti P. Dalwadi; Pragnesh Patani

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves) extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg), leaves (400mg/kg) and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg).Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by in...

  2. 紫锥菊叶柄高效再生体系的建立%Establishment of An Efficient Regeneration System for Echinacea Purpurea Petiol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉萍; 李宜芸; 李茜雯; 王小菁

    2015-01-01

    紫锥菊具有增强免疫和抗感染的作用,在国际上具有悠久的应用历史,近年来国内也有引种.该文以紫锥菊的不同器官(根、叶片、叶柄)为外植体,研究各激素配比对不同外植体建立再生体系的影响.结果表明:根、叶片、叶柄不定芽分化的适宜培养基分别为MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA、MS+2.0 mg/L 6-BA、MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA,诱导率分别为43.8%、73.7%和94.8%;增殖的适宜培养基为MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA,增殖系数为9.0,生根培养基为MS基本培养基.研究结果为紫锥菊的快速繁殖和进一步开展遗传转化奠定基础.%Echinacea Purpurea, which has the functions of enhancing immunity and anti-infection, has been used as a medicinal plant for a long history worldwide, and was introduced to China in recent years.In order to establish an efficient regeneration system of E.Purpurea, we studied the effect of concentrations of 6-BA and NAA on the plant regeneration of different explants.The results showed that:a, the optimum media for bud differentiation from petiol, leaf and root were MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA, MS+2.0 mg/L 6-BA, and MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA, respectively;b, the optimum media for differentiation and rooting were MS+0.5 mg/L 6-BA, MS, re-spectively;c, the multiplication coefficient reached to 9.0.This work provides a practical plant regeneration meth-od for rapid propagation and genetic modification of E.Purpurea.

  3. Effects of dietary administration of Echinacea purpurea on growth indices and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoii, Somayeh Bohlouli; Kohyani, Ahmad Tahmasebi; Parseh, Ali; Salati, Amir Parviz; Sadeghi, Ehsan

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Echinacea purpurea (EP) on growth and some hematological and blood biochemical indices of rainbow trout fingerlings. A basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g EP kg⁻¹ to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with an initial average weight of approximately 8 g. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, fish fed diets with 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ showed highest final weight and SGR and fish fed with the control diet indicated the lowest final weight and SGR. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in FCR between the control group and the groups fed with diets of 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein content, albumin content, globulin content, and albumin/globulin ratio in the fish were evaluated. There were significant differences between hematological parameters including RBC, WBC, HB, lymphocyte, and neutrophil percentage in fish fed with dietary nucleotide compared with control treatment (P < 0.05). The results suggest that EP administration at 0.25 and 0.5 g EP kg⁻¹ exerted positive effects on growth and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout.

  4. PARTICULARITĂŢILE STRUCTURII MORFOLOGICE ÎN PRIMII DOI ANI DE VEGETAŢIE A SPECIEI DE ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L. ÎN CONDIŢII BIOECOLOGICE ALE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MELNIC

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A fost studiată structura morfologică a speciei de Echinacea purpurea cultivată timp de doi ani în condiţii bioecolo­gice autohtone. Ulterior, analizând acumularea biomasei diferitelor părţi de plantă în diferite faze de vegetaţie. Rezulta­tele obţinute au arătat că dinamica acumulării de biomasă la toate trei părţi ale plantei are o capacitate sporită în ce pri­veşte masa şi numărul de lăstari, inflorescenţe, atât în primul an de cultură, cât şi în al doilea an. Acest fapt este o dovadă a adaptabilităţii sporite la condiţiile bioecologice autohtone.THE PECULIARITIES OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST TWO YEARSOF VEGETATION OF THE SPECIES ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L. INMOLDOVA'S BIOECOLOGICAL CONDITIONSIn this paper are the results of studying of the morphological structure of Echinacea purpurea species cultivated for two years in indigenous bioecological conditions. In this period of time was analyzed biomass accumulation of different plant parts in different stages of vegetation. The results showed that the dynamics of biomass accumulation in all three parts of the plant has increased capacity as well as the number of flowering shoots, both in the first year of cultivation and in year two. This proves about an increased adaptability to indigenous bioecological conditions. 

  5. 高速逆流色谱法结合高效液相色谱法制备紫锥菊根中烷基酰胺类化合物%Isolation and purification of alkamides from Echinacea Purpurea by HSCCC-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆英; 李佳银; 李觅路; 李荣根; 刘仲华

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To establish a new technique for isolation and purification of alkamides from Echinacea Purpurea. Methods In n-hexane: ethyl acetate ;methanol: water( 2:5:5:3 ) solvent system,alkamides were isolated by high-speed counter current chromatography from petroleum ether extraction of Echinacea Purpurea root,then the compounds of alkamides purified by the prepared HPLC,and the structures were established on the basis of MS.1H NMR.and 13C NMR. Results Eight compounds were obtained by purification of 94. 43% , 96. 80% , 98. 89% , 98. 22% , 96. 42% , 98. 70% , 93. 28% and 95. 30% respectively. Conclusion HSCCC-HPLC is a very powerful technique for the isolation and purification of alkamides from Echinacea Purpurea.%目的 建立紫锥菊中多种烷基酰胺类化合物高效稳定的制备分离方法.方法 以正己烷-乙酸乙酯-甲醇-水(2∶5∶5∶3)为溶剂体系,利用高速逆流色谱对紫锥菊根石油醚萃取物进行纯化,再经制备液相分离获得各单体化合物,根据MS、1H NMR、13C NMR波谱信息确定化学结构.结果 获得纯度分别为94.43%,96.80%,98.89%,98.22%,96.42%,98.70%,93.28%和95.30%的8个烷基酰胺类化合物.结论 高速逆流色谱和制备液相色谱联用技术可高效制备分离紫锥菊中多种烷基酰胺类化合物,为紫锥菊的药理研究及质量控制奠定基础.

  6. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.

    2005-01-01

    -40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were......-Mann-Whitney-U-test, which is claimed to be optimal for the evaluation of the results of studies with a cross-over design, a significant difference was found for the number of CD8 + -T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells corresponding to either a decrease during treatment with verum or an increase in the number......BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following...

  7. Echinacea complex--chemical view and anti-asthmatic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, Martina; Capek, Peter; Kazimierová, Ivana; Pappová, Lenka; Jošková, Marta; Matulová, Mária; Fraňová, Soňa; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman

    2015-12-04

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the mostly used herbs in the traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Modern interest in Echinacea is directed to its immunomodulatory activity. Recent studies have shown that secretion of asthma-related cytokines in the bronchial epithelial cells can be reversed by Echinacea preparations. To examine the pharmacodynamics profile of Echinacea active principles, a complex has been isolated from its flowers by alkaline extraction and has been tested using an animal model of allergic asthma. The structural features of Echinacea purpurea complex was determined using chemical and spectroscopic methods. Allergic inflammation of the airways was induced by repetitive exposure of guinea pigs to ovalbumin. Echinacea complex was then administered 14 days in 50mg/kg b.w. daily dose perorally. Bronchodilatory effect was verified as decrease in the specific airway resistance (sRaw) in vivo and by reduced contraction amplitude (mN) of tracheal and pulmonary smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine and histamine in vitro. The impact on mucociliary clearance evaluated measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in vitro using LabVIEW™ Software. Anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea complex was verified by changes in exhaled NO levels and by Bio-Plex® assay of Th2 cytokine concentrations (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Chemical and spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and proteins, as well as the dominance of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan moieties in Echinacea complex. The significant decrease in sRaw values and suppressed histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractile amplitude of isolated airways smooth muscle that were similar to effects of control drug salbutamol confirmed Echinacea complex bronchodilatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect was comparable with that of control agent

  8. Enhancement of Innate and Adaptive Immune Functions by Multiple Echinacea Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zili; Liu, Yi; Wu, Lankun; Senchina, David S.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kohut, Marian L.; Cunnick, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Echinacea preparations are commonly used as nonspecific immunomodulatory agents. Alcohol extracts from three widely used Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea, were investigated for immunomodulating properties. The three Echinacea species demonstrated a broad difference in concentrations of individual lipophilic amides and hydrophilic caffeic acid derivatives. Mice were gavaged once a day (for 7 days) with one of the Echinacea extracts (130 mg/kg) or vehicle and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) 4 days prior to collection of immune cells for multiple immunological assays. The three herb extracts induced similar, but differential, changes in the percentage of immune cell populations and their biological functions, including increased percentages of CD49+ and CD19+ lymphocytes in spleen and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Antibody response to sRBC was significantly increased equally by extracts of all three Echinacea species. Concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes from E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher T cell proliferation. In addition, the Echinacea treatment significantly altered the cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenic cells. The three herbal extracts significantly increased interferon-γ production, but inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. Only E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher production of IL-4 and increased IL-10 production. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Echinacea is a wide-spectrum immunomodulator that modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, E. angustifolia or E. pallida may have more anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:17887935

  9. Evaluation for Plant Regeneration Potential of Root Explants in Echinacea purpurea%松果菊根外植体植株再生能力的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahanayake NILANTHI; 赵福成; 杨跃生; 吴鸿

    2009-01-01

    为了评价松果菊Echinacea purpurea L.根外植体的再生能力,将从松果菊无菌小苗得到的根外植体和叶片以及叶柄外植体接种到含有不同种类和浓度的细胞分裂素和生长素的培养基上,诱导不定芽的再生.结果表明,在多数情况下,根外植体的再生能力显著高于叶片,和叶柄类似.0.3 mg/L的苄基腺嘌呤和0.01 mg/L的萘乙酸是诱导根外植体不定芽再生最合适的激素种类和质量浓度组合.根外植体培养的不定芽再生频率为100%,每个根外植体得到再生芽1.75个.当把这些由根再生的不定芽从母体组织切开并转移培养到含有0.01 mg/L萘乙酸的培养基后,很容易生根并成为完整的植株.可见根是组培快繁松果菊理想的外植体材料.%For evaluation of the plant regeneration potential of root explants, explants of root, leaf and petiole were taken from in vitro grown purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea L. Plantlets and cultured on adventitious bud inducing media with different cytokinins and auxins at various concentrations. In most of the cases, the regeneration potential of root explants was much higher than that of leaf ones and similar to that of petiole explants, and a combination of 0.3 mg/L benzyladeine with 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid was the most effective combination and concentrations for inducing adventitious bud regen-eration. Although the best result of bud regeneration was obtained from culture of petiole explants, a good result in regenera-tion rate of 100% and a high number of 1.75 buds per exphnt were obtained from culture of root explants. Buds regenerated from root explants initiated roots and became intact plants readily upon transfer to a medium containing 0.01 mg/L naphthale-neacetic acid. Results of the experiments indicated that root was an ideal explant source for rapid propagation by means of tis-sue culture in this plant species.

  10. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (p<0.05), and the absence of significant seroconversion of secondary response in T3 ewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion.

  11. Effect of exogenous nitric oxide on germination and some of biochemical characteristics of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. in saline condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Asadi-Sanam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To find out the role and effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO application in reducing oxidative damage induced by salinity stress in purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. seed germination, a compeletly randomized design in factorial arrangment with three replications was conducted in Plant Physiology Laboratory of the Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2012. The crop seeds were pre-soaked in 0.1 mM of sodium nitroprusside (SNP 0.1 as nitric oxide donor solution as well as in distilled water (SNP 0 as control for 20 hs just before the onset of the experiment. Then, pre-treated seeds were subjected to different levels of salinity (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mM NaCl solution to germinate. Results showed that the SNP0.1 treatment in saline conditions had significant effect on germination percentage. Different levels of salinity significantly reduced germination rate, germination vigor and index. Pretreated with exogenous NO increased the activity of SOD, POD and APX as compared with SNP0. Accordingly, the highest activity of SOD (116.3 μM g-1 FW, POD (1.7 μM g-1 FW. min. and APX (50.1 μM g-1 FW. min. was related to the 125, 50 and 125 Mm NaCl, respectively. Significant and adverse effects of NO were seen on CAT activity. Exogenous NO, as an antioxidant, also reduced peroxidation of membrane lipids (MDA and delayed the oxidation of proteins. Overall, it could be concluded that sodium nitroprusside as NO donor could improve coneflower seed germination characteristics in saline condition and increase salinity tolerance by means of scavenging of free ROS radicals.

  12. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA LINN IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Shaikh; Tabrej Mujawar; Rashid Akthar; Sufiyan Ahmad; Mohib Khan

    2011-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (family Fabaceae) is considered in system of folklore medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The present experimental investigation established the lipid lowering properties of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on experimentally Dexamethasone induced rats. The lipid parameters studied are Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLD...

  13. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  14. Echinacea for treating the common cold: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger; Rakel, Dave; Mundt, Marlon; Bone, Kerry; Barlow, Shari; Ewers, Tola

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinacea is widely used to treat common cold. Objective To assess potential benefits of echinacea as common cold treatment. Design Randomized controlled trial with four parallel groups: 1) no pills, 2) placebo pills (blinded), 3) echinacea pills (blinded), or 4) echinacea pills (open-label). (NCT00065715) Setting Community-based trial. Participants People aged 12 to 80 years with new onset common cold. Interventions Extracts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia root were used to make tablets standardized to alkamide content. Indistinguishable placebo tablets contained only inert ingredients. Measurements The primary outcome was area-under-the-curve global severity, with severity assessed twice daily by self report on the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Secondary outcomes included interleukin-8 and neutrophil count from nasal wash assessed at intake and two days later. Results Of 719 enrolled, 713 completed the protocol. Participants were 64% female and 88% white, with mean age 33.7 years. Mean global severity was 236 and 258 for blinded and unblinded echinacea, 264 for blinded placebo, and 286 for those without pills. Contrasting the two blinded groups yields a 28 point (95% CI = −69 to 13) trend toward benefit for echinacea (p=0.089). Mean illness duration for the blinded and unblinded echinacea groups was 6.34 and 6.76 days, respectively, compared to 6.87 days for blinded placebo and 7.03 for no pills. Contrasting blinded groups yields a 0.53 day (95% CI = −1.25 to 0.19) trend toward benefit (p = 0.075). Median change interleukin-8 (pg/mL) and neutrophil cell count were: no pills (30, 1), blinded placebo (39, 1), blinded echinacea (58, 2), and open-label echinacea (70, 1), also not statistically significant. Limitations Higher-than-expected variability limited power to detect small-but-potentially-important benefits. Conclusions The observed shorter illness duration and lower severity seen in the echinacea groups were

  15. Influence of Different Processing Methods on the Seed Germination of Echinacea purpurea%不同处理对紫花松果菊种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆叶; 黄承玲; 储蓉; 魏德生

    2012-01-01

    为摸清不同处理方式对紫花松果菊种子萌发的影响,采用单因素随机区组试验设计,对引进的紫花松果菊[Echinacea purpurea,(L) Moench.]种子萌发特性进行研究.结果表明:1)在室内平均温度和湿度分别为25.3℃和80.6%时,种子经过稀释10倍、20倍和40倍的95%乙醇溶液浸泡处理5 min后进行萌发,其萌发率均达90%左右;2)在室内平均温度和湿度分别为27.4℃和74.3%的环境中,GA溶液浓度为5 mg/L时的萌发率最高(达41%),浓度超过5 mg/L的GA溶液对紫花松果菊种子的萌发无积极作用,相反还有抑制作用.%In order to ascertain the influence of different processing methods on the seed germination of E. purpurea, the single factor randomized block was designed to study the seed germination of E. purpurea. The results showed that:l) The E. purpurea seeds were soaked in 95% ethanol solution which was diluted 10 times,20 times, 40 times respectively for five minutes under 25. 3*C of laboratory average temperature and 80. 6% of relative humidity before starting to be researched the seed germination, then about 90% seed germination rate was obtained; 2) In order to increase the seed germination rate of E. purpurea under 27. 4癈 of laboratory average temperature and 74. 3% of relative humidity, the GA solution in certain concentration areas (<5 mg/L) was controlled before soaking the E. purpurea seeds. The high-concentration GA solution had no positive effect of E. purpurea seed germination.

  16. 紫锥菊地上部分化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents from the Aerial Part of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玲; 王磊; 冯锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea.Methods:The compounds were separated and purified by repeatedly silica gel,ODS,D101 macroporous resin,MCI,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results:Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as (2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol (1),(5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1,5-trimethylcyclohexanone (2),(3S,6E,10R)-3,10,11-trihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-dodeca-1,6-diene (3),negunfurol (4),schensianol A (5),ent-4 (15)-eudesmene-1β,6α-diol (6),(E)-5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7),syringaresinol (8),quercetin (9),ethyl laurate (10),ethyl caffeate (11),ferulic acid (12),α-spinasterol (13),stigmasterol (14),β-daucosterol (15),octacosanoic acid (16).Conclusion:Compound 1 ~ 5 are isolated from the Asteraceae for the first time,compound 6,7,9,10,12 are isolated from genus of Echinacea for the first time,compound 15,16 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究紫锥菊地上部分的化学成分.方法:通过反复的硅胶、ODS、D101大孔树脂、MCI、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱以及重结晶等方法分离纯化,通过理化性质和波谱分析技术鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从紫锥菊地上部分分离鉴定了16个化合物,分别为:(2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol(1)、(5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1,5-trimethylcyclohexanone(2)、(3S,6E,10R)-3,10,11-trihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-dodeca-1,6-diene(3)、negunfurol(4)、schensianol A(5)、ent-4(15)-eudesmene-1β,6α-diol(6)、(E)-5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7)、丁香脂素(8)、槲皮素(9)、月桂酸乙酯(10)、咖啡酸乙酯(11)、阿魏酸(12)、α-菠甾醇(13)、豆甾醇(14)、β-胡萝卜苷(15)、二十八烷酸(16).结论:其中,化合物1~5为首次从菊科植物中分离得到,化合物6、7、9、10、12为首次从松果

  17. 引种紫锥菊不同部位的红外光谱分析与鉴定%Analysis of Echinacea purpurea Moench for Different Parts Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 周凤琴

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, raw radix, stem, leaf and flower of the original medicines and alcohol, soluble extract of introduced Echinacea purpurea Moench were stidied via the IR macro-fringerprint method. The spectra of raw madicinal materials show that all parts show characteristic peaks of starch. In the two-dimensional correlation spectra, the characteristic peak of flower is stronger than that of other parts at 1711 cm-1,1630 cm-1 (Carboxylic acid C=O), this proves that the quantity of component of polyphenols in flower is higher than that in the other parts. The FTIR spectra of soluble extract present the component of polyphenols in flower and leaf is higher than in stem and radix, but the component of nitrate and sugar is opposite. Compared the spectra of whole raw medicines with the different parts, it can discern that the whole raw medicines contained which parts of plant, so as to achieve the purpose of rapid identification.%采用红外光谱宏观指纹鉴定的方法对紫锥菊不同部位根、茎、叶、花原药材及醇溶、水溶提取物的一维和二阶导数谱图进行整体分析.原药材谱图显示紫锥菊的各部位都体现淀粉特征峰.醇提物二阶导数谱图给出花中1711 cm-1、1630 cm-1的羧基吸收峰明显强于其他部位,说明花中多酚类成分高于其他部位.水提物谱图显示,花、叶中多酚类成分比例相对于茎、根中的含量提高,而花、叶中硝酸根离子和蔗糖成分比例相对于茎、根中的含量下降.对比整体药材与各部位的谱图,可以判断出整体药材中所含有的植物部位,从而达到快速鉴定的目的.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Coda, Rossana; Macías, Davinia Sánchez; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Filannino, Pasquale; Giuliani, Giammaria; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-05-04

    Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of

  19. 提高紫锥菊种子发芽率方法的研究%Methods of Improving Germination Rate of Echinacea Purpurea in Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英超; 窦晓青; 金红; 梁强; 王蕾; 赵迪

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the seeds of Echinacea purpurea as the objects, the germination rates were analyzed by soaking in warm water at 37 ℃ after 7 days stored at 4 ℃, soaking in boric acid, soaking in indole acetic acid(IAA), soaking in ethanol of different concentration combined with 37 ℃warm water, and seeding directly. The results show that soaking in warm water at 37 ℃ after 7 days stored at 4 ℃, soaking in boric acid and in indole acetic acid(IAA)can improve the germination rate. The seed germination of soaking in IAA(40 mg·L-1)was the highest(97.5%), followed by soaking in 0.1% boric acid (93.3%), and soaking in warm water at 37 ℃ after 7 days stored at 4 ℃ by 12 h(92.7%), respectively. The seed germination rate of vermiculite substrate(89%)was higher than that of the peat substrate(76%)when seeding directly in the greenhouse. In conclusion, seeding directly in the greenhouse should select the vermiculite, and before sowing in the field, the seeds should be soaked in IAA(40 mg·L-1)for 24 h.%以紫锥菊的种子为研究对象,采用4℃冷藏处理7 d后37℃温水浸种、硼酸浸种、吲哚乙酸(IAA)浸种、不同的乙醇浓度结合37 ℃温水浸种以及直播等方式对紫锥菊种子的发芽率进行了分析.结果表明,4℃冷藏处理7 d后37℃温水浸种、硼酸浸种、吲哚乙酸浸种均能提高种子的发芽率.其中,IAA(40 mg·L-1)浸种的发芽率最高,达到97.5%;其次是0.1%硼酸浸种、4℃冷藏7 d后37℃温水浸泡12 h,分别达到93.3%、92.7%.在温室直播育苗中,蛭石基质高于泥炭基质的种子发芽率,分别达到89%和76%.综合以上分析可以得出,温室直播育苗宜采用蛭石基质,田间播种前宜选用IAA(40 mg·L-1)浸种24 h.

  20. 不同采收期紫锥菊产量及菊苣酸动态变化研究%Dynamic changes of yield and cichoric acid content in Echinacea purpurea at different harvest time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 杨跃生; 吴鸿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of different harvest time on yield and cichoric acid content of Echinacea purpurea. Methods Yield and phenophase at different harvest time were observed and dynamic changes of cichoric acid in E. purpurea were studied using HPLC. Results The highest yield in the aerial parts of annual E. purpurea was obtained on Nov. 2nd when fruits matured, which was 38.3% higher than that in the blossom peak; The highest yield in underground parts was obtained on Sep. 15 at the peak of blossom and from then to Nov. 2nd when fruits matured the yield dropped slightly; The content of cichoric acid in the aerial parts was almost stable from July 10th when flower buds initiated to Sep. 27th at the peak of blossom, followed by a dropping period from Sep. 27th to Oct. 20th when fruits developing and an increasing period from Oct. 20th to Nov. 2nd. The change trend of cichoric acid in the underground parts was similar to that in the aerial parts. The changes of yield and cichoric acid content in biennial E. purpurea were almost the same as annual E. purpurea, but the highest yield in the underground parts was achieved at the time when fruits matured, and the total yield in the whole plant was 2.7 times as much as that in annual E. purpurea. The highest yield of cichoric acid was obtained both in annual and biennial E. purpurea at the time when fruits matured. Conclusion The suitable harvest time of E. purpurea in Guangzhou is at fruit mature period, and two-year cultivation is more reasonable than one-year.%目的 研究不同采收期紫锥菊质量和产量的变化.方法 通过对不同采收期的紫锥菊进行产量测定和物候期观察,并采用HPLC法对紫锥菊中的菊苣酸进行动态变化研究.结果 一年生紫锥菊地上部分的产量以11月2日(果熟期)采收的最高,比盛花期产量高38.3%,地下部分产量以9月15日(盛花期)采收的最高,从9月15日到11月2日地下部分产量有少量的降低,

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging and Chemometric Modeling of Echinacea — A Novel Approach in the Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxleene Sandasi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea species are popularly included in various formulations to treat upper respiratory tract infections. These products are of commercial importance, with a collective sales figure of $132 million in 2009. Due to their close taxonomic alliance it is difficult to distinguish between the three Echinacea species and incidences of incorrectly labeled commercial products have been reported. The potential of hyperspectral imaging as a rapid quality control method for raw material and products containing Echinacea species was investigated. Hyperspectral images of root and leaf material of authentic Echinacea species (E. angustifolia, E. pallida and E. purpurea were acquired using a sisuChema shortwave infrared (SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920–2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA plots showed a clear distinction between the root and leaf samples of the three Echinacea species and further differentiated the roots of different species. A classification model with a high coefficient of determination was constructed to predict the identity of the species included in commercial products. The majority of products (12 out of 20 were convincingly predicted as containing E. purpurea, E. angustifolia or both. The use of ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS in the differentiation of the species presented a challenge due to chemical similarities between the solvent extracts. The results show that hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method for authenticating raw material.

  2. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

    2011-10-01

    The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha V Bhadada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.. Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  5. Análisis cuantitativos de los principales constituyentes químicos de raíces de Echinacea purpurea y E. Angustifolia producidas en Costa Rica1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Loaiza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó los fenilpropanoides libres: ácido clorogénico y ácido cichórico, glicosídicos (equinacósido; así como las alcamidas presentes en extractos de raíces de las plantas medicinales Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia, producidas en 3 localidades de Costa Rica: Los Santos a 1650 msnm, Santa Bárbara de Heredia a 1250 msnm y Ojo de Agua a 850 msnm. Conforme disminuyó la altitud de las zonas de siembra, también disminuyó la concentración de los metabolitos analizados. La concentración de los fenilpropanoides y del equinacósido (sintetizado exclusivamente por E. angustifolia producidos en Costa Rica, fue 100 y 34% mayor, respectivamente, que la concentración reportada para una muestra control proveniente de EE.UU. Las alcamidas se produjeron en un rango de 0,89-2,31% comparado con 0,004-0,36% reportado en EE.UU. En Costa Rica la presencia de alcamidas fue similar para las 3 zonas en estudio. Sin embargo, 2 de ellas presentaron un grado de isomerismo diferente al reportado en muestras de EE.UU. Estos resultados indican que en condiciones tropicales, no solo se puede producir Echinacea en un menor tiempo, sino también que las cantidades de metabolitos secundarios son mayores a las producidas por la planta en sus áreas de origen. La presencia de compuestos con diferente grado de isomerismo podría presentar nuevas alternativas de uso de esos metabolitos.

  6. Streamlining Plant Sample Preparation: The Use of High-Throughput Robotics to Process Echinacea Samples for Biomarker Profiling by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Leasa A.; Isaac, Issa; Gray, Dean E.; Schwartz, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Several species in the genus Echinacea are beneficial herbs popularly used for many ailments. The most popular Echinacea species for cultivation, wild collection, and herbal products include E. purpurea (L.) Moench, E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., and E. angustifolia (DC). Product adulteration is a key concern for the natural products industry, where botanical misidentification and introduction of other botanical and nonbotanical contaminants exist throughout the formulation and production process. Therefore, rapid and cost-effective methods that can be used to monitor these materials for complex product purity and consistency are of benefit to consumers and producers. The objective of this continuing research was to develop automated, high-throughput processing methods that, teamed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, differentiate Echinacea species by their mass profiles. Small molecules, peptide, and proteins from aerial parts (leaf/stem/flowers), seeds, and roots from E. purpurea and E. angustifolia; seeds and roots from E. pallida; and off-the-shelf Echinacea supplements were extracted and analyzed by MS using methods developed on the ProPrep liquid handling system (Genomic Solutions). Analysis of these samples highlighted key MS signal patterns from both small molecules and proteins that characterized the individual Echinacea materials analyzed. Based on analysis of pure Echinacea samples, off-the-shelf products containing Echinacea could then be evaluated in a streamlined process. Corresponding analysis of dietary supplements was used to monitor for product composition, including Echinacea species and plant materials used. These results highlight the potential for streamlined, automated approaches for agricultural species differentiation and botanical product evaluation. PMID:17916796

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha V Bhadada; Goyal, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of...

  8. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a ß-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in

  9. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a ß-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in Escherichi

  10. Dynamic Determination of Active Ingredients in Introduced Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊不同部位有效成分含量的动态测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究引种紫锥菊中有效成分的动态积累规律。方法:分别采用HPLC和比色法测定紫锥菊生长过程中不同部位菊苣酸和总多酚含量。结果:一年生紫锥菊中总多酚含量变化不大,不同时期不同部位的菊苣酸含量存在差异,各部位菊苣酸含量在盛花期达最大值。结论:紫锥菊采收期取决于菊苣酸含量。研究结果可为山东引种紫锥菊提供理论依据。%This study was aimed to analyze the dynamic accumulation of active ingredients of Echinacea purpurea. Contents of cichoric acid and total polyphenols in different parts through the whole growth process were determined by HPLC and colorimetry. The results showed that the content of total polyphenol changed little in annual plant. There were differences in content of cichoric acid of different parts in different periods. And the content reached the maximum at flowering stage. It was concluded that the harvest stage depended on the content of cichoric acid. The results provided theoretical basis for induced plant in Shandong province.

  11. 盐胁迫对松果菊生长及其菊苣酸含量的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Growth and Cichoric Acid Content of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 贾晓东; 刘永芝; 宣继萍; 贾展慧; 郭忠仁

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of NaCl on the growth and cichoric acid content of Echinacea purpurea, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl were treated to E. purpurea cultivated in garden soil, and salt injury index, fresh weight, dry weight and cichoric acid content were determined. The results showed that: with the increase of NaCl concentration, salt injury index increased as well; less than or equal to 120 mmol/L NaCl did not bring obvious influence to the fresh weight of E. purpurea, while 150 mmol/L NaCl markedly decreased their fresh weight; the dry weight of E. purpurea reduced gradually as salt concentration rose; cichoric acid content increased first and then decreased with the increase of salt concentration, getting to the maximum value at 90 mmol/L NaCl level; cichoric acid production per plant showed no significant change between 0 and 60 mmol/L NaCl, increased significantly at 90 mmol/L and then decreased obviously. Although salt stress caused a certain degree of salt damage to E. purpurea, it increased cichoric acid content within a certain salt concentration (0-90 mmol/L).%  为了探讨盐胁迫对松果菊生长及其药用成分菊苣酸含量的影响,分别以0、30、60、90、120、150 mmol/L的NaCl处理土培的松果菊植株,并测定处理后的松果菊盐害指数、鲜重、干重以及菊苣酸含量。结果表明:盐害指数随着盐浓度的升高而升高;120 mmol/L及以下浓度的NaCl处理对松果菊鲜重影响并不明显,而150 mmol/L时则使鲜重显著降低;随着盐浓度的升高,松果菊干重呈逐渐减小的趋势;菊苣酸含量随盐浓度的升高呈先升高后下降的趋势,在90 mmol/L时达到最大值;菊苣酸的单株产量在盐浓度为0~60 mmol/L时无显著变化,在90 mmol/L时显著升高,之后显著降低。盐胁迫虽然对松果菊生长产生了一定的盐害作用,但在一定的盐浓度范围内(0~90 mmol/L)也同时提高了菊苣酸的含量水平。

  12. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, G P

    2007-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC(50) values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

  13. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC50 values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic v...

  14. Cytokine- and Interferon-Modulating Properties of Echinacea spp. Root Tinctures Stored at −20°C for 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Dustin A.; Solco, Avery; Liu, Yi; Macaluso, Filippo; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kohut, Marian L.; Senchina, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Echinacea spp. phytomedicines are popular for treating upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea tinctures from seven species after being stored at −20°C for 2 years. Two experimental techniques were employed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the first set of experiments, PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with tinctures alone and assayed for proliferation and production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In the second set of experiments, subjects were immunized with influenza vaccine. PBMCs from vaccinated individuals were stimulated in vitro with Echinacea tinctures and influenza virus; cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) was compared prevaccination and postvaccination. In the first experiments, (1) tinctures from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, and E. tennesseensis stimulated proliferation and tended to increase IL-10, (2) E. sanguinea and E. simulata stimulated only proliferation, (3) E. purpurea stimulated only IL-10, and (4) none of the extracts influenced IL-12 or TNF-α. In the second experiments, (1) tinctures from E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. sanguinea, and E. simulata diminished influenza-specific IL-2, and (2) none of the extracts influenced influenza-specific IL-10 or IFN-γ. For in vitro models using Echinacea, immune response may vary based on stimulus (Echinacea alone vs. Echinacea + recall stimulation with virus). PMID:17523874

  15. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra kumar Roy; Naveen Kumar; Reetu Toppo; Priscilla Kerketta; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Ravuri Halley Gora

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE) against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determin...

  16. Изучение способов оптимизации выращивания эхинацеи пурпурное (Echinacea purpurea (L. ) Moench) в Уральском регионе

    OpenAIRE

    Васфилова, Евгения

    2011-01-01

    The article demonstrates the efficiency of sowing before winter and seedlings method of growing of Echinacea purpurea for acceleration of plant development and reducing death of plants during pregenerative period. The use of mineral fertilizers promotes rising of winter endurance of plants and increases biomass production.

  17. Studies on the Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of the Seed Extract of Tephrosia Purpurea (LINN Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Saxena

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were conducted to find out the insecticidal and repellent properties of petroleum ether extract of the seeds of Tephrosia purpurea. In laboratory trials contact toxicity of the extract was assessed against land leeches, houseflies, mosquitoes, rice weevil and flour beetle. In field trials, the repellency of the extract was assessed against land leeches, mosquitoes and simulium flies. In laboratory trials, the dosage required for 100 per cent mortality was 0.0005 gm/cm/sup 2/ for land leeches, 0.0157 gm/cm/sup 2/ for flour beetle. In field trials, the extract was found to be repellent against land leeches for 5 hours, mosquitoes for 4 hours and simulium flies for 5 hours.

  18. Callus Induction and Its Bioactive Ingredient Analysis of Echinacea purpurea%紫锥菊愈伤组织诱导及生物活性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝连彩; 王伯初; 郑超; 张雅莉; 王益川

    2007-01-01

    以紫锥菊(Echinacea purpurea)无菌苗为材料,研究了不同激素配比条件下不同外值体愈伤组织的诱导及所诱导的愈伤组织中的主要成分多糖和总酚,并应用高效液相色谱法对根愈伤组织提取物与紫锥菊根提取物中的酚酸类物质进行了比较分析.结果表明,紫锥菊不同部位愈伤组织诱导的最适宜激素配比不同,其中根愈伤组织诱导的最佳激素配比为0.5 mg/L 2,4-D+0.5 mg/L 6-BA.叶、茎、根诱导愈伤组织的多糖含量分别为10.15、11.84、14.49 mg/g干重;总酚含量分别为52.16、28.14、47.99 mg/g干重.根愈伤组织总酚和多糖含量均较高,其提取物的酚酸类物质的高效液相色谱与紫锥菊根提取物图谱主峰一致,且生长速度快、质地疏松,是细胞培养获取紫锥菊主要生物活性成分的适宜材料.

  19. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra kumar Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

  20. Year-and-a-Half Old, Dried Echinacea Roots Retain Cytokine-Modulating Capabilities in an in vitro Human Older Adult Model of Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S.; Wu, Lankun; Flinn, Gina N.; Konopka, Del N.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrelechner, Mark P.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Kohut, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol tinctures prepared from aged Echinacea roots are typically taken for preventing or treating upper respiratory infections, as they are purported to stimulate immunity in this context. The effects of long-term (> 1 year) dry storage on the capabilities of Echinacea spp. roots from mature individuals to modulate cytokine production are unknown. Using an older human adult model of influenza vaccination, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects 6 months post-vaccination and stimulated them in vitro with the two Type A influenza viruses contained in the trivalent 2004–2005 vaccine with a 50% alcohol tincture prepared from the roots of one of seven Echinacea species: E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis. Before being processed into extracts, all roots had been stored under dry conditions for sixteen months. Cells were cultured for 48 hours; following incubation, supernatants were collected and assayed for interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and interferon-γ production, cytokines important in the immune response to viral infection. Four species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. simulata, E. tennesseensis) augmented IL-10 production, diminished IL-2 production, and had no effect on IFN-γ production. Echinacea pallida suppressed production of all cytokines; E. paradoxa and E. sanguinea behaved similarly, although to a lesser extent. The results from these in vitro bioactivity assays indicate that dried Echinacea roots stored for sixteen months maintain cytokine-modulating capacities. Our data support and extend previous research and indicate that tinctures from different Echinacea species have different patterns of immune modulation; further, they indicate that certain species may be efficacious in the immune response to viral infection. PMID:17021999

  1. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch-Völk, Marlies; Barrett, Bruce; Kiefer, David; Bauer, Rudolf; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Linde, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Echinacea plant preparations (family Asteraceae) are widely used in Europe and North America for common colds. Most consumers and physicians are not aware that products available under the term Echinacea differ appreciably in their composition, mainly due to the use of variable plant material, extraction methods and the addition of other components. Objectives To assess whether there is evidence that Echinacea preparations are effective and safe compared to placebo in the prevention and treatment of the common cold. Search methods We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 5, MEDLINE (1946 to May week 5, 2013), EMBASE (1991 to June 2013), CINAHL (1981 to June 2013), AMED (1985 to February 2012), LILACS (1981 to June 2013), Web of Science (1955 to June 2013), CAMBASE (no time limits), the Centre for Complementary Medicine Research (1988 to September 2007), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov (last searched 5 June 2013), screened references and asked experts in the field about published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mono-preparations of Echinacea with placebo. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. The primary efficacy outcome was the number of individuals with at least one cold in prevention trials and the duration of colds in treatment trials. For all included trials the primary safety and acceptability outcome was the number of participants dropping out due to adverse events. We assessed trial quality using the Cochrane ’Risk of bias’ tool. Main results Twenty-four double-blind trials with 4631 participants including a total of 33 comparisons of Echinacea preparations and placebo met the inclusion criteria. A variety of different Echinacea preparations based on different species and parts of plant were used. Evidence from seven trials was available for preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Manoharan, S; Renju, G L; Sethupathy, S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide leading metabolic syndrome, associated with profound alterations in carbohydrate, lipids, lipoproteins and protein metabolisms. Worldwide, traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes and its complications use a wide variety of medicinal plants. In the present study the aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves (TpALet) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Profound alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were observed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of TpALet to diabetic rats at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the level of blood glucose and increased the level of plasma insulin as well as normalized the lipids and lipoproteins profile. The present study thus demonstrated that TpALet has prominent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  3. Spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant activity of methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Jan, Asma; Qadir, M Imran; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of the whole plant of Tephrosia pupurea, Linn. was subjected to find out its possible therapeutic utility to validate its folkloric use in native systems of medicine. The extract on application to spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations exerted a concentration dependent (0.003-3.0 mg/mL) relaxant effect. The extract also caused concentration dependent relaxation of K+(80 mM)-induced spastic contractions. These findings were further supported by the observations that the extract caused a concentration dependent right ward shift of the Ca2+ response curves in manner similar to that of verapamil. The extract exhibited a relaxant effect on carbachol and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions of isolated rabbit tracheal preparations in a manner similar to verapamil. The observed non-specific bronchodilator response is possibly mediated through Ca2+ channel blockade. Moreover, the extract also exhibited a dose dependent relaxant effect on phenylephrine (1 microM) and K+(80 mM)-induced contractions in a manner similar to verapamil. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, it can be concluded that the use of Tephrosia purpurea, in gastrointestinal spasm, asthma and hypertension is likely to be mediated through calcium channel blockage.

  4. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  5. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  6. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

    2008-12-12

    The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment.

  7. Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida extracts stimulate glucuronidation and basolateral transfer of Bauer alkamids 8 and 10 and ketone 24 and inhibit p-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguin...

  8. Studies on Ames Test of Echinacea purpurea Extract%紫锥菊提取物的Ames试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 陈秀云; 卜仕金

    2010-01-01

    通过对紫锥菊提取物进行昆明种小鼠伤寒沙门氏菌回复突变试验,评价该材料的潜在致突变性.用紫锥菊提取物制备混悬液进行Ames(致突变)试验,采用平板掺入法,计数TA97、TA98、TA100、TA102标准测试菌株在4个不同浓度下,于37℃培养48 h后的回复突变菌落数.结果显示无论在+S9和-S9的情况下,各剂量组均未引起测试菌株回变菌落数的明显增加,Ames试验结果为阴性.说明紫锥菊提取物不引起鼠伤寒沙门氏菌的回复突变数增加,无致基因突变性.

  9. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azmat Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control and Group II (negative control. Group III (BBE200 and Group IV (BBE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200 and Group VI (BPE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dosedependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV and BPE 400 (Group VI treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae, hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM- induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n=6 were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control, 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control, or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM. The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05 in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation.

  11. Effects of Tephrosia purpurea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Santha, K; Manoharan, S

    2008-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpASet" at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that "TpASet" has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from "TpASet".

  12. Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are. In pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies performed in vivo, no significant inhibitions of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoforms have been found after the administration of standardized E. purpurea preparations. However, contradictory results exist in studies using liver microsomes. Adverse events reported during clinical trials following administration of Echinacea spp. mono-preparations were generally mild and mostly without causality. Due to published long term studies with continuous ingestion of different Echinacea preparations up to 6 month with no reported toxicological concerns, Echinacea can be recommended also for long-term use. Moreover, the contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immune-suppression are questionable, since lipophilic Echinacea preparations containing alkamides suppress cellular immune responses, and beneficial effects in autoimmunity were reported. The same applies for the use during pregnancy. Although there has been some impact reported on embryonic angiogenesis in mice, no association with an increased risk for major or minor malformations during organogenesis was found in a literature review. Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Лектины представителей рода эхинацея ( Echinacea Moench. ). 2. Особенности активности в онтогенезе Echinacea purpurea (L. ) Moench

    OpenAIRE

    Поспелов, Сергей; Поспелова, Анна

    2012-01-01

    Представлены данные многолетнего изучения динамики активности лектинов эхинацеи пурпурной ( Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.) в онтогенезе. Впервые установлено, что на первом году вегетации наиболее высокий уровень гемагглютининов отмечался в августе – сентябре. При этом их активность была высокой в стеблях, цветущих соцветиях и корнях с корневищами. В генеративный период высокая активность отмечалась в корнях с корневищами и стеблях на протяжении вегетации, расцветших и формирующихся соцветия...

  14. Bauer Ketones 23 and 24 from Echinacea paradoxa var. paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 and Cytokines in RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hauck, Catherine; Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In our study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinacea species and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg/ml in comparison to DMSO control. By bioactivity-guided fractionation, pentadeca-8Z-ene-11, 13-diyn-2-one (Bauer ketones 23, compound 1) and pentadeca-8Z, 13Z-dien-11-yn-2-one (Bauer ketone 24, compound 2) from E. paradoxa var. paradoxa were found primarily responsible for inhibitory effects on NO and PGE2 production. Moreover, Bauer ketone 24 (compound 2) was the major contributor to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-induced mouse macrophage cells. These results provide a rationale for exploring the medicinal effects of the Bauer ketone-rich taxon, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, and confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of Bauer ketones 23 and 24. PMID:22133644

  15. Separation of Anthocyanins in Echinacea Purpurea Flower by High Speed Counter-current Chromatography and the Research on the Antioxidant Activity of the Anthocyanins%高速逆流色谱法分离紫锥菊花色苷及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳银; 罗晋; 李觅路; 陆英; 刘仲华

    2012-01-01

    建立了高速逆流色谱(HSCCC)分离制备紫锥菊花色苷类化合物的方法,并对所获得的2个花色苷单体进行了体外抗氧化性实验.以新鲜紫锥菊花瓣为原料,含0.1% HCI的60%乙醇为溶剂避光冷浸提取,经乙酸乙酯萃取和D101大孔吸附树脂(100 mL,2 cm×30 cm)纯化后,得2.1g紫锥菊花色苷提取物干粉样品.以水-正丁醇-甲基叔丁基甲醚-乙腈-三氟乙酸(6∶3∶2∶1∶0.001)为HSCCC分离溶剂系统,上相为固定相,下相为流动相,流速2.0 mL/min,进样量160 mg,通过一次分离得到2种花色苷单体化合物,经HPLC检测其纯度分别达95.1% (9.8 mg)、98.2%( 14.3 mg),MS及NMR技术鉴定其结构分别为矢车菊素-3-O-β-D葡萄糖苷(化合物1)和矢车菊素-3-O-(6″-O-丙二酰-β-D葡萄糖苷)(化合物2).以Vc为对照组,对所获得的2种花色苷单体化合物进行了1,1-二苯基-2苦肼基(DPPH·)体外抗氧化性能评价,结果显示2种花色苷对DPPH·的半清除率(EC50)均小于10 mg/L,小于对照样Vc,表明2种花色苷均具有较强的自由基清除作用,且化合物1的清除能力强于化合物2.%An efficient method for the isolation and preparation of two anthocyanins, cyaniding 3-0-(β-D-giucopyranoside) (compound 1) and cyaniding 3-0-(6"-0-malonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) (compound 2) , from Echinacea purpurea flower by high speed counter-current chromatography ( HSCCC ) was established. The fresh flower was extracted with 60% ethanol (containing 0. 1% HC1) at low temperature and dark conditions. 2. 1 g of crude sample for HSCCC was prepared after extracted with ethyl acetate and passed through an adsorbing column (2 cm x 30 cm, containing 100 mL D101 macroporous resin). Then water - n-butanol - methyl tert-butyl ether - acetonitrile - trifluoroacetic acid(6 : 3 : 2 : 1 : 0. 001) was used as the two-phase solvent system, in which the upper phase was used as the stationary phase, while the lower phase was used as the mobile phase, the

  16. Immunomodulation mediated by a herbal syrup containing a standardized Echinacea root extract: a pilot study in healthy human subjects on cytokine gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapas, B; Dall'Acqua, S; Bulla, R; Agostinis, C; Perissutti, B; Invernizzi, S; Grassi, G; Voinovich, D

    2014-09-25

    In this study, the immunomodulatory effect of a triply standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea(®)) was evaluated in 10 healthy subjects. Ten ml of syrup containing one hundred mg of extract (corresponding to 4.7 mg of Echinacoside and 8.0mg of a high molecular weight-20,000 Da- polysaccharide) were administered as a herbal syrup once a day for one month. The immunomodulatory effect was evaluated before and after herbal syrup administration evaluating the expression levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α. Cytokine expression was studied in lympho-monocytes and in plasma samples measuring the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The results were analysed by ANOVA and non-parametric Friedman rank sum tests; when possible it was adopted a pair-wise comparisons at different post-treatment times, using the paired t-tests with Holm correction. The correlation between the variations of cytokine plasma levels and the respective mRNA was carried out using a linear regression model. In lympho-monocytes our data indicate the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of IL-2 and IL-8 and the down regulation of the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL6. The differential regulation was maximal after 14 days of treatment. IL-2 up-regulation and IL-6 down-regulation were also confirmed at the protein level in plasma. Finally, the up-regulation of the mRNA of IL-2/IL-8 and the down-regulation of IL-6 positively correlated with the protein levels detected in the plasma. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests a relevant role for the standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract in the control of cytokine expression. This first demonstration of the immuno-modulating activity of Echinacea angustifolia root extract in the healthy subject, supports at least in part the common use of such products as health promoting supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality evaluation of domestic Echinacea extracts%市售国内紫锥菊提取物质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安士影; 胡玉梅; 苗宏伟; 孟兆青; 王佩香; 丁岗; 王振中; 萧伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:测定市售样品中多酚的含量,为紫锥菊提取物综合质量评价提供研究依据.方法:通过LC-MS对市售紫锥菊提取物商品中各相关成分定性,采用优化的美国药典方法、RP-HPLC及一测多评法测定多酚的含量;同时按照国际标准IS014502-1-2005,采用UV进行含量对比分析.结果:所购6批市售紫锥菊提取物中HPLC测定多酚含量均未达到外贸出口标准,UV测定多酚含量4批符合标准,2批不符合.结论:国内紫锥菊提取物含量测定普遍采用UV,结果与HPLC差异较大,为提升质量标准,与国际接轨,建议宜尽快使用HPLC检测方法,规范提取物质量,提高市场准入标准.%Objective:To determine the content of polyphenol contained samples, in order to provide basis for comprehensive quality evaluation on Echinacea extracts. Method; LC-MS was used for qualitative analysis on relevant compounds of the samples of Echinacea extracts. Optimized USP methods, RP-HPLC and QAMS (quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker) were used to determine the content of polyphenol. Meanwhile, UV method was adopted for comparative analysis on content according to international standard ISO14502-1-2005. Result: The six batches of samples could not meet the export standard for polyphenol content by HPLC. UV showed four batches in line with the standard and two batches in inconformity. Conclusion; UV method is generally adoptedfor the content determination of domestic Echinacea extracts, but shows results that are significantly different from that by HPLC method, it is suggested to use HPLC method to standardize quality of extracts and raise market access standards.

  18. Dose-dependent in vivo effect of Rhodiola and Echinacea on the mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopińska-Rózewska, E; Sokolnicka, I; Siwicki, A K; Stankiewicz, W; Dabrowski, M P; Buchwald, W; Krajewska-Patan, A; Mielcarek, S; Mścisz, A; Furmanowa, M

    2011-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (EP) and Echinacea angustifolia (EA) are ones of the most important world's herbs with immunotropic activity. They were traditional medicinal plants used by North American Indians for the treatment of various illnesses. Now they are cultivated in many countries and are used mainly to treat respiratory tract infections. Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Rhodiola quadrifida (RQ) are medicinal plants originated from Asia and used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. We previously reported, that extracts of underground parts of RR and RQ exhibited immunotropic activity. We have demonstrated in pigs that in vitro RR or RQ supplementation of blood lymphocyte cultures stimulated T cell proliferative response to Con A in lower, and inhibited it in higher Rhodiola extract concentrations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vivo effect of these herbal remedies on the in vitro proliferative response of mouse splenic lymphocytes to another T-cell mitogen- Phaseolus vulgaris haemagglutinin (PHA). We have found significant stimulation of proliferative response, in comparison to the controls, in mice fed lower doses of tested remedies, and inhibition, no effect or lower stimulation, in mice fed higher doses of these drugs.

  19. Comparison of Conventional Microwave and Focused Microwave-assisted Extraction to Enhance the Efficiency of the Extraction of Antioxidant Flavonols from Jocote Pomace (Spondias purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Letícia C B; Carneiro, Larissa M; Branco, Carla R C; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-06-01

    Jocote (Spondias purpurea L.) is rich in phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) was compared with the conventional microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain flavonols from jocote pomace. The effects of parameters such as the extraction time, the temperature and the composition of the solvent mixture (i.e., the ethanol to water ration) were evaluated and optimized using a statistical experimental design approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the extractive yield and quantification of some flavonoids. In addition, the antioxidant activity was analyzed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated according to the DPPH assay. The results showed that the optimum extracting parameters used FMAE with extraction time of 20 min, temperature of 68 °C and ethanol composition of 80% in water. Under these conditions, a yield of 3.42% was obtained. Rutin and quercetin were quantified (0.19 mg/mL and 0.024 mg/mL, respectively) through HPLC-DAD. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were found to be 0.897 g GAE/g and 1.271 g QE/g, respectively. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract occurred at 43.10 μg/mL. This study shows that FMAE is suitable as an efficient extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonols from jocote pomace.

  20. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalah, Ali K; Yousef, Afifi H; Esmail, Abeer M; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H; Hegazy, Mohamed E F; Mohamed, Abou-El-Hamd H

    2010-03-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  1. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalah, Ali K.; Yousef, Afifi H.; Abeer M Esmail; Abdelrazik, Mohamed H.; Hegazy, Mohamed E. F.; Abou-El-Hamd H Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  2. Subtracted diversity array identifies novel molecular markers including retrotransposons for fingerprinting Echinacea species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Olarte

    Full Text Available Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea.

  3. Subtracted Diversity Array Identifies Novel Molecular Markers Including Retrotransposons for Fingerprinting Echinacea Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Pang, Edwin C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea. PMID:23940565

  4. 紫锥菊提取物的遗传毒性试验研究%Experimental Research of Genetic Toxicity of Echinacea Purpurea Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蒙; 贺文庆; 冯全利; 陈秀云; 卜仕金

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究紫锥菊提取物的遗传毒性,为紫锥菊的开发利用提供实验依据.方法按常规方法进行骨髓细胞微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验和Ames试验.结果 紫锥菊提取物各剂量组与阴性对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),与阳性对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 紫锥菊提取物对小鼠未见生殖遗传毒性,对鼠伤寒沙门氏菌无致突变性.

  5. 紫锥菊中菊苣酸的提取工艺和含量测定%Studies on extraction process of cichoric acid in Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英杰; 李亮; 徐福亮

    2010-01-01

    目的:优选紫锥菊药材地上部分的提取工艺,建立菊苣酸的含量测定方法.方法:择Lg(34)正交表安排试验,以有效成分菊苣酸的含量为指标优选工艺参数.结果:紫锥菊的最佳提取工艺为12倍量60%乙醇提取3次,每次1.5 h.菊苣酸线性范围在0.011~1.100 mg,r=0.999 8,平均回收率99.51%(RSD=1.01%,n=6).结论:工艺稳定、可行,适合工业化生产;含量测定方法简便准确,重复性好,可用于控制紫锥菊的质量.

  6. 紫锥菊提取物抗氧化作用研究%On antioxidation activity of extracts of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆英; 王妍; 丁浩; 刘仲华

    2009-01-01

    采用分光光度法,研究用3种方法制备的紫锥菊提取物(样品1、样品2、样品3的多酚含量分别为3.76%、6.40%、33.56%)的抗氧化作用,并与V-C进行比较.结果表明,3个样品都具有一定的抗氧化作用,其中以HPD500大孔吸附树脂纯化后的样品3的抗氧化性最好,其还原能力、对H2O2的清除作用上都强于V-C,对OPPH·的清除作用接近于V-C,对·OH、O-2·的清除作用小于V-C.

  7. 超临界二氧化碳萃取菊苣酸的研究%Extraction of cichoric acid from echinacea purpurea by supercritical CO2 fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 陈如溪; 曾伟山

    2011-01-01

    利用超临界二氧化碳萃取技术对紫锥菊主要有效成分苣酸的萃取工艺进行了研究。在萃取过程中采用单因素试验和正交试验分析了萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间、CO2流量、夹带剂等对萃取效率的影响,确定了萃取菊苣酸的最佳工艺条件。结果表明,利用超临界二氧化碳萃取菊苣酸的最佳工艺条件为:以体积分数为40%的乙醇做为夹带剂,萃取力为30MPa,萃取温度为60℃,萃取时间2h,CO2流量25kg·h-1。用超临界二氧化碳萃取法萃取所得的菊苣酸具有提取率高、产品的纯好、流程简单的优点。

  8. A Comparison Study of the Effects of Echinacea purpurea Ethanolic Extract and Mesna on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Macroscopic Fetal Defects in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shams Lahijani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sQuinazolinones are heterocyclic compounds, with biological and pharmacological activities, such asinhibiting some proteins, enzymes and reducing blood lipids.Materials and MethodsFollowing previous results of our group, effects of two new derivatives of quinazolinones9(3-quinazolinone-2-propyl-2-phenylethyl (QPPE and 9(3-quinazolinone-2-ethyl-2–phenylethyl (QEPEon livers, intestines and kidneys of newborn Balb/C mice were investigated. Pregnant mice were divided intofour groups of control, sham, experimental 1, treated with QPPE, and experimental 2, treated with QEPE.Experimental groups received 100 mg/kg body weight (most effective dose of QPPE and QEPE, shamgroups received methyl cellulose 0.05% (the solvent and control groups received distilled water,intraperitoneally (IP, on day 8 of gestation. Five days after birth, livers, intestines and kidneys wereremoved, fixed in formalin 10%, stained with hematoxylene and eosin for histological and pathologicalstudies.ResultsResults showed appearance of fatty changes in livers, an increase in diameters of hepatocytes and centralveins of livers, and reduction in the lengths of villi of proximal, middle and distal segments of newbornBalb/C mice intestines. Furthermore, there was a diminished diameter of the lumen of the proximal tubules,and average diameter of the lumen of distal tubules which led to an increase in the number of glomeruli cellsof newborn Balb/C mice kidneys.ConclusionRegarding inflammation in different parts of the kidneys, livers and intestines, our investigations suggest thatquinazolinones may have some toxic effects on embryos.Keywords: Abnormalities, Intestine, Kidney, Liver, Mice fetuses, Quinazolinones

  9. Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K Khalafalah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1 extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.

  10. Endogenous levels of Echinacea alkylamides and ketones are important contributors to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in cultured macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery K.S.; Yum, Manyu; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kim, Meehye; Birt, Diane F.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immune modulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. HPLC fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. tennesseensis identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharide induced PGE2 production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed to substantiate an anti-inflammatory response. Echinacea pallida showed significant inhibition of PGE2 with a first round fraction, containing GC-MS peaks for Bauer Ketones 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, with 23 and 24 identified as significant contributors to this PGE2 inhibition. Chemically synthesized Bauer Ketones 21 and 23 at 1 μM each significantly inhibited both PGE2 and NO production. Three rounds of fractionation were produced from an E. angustifolia extract. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of Bauer Ketone 23 in third round Fraction 3D32 and Bauer Alkylamide 11 making up 96% of third round Fraction 3E40. Synthetic Bauer Ketone 23 inhibited PGE2 production to 83 % of control and synthetic Bauer Alkylamide 11 significantly inhibited PGE2 and NO production at the endogenous concentrations determined to be present in their respective fraction, thus each constituent partially explained the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of their respective fraction. From this study two key contributors to the anti-inflammatory properties of E. angustifolia were identified as Bauer Alkylamide 11 and Bauer Ketone 23. PMID:19807154

  11. The morphometric parameters of seeds of genus Echinacea Moench representatives and their association with agrometeorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. В. Поспєлов

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphometric parameters of fruits (cypselae of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench of ‘Zirka Mykoly Vavylova’ cultivar and pale coneflower (Echinacea pallida (Nutt. Nutt of ‘Krasunia Prerii’ cultivar and determine the impact of agro-meteorological factors on their performance according to long-term data. Methods. Laboratory, Mathematics and Statistics. Results. It was found that the parameters of cypselae and its weight in various types of coneflowers varied considerably from year to year. In this context the indicators of cypselae width and thickness had a larger variability as compared with the length. Mean length of Echinacea purpurea ranged from 4,57 to 6,16 mm, width – 2,30–2,97 mm, thickness – 1,74–2,28 mm. Weight of a cypselae made up 4,40–6,50 mg. Length of a fruit of Echinacea pallida was 4,57–5,74 mm, width – 2,51–3,18 mm, thickness – 1,76–2,37 mm, and a fruit weight varied from 5,65 to 7,70 mg. The correlation analysis revealed reliable connection of agro-climatic parameters and the parameters of the fruit. Conclusions. Using long-term data, the morphology of cypselaes of two Echinacea species introduced to Ukraine were studied, their basic parameters and the variability of indicators, connection with agro-climatic factors that is necessary to consider in crop growing for seeds .

  12. Running title: Antioxidant and cell viability of Echinacea purpurea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shieh cho han

    improve animal growth, carcass quality, multiplication, ... bility of low glutinousness raw materials, such as corn and ... the protein matrix, the combination of two enzymes can ..... casei ATCC 393 increases it adhesion ability to caco-2 cells.

  13. The modulatory influence of some Echinacea-based remedies on antibody production and cellular immunity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnicka, Irena; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea-containing remedies are herbal medicines used in respiratory tract infections and several inflammatory conditions as enhancers of non-specific and modulators of specific cellular immunity. They also exert anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-microbial activity. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vivo influence of orally administered three Echinacea purpurea-based remedies (IMMUNAL drops, ECHINACEA FORTE drops, IMMUNAL FORTE tablets) on some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity in mice. Results Feeding mice for seven days with IMMUNAL drops resulted in enhanced anti-SRBC antibody production and modulatory effect on proliferative response to PHA of their splenic lymphocytes. No stimulatory effect was observed on splenocytes chemokinesis. Mice fed with ECHINACEA FORTE drops presented enhanced response to PHA of their splenocytes. However, contrary to the previous group, no enhancement of antibody production was observed. In this group, lymphocyte-induced immunological angiogenesis (LIA) and chemokinesis (spontaneous migration – SM) of spleen lymphocytes was diminished after feeding mice with both doses (LIA) or with a higher dose (SM) of remedy. Lymphocyte-induced immunological angiogenesis activity of splenocytes collected from animals fed with prophylactic and therapeutic IMMUNAL FORTE tablet doses did not differ from the controls. PMID:27095917

  14. Study on Extraction Conditions of Ultrasonic Microwave Synergistic Extraction Method of Cichoric Acid%超声微波协同萃取法提取菊苣酸条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英超; 王蕾; 金红; 李秋闯; 杨孝丽

    2015-01-01

    Studing on optimum extraction conditions of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea with ultrasonic microwave extraction. Using the fresh Echinacea root, exploring the concentration of ethanol,extraction time, microwave power,ratio of material to liquid and other factors on the content of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea, and adopting the optimization extraction conditions by orthogonal test. The results showed that the concentration of 50%ethanol,solid-liquid ratio 1∶25 g/mL,microwave power 300 W,one times extraction and extraction times of 660 s as the best extraction conditions. Three groups of parallel test under the optimum condition were conducted, the average content of cichoric acid was 158.4μg/g.%利用超声微波协同萃取对紫锥菊中菊苣酸最佳提取条件进行研究。采用新鲜的紫锥菊根部,考察乙醇浓度、微波提取时间、微波提取功率、料液比等因素对紫锥菊中菊苣酸提取含量的影响,并采用正交试验优化提取条件。结果表明:浓度为50%乙醇、料液比1∶25 g/mL、微波提取时间660 s、微波提取功率300 W和提取次数为1次为最佳提取条件。在最佳提取条件下进行了3组平行验证试验,得到菊苣酸平均含量为158.4μg/g。

  15. Effects of Ginseng and Echinacea on Cytokine mRNA Expression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluışık, Deniz; Keskin, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng and echinacea on the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 in healthy rats. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats (n = 48) were used. The animals were divided into three equal groups, as follows: control (C); ginseng (G); echinacea (E). While the C group was fed a standard rat diet (Purina) ad libitum for a period of 40 days, the G and E groups animals received the same diet containing 0.5 g/kg of Panax ginseng root powder and 0.75 g/kg of Echinacea purpurea root powder, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from 8 rats in each group after 20 and 40 days of treatment, and the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 was determined. After 20 days of treatment, the expression of IL-10 mRNA in the G group was different from the C group (P echinacea on these cytokines and other cytokines is needed. PMID:22666172

  16. Assessment of in vitro Antacid Activity of Different Root Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers by Modified Artificial Stomach Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya S; Venkata Ramana K; Vinod K R; Chaitanya Rsnakk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Tephrosiapurpurea root by in vitro method using a self fabricated and modified artificial stomach model. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimental animals. Method:In this work we have used air bubbles from an aerator to mimic the peristaltic movements of stomach. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference and control respectively. The parameters evaluated were neutralizing effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity and effect of temperature on pH. We evaluated the potency of the plant by extracting with three solvents in increasing order of polarity. Results: The neutralization effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity were found to be higher for methanol root extract than sodium bicarbonate, whereas ethyl acetate and chloroform extract produced moderately good response but less when compared to standard drug but higher than water. Conclusion: Hence this plant can be an effective alternative for sodium bicarbonate which is reported to have side effects like edema n the feet, alteration in systemic pH, belching etc.

  17. Chemical constituents of essential oils of Tephrosia purpurea and Ipomoea carnea and their repellent activity against Odoiporus longicollis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahayaraj Kitherian; Kombiah Poolpandi; Dikshit Anand K.; Rathi Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs) obtained from stem and root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. and Ipomoea carnea Jacq. were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Total lipid and oil content was high in the stem than the root of T. purpurea and I. carnea. Essential oils extracted from the stem and root of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed 9 and 8 compounds respectively. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the principal co...

  18. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity ofTephrosia purpurea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenoy Smita; Shwetha K; Prabhu K; Maradi R; Bairy KL; Shanbhag T

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of orally administered ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea in acute and subacute inflammation in rats.Methods: An ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea was prepared. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma were the models for acute and subacute inflammation respectively. Four groups of rats in each model were treated orally with 2% gum acacia, 100 mg /kg of aspirin, 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract ofTephrosia purpurea respectively. In carrageenan induced paw edema model, subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan was made into the hind paw of the rats sixty minutes after the administration of the respective drugs. The paw volume was measured immediately after injection of carrageenan, at 3 hours and at 6 hours. Then percentage inhibition of edema was calculated. In the cotton pellet granuloma model, animals were administered drugs for six days after placing cotton pellets in the axilla on each side. On the 7th day, dry weight of granuloma was calculated.Results:The rats treated withTephrosia purpurea did not exhibit any significant decrease in paw volume and serum ceruloplasmin levels as compared to the control and aspirin treated groups in the acute inflammation model; while, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the weight of granuloma inTephrosia purpurea and aspirin treated groups as compared to control in subacute inflammation.Conclusions:The ethanolic extract of orally administered Tephrosia purpurea shows significant antiinflammatory effect in subacute inflammation but not in acute inflammation in rats.

  19. Antioxidant activity of fraction of Tephrosia purpurea linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Family: Leguminosae was found to significantly inhibit the carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation in vivo and superoxide generation in vivo . The ethyl acetate fraction of the same extract was studied for free radical scavenging and antilipid peroxidation activity. The IC50 values in both of these in vitro assays were found to be significantly reduced for ethyl acetate fraction compared with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The observation was further supported by comparing the in vivo antioxidant activity for both the ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction. The study concluded that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea exhibits antioxidant activity in vivo and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction has improved antioxidant potential than the extract.

  20. Chemical constituents of essential oils of Tephrosia purpurea and Ipomoea carnea and their repellent activity against Odoiporus longicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahayaraj Kitherian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs obtained from stem and root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers. and Ipomoea carnea Jacq. were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Total lipid and oil content was high in the stem than the root of T. purpurea and I. carnea. Essential oils extracted from the stem and root of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed 9 and 8 compounds respectively. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the principal constituent of stem (69.61% and root (46.97% of T. purpurea while 70.61and 88.89% for stem and root, respectively in the case of I. carnea. The findings of the present study suggest that T. purpurea and I. carnea EOs can be used as a source of hexadecanoic acid which could be used for industrial purposes. The essential oils of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed strong repellent activity for males (-0.73 and -0.70 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively than females (-0.63 and -0.59 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively against banana pseudostem weevil Odoiporus longicollis. The results indicated that the active compounds of essential oils from stems of T. purpurea and I. carnea can be explored as natural repellents for control of Odoiporus longicollis.

  1. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Priscilla Kerketta; Subhasree Patnaik; Birendra Kumar Roy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) ...

  3. HPLC-PDA测定紫锥菊商业提取物中有效成分的含量%Determination of Active Component in Commercial Extracts of Echinacea purpurea by HPLC-PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕小玲; 蔡妙颜; 王兆梅; 邓韵; 张干元

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究紫锥菊商业提取物中有效成分菊苣酸的含量,为紫锥菊提取物的进一步应用提供依据.方法:HPLC-PDA法,C18柱,柱温35 ℃.流动相为色谱纯乙腈和0.1 %的磷酸溶液,采用梯度洗脱,流速1.5 mL/min,检测波长为330 nm.结果:各组分分离较好,菊苣酸在0.456 ~2.28 μg线性关系良好(r=0.9996).平均加样回收率为98.18 %,RSD为1.12 %.结论:该法定性定量准确、可靠、重现性好,可以用于紫锥菊提取物中有效成分菊苣酸的质量评价.

  4. Effects of Echinacea Purpurea Extract on the Immune Function of Broilers%紫锥菊提取物对肉仔鸡免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红卫; 李秀菊; 岳立

    2014-01-01

    将400羽健康肉仔鸡随机分成4组,分别按0、0.1、0.5、1 mL剂量口服紫锥菊提取物药液7d.25日龄时再次口服7d,按肉鸡正常程序免疫进行试验.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物能够显著促进肉雏鸡免疫器官发育,提高外周血中新城疫抗体,是一种效果极为明显的免疫增强剂,并且能显著促进肉鸡的生产性能,以0.5 g·只-1为日最佳饲喂剂量.

  5. 紫锥菊提取物对小鼠血清细胞因子的影响%Influence of Echinacea purpurea extraction on the level of serum cytokines in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    探索紫锥菊提取物对小鼠血清细胞因子的影响.试验选取健康成年小鼠80只,随机分为8组(每组10只),分别为空白对照组(给予生理盐水灌胃)、免疫抑制模型组(腹腔注射环磷酰胺溶液100 mg/kg)、免疫抑制试验组和正常试验组.免疫抑制试验组和正常试验组分别以低、中、高不同剂量紫锥菊提取物(25 mg/kg·d、50 mg/kg·d和100 mg/kg·d)进行灌胃,连续灌胃4周后,测定其血清细胞免疫因子含量.试验结果表明,与空白组相比,免疫抑制模型组的IL-2、IL-6和TNF-α含量均明显降低(P≥0.01),而不同剂量正常试验组的IL-2、IL-6和TNF-α含量也存在显著差异(P<0.05);与免疫抑制模型组相比,紫锥菊低、中、高剂量免疫抑制试验组IL-2、IL-6和TNF-α水平显著升高(P<0.05),高剂量免疫抑制试验组小鼠的IL-2、IL-6、TNF-α水平分别升高25.21%、29.24%、67.38%.

  6. Study on the Optimization of Ultrasonic Wave Extraction of Cichoric Acid from Echinacea purpurea%超声波法提取紫锥菊中菊苣酸的工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹蕾; 郝智慧; 孙娟; 王春元

    2010-01-01

    利用超声波技术对紫锥菊主要有效成份菊苣酸提取工艺条件进行了研究.在提取过程中采用单因素试验和正交试验分析了提取时间、提取次数、提取溶剂用量等对紫锥菊菊苣酸含量有主要影响的几个因素,确定了紫锥菊菊苣酸的最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,超声波提取紫锥菊菊苣酸的最佳工艺条件为:以体积分数为55%的乙醇作为提取剂,提取时间45 min、提取次数为2次、乙醇用量为紫锥菊药材的8倍,提取物干膏得率为12.2%,菊苣酸含量为1.2%.所确定的最佳提取工艺稳定可行,适于工业化生产.

  7. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  8. Isolation and purification of cichoric acid from extracts of Echinacea purpurea by polyamide column chromatography%聚酰胺对紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸的分离纯化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘轶琛; 曾建国; 陈波; 姚守拙

    2007-01-01

    目的 采用聚酰胺柱色谱分离纯化紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸.方法 采用50%乙醇溶液洗脱,HPLC法对产品中菊苣酸进行检测分析.结果 该法能把紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸的质量分数(4.9%)提高10倍左右,回收率达到98%以上.结论 该法操作简单,可用于紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸的分离纯化.

  9. Effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on immunological response to IBDV vaccine in broilers%紫锥菊对传染性法氏囊疫苗免疫效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛小飞; 史万玉; 倪耀娣; 钟秀会

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨紫锥菊作为免疫增强剂的免疫效果和机理,本试验用1日龄的罗斯308肉鸡作为试验材料并用传染性法氏囊疫苗进行免疫.紫锥菊提取物分3种剂量组(A组0.1 mL/只、B组0.5 mL/只、C组1 mL/只)在6日龄开始连续给雏鸡口服7 d,在13,20,27,34,41日龄采血检测外周血中法氏囊病毒抗体.同时测定外周血中IL-2和TNF-α的含量,计算肉鸡的生产性能.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物能明显提高鸡外周血中法氏囊病毒抗体滴度,以及细胞因子IL-2和TNF-α含量,并能改善肉鸡的生产性能.所用3个剂量组中,以B组的0.5 mL/只为最佳的用药剂量.说明紫锥菊提取物具有明显的免疫促进作用.

  10. 紫锥菊中有效成分的分离提取工艺研究%Study on the Extraction and Purification Process of Effective Component in Echinacea Purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广求; 王亚洲; 袁永华; 王伯初

    2010-01-01

    以国外流行的草药紫锥菊为研究对象,以紫锥菊中的有效成分菊苣酸为主要测试标准,应用正交设计实验对紫锥菊中多糖、总酚、菊苣酸3种有效成分进行提取分离及含量分析.从而确定紫锥菊有效成分的分离提取工艺中的较佳工艺参数.

  11. 紫锥菊提取物对大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)的非特异性免疫功能的影响%EFFECTS OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA EXTRACT ON NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE OF SCOPHTHALMUS MAXIMUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志华; 董文宾; 姜令绪; 王仁杰; 张启迪; 单虎; 雷霁霖

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在探讨肌肉注射不同浓度的紫锥菊提取物对大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)的非特异性免疫功能的影响,试验选取体重(250±20)g的大菱鲆作为试验动物,分别注射10、20、40mg/mL浓度的紫锥菊提取物,试验共进行28d,每隔7d采集血液测试非特异性免疫指标,第28天用迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda)攻毒,连续观察7d,测定其免疫保护率.结果显示肌肉注射紫锥菊提取物对大菱鲆超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力和溶菌酶活力(LSZ)的影响极显著(P<0.01);对吞噬细胞吞噬率(PP)的影响显著(0.01 <P<0.05),对吞噬细胞呼吸爆发活力的影响极显著(P<0.01).攻毒试验表明,紫锥菊提取物能够降低迟缓爱德华氏菌攻毒后鱼的死亡率,提高其免疫保护率,尤其是40mg/mL组.本试验研究表明,紫锥菊提取物能显著的提高大菱鲆的非特异性免疫功能,且以注射浓度40mg/mL的效果最好.

  12. Content determination and extraction process of effective component in Echinacea purpurea%紫锥菊提取工艺研究及有效成分含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏健; 史若男; 李婉; 刘水平; 宋丽婷; 刘进辉

    2015-01-01

    探索紫锥菊的乙醇法最佳提取工艺,并对菊苣酸含量进行测定.试验选取紫锥菊头状花序,用乙醇进行提取,采用L9(34)正交试验、以有效成分菊苣酸的含量为指标优选工艺参数.结果表明,紫锥菊的乙醇法最佳提取工艺条件为:料液比15倍量、乙醇浓度60%、提取温度90℃、提取1h.以菊苣酸标准品为对照,以高效液相检测菊苣酸含量,色谱柱:Phenomenex C18 110A(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相:乙腈-0.1%磷酸水溶液(38∶62),流速:1.00 mL/min,紫外波长:326 nm,HPLC测定纯度为48.41%.此法提取工艺稳定、可行,测定方法简便准确,重复性好,可用于紫锥菊中菊苣酸的质量控制.

  13. Quantification of phenylpropanoids in commercial Echinacea products using TLC with video densitometry as detection technique and ANN for data modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M; Singh, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    Echinacea preparations are among the most popular herbal remedies worldwide. Although it is generally assigned immune enhancement activities, the effectiveness of Echinacea is highly dependent on the Echinacea species, part of the plant used, the age of the plant, its location and the method of extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin-layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of three phenylpropanoid markers (chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid and echinacoside) in commercial Echinacea products. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. One hundred and one signal intensities in each of the TLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied echinacoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of three marker compounds in Echinacea commercial formulations. The minimum quantifiable level of 63, 154 and 98 ng and the limit of detection of 19, 46 and 29 ng were established for echinacoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on TLC separation, high-resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The method proposed can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in Echinacea formulations available in the market. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 灰毛豆甲醇提取物的杀虫活性%Insecticidal activity of methanol extracts from Tephrosia purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有志; 黄素青; 徐汉虹

    2007-01-01

    研究灰毛豆(Tephrosia purpurea)各部位提取物的杀虫活性及其作用方式.结果表明,灰毛豆对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus Skuse幼虫、菜青虫Puerus rapae(L.)、斜纹夜蛾Prodenia litura(Fabricius)幼虫和黄曲条跳甲Phyllotreta striolata(Fabricius)成虫都有杀虫活性.灰毛豆种子、树皮、根皮、豆荚、枝条和树叶的甲醇提取物对白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫24 h的LC50值分别是22.1,97.7,36.6,142.6,165.6和618.3 mg·L-1,树干木质部没有杀虫活性;灰毛豆种子、树皮和根皮甲醇提取物对3龄菜青虫24 h的触杀毒力LC50值分别是232.1,206.3和236.7 mg·L-1;种子、树皮、根皮、枝条、树叶和豆荚对3龄菜青虫的24h胃毒毒力LC50值分别是192.6,168.4,249.7,524.5,1 001.0,和510.7 mg·L-1.在取食或接触有提取物的叶碟后,5龄菜青虫会出现取食量减少和生长发育变慢的亚致死现象.这些研究结果表明,灰毛豆除茎干木质部以外的其它各部位均含有杀虫活性成分,其作用方式为胃毒和触杀.

  15. Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Santram; Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Jain, Alok Pal; Singhai, A K

    2006-11-24

    Tephrosia purpurea is a well-known herb for its hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, antibacterial and in healing bleeding piles, etc. The present study was aimed for wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (aerial part) in the form of simple ointment using three types of wound models in rats as incision wound, excision wound and dead space wound. The results were comparable to standard drug Fluticasone propionate ointment, in terms of wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. Histopathological study showed significant (P<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters were observed significant (P<0.05) in comparison to control group.

  16. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tiralongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.

  17. Bioavailability of Echinacea Constituents: Caco-2 Monolayers and Pharmacokinetics of the Alkylamides and Caffeic Acid Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lehmann

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been done over the years to assess the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We have assessed the potential bioavailability of alkyl- amides and caffeic acid conjugates using Caco-2 monolayers and compared it to their actual bioavailability in a Phase I clinical trial. The caffeic acid conjugates permeated poorly through the Caco-2 monolayers. Alkylamides were found to diffuse rapidly through Caco-2 monolayers. Differences in diffusion rates for each alkylamide correlated to structural variations, with saturation and N-terminal methylation contributing to decreases in diffusion rates. Alkylamide diffusion is not affected by the presence of other constituents and the results for a synthetic alkylamide were in line with those for alkylamides found in an ethanolic Echinacea preparation. We examined plasma from healthy volunteers for 12 hours after ingestion of Echinacea tablets manufactured from an ethanolic liquid extract. Caffeic acid conjugates could not be identified in any plasma sample at any time after tablet ingestion. Alkylamides were detected in plasma 20 minutes after tablet ingestion and for each alkylamide, pharmacokinetic profiles were devised. The data are consistent with the dosing regimen of one tablet three times daily and supports their usage as the primary markers for quality Echinacea preparations.

  18. Effects of Ginseng and Echinacea on Cytokine mRNA Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Uluışık

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng and echinacea on the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 in healthy rats. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats (n=48 were used. The animals were divided into three equal groups, as follows: control (C; ginseng (G; echinacea (E. While the C group was fed a standard rat diet (Purina ad libitum for a period of 40 days, the G and E groups animals received the same diet containing 0.5 g/kg of Panax ginseng root powder and 0.75 g/kg of Echinacea purpurea root powder, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from 8 rats in each group after 20 and 40 days of treatment, and the mRNA expression of IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 was determined. After 20 days of treatment, the expression of IL-10 mRNA in the G group was different from the C group (P<0.05; however, after 40 days of treatment, there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference after 20 and 40 days of treatment between the groups with respect to the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. After 20 days of treatment, the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the E group was higher (P<0.05 than the C group. After 40 days of treatment, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was similar in all of the groups. Based on the current study, the increase in expression of IL-10 mRNA in the G group and the increase in expression of TNF-α mRNA in the E group support the use of these plants for purposes of modulating the immune system. However, a more detailed study regarding the effects of ginseng and echinacea on these cytokines and other cytokines is needed.

  19. Echinacea Species and Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Hammer, Kimberly D. P.; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Leyva, Norma; Liu, Yi; Solco, Avery K. S.; Kraus, George A.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Wurtele, Eve S.; kim, Ok-Kyung; Seo, Kwon; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Birt, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 at 10 μM. Cytotoxicity did not play a role in the noted reduction of PGE2 production in either the Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified individual alkamides present at concentrations below 2.8 μM in the extracts from the six Echinacea species (15 μg/mL crude extract). Because active extracts contained Echinacea in a synergistic or additive manner. PMID:17696440

  20. Antifungal activity of extracts from endophytic fungi associated with Smallanthus maintained in vitro as autotrophic cultures and as pot plants in the greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes associated with leaves, lateral shoots, and roots of Echinacea purpurea, a medicinal plant used by Native Americans, were evaluated for antifungal activity as well as larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti. A total of 39 fungal isolates were identif...

  1. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-HISTAMINE ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisami Nivedithadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae has been used as a medicinal plant in all over India. This plant is a much branched perennial herb. Roots are given orally against any type of poisoning such as snakebite and the aerial parts were used for hydrophobia, asthma, cough, heart disease and kidney problems. Anti-microbial activity of 50% alcoholic extract with different concentrations were tested against the fungal strains like Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans and bacterial organisms like Escherichia coli, Serratia mercescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The 50% alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus. Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration did not show positive antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans. Antihistamine activity of 50% alcohol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP was evaluated in isolated guinea pig ileum. It was observed that different concentrations (2mg, 4mg and 8mg/ml of TP extract antagonized the contraction of ileum induced by histamine. The extracts at 8mg/ml concentration expected maximum antagonistic. The results obtained with histamine in guinea-pig isolated ileum preparations are sensitive to histamine against like histamine at the lower concentration.

  3. Safety evaluation of the methanol extracts from Tephrosia purpurea seeds on the adults of Crytorrhinus levidipennis%灰毛豆种子甲醇提取物对黑肩绿盲蝽成虫的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠华; 刘双清; 曹杨; 曾东强; 李有志

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of the methanol extracts from Tephrosia purpurea seeds on Crytorrhinus levidipennis adult, the insecticidal toxicity of the extracts were determined against C. levidipennis adult and the third instar nymph of Sogatella furcifera, the surviving period and function response to the third instar nymph of S.furcifera of C. levidipennis adult after exposure to the extracts at the dosage of 10.0 mg/L were studied. The results showed that the insecticidal activity of the extracts against the C. levidipennis adult was lower than that against the third instar nymph of S. furcifera, with respective LC50 value being 298.8 and 16.3 mg/L at 48 h after exposure to the extracts. The function response model belonged to Holling-II type. After exposure to the extracts, the parameters of model changed, in the first day the predatory capacity of the natural enemy was enhanced, and then gradually declined in the second and the third day; the surviving time of the natural enemy after exposure to the extracts was significantly shortened from 21.3 d to 13.3 d. Thus the extract is not safe to C. levidipennis.%为评价灰毛豆种子甲醇提取物对白背飞虱天敌黑肩绿盲蝽的安全性,比较了提取物对黑肩绿盲蝽成虫和白背飞虱3龄若虫的杀虫毒力,测定了提取物对黑肩绿盲蝽成虫存活时间和捕食功能的影响.结果表明,提取物对黑肩绿盲蝽成虫的毒力远低于对白背飞虱3龄若虫的毒力,处理后48 h的LC50值分别为298.8和16.3 mg/L;用10 mg/L的提取物处理后,黑肩绿盲蝽成虫对白背飞虱3龄若虫密度变化的功能反应符合Holling-Ⅱ功能反应模型,处理后第1天的捕食能力增强,第2、3天捕食能力逐日下降;黑肩绿盲蝽成虫接触提取物后,存活时间为13.3 d,显著低于未接触提取物的存活时间21.3 d.综合试验结果,灰毛豆种子甲醇提取物对黑肩绿盲蝽成虫不安全.

  4. THE DEBIT INFLUENCE OF THE IRRADIATION SOURCE ON SOME CYTOGENETIC PARAMETERS AT ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L. MOENCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Ichim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment with gamma radiations has determined the decrease of the mitotic index and the increase of the frequency of division aberration proportionally to the increase of the irradiation dose.

  5. Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea%松果菊耐盐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 贾晓东; 刘永芝; 宣继萍; 郭忠仁; 乔玉山

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索松果菊的耐盐能力和耐盐机理.方法:以松果菊为研究对象,设置6个盐度水平(0、30、60、90、120、150 mmol/L NaCl),采用滤纸床发芽和盆栽耐盐法,研究了盐胁迫对松果菊种子萌发和植株生理生化等耐盐指标的影响.结果:盐胁迫抑制了松果菊种子的萌发,诱导渗透调节物质脯氨酸、可溶性糖和K+含量的上调,以及活性氧清除物质POD和SOD活性的增加,但同时也导致了Na+的积累和K+/Na+值的减小.结论:松果菊可抵抗一定程度的盐胁迫,但当盐浓度过高时,严重的盐害作用将显著抑制松果菊的生长.

  6. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    indicus have been described as a human pathogen causing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis [25]. The sequence of UM24 M. indicus was phylogenetically...metabolites including fusaric acid, moniliformin, fumonisins, zearalenon, enniatins and trichothecenes [33]. The phylotyes F. oxysporum UM16 and...Chen and K. D. Hyde, “In Vitro Studies of Endophytic Fungi from Tripterygium wilfordii with Anti-Proliferative Activity on Human Peripheral Blood

  7. In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Halkes, S B A; Tomassen, M M M; Mes, J J; Landman, W J M

    2013-01-01

    Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a β-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli were investigated for their anticolibacillosis potential in three chicken experiments, which were conducted in floor pens. Birds that were inoculated with E. coli intratracheally were treated with the phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP and compared with doxycycline-medicated and non-medicated infected broilers. Non-medicated and non-infected birds were used as negative controls. Mortality, colibacillosis lesions and body weight gains were used as parameters. Considering the sum of dead birds and chickens with generalized colibacillosis per group, there was no significant difference between the positive control groups and birds treated with phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP. In contrast, doxycycline-treated birds showed significantly lower mortality and generalized colibacillosis. Moreover, none of the phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP improved recovery from colibacillosis lesions, while all doxycycline-treated broilers recovered completely. The negative control birds and doxycycline-treated groups consistently showed the highest weight gains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of reisolates showed that they were genetically indistinguishable from the inoculation strain. In conclusion, none of the tested phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP significantly reduced the E. coli-induced mortality and generalized colibacillosis, and nor did they improve recovery from colibacillosis lesions.

  8. Isolation of chlorogenic acid from Mutellina purpurea L. herb using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore proper isolation conditions of chlorogenic acid from the herb of Mutelina purpurea L. - a new source of this bioactive molecule. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 40% aqueous solution of methanol combined with high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was utilised for the efficient extraction and the separation of chlorogenic acid from the M. purpurea herb in less than 30 min. The structure of the obtained compound was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The preparative HPCCC was performed using the mixture of ethyl acetate, butanol and water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the reverse-phase mode. The chlorogenic acid was isolated from this herb for the first time, yielding 96% purity. The ASE with 40% methanol combined with HPCCC separation was proven to be a useful tool for quick and efficient isolation of chlorogenic acid from M. purpurea.

  9. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palbag, Satadru; Dey, Bijay Kr; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. is popularly known as 'Sarapunkha' in classical Ayurvedic texts. It is a perennial plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. T. purpurea is traditionally used to treat splenomegaly, cirrhosis, cough and cold, abdominal swelling and as an antidote in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of semiglabrin, pongamole, lanceolatins A and B, rutin, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Flavonoids including (+)-tephrorin A and B, (+)-tephrosone, an isoflavone, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin were isolated from the whole plant. Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and insect repellent activity. In the present review, the literature on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. are summarized to August, 2012.

  10. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects.

  11. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.

  12. 松果菊属药用植物的应用基础研究%Applied fundamental research of echinacea species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英涛; 王弘; 刘文芝; 佟巍; 杨雁芳; 艾铁民

    2004-01-01

    菊科松果菊属(Echinacea)药用植物原产于北美,在西方应用广泛,是闻名世界的“免疫”草药,具有突出的抗感染与免疫促进作用,曾多年名列西方草药市场销售额的第一位。尽管该属植物松果菊Echinacea purpurea(L.)Moench.作为花卉很早就被引入我国,北京植物志亦有记载,但在我国并没有药用历史,亦没有相关研究基础,尚未进入我国的药

  13. Ardea purpurea madagascariensis, nov. subsp. from Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The purple heron of Madagascar is a much darker bird than Ardea purpurea L. of Europe and Africa. The fore part of the throat and the neck are streaked with black like in this species, but the black streaks are broader and more numerous. The black lines, running down each side of the neck are much b

  14. Two New Secondary Metabolites from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Ning; Peng, Yan; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Yan, Tao; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Qius, Samuel X; Cao, Wen-Hao; Deng, Ligao; Huang, Ri-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Further investigation of Tephrosia purpurea led to the isolation of a new prenylated flavone, isoglabratephrin B (1) and a new 1,2-ethanedione benzofuran derivative, purpdione B (2). The structures of the new isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  15. Rare prenylated flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Abd el-Razek, Mohamed H; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Paré, Paul W

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigations of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded the rare prenylated flavonoids, tephropurpulin A (1) and isoglabratephrin (2), in addition to a previously identified flavonoid, glabratephrin (3). Structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as by HR-MS analysis; for compounds 2 and 3, structures were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON HEPATO AND NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BUTTERFLY TREE (BAUHINIA PURPUREA LINN. AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivanagi Reddy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepato and nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea against paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, Oral doses of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea was administered to group of animals for 14 days. Silymarin (25 mg/kg served as a standard and paracetamol suspension at a dose of 750 mg/kg, Body weight, was used to induce liver and kidney damage. Parameters of study were glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, triglycerides and total protein as liver function tests, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine and urea as kidney function tests. Biochemical studies showed increase in the levels of serum GOT, GPT, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, BUN, creatinine and urea and reduction in the levels of total protein in paracetamol induced groups. These values are retrieved significantly (p< 0.05 in a dose dependant manner by treatment with ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia purpurea stem bark at three different doses. The overall result suggests that the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea possesses hepato and nephroprotective activity against paracetamol induced toxicity.

  17. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discus...

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-HISTAMINE ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisami Nivedithadevi; Paramasivam Manivannan; Ramamurthy Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) has been used as a medicinal plant in all over India. This plant is a much branched perennial herb. Roots are given orally against any type of poisoning such as snakebite and the aerial parts were used for hydrophobia, asthma, cough, heart disease and kidney problems. Anti-microbial activity of 50% alcoholic extract with different concentrations were tested against the fungal strains like Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida alb...

  19. Exploration of diuretic potential and electrolyte excretion of Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, D; Narayana, T V; Vidyasagar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-03-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a well-known traditional plant with diuretic effect but no scientific work published till date to support the claimed ethnomedical use. Therefore, the present study appraised the diuretic potential of methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (METP) in male wistar rats. The powdered plant material was extracted with methanol by hot extraction. The animals were divided into five groups for diuretic activity. The first group served as saline control (0.9%% saline solution, 25 ml/kg, body weight (b.w)), the second group received osmotic diuretic, urea (1 g/kg b.w), the third group received high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide (5 mg/kg b.w), and the other two groups were administered various concentrations of METP (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w) orally to hydrated rats and their urine volume was measured at 5th and 24th hr after drug administration, while animals were deprived of food and water. After collection of urine, the parameters such as urine output, diuretic activity, electrolyte excretion of Na(++), K(++), Ca(2++), and Cl(-), and pH were analyzed. METP at various dose levels exhibited significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume, electrolyte concentration, and alkaline pH in comparison to control group of animals. The present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Tephrosia purpurea as a diuretic agent in Indian traditional system of medicine.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravuri Halley Gora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted. Results: It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01 reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01 higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01 reduction in body weight. Conclusion: Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic.

  1. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  2. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    JAIN, Avijeet; NAHATA, Alok; SINGHAI, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blo...

  3. Effect of Echinacea purpurea Extracts and Astragalus Extractions on Immune Regulation to Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine and Production Performance in Chicken%紫锥菊、黄芪提取物对鸡传染性法氏囊病疫苗免疫调节作用和生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪耀娣; 钟秀会; 牛小飞; 许丽; 卫书朋; 陈棉

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨紫锥菊和黄芪的免疫调节作用,以1日龄罗斯308肉鸡作为试验材料,用传染性法氏囊病(IBD)疫苗进行免疫,以紫锥菊提取物单剂,黄芪提取物单剂,以及紫锥菊和黄芪合剂3种组方,分别以3种剂量在6日龄连续给雏鸡口服7 d,在13、20、27、34、41日龄采血检测外周血中鸡传染性法氏囊病毒(IBDV)抗体,IL-2含量,并测定肉鸡生产性能.结果表明,应用紫锥菊提取物能明显提高外周血中IBDV抗体和IL-2含量,提高试验鸡料肉比.说明紫锥菊提取物具有明显的免疫促进作用,改善生产性能作用,其中0.5%为最佳剂量.用两种提取物相配伍后(0.5%+0.25%)同样提高其机体免疫水平,显示出两种物质的协同作用和增强作用.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different parts of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Ashwini, Sankar; Raveendran, Ramasamy

    2017-02-01

    The antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of four major parts of methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea including leaves, root, stem and seed were investigated and compared. In vitro antioxidant activity of T. purpurea extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reducing power assay and antihemolytic assay. In vitro cytotoxic effect of T. purpurea extracts on SW620 colorectal cancer cell line was studied using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Folin-ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. Among the four extracts studied, leaves extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, DPPH: 186.3 ± 14.0 μg/mL, FRAP: 754.2 ± 50.9 μmol Fe(II)/mg and reducing power activity: 65.7 ± 4.2 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent (QE/mg) and there was no significant difference observed in antihemolytic activity. Leaves extract showed effective cytotoxicity on colorectal cancer cells (IC50: 95.73 ± 9.6 μg/mL) and also had the higher total phenolic (90.5 ± 6.7 μg/mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE/mg) and flavonoid content (21.8 ± 5.4 μg QE/mg). These results suggest higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract in comparison with other extracts and these activities could be due to the presence of rich phenolic and flavonoid content.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different parts of Tephrosia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamoorthy Padmapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of four major parts of methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea including leaves, root, stem and seed were investigated and compared. In vitro antioxidant activity of T. purpurea extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, reducing power assay and antihemolytic assay. In vitro cytotoxic effect of T. purpurea extracts on SW620 colorectal cancer cell line was studied using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Folin-ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. Among the four extracts studied, leaves extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, DPPH: 186.3 ± 14.0 μg/mL, FRAP: 754.2 ± 50.9 μmol Fe(II/mg and reducing power activity: 65.7 ± 4.2 μg/mg of quercetin equivalent (QE/mg and there was no significant difference observed in antihemolytic activity. Leaves extract showed effective cytotoxicity on colorectal cancer cells (IC 50 : 95.73 ± 9.6 μg/mL and also had the higher total phenolic (90.5 ± 6.7 μg/mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE/mg and flavonoid content (21.8 ± 5.4 μg QE/mg. These results suggest higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract in comparison with other extracts and these activities could be due to the presence of rich phenolic and flavonoid content.

  6. Induction of Echinacean purpurea Hairy Roots and in Vitro Culture%紫锥菊毛状根诱导及离体培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世海; 毕晓秀; 杨慧洁

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究紫锥菊毛状根的诱导及活性成分的产生.方法 用发根农杆菌(Agrohacterimn rhizogenes)A4,R1601,1025感染紫锥菊外植体.结果 紫锥菊外植体被3种发根农杆菌感染后,外植体伤口处均能陆续分化生长出白色的毛状根.A4菌株的诱导效果明显好于其他2种菌株,A4对紫锥菊叶片的毛状根诱导率高达66.7%o紫锥菊毛状根的最佳诱导条件为:发根农杆菌A4,感染时间12 min,菌液A600值0.8,共培养温度24℃,共培养时间2d,预培养时间2 d,培养基pH值6.0,此条件下紫锥菊毛状根的平均诱导率达到54%;对诱导出的毛状根进行PCR检测,证明其确为已转化的毛状根.检测得到紫锥菊毛状根中的多糖含量为15.54%,总酚的含量为2.491%.结论 本实验所建立的紫锥菊毛状根培养系统,为研究紫锥菊毛状根大量培养生产活性成分奠定了基础.%OBJECTIVE To study the induction of Echinacea purpurea hairy roots and the production of chemical constituents therein. METHODS Leaf blades and stems of Echinacea purpurea were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4, R1601, and 1025, respectively. RESULTS Hairy roots were induced from the wounded brim of the explants after inoculation of E. Purpurea explants with A. Rhizogenes of A4, R1601 or 1 025. The percentage of rooted leaf explants was 66. 7% after A4 infection. At the same time,single-factor experiments for several influential factors were carried out to find the best condition for inducement of Echinacea purpurea hairy roots. The most appropriate A. Rhizogenes was A4, the most appropriate infecting time was about 12 min, the most appropriate A600, of A4 suspension was about 0. 8, the most appropriate co-culture time was 2 d, the most appropriate preculture time was 2 d, the most appropriate co-culture temperature was about 24 t and the most appropriate pH of culture medium was about 6. 0, under which the average inducing rate reached 54%. The induced roots were

  7. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components of Echinacea Species%不同紫锥花种属中挥发性组分的气相色谱/质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兴东; 聂园梅; Nirmalendu Datta-Gupta

    2004-01-01

    The volatile constituents of three Echinacea species are investigated with GC/MS analysis of their ethanol extracts. The results show different Echinacea species have different constituents; the volatile parts may also have contribution to the medicinal effect of herb.%通过气相色谱/质谱联用技术分析了三种常见紫锥花种属E. Angustifolia, E. Pallida和 E. Purpurea中挥发性组分.从结果分析,这些挥发性组分对于其药效也有部分贡献.

  8. اثر سولفات‌روی و اسیدآسکوربیک بر برخی صفات مورفو-فیزیولوژیک سرخارگل (Echinacea purpurea در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرهاد فرح وش

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available به منظور ارزیابی اثر سولفات‌روی و اسید‌آسکوربیک بر برخی صفات مورفو-فیزیولوژیک‌ گیاه سرخارگل (Echinacea purpurea در پاسخ به تنش کم‌آبی آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار در طی سال 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش کم آبی به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی در 3 سطح (a1: آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر ،a2: آبیاری پس از 120 میلی متر تبخیر و a3: آبیاری پس از 170 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A و ترکیب تیماری شامل سولفات روی در دو سطح (b1: عدم مصرف و b2: محلول­ پاشی سولفات روی با غلظت 5 در هزار و محلول‌پاشی اسیدآسکوربیک‌ در 4 سطح (c1: عدم مصرف، c2: 50، c3: 100و c4:150 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان دادند که اعمال تنش کم آبی در سرخارگل منجر به ایجاد اختلاف معنی‌دار در صفات قطر ساقه، تعداد شاخه گل‌دهنده، تراکم روزنه، غلظت روی بخش هوایی، عملکرد تر بوته، محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ (RWC، شاخص سطح برگ (LAI، غلظت پرولین، سرعت رشد محصول ((CGR، سرعت رشد نسبی ((RGR و سرعت جذب خالص (NAR گردید. مقایسه میانگین‌ها برای اثر تنش خشکی نشان داد که بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ مربوط به تیمار آبیاری کامل با 2.85 بود. مقایسه

  9. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (PTephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolics and flavonoidal compounds like rutin and quercetin. Thus, it can be said that Tephrosia purpurea could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxins like gentamicin.

  10. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  11. Estimation of Flavonoid, Polyphenolic Content and In-vitro Antioxidant Capacity of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminosae being used for the treatment of jaundice and claimed to be effective in many other diseases. The present research work wasunder taken to investigate the in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Method The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So that the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-Spectrophotometric determination.

  12. Lipid Compounds from Echinacea purpurea%紫花松果菊亲脂性成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继仁; 高秀峰; 艾铁民; 赵玉英

    2002-01-01

    目的:分离紫花松果菊的化学成分.方法:溶剂法和色谱法分离化学成分,波谱鉴定其结构.结果:从地上部分得到3个化合物,lβ,6a-二羟基-4(14)桉叶烯(1),二十四酸(4),二十六醇(5);1个混合物,(2E,4E,8z,10E)-异丁基-2,4,8,10-十二四烯酰胺(2),(2E,4E,8Z,10Z)-异丁基-2,4,8,10-十二四烯酰胺(3).结论:化合物l,4和5为首次从该植物获得.

  13. 紫锥菊的生药学研究%Study on the Pharmacognosy of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英杰; 张会梅; 付海宁; 周风琴; 郭庆梅

    2015-01-01

    采用来源鉴定、性状鉴定、显微及理化鉴定的方法研究紫锥菊的生药学内容,为制定药材质量标准、研究、开发和利用紫锥菊的药用资源提供了理论依据.

  14. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  15. 大孔吸附树脂对紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸分离纯化的研究%STUDY ON ADSORPTION AND PURIFICATION OF CICHORIC ACID IN EXTRACTS OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA WITH MACROPOROUS ADSORPTION RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾栋; 陈波; 罗旭彪; 张斐; 姚守拙

    2004-01-01

    采用大孔吸附树脂分离纯化紫锥菊提取物中免疫活性成分菊苣酸,7%(v/v)的甲醇-水溶液洗脱,HPLC法对产品中菊苣酸含量进行检测分析.该法能把紫锥菊提取物中菊苣酸含量(4%)提高9倍左右,回收率达到95%以上,且操作简单,可用于菊苣酸的分离纯化.

  16. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  17. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauš, Karel; Pleschka, Stephan; Klein, Peter; Schoop, Roland; Fisher, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in the Czech Republic and randomized to either 5 days of oseltamivir followed by 5 days of placebo, or 10 days of an Echinacea purpurea-based formulation called Echinaforce Hotdrink (A. Vogel Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland). The proportion of recovered patients (influenza symptoms rated as absent or mild in the evening) was analyzed for noninferiority between treatment groups using a generalized Wilcoxon test with significance level α = 0.05 (2-sided) and using a CI approach in the per-protocol sample. Recovery from illness was comparable in the 2 treatment groups at 1.5% versus 4.1% after 1 day, 50.2% versus 48.8% after 5 days, and 90.1% versus 84.8% after 10 days of treatment with Echinaforce Hotdrink and oseltamivir, respectively. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each day and overall (95% CI, 0.487-0.5265 by generalized Wilcoxon test). Very similar results were obtained in the group with virologically confirmed influenza virus infections and in a retrospective analysis during the peak influenza period. The incidence of complications was lower with Echinaforce Hotdrink than with oseltamivir (2.46% vs 6.45%; P = 0.076) and fewer adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) were observed with Echinaforce Hotdrink. Echinaforce Hotdrink is as effective as oseltamivir in the early treatment of clinically diagnosed and virologically confirmed influenza virus infections with a reduced risk of complications and adverse events. It appears to be an attractive treatment option, particularly suitable for self

  18. Identification of Compounds from the Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea Seeds and Their Insecticidal Activities against Odontotermes formosanus Adults%灰毛豆种子中化学成分的鉴定及其对黑翅土白蚁的杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠华; 王苏宁; 丁文兵; 薛正杰; 刘自力; 李有志

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine insecticidal compounds from the methanol extracts of Tephrosia purpurea seeds and their insecticidal activities against the adult of Odontotermes formosanus, active compounds were isolated with column chromatography and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopy, as well as by HR-MS analysis. Contact, repellent and transmission toxicities of each compound were determined against the adult of O. formosanus. Ten known compounds were isolated and identified (Obovatachalcone, Obovatin, Isolonchocarpin, Rotenone, Pongachin, 12α-hydroxyrotenone, 6α, 12α-dehydrodeguelin, Tephrosin, Penduletin, Raffinose). Five of the ten compounds showed insecticidal activity against the adult of O. formosanus. Five compounds (Isolonchocarpin, Tephrosin, Obovatin, 12α-hydroxyrotenone and Rotenone) exhibited contact toxicity, with LD50 of 93.9, 123.5, 209.1, 259.4 and 370.8 µg per insect at 24 hours after treatment, respectively; and three compounds (Obovatin, Rotenone and 12α-hydroxyrotenone) exhibited transmission toxicity, with cumulative poisoning rate of 24.3,38.7 and 100% at 56 hours after treatment, respectively. At the dosage of 500 mg·L−1, two compounds (Isolonchocarpin and Tephrosin) exhibited weak repellent toxicity. The results suggested that 12α-hydroxyrotenone was the most potential active compound against O. formosanus.%  为探明灰毛豆 Tephrosia purpurea 种子中的杀虫成分及其对黑翅土白蚁 Odontotermes formosanus 工蚁成虫的杀虫活性,对其甲醇提取物采用多种色谱技术分离纯化,结合核磁共振图谱和质谱方法鉴定化合物的结构,并测定了各化合物对黑翅土白蚁工蚁成虫的触杀、忌避和传毒活性。从灰毛豆种子甲醇提取物中分离鉴定了10个化合物,即 Obovatachalcone,Obovatin,异合生果素,鱼藤酮,Pongachin,12α-羟基鱼藤酮,6a,12a-脱氢灰叶酚,灰叶素,Penduletin 和棉子糖。5个化合物(

  19. An Integrated Field and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Method for the Estimation of Pigments Content of Stipa Purpurea in Shenzha, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea is the representative type of alpine grassland in Tibet and the surviving and development material for herdsmen. This paper takes Shenzha County as the research area. Based on the analysis of typical hyperspectral variables sensitive to chlorophyll content of Stipa purpurea, 10 spectral variables with significant correlation with chlorophyll were extracted. The estimation model of chlorophyll was established. The photosynthetic pigment contents in the Shenzha area were calculated by using HJ-1A remote sensing images. The results show that (1 there are significant correlations between chlorophyll content and spectral variables; in particular, the coefficient of Chlb in Stipa purpurea with RVI is the largest (0.728; (2 10 variables are correlated with chlorophyll, and the order of correlation is Chlb > Chla > Chls; (3 for the estimation of Chla, the EVI is the best variable. RVI, NDVI, and VI2 are suitable for Chlb; RVI and NDVI are also suitable for the estimation of Chls; (4 the mean estimated content of Chla in Stipa bungeana is about 4.88 times that of Chlb, while Cars is slightly more than Chlb; (5 the distribution of Chla is opposite to Chlb and Chls content in water area.

  20. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexia; Gräfenhan, Tom; Links, Matthew G.; Hemmingsen, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes. PMID:28257512

  1. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexia; Gräfenhan, Tom; Links, Matthew G; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes.

  2. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts′ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.

  3. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  4. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  5. Spasmolytic activity of a herbal drug isolated from Tephrosia purpurea in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kapil K; Khare, M L; Saxena, R C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.

  6. Environ: E00764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00764 Echinacea Medicinal herb Caffeic acid derivatives, Echinacoside [CPD:C10450]...Isobutyramide, Essential oil, Pyrrolizidine alkaloid Echinacea angustifolia [TAX:308558], Echinacea pallida [TAX:53749], Echina...cea purpurea [TAX:53751] Asteraceae Echinacea aerial part and ...1565] inhibitor Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00764 Echinacea ...

  7. Isolation and structure elucidation of cytotoxic polyacetylenes and polyenes from Echinacea pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Calò, Samuele; Benvenuti, Stefania; Adinolfi, Barbara; Nieri, Paola; Melegari, Michele

    2006-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of n-hexane extracts of Echinacea pallida (Asteraceae) roots led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two polyacetylenes (1, 3) and three polyenes (2, 4, 5). Two are known hydroxylated compounds, namely 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1) and 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (2). Two dicarbonylic constituents, namely pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyne-2,8-dione (3) and pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yne-2,8-dione (4), were isolated and characterized for the first time. Furthermore, the structure elucidation of pentadeca-(8Z,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (5) is described. The structure of the compounds isolated was determined on the basis of UV, IR, NMR (including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, such as 1H-1H gCOSY, gHSQC-DEPT, gHMBC, gNOESY) and MS spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated constituents against MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was evaluated in the concentration range 1-100 microg/ml. Results show that the hydroxylated compounds (1, 2) have low cytotoxicity, while the more hydrophobic polyacetylenes (3) and polyenes (4, 5) displayed moderate activity.

  8. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  9. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    2000-02-24

    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  10. Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interfering with COX-2 enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Kohut, Marian L.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

    2013-01-01

    Bauer alkylamide 11 and ketone 23 were partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties previously. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however qRT-PCR showed decrease in TNF-α and increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE2 production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

  11. Observations on tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Growing in and around gauhat (assam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnick, C R; Majumdar, R

    1982-07-01

    Observations on Tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Which is known as Sarapunkha in Ayurveda, growing in and around Gauhati (Assam) has been systematically discussed in this paper. The Ethno-botanical records of the plant are also described here.

  12. OBSERVATIONS ON TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (L.) PERS. GROWING IN AND AROUND GAUHAT (ASSAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Karnick, C.R.; Majumdar, R

    1982-01-01

    Observations on Tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers. Which is known as Sarapunkha in Ayurveda, growing in and around Gauhati (Assam) has been systematically discussed in this paper. The Ethno-botanical records of the plant are also described here.

  13. Cytotoxic Activity and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest of a Dienynone from Echinacea pallida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chicca, Andrea; Adinolfi, Barbara; Pellati, Federica;

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, a further investigation of the cytotoxic activity of an acetylenic constituent of ECHINACEA PALLIDA roots, namely, pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one, was performed, revealing a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on several human cancer cell lines, including leukemia...

  14. The effect of Echinacea mouthwash on ventilator associated pneumonia in patients in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Mehrabadi M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the most prevalent hospital infections in intensive care units. Mouthwash is one of the caring procedures which can be effective in decreasing the rate of VAP. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Echinacea mouthwash on prevalence of ventilator associated pneumonia in intensive care units. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial study, population was the intubated patients in intensive care units of educational hospitals in Arak in 2014. 70 patients were selected purposively and then were randomly allocated into two intervention and control groups, In intervention group, mouthwash with Echinacea and in control group with normal saline was done twice daily. The rate of VAP was assessed by Clinical Pulmonary Infection Scale (CPIS, before and on the fifth day of intervention. Data were analyzed by Chi square, independent T-test and fisher’s exact test through using SPSS16. Results: prevalence of Ventilator associated pneumonia was 60 percent in normal saline and 51.4 percent in Echinacea group buth the Chi square test didn’t show significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: According to results, Echinacea can relatively decrease the rate of VAP in ventilated patients, but more investigations in this area are essential.

  15. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  16. Study on the antioxidant effect of volatile oil of Echinacea purpurea L.%紫花松果菊挥发油抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彩红; 袁艺; 王文文; 袁志清

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究紫花松果菊挥发油抗氧化作用.方法:以Vc和薰衣草挥发油做时照,分光光度法测定松果菊挥发油对DPPH·、·OH的清除卒以及对卵磷脂过氧化的抑制率.结果:松果菊挥发油、薰衣草挥发油和Vc对DPPH·清除能力表现为:松果菊挥发油>薰衣草挥发油>Vc;对脂质过氧化的抑制能力表现为:松果菊挥发油>薰衣草挥发油>Vc;对羟自由基清除能力表现为:Vc>薰衣草挥发油>松果菊挥发油.结论:紫花松果菊挥发油具有抗氧化能力.紫花松果菊挥发油对DPPH·表现出清除作用,对脂质过氧化体表现出抑制作用,并且其清除和抑制能力高于两个对照组,而时·OH的清除作用低于对照组.

  17. 紫花松果菊亲脂性化学成分研究(Ⅱ)%Study on the lipid compounds from Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继仁; 侯志新; 王育琪; 龚海英

    2003-01-01

    目的:分离紫花松果菊的化学成分.方法:用溶剂法和色谱法分离化学成分,用波谱鉴定其结构.结果:从紫花松果菊地上部分得到5个单体化合物(1~5)和一混合物(6,7),用光谱法鉴定其结构分别为咖啡酸(1)、咖啡酸甲酯(2)、咖啡酸乙酯(3)、7,8呋喃并香豆素(4)、6-甲氧基-7-羟基-香豆素(5)、豆甾醇(Stigmasterol)(6)、β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol)(7).结论:化合物1~5为首次从该植物获得.

  18. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Echinacea Purpurea%紫锥菊的组织培养及其实用快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伯初; 刘万钱; 段传人

    2005-01-01

    利用植物组织培养技术快速育苗是一个新兴的生物技术应用领域.文中采用组织培养技术,以MS培养基为基本培养基,通过调节植物生长激素的配比对紫锥菊组织进行愈伤化、继代、分化、生根等系列培养,培育出完整植株,并采用声波刺激方式炼苗以提高移栽成活率.该方法避免了传统紫锥菊育苗时种子采集困难,发芽率低,难以大规模育苗的特点,从而为建立规模化培育紫锥菊苗以及为我国开发利用紫锥菊药用资源提供了理论依据.

  19. Study on Drying Methods of Introduced Echinacea Purpurea%引种紫锥菊干燥方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅; 周凤琴

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究引种紫锥菊药材的最佳干燥方法.方法:分别采用晒干、阴干、烘干的方法对紫锥菊药材进行干燥,比较不同干燥方法处理的紫锥菊植株内菊苣酸和总多酚含量.结果:不同干燥方法对菊苣酸含量影响最大的为叶;地上部位中菊苣酸和总多酚含量从高到低均为:晒干>阴干>烘干;根部以阴干法菊苣酸含量最高.结论:为有效成分最大提取量与成本最低化,建议药材分为地上与地下两部分别干燥处理,并且地上部分采用晒干法,地下部分采用阴干法.

  20. 紫锥菊挥发性成分分析研究%Study on the Volatile Components Analysis in Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾栋; 文瑞芝; 潘振球; 冯家力

    2010-01-01

    采用气-质(GC-MS)联用技术结合顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)与传统共水蒸馏法,对紫锥菊植物干花与干根中挥发性成分进行分析方法研究.GC-MS(配Nist2005标准质谱库)从传统方法提取的紫锥菊干根挥发油中分离分析出188个峰,初步鉴定出68种化合物,从聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS 7,100 μm)及聚丙烯酸酯(PA 85 μm)三种固相微萃取涂层吸附的紫锥菊干花挥发性成分中分别分离分析出27、118、105个峰,各自鉴定出1、22、23种化合物.对不同处理方法及紫锥菊植物不同部位所得数据进行了相识性与差异性的比较,所建分析方法及所得结果为了解紫锥菊植物体挥发性有效成分提供了参考.

  1. 松果菊挥发油的化学成分研究%Studies on Chemical Constituents in Wssential Oil from Echinacea Purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王弘; 侯建中; 陈世忠; 艾铁民

    2002-01-01

    目的:分析松果菊挥发油的化学成分.方法:用GC-MS进行定性和定量分析.结果:从松果菊根挥发油中共分离出了24个成分,鉴定出了16个化合物.主要成分为烯类(3.21%)、烷类(30.1%)、酸类(3.27%),其中甲基十六烷含量最高为28.15%.9,12-十八碳二烯酸单甘油酯、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸单甘油酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯为首次在该属植物中鉴定出.结论:为松果菊挥发油成分的系统分析提供了资料,特别是为我国松果菊质量研究及开发应用提供了参考资料.

  2. 紫锥菊抗氧化作用及机理研究进展%Research progress in antioxidant mechanism of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治颖; 张晶; 程飞; 桂滨泽; 刘进辉

    2016-01-01

    紫锥菊为菊科松果菊属,是一种多年草本生植物,含有多种活性物质,具有抗氧化、抗炎、增强免疫和抑菌等多种生物学功效.自由基是体内正常代谢的产物,具有很强的氧化反应能力,过多的自由基容易对蛋白质、核酸等造成伤害,从而引起机体损伤.紫锥菊中的抗氧化成分主要为多酚类物质和多糖类物质,两者均可以清除体内的自由基,或通过调节酶的活性而保护机体不被过多的自由基氧化.本文综述了近年来国内外紫锥菊抗氧化作用及机理的研究情况.

  3. 紫锥菊药材的炮制工艺研究%Study on the processing technology of Echinacea purpurea herbs as crude drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会梅; 钟英杰; 付海宁; 庞云露; 蒋贻海

    2016-01-01

    为了研究紫锥菊鲜药材的炮制工艺,使鲜药材最大程度地保留其有效成分,经长期摸索研究,试验采用常压蒸制法对紫锥菊鲜药材进行炮制处理,以菊苣酸含量为考察指标,通过对不同蒸制时间、烘干温度等因素的比较,确定紫锥菊鲜药材的最佳炮制工艺.结果表明:紫锥菊鲜药材洗净、切段后常压蒸制20 min及90℃烘干,与直接晒干相比,菊苣酸的含量提高了104%.说明该炮制方法适用于紫锥菊鲜药材.

  4. 影响紫锥菊植株有效成分含量的因素%The Factors of Influencing the Active Ingredients Content of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜

    2014-01-01

    对影响紫锥菊植株内有效成分含量的因素如生长环境、栽培措施、植株器官与组织差异、生长发育时期和干燥加工方式进行了综述,并分别对其栽培及加工技术提出了建议.认为生长环境和紫锥菊不同部位都会造成有效成分含量的较大差异,不恰当的干燥方式会造成有效成分的损失.

  5. 侵染紫松果菊的黄瓜花叶病毒分离物鉴定%Identification of Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芬; 朱水芳; 周群; 施宗伟; 张永江; 李明福

    2007-01-01

    从表现黄花叶症状的紫松果菊病株上获得分离物2-1-2,电镜下可见直径约30 nm的球状病毒粒体,其与黄瓜花叶病毒抗体呈强的阳性反应,ds-RNA的谱带类型与本实验室保存的标准黄瓜花叶病毒株系相同.通过生物学、病毒粒体观察、血清学以及病毒核酸双链试验结果,确定该病毒分离物为黄瓜花叶病毒.

  6. 松果菊离体培养的比较试验%Comparative experiment on the in vitro culture of purple coneflower(Echinacea purpurea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵福成; 杨跃生; 王桂跃

    2009-01-01

    松果菊是异花授粉多年生药用植物,通过组织培养技术繁殖种苗具有实用价值.本研究采用9个不同株系的叶片、叶柄和根作为外植体诱导不定芽的形成,观察到某些株系问在不定芽的再生能力上有显著的差别;从总体上看,根的不定芽再生能力最强,叶柄外植体的再生能力也明显高于叶片.在诱导不定芽生根和促进植株生长时,标准的MS培养基略优于半量的1/2 MS培养基,IBA的作用略优于NAA.

  7. 紫锥菊多倍体诱导与鉴定%Induction and Identification of the Polyploid Seedlings of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳; 鲍美华; 彭菲; 李艳辉

    2009-01-01

    本实验以紫锥菊愈伤组织上刚分化出的不定芽为材料,用不同浓度秋水仙素溶液对其进行诱导,确定最佳处理浓度和处理时间,并对诱导的多倍体与二倍体进行形态、显微、染色体及过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的比较鉴定.结果表明:0.025%秋水仙素浓度处理24h的诱导效果最好,诱导率达42.85%;多倍体植株叶片肥厚、根粗壮,气孔面积极显著地大于二倍体植株,染色体数从24~28条不等,CAT平均酶活性是二倍体的2.1倍.

  8. Tissue culture and rapid propagation of medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea%药用植物紫锥菊的组织培养与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路梅; 张发成; 王俊平

    2006-01-01

    以紫锥菊种子萌发的子叶为外植体,进行组织培养试验.确定了紫锥菊快繁体系的最适培养条件:(1)种子发芽培养基:MS+IAA 0.1 mg/L+6-BA 1.0 mg/L;(2)愈伤诱导培养基:MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L;(3)不定芽分化培养基:MS+NAA 0.2 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L;(4)生根培养基:1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg/L.

  9. 紫锥菊口服液质量评价%Study and Evaluation of Quality Control of Echinacea Purpurea Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芬芳; 郝智慧; 丁兆朋

    2013-01-01

    目的:完成紫锥菊口服液质量研究与评价.方法:采用硅胶GF254预制板,以乙酸乙酯-甲酸-水(6∶0.5∶1)的上层溶液为展开剂,进行TLC定性鉴别;以Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相乙腈-0.3%磷酸水溶液梯度洗脱,流速1.2 mL·min-1,检测波长330 nm,柱温35℃,进样量10μL,进行HPLC含量测定;同时对指标pH、相对密度进行质量研究.结果:紫锥菊口服液有良好的薄层鉴别特征;有效成分菊苣酸含量在0.004 ~0.128 g·L-1,进样量与其色谱峰峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r =0.9999),平均加样回收率101.13%,RSD 1.41%.结论:TLC定性鉴别,操作简便,重复性好.HPLC含量测定方法简便、快速、准确.所建立的方法可用于柴锥菊口服液质量控制.

  10. HPLC法测定紫锥菊中3种酚酸含量%Simultaneous determination of three kinds of phenolic acids in Echinacea purpurea by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘春丽; 孙大威; 谢华; 董乃维; 杨异卉; 杜妍; 吴立军

    2016-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对紫锥菊中3种酚酸类成分菊苣酸,绿原酸和咖啡酸的含量进行测定,为紫锥菊及其制剂的质量评价和进一步应用提供依据.方法 色谱柱为DiamonsilTM C18 色谱柱(5μm,250 mm×4.6 mm);乙腈(B)-0.1%磷酸水(A)梯度洗脱;流速1.0 mL/min;检测波长330nm;柱温为室温;进样量为20μL.结果 紫锥菊中3种酚酸类化合物在该色谱条件下有良好的分离度,在相应的线性范围内呈现良好的线性关系,重复性良好.平均回收率均在99.3% ~ 100.4%范围内,RSD< 2.0%.结论 该测定方法简便、准确,可用于紫锥菊及紫锥菊提取物的质量控制.

  11. A Preliminary Report on the Study of Pot Planting of Echinacea purpurea.(L)Moench%紫花松果菊盆栽种植研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆叶; 周洪英; 李媛媛; 储蓉

    2013-01-01

    本文采用几种基质及不同遮荫条件对紫花松果菊种子萌发方面的影响进行试验.通过试验得出:(1)与珍珠岩、菜园土(腐殖土+田园土(1∶1))、沙等其它基质相比,菌粑(蘑菇渣+菜园土(1∶1)为紫花松果菊种子萌发和生长较适宜的基质;(2)紫花松果菊种子在萌发前期需要阳光和通风条件,在萌发中后期需要一定遮荫和保温保温条件,在成苗期需要恰当的光照和温度,太过遮荫不利于展叶成苗.从总体上来看,25%遮荫条件下紫花松果菊种子萌发总数、出苗率、成活数、成苗率均高于其它遮荫条件.

  12. An Uncommon Plant Growth Regulator, Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate, Is Highly Effective in Tissue Cultures of the Important Medicinal Plant Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6 on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  13. An uncommon plant growth regulator, diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, is highly effective in tissue cultures of the important medicinal plant purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Rong; Li, Qing-Ling; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  14. Investigation on the effect of different sources of fertilizers on growth indices and yield of coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. as a medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashnavar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the response of coneflower to applying chemical fertilizer and incorporation with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC, a pot experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with six treatments included: control (without applying chemical fertilizer and compost, chemical fertilizer (150 kg N, 120 kg P2O5 and 250 kg K2O per hectare from urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulphate source, respectively (CF, 30 t.ha-1 MSWC, 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF, 15 t.ha-1 MSWC+2 4 CF, and 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 3 4 CF with three replications during 2012 in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Results indicated that growth and yield indices such as the number of flowers per plant, number of lateral branches, number of petals, main flower’s diameter, receptacle’s diameter, main stem’s diameter, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower and concentration of chlorophyll a and b in flowering stage were affected by application of chemical fertilizer and MSWC. The incorporation 15t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF also enhanced the diameter of receptacle, main stem’s diameter, the number of petals, 30%, 30% and 50%, respectively. Meanwhile, applying 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF/ha increased the concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, number of flowers per plant, total fresh and dry matter of flower about 80%.

  15. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Tephrosia purpurea Pers Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, S; Ventaka, Ramana K; Vinod, K R

    2010-07-01

    Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part.

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 19 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of Iris lactea var. chinensis germplasm detected by inter-simple ... seeds in greenhouse and laboratory conditions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... white head cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata sub.var. alba) from Turkey ... Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and its impact on ...

  17. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment.

  18. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil

    2009-08-01

    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  19. Tephrosia purpurea alleviates phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion response in murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Ahmed Su; Alam, A; Sultana, S

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed on identifying new cancer chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. Tephrosia purpurea has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity, pharmacological and physiological disorders. Earlier we showed that Tephrosia purpurea inhibits benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present study, we therefore assessed the effect of Tephrosia purpurea on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbal-13-acetate (TPA; a well-known phorbol ester) induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in murine skin. The pre-treatment of Swiss albino mice with Tephrosia purpurea prior to application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Skin tumor initiation was achieved by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (25 microg per animal per 0.2 ml acetone) to mice. Ten days later tumor promotion was started by twice weekly topical application of croton oil (0.5% per animal per 0.2 ml acetone, v /v). Topical application of Tephrosia purpurea 1 h prior to each application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a significant protection against cutaneous carcinogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The animals pre-treated with Tephrosia purpurea showed a decrease in both tumor incidence and tumor yield as compared to the croton oil (phorbol ester)-treated control group. In addition, a significant reduction in TPA-mediated induction in cutaneous ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation was also observed in animals pre-treated with a topical application of Tephrosia purpurea. The effect of topical application of Tephrosia purpurea on TPA-mediated depletion in the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in skin was also evaluated and it was observed that topical application of Tephrosia purpurea prior to TPA resulted in the significant recovery of

  20. The bumblebee Bombus hortorum is the main pollinating visitor to Digitalis purpurea (Common Foxglove in a U.K. population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Broadbent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialization in plant-pollinator systems represents an important issue for both the ecological understanding and conservation of these systems. We investigated the extent to which the bumblebee Bombus hortorum (Linnaeus is the main potential pollinator of Common Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea L. Twenty D. purpurea patches were selected in North Yorkshire, U.K., ten each in woodland and garden or park habitat. All insects visiting D. purpurea within the patches were recorded over seventy 30-min bouts. The relative frequency of insect visitors to other flowering plant species within 15 m of each patch was also determined. B. hortorum and B. pascuorum were the two most frequent visitors to D. purpurea, accounting for 82 - 92% and 3 -17%, respectively, of all insect visits (n = 1682, depending on habitat. B. hortorum showed a significant preference for visiting D. purpurea relative to its frequency of visits to other available plant species. The relationship of D. purpurea with B. hortorum, which pollinates several plant species with long corollas, therefore represents a potential case of asymmetric specialization, albeit one that may vary spatially. Because D. purpurea reproduction appears dependent on insect pollination, B. hortorum and B. pascuorum may help underpin the viability of D. purpurea populations.

  1. Synthesis and Natural Distribution of Anti-inflammatory Alkamides from Echinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Wurtele

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the alkamides 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (1 and 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (5 was accomplished by organometallic coupling followed by introduction of the doubly unsaturated amide moiety. The distribution of these two amides in accessions of the nine species of Echinacea was determined.

  2. Echinacea metabolism and drug interactions: the case for standardization of a complementary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Francesca; Matthias, Anita; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2009-07-17

    The herbal medicine, Echinacea, is used for treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. Among the phytochemicals found in Echinacea, the bioavailable alkylamides are thought to be the compounds responsible for its effects on the human immune system. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) appear to be the principal system responsible for the metabolism of Echinacea components and most of the main hepatic and some extrahepatic isoforms appear to be involved. Epoxide formation, N-dealkylation and hydroxylation are the main metabolic pathways mediated by P450s. Interactions with P450s determine the circulating concentrations and duration of action of these phytochemicals as well as any potential interactions with other chemicals. Most research to date has focused on the potential of Echinacea to interact with other drugs. Literature reports are equivocal and comparisons between studies are difficult as the phytochemical composition of the preparations examined is rarely assessed. Certain alkylamides containing a terminal acetylene appear to exert a time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition on the metabolism of other compounds. However as there are no industry standardization requirements, differences in the relative concentrations of individual alkylamides between preparations could alter the potential for interactions. A thorough phytochemical analysis of samples investigated is necessary in further studies so that sound conclusions can be drawn regarding the potential for inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects and interactions with other chemicals. Moreover standardization of alkylamide content may allow the exploitation of beneficial interactions between alkylamide components to enhance the therapeutic effect of this widely used complementary medicine.

  3. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damre, A S; Gokhale, A B; Phadke, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2003-04-01

    The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea (FFTP) was studied for its effect on cellular and humoral functions and on macrophage phagocytosis in mice. Oral administration of FFTP (10-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It also produced a significant, dose-related decrease in sheep erythrocyte-specific haemagglutination antibody titre. However, the fraction failed to show a significant change in the macrophage phagocytic activity. The results obtained indicate the ability of the flavonoidal fraction of T. purpurea to modulate both the cell-mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.

  4. Metabolism of the major Echinacea alkylamide N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, F; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Gillam, E M J; Lehmann, R P

    2010-08-01

    Echinacea preparations are used for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. The phytochemicals believed responsible for the immunomodulatory properties are the alkylamides found in ethanolic extracts, with one of the most abundant being the N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide (1). In this study, we evaluated the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of this alkylamide using recombinant P450s, human liver microsomes and pure synthetic compound. Epoxidation, N-dealkylation and hydroxylation products were detected, with different relative amounts produced by recombinant P450s and microsomes. The major forms showing activity toward the metabolism of 1 were CYP1A1, CYP1A2 (both producing the same epoxide and N-dealkylation product), CYP2A13 (producing two epoxides), and CYP2D6 (producing two epoxides and an hydroxylated metabolite). Several other forms showed less activity. In incubations with human liver microsomes and selective inhibitors, CYP2E1 was found to be principally responsible for producing the dominant, hydroxylation product, whereas CYP2C9 was the principal source of the epoxides and CYP1A2 was responsible for the dealkylation product. In summary, in this study the relative impacts of the main human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s on the metabolism of a major Echinacea alkylamide have been established and the metabolites formed have been identified.

  5. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  6. OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY IN Annona macroprophyllata AND Annona purpureaUSING PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

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    GISELA FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  7. The major Cu,Zn SOD of the phytopathogen Claviceps purpurea is not essential for pathogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, S; De Vries, OMH; Tudzynski, P

    2002-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the biotrophic pathogen Claviceps purpurea, which causes the ergot disease on a wide range of host grasses, were examined in axenic and pathogenic cultures. Almost all SOD activity in axenic culture originated from a single Cu,Zn SOD; a substantial part of th

  8. D-Lysergyl peptide synthetase from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, B; Han, M; Keller, U

    1996-11-01

    The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces the medically important ergopeptines, which consist of a cyclol-structured tripeptide and D-lysergic acid linked by an amide bond. An enzyme activity capable of non-ribosomal synthesis of D-lysergyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-proline lactam, the non-cyclol precursor of the ergopeptine ergotamine, has been purified about 18-fold from the ergotamine-producing C. purpurea strain D1. Analysis of radioactively labeled enzyme-substrate complexes revealed a 370-kDa lysergyl peptide synthetase 1 (LPS 1) carrying the amino acid activation domains for alanine, phenylalanine, and proline. The activation of D-lysergic acid is catalyzed by a 140-kDa peptide synthetase (LPS 2) copurifying with LPS 1. LPS 1 and LPS 2 contain 4'-phosphopantetheine and bind their substrates covalently by thioester linkage. Kinetic analysis of the synthesis reaction revealed a Km of approximately 1.4 microM for both D-lysergic acid and its structural homolog dihydrolysergic acid, which is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the Km values for the other amino acids involved. The Km values for the amino acids reflect their relative concentrations in the cellular pool of C. purpurea. This may indicate that in in vivo conditions D-lysergyl peptide formation is limited by the D-lysergic acid concentration in the cell. In vitro, the multienzyme preparation catalyzes the formation of several different D-lysergyl peptide lactams according to the amino acids supplied. Specific antiserum was used to detect LPS 1 in various C. purpurea strains. In C. purpurea wild type, the enzyme was expressed at all stages of cultivation and in different media, suggesting that it is produced constitutively.

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  10. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Rauš; Stephan Pleschka; Peter Klein, MSc; Roland Schoop, MSc; Peter Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Methods: Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in...

  11. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Rauš; Stephan Pleschka; Peter Klein, MSc; Roland Schoop, MSc; Peter Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Methods: Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in...

  12. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  13. A new 1,2-ethanedione benzofurane derivative from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Chen, Yinning; Gao, Chenghai; Yan, Tao; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    A new 1,2-ethanedione benzofurane derivative, purpdione (1), was isolated from Tephrosia purpurea, together with seven known flavonoids, purpurenone (2), pongamol (3), ovalitenin A (4), karanjin (5), lanceolatin B (6), tachrosin (7) and villosinol (8). The new structure was elucidated based on the analysis of its spectroscopic data. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The isolates exhibited marginal ability to inhibit the settlement of barnacle (Balanus reticulatus).

  14. Exploiting the Complementarity between Dereplication and Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation for the Chemical Profiling of Natural Cosmetic Ingredients: Tephrosia purpurea as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Chollet, Sébastien; Purson, Sylvain; Reynaud, Romain; Harakat, Dominique; Martinez, Agathe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-07-24

    The aqueous-ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea seeds is currently exploited in the cosmetic industry as a natural ingredient of skin lotions. The aim of this study was to chemically characterize this ingredient by combining centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) as a fractionation tool with two complementary identification approaches involving dereplication and computer-assisted structure elucidation. Following two rapid fractionations of the crude extract (2 g), seven major compounds namely, caffeic acid, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, ethyl galactoside, ciceritol, stachyose, saccharose, and citric acid, were unambiguously identified within the CPE-generated simplified mixtures by a recently developed (13)C NMR-based dereplication method. The structures of four additional compounds, patuletin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, guaiacylglycerol 8-vanillic acid ether, and 2-methyl-2-glucopyranosyloxypropanoic acid, were automatically elucidated by using the Logic for Structure Determination program based on the interpretation of 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, and COSY) connectivity data. As more than 80% of the crude extract mass was characterized without need for tedious and labor-intensive multistep purification procedures, the identification tools involved in this work constitute a promising strategy for an efficient and time-saving chemical profiling of natural extracts.

  15. 白色紫锥菊不定根诱导及咖啡酸衍生物积累研究%Induction of adventitious roots of Echinacea pallida and accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春华; 黄韬; 崔锡花; 白基烨

    2012-01-01

    4. 0-25. 6 times of ultivated roots. Conclusion: The study can provide high-quality biomedical drugs containing such caffeic acid derivatives as echinacoside for mass production of Echinacea purpurea medicines.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of polyacetylenes and polyenes in Echinacea pallida by using a monolithic reversed-phase silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Calò, Samuele; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2007-05-11

    In this study, a RP-HPLC method for the analysis of polyacetylenes and polyenes in Echinacea pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals was developed. The reference compounds used for quantification were isolated from the plant material and their structures were determined on the basis of the analysis of UV, IR, NMR and MS data. The complete structure elucidation of three compounds, namely 8-hydroxy-tetradec-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1), tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (6) and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one (9) is described. In the analysis of the n-hexane extracts of E. pallida roots, the comparison between conventional and monolithic columns showed that the elution order in both cases is identical and the selectivity is equivalent. However, the retention times achieved by the monolithic column are shorter, resulting in a faster separation (20 min). Therefore, the analyses were carried out on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), with a gradient mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN at the flow rate of 2 mL/min. The column was thermostatted at 20 degrees C. The photodiode array detector monitored the eluent at 210 nm. The validation procedure confirmed that this technique affords reliable analysis of these components and is appropriate for the quality control of complex matrices, such as E. pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals.

  17. Evolutionary history of Purple cone spruce (Picea purpurea) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: homoploid hybrid origin and Pleistocene expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongshuai; Abbott, Richard J; Li, Lili; Li, Long; Zou, Jiabin; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-02-01

    Hybridization and introgression can play an important role in speciation. Here, we examine their roles in the origin and evolution of Picea purpurea, a diploid spruce species occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Phylogenetic relationships and ecological differences between this species and its relatives, P. schrenkiana, P. likiangensis and P. wilsonii, are unclear. To clarify them, we surveyed sequence variation within and between them for 11 nuclear loci, three chloroplast (cp) and two mitochondrial (mt) DNA fragments, and examined their ecological requirements using ecological niche modelling. Initial analyses based on 11 nuclear loci rejected a close relationship between P. schrenkiana and P. purpurea. BP&P tests and ecological niche modelling indicated substantial divergence between the remaining three species and supported the species status of P. purpurea, which contained many private alleles as expected for a well-established species. Sequence variation for cpDNA and mtDNA suggested a close relationship between P. purpurea and P. wilsonii, while variation at the nuclear se1364 gene suggested P. purpurea was more closely related to P. likiangensis. Analyses of genetic divergence, Bayesian clustering and model comparison using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) of nuclear (nr) DNA variation all supported the hypothesis that P. purpurea originated by homoploid hybrid speciation from P. wilsonii and P. likiangensis. The ABC analysis dated the origin of P. purpurea at the Pleistocene, and the estimated hybrid parameter indicated that 69% of its nuclear composition was contributed by P. likiangensis and 31% by P. wilsonii. Our results further suggested that during or immediately following its formation, P. purpurea was subject to organelle DNA introgression from P. wilsonii such that it came to possess both mtDNA and cpDNA of P. wilsonii. The estimated parameters indicated that following its origin, P. purpurea underwent an

  18. Natural association of two different betasatellites with Sweet potato leaf curl virus in wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Geetanjali, A; Shilpi, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) was observed to be affected by leaf curl and yellow vein diseases during summer-rainy season of 2009 in New Delhi, India. The virus was experimentally transmitted through whitefly, Bemisia tabaci to I. purpurea that reproduced the two distinct symptoms. Sequence analysis of multiple full-length clones obtained through rolling circle amplification from the leaf curl and yellow vein samples showed 91.8-95.3% sequence identity with Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from those reported from Brazil, China, Japan and USA. Interestingly, two different betasatellites, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite and papaya leaf curl betasatellite were found with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea, respectively. This study is the first report of occurrence of SPLCV in wild morning glory in India. SPLCV was known to infect other species of morning glory; our study revealed that I. purpurea, a new species of morning glory was a natural host of SPLCV. To date, betasatellite associated with SPLCV in Ipomoea spp. is not known. Our study provides evidence of natural association of two different betasatellites with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea.

  19. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dopstadt

    Full Text Available Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster.

  1. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudzynski, Paul; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster. PMID:27390873

  2. The effect of plant inbreeding and stoichiometry on interactions with herbivores in nature: Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist aphid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Ridley

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of once widespread communities may alter interspecific interactions by changing genetic composition of interacting populations as well as their abundances and spatial distributions. In a long-term study of a fragmented population of Echinacea angustifolia, a perennial plant native to the North American prairie, we investigated influences on its interaction with a specialist aphid and tending ants. We grew plant progeny of sib-matings (I, and of random pairings within (W and between (B seven remnants in a common field within 8 km of the source remnants. During the fifth growing season, we determined each plant's burden of aphids and ants, as well as its size and foliar elemental composition (C, N, P. We also assayed composition (C, N of aphids and ants. Early in the season, progeny from genotypic classes B and I were twice as likely to harbor aphids, and in greater abundance, than genotypic class W; aphid loads were inversely related to foliar concentration of P and positively related to leaf N and plant size. At the end of the season, aphid loads were indistinguishable among genotypic classes. Ant abundance tracked aphid abundance throughout the season but showed no direct relationship with plant traits. Through its potential to alter the genotypic composition of remnant populations of Echinacea, fragmentation can increase Echinacea's susceptibility to herbivory by its specialist aphid and, in turn, perturb the abundance and distribution of aphids.

  3. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  4. Changes the state of secretory granules of the superficial epitheliocytes of the pyloric mucous membrane in the stomach of rats under the action of epichlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Smirnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to examine the patterns of action of epichlorohydrin on the state of the secretory granules of the superficial epitheliocytes of the mucous membrane of pyloric part of stomach of rats. Material and methods of the research. Mature male albino rats were used in the experiment. Rats of Group I were Control animals. Rats of Group II were administered epichlorohydrin. Rats of Group III were given Echinacea purpurea extract. Rats of Group IV were administered thiotriazoline. Rats of Group V were exposed to epichlorohydrin and extract of Echinacea purpurea, and rats of Group VI were exposed to epichlorohydrin and thiotriazoline. Results of the research. The experiment showed that long-term inhalations of epichlorohydrin are accompanied by changes of secretory granules area, which remain after inhalations. The use of the extract of Echinacea purpurea on the background of epichlorohydrin prevents epichlorohydrin induced increase in the area of secretory granules on the thirtieth day of observation. Using thiotriazoline during inhalations of epichlorohydrin prevents the appearance of epichlorohydrin induced effects reducing the area of the secretory granules of the cytoplasm of epitheliocytes surface on the first day of observation and increasing their area on the thirtieth day of observation. Conclusions. Inhalation of epichlorohydrin is accompanied by changes of the area of secretory granules in the cytoplasm of superficial epitheliocytes. Use of the extract of Echinacea purpurea and thiotriazoline on the background of epichlorohydrin prevents the epichlorohydrin induced changes in the area of the secretory granules of the cytoplasm of superficial epitheliocytes.

  5. Primeiro registro de Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 para a costa brasileira (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothes de Moraes

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of occurrence of Myriastra purpurea (Ridley, 1884 for the South Atlantic Ocean at shallow areas of the Brazilian coast (State of Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba Bay: 23º04'53"/44º00'34"W and State of Santa Catarina, Porto Belo: 27º09'12"S/48º29'30"W widely enlarges the distribution of the species, known only from the Indo-Pacific region. Detailed descriptions and ilustrations of the specimens are offered. A table of micrometric measurements and camera lucida drawings of spicules is also offered.

  6. Cloning, characterization, and targeted disruption of cpcat1, coding for an in planta secreted catalase of Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre, V; Müller, U; Tudzynski, P

    1998-08-01

    Claviceps purpurea has been shown to secrete catalases in axenic and parasitic culture. In order to determine the importance of these enzymes in the host-parasite interaction, especially their role in overcoming oxidative stress imposed on the pathogen by the plant's defense system, the catR gene from A. niger was used to isolate a putative catalase gene from a genomic library of C. purpurea, cpcat1 consists of an open reading frame of 2,148 bp that is interrupted by five introns. Its derived gene product shows significant homology to fungal catalases and contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and three putative N-glycosylation sites, which indicates that CPCAT1 is a secreted catalase. Disruption of the gene by a gene replacement approach resulted in the loss of two catalase isoforms, CATC and CATD, strongly suggesting that they are both encoded by cpcat1. CATD is the major secreted catalase of C. purpurea and is furthermore the only catalase present in the honeydew of infected rye ears. Deletion mutants of cpcat1 were inoculated on rye plants and showed no significant reduction in virulence. Ovarian tissue and honeydew of plants inoculated with the mutants lacked CATD, confirming that this catalase is not essential for colonization of the host tissue by C. purpurea.

  7. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  8. Proteomic characterization of the major arthropod associates of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Smith, Aidan M; Ellison, Aaron M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, ten of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state.

  9. Production of cadiotonic glycosides in Digitalis purpurea using temporary immersion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Pérez-Alonso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Digitalis purpurea, is an example of cardiotonic drug. Digoxin and digitoxin are glycosides produced by this plant which are cardiac stimulants with a wide use in the treatment of heart problems. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of temporary immersion on biomass production and the content of cardiotonic glycosides (digitoxin and digoxin, determined by Liquid Cromatography. Biomass production was favoured by increasing the frequency of immersions. The highest value of fresh weight (106.2 g and lower porcentage of hyperhydricity (27 % were obtained with immersions of 2 minutes every 4 hours. The content of digoxin was always lower than digitoxin. However, the concentration of digoxin increases with 6 and 8 immersions per day, while the accumulation of digitoxin was stable in all treatments. The aeration rates did not increase the biomasss and the concentration of digoxine was nule, nevertheless the concentration of digitoxine increased up to 111μg g.DW. The effect of temporary immersion on glycosides accumulation in shoots of Digitalis purpurea presented in this paper has not been described in the literature till now. temporary immersion Keywords: digitoxin, digoxin, secondary metabolites,

  10. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans.

  11. Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

    2004-09-01

    Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds.

  12. GIS-based characterization of the geographic distributions of wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Knouft, Jason H

    2006-12-01

    Humans are having a profound impact on the geographic distributions of plant populations. In crop species, domestication has been accompanied by the geographic expansion of cultivated populations relative to their wild ancestors. We used a geographical information system (GIS)-based approach to investigate differences in the environmental factors characterizing the geographic distributions of cultivated and wild populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea. Locality data for 86 cultivated and 28 wild S. purpurea populations were used in conjunction with environmental data layers and Maxent, a maximum entropy application for predicting species distributions. Interpredictivity analyses and principal components analysis revealed that the predicted distribution of wild S. purpurea is nested within the cultivated distribution and that the ecological niche (defined by environmental characteristics) of cultivated S. purpurea has expanded relative to that of wild populations. Significant differences between wild and cultivated populations were detected for five environmental variables, corresponding to the expansion of S. purpurea during the domestication process from its native habitat in the Mesoamerican tropical dry forests into less seasonal habitats. These data suggest that humans have altered the range of habitats occupied by cultivated S. purpurea populations relative to their wild progenitors.

  13. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: comparative effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil K

    2008-07-01

    Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 h and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of area under the curve (AUC)((0-3)), AUC((0-24)), elimination half-life, and maximum serum concentration were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p St. John's wort than with Echinacea.

  14. Immunostimulatory Effect of the Main Active Fractions from Introduced Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊主要活性部位的免疫调节作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 邹文俊

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价引种紫锥菊多糖、咖啡酸、烷酰胺三类成分的免疫调节作用,同时比较引种与进口紫锥菊免疫调节作用的异同.方法采用MTT法及ELISA法测定正常小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖及免疫因子白细胞介素-2(IL-2)和干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)的分泌,以此评价引种紫锥菊三类成分的免疫调节作用,并比较进口与引种紫锥菊的作用异同.结果 引种紫锥菊多糖、咖啡酸、烷酰胺三类成分均能增强Con A刺激的正常小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖,三类成分对脾淋巴细胞产生IFN-γ也表现出一定的促进作用,但对IL-2的生成,咖啡酸类成分显示较强的抑制作用.引种紫锥菊在促淋巴细胞增殖方面与进口紫锥菊相同,但促IFN-γ生成作用强于进口紫锥菊,而促IL-2分泌作用不及进口紫锥菊.结论引种紫锥菊及其主要成分的免疫促进作用与进口紫锥菊相当,可作为进口紫锥菊替代品进行相关开发利用研究.

  15. The POD Isozyme Analysis of Introduced Echinacea purpurea from Different Provenance%不同种源引种紫锥菊的过氧化物酶同工酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 周凤琴

    2011-01-01

    采用过氧化物同工酶技术首次对我国8个种源引种紫锥菊的遗传多样性进行分析,并通过排序分析其相互之间的亲缘关系.结果表明,不同种源紫锥菊的POD同工酶谱在酶带数、迁移率及酶量等方面存在比较明显的差异,具有较丰富的遗传多样性.临沂引种紫锥菊与其他7个种源的不相似值最大,长沙引种紫锥菊和怀柔引种紫斑茎紫锥菊亲缘关系较近,怀柔引种绿茎紫锥菊和怀柔引种紫茎紫锥菊酶谱特征完全相同.POD同工酶谱可以作为不同种源紫锥菊遗传多样性鉴定的参考依据.

  16. Study on the Main Pharmacodynamics of Different Harvesting Echinacea Purpurea Material%不同采收期紫锥菊原药材的主要药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英杰; 蒋天泽; 付海宁; 庞云露; 郭庆梅; 沈海龙

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究不同采收期紫锥菊原药材的主要药效学作用.方法 观察不同采收期紫锥菊药材对昆明种小鼠溶血素的影响、腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬功能的影响以及对C57小鼠NK细胞活性和淋巴细胞转化的影响.结果 紫锥菊对动物的非特异免疫、体液免疫及细胞免疫三个方面都具有一定的免疫增强作用.结论 一年生紫锥菊10月上旬(即秋季)盛花期采收的药材对动物机体的免疫增强作用优于其它采收期的药材.

  17. Introduction and outdoor growing techniques of Echinacea purpurea in Guangzhou%广州地区紫锥菊引种与露地栽培试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 杨跃生; 吴鸿

    2011-01-01

    观察记录了广州地区栽培紫锥菊的物候期,进行了播种期、栽培方式试验,同时对广州地区栽培紫锥菊进行了测产并使用HPLC测定了菊苣酸含量.结果表明,广州地区紫锥菊种植播种期以2月中旬至4月初为宜.区播栽培相对于育苗移栽生物产量显著提高,覆盖黑色地膜栽培不但可以防治杂草、还有利于提高产量.广州地区栽种的紫锥菊产量和菊苣酸含量均高于原产地.适宜推广种植.

  18. 紫锥菊的形态学性状、分布高度与质量相关性研究%Correlation Study on Morphology, Distribution of Elevation and Quality of Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孔浩

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨紫锥菊形态学、分布高度与内在质量的相关性,为优良品种的选育积累资料.方法:测量不同表型紫锥菊样品的形态学性状数据,采用高效液相色谱法测定样品中咖啡酸衍生物的含量,用比色法测定样品中总多酚的含量,并对样品形态学性状与质量进行相关性分析.结果:不同表型紫锥菊样品在形态学性状与质量上均存在差异:(1)各有效成分含量几乎均与植株的海拔高度成负相关,尤以菊苣酸显著.(2)形态学性状中,咖啡酸含量与株高、花序托高度之间呈正相关;绿原酸含量与花序托高度之间呈正相关;单咖啡酰酒石酸含量与株高呈正相关;菊苣酸含量与花序托高宽比呈正相关.结论:高海拔不利于紫锥菊有效成分的积累;株高、花序托高度与花序托高宽比可作为初步判断紫锥菊药材质量的表型性状.本试验可为田间紫锥菊优良种质的筛选提供理论基础.

  19. 氮磷钾配施对紫锥菊有效成分含量的影响%Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combinate fertilization on active ingredient contents of introduced Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 张荣超; 周凤琴

    2013-01-01

    研究氮磷钾施肥对紫锥菊有效成分含量的影响.通过液体培养试验,初步分析不同施肥条件下紫锥菊中咖啡酸、绿原酸、单咖啡酰酒石酸和菊苣酸的含量变化.结果表明,N肥对4种有效成分影响各不相同,P肥以不施为宜,高量K肥对紫锥菊植株中4种有效成分的积累都是有利的.不施P肥,450 mg/L的N肥,783mg/L的K肥最有利于植株中主要有效成分菊苣酸的积累.

  20. 紫锥菊多糖对LPS损伤后IEC-6细胞的增殖作用%The Multiplication Effect of Echinacea purpurea Polysaccharide on IEC-6 Cell after LPS Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳云; 张艳英; 史秋梅; 赵惠媛; 王晓珊; 卢会鹏

    2015-01-01

    [目的]为了研究紫锥菊多糖对LPS损伤后小肠上皮细胞株IEC-6细胞增殖的影响.[方法]以IEC-6细胞为研究对象,将LPS 10μg/ml分别与EPS 50、100、200、500 μg/ml先后加入培养液,采用MTT方法检测细胞增殖率,观察紫锥菊多糖对该细胞增殖的影响.[结果]紫锥菊多糖100、500μg/ml对LPS损伤后的IEC-6细胞分别在48、72 h具有促增殖作用,因此紫锥菊多糖对LPS损伤后的IEC-6细胞具有保护作用.[结论]紫锥菊多糖预处理能增强LPS损伤后IEC-6细胞的增殖活性,能降低LPS对IEC-6细胞的损伤而显现出对细胞的保护作用.

  1. 棕菊合剂抗实验性前列腺炎的研究%Study on effect of mixture of Serenoq repens and Echinacea purpurea against experimental prostatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶加; 刘晓岩; 蒋益民; 李长龄

    2005-01-01

    目的观察棕菊合剂(MSE)对大鼠实验性前列腺炎的治疗作用.方法用消痔灵注射液致大鼠慢性前列腺炎症模型和巴豆油致大鼠急性前列腺炎症模型,观察MSE药抗前列腺炎症的作用,每日给MSE 30,30,120mg·kg-1,ig,连续21 d和14 d,以吾真宁(Urgenin)作阳性对照,蒸馏水作模型对照.结果发现用MSE后,消痔灵致大鼠慢性前列腺炎症和巴豆油致大鼠急性前列腺炎症的前列腺重量均有不同程度的减轻;光学显微镜显示,腺腔内炎症细胞浸润程度及纤维母细胞增生程度均有所减轻.较对照组有显著差异(P<0.05).结论表明MSE有明显抑制实验性前列腺炎症的作用.

  2. 紫锥菊多糖对鸡淋巴细胞体外增殖影响%Effects of Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴建亭; 胡梅; 邱妍

    2011-01-01

    为了评价紫锥菊多糖免疫增强效果,将4种浓度的紫锥菊多糖分别加入体外培养的鸡脾脏淋巴细胞中,培养44 h后,用MTT法测定淋巴细胞增殖变化.结果表明,4种浓度的紫锥菊多糖对鸡淋巴细胞均有促进增殖及协同的作用,其中在50-100μg/mL浓度范围内效果最为显著.

  3. Efficacy of Compound Prescription of Echinacea purpurea on Control and Prevention of Newcastle Disease in Chicken%复方紫锥菊对人工感染鸡新城疫的防治效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓琳; 李志华; 郭世宁; 刘汉儒; 吴鸿

    2007-01-01

      病毒性疾病在中医学中属于疫疠范畴,有关中药应用于临床防治病毒感染性疾病已有报道.鸡新城疫是危害养禽业的主要疾病之一,对该病的防治主要采用疫苗免疫接种的方法,由于免疫效果不一,近几年来在免疫鸡群中常常暴发新城疫病,表现为亚临床症状或非典型新城疫,因此对该病的防治已成为目前养禽业亟待解决的课题之一.……

  4. 引种紫锥菊的ISSR和SRAP遗传多样性分析%The Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Introduced Echinacea purpurea Moench Based on ISSR and SRAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 周凤琴

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对不同来源的引种紫锥菊进行遗传多样性分析.[方法]采用ISSR和SRAP分子标记技术,分析14份引种紫锥菊材料的多态性条带比率,计算各品种间的遗传相似系数,建立各品种间的聚类图.[结果]8个ISSR引物和9个SRAP引物对分别扩增出105和171条带,多态性比率分别为81.9%和80.7%;两个标记综合分析表明紫锥菊样品间的亲缘关系与种质来源地之间存在一定相关性.[结论]ISSR和SRAP可以应用于紫锥菊种内遗传多样性分析,其综合分析结果优于单独分析;紫锥菊种内不同来源样品材料间存在丰富的遗传多样性.

  5. 高速逆流色谱分离制备紫锥菊中的菊苣酸%Preparation and Separation of Cichoric Acid From Echinacea Purpurea by High Speed Counter-current Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 赵善仓; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 李福伟

    2008-01-01

    建立了高速逆流色谱分离制备紫锥菊有效成分菊苣酸的新方法.溶剂系统为V(正己烷)∶ V(乙酸乙酯)∶ V(甲醇)∶ V(0.5%乙酸)=1∶ 4∶ 2∶ 5.5,上相为固定相,下相为流动相.从200 mg紫锥菊粗提物一次分离得到纯度为96.8%的菊苣酸33.6 mg,并用LC-MS-MS鉴定了化学结构.

  6. 反相高效液相色谱法测定紫锥菊中松果菊苷的含量%Determination of echinacoside in Echinacea purpurea by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹岚; 刘桂琴; 王勇; 刘培; 吕宪禹

    2005-01-01

    本文以反相高效液相色谱的方法测定紫锥菊根、茎、叶中的松果菊苷的含量并通过调整流动相的配比,采用乙腈-甲醇-水系统,改进色谱条件,简化实验操作,结果准确可靠.

  7. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang; Li, You-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds.

  8. Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates N-diethylnitrosamine and potassium bromate-mediated renal oxidative stress and toxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Sharma, S; Alam, A; Saleem, M; Sultana, S

    2001-06-01

    In an earlier communication, we have shown that Tephrosia purpurea ameliorates benzoyl peroxide-induced oxidative stress in murine skin (Saleem et al. 1999). The present study was designed to investigate a chemopreventive efficacy of T purpurea against N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and potassium bromate-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in rat kidney. A single intraperitoneal dose of N-diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body weight) one hr prior to the dose of KBrO3 (125 mg/kg body weight) increases microsomal lipid peroxidation and the activity of xanthine oxidase and decreases the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase and causes depletion in the level of renal glutathione content. A sharp increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine has also been observed. Prophylactic treatment of rats with T. purpurea at doses of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight prevented N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and KBrO3 promoted renal oxidative stress and toxicity. The susceptibility of renal microsomal membrane for iron ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (Ppurpurea besides a skin antioxidant can be a potent chemopreventive agent against renal oxidative stress and carcinogenesis induced by N-diethylnitrosamine and KBrO3.

  9. Simultaneous metabolite fingerprinting of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds in Echinacea pallida by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2012-06-15

    In this study, a detailed phytochemical characterization of Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. root extracts and dietary supplements was carried out for the first time by developing advanced chromatographic techniques, based on HPLC with diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection (with ion trap and triple quadrupole mass analyzers), for the simultaneous analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic secondary metabolites. The HPLC analyses were carried out on an Ascentis C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm), with a mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN both containing 0.1% formic acid, under gradient elution. The UV spectra, in combination with MS and MS/MS data, allowed the identification of fourteen compounds, including caffeic acid derivatives, polyacetylenes and polyenes, in the analyzed samples. MS and MS/MS data were discussed in detail and the typical fragmentation patterns of each class of secondary metabolites were identified. For the first time, a hydroperoxide intermediate was characterized as an oxidation product of one of E. pallida monocarbonylic acetylenes, providing a confirmation of the mechanism that leads to the generation of hydroxylated derivatives. The HPLC method was fully validated in agreement with ICH guidelines and then applied to real samples. The quantitative analysis indicated that there was a great variability in the amount of the active compounds in the dietary supplements containing E. pallida root extracts: the content of total caffeic acid derivatives ranged from 2.31 to 11.45 mg/g and the amount of total polyacetylenes and polyenes from 6.38 to 30.54 mg/g. In the analyzed samples, the most abundant caffeic acid derivative was found to be echinacoside. Regarding polyacetylenes and polyenes, the most representative compounds were found to be tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one, pentedeca-(8Z,11Z)-dien-2-one and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one. The developed method can be considered suitable for metabolite

  10. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify t...

  11. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON 'SHVET SHARPUNKHA' - A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R C

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of 'shapunkha', the 'Shvet' (white) and 'Rakta' (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as 'Shvet sharpunkha' due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing "Shvet sharpunkha'. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro - an microscopical feature.

  12. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  13. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-02

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  14. The Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea active bioassay for water monitoring: evaluating and comparing methodological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Betânia Brizola Cassanego

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea cuttings with flower buds are utilized in bioassays to diagnose genotoxic effects of water. The literature describes different substances used to adapt and recover the cuttings before and after exposure to water samples and also describes the effects of different exposure times. This study evaluated and compared the micronuclei (MCN frequencies in T. pallida when cuttings with flower buds were submitted to different methodological conditions. The bioassay was then applied bimonthly during seven months to assess the genotoxic potential of a site located on the Sinos River in Campo Bom, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Micronuclei frequencies in buds of cuttings adapted and recovered in distilled water and in Hoagland solution were 3.0 and 2.9, respectively, for cuttings exposed to river water, and 1.19 and 1.23 in controls. No significant differences among MCN frequencies were observed when cuttings were exposed for 8, 24 or 32 hours to river water (from 3.07 to 4.73 and in controls (from 1.13 to 2.00 in all samplings during a year. Adaptation and recovery of cuttings in distilled water or Hoagland solution and exposure for different times did not influence the response of T. pallida, indicating that all the conditions tested are viable for biomonitoring of water genotoxicity. Water samples from the Sinos River presented genotoxicity during the period monitored, evidenced by the MCN frequencies recorded which were significantly higher than the frequencies of the controls.

  15. A spatially explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal and the subsequent recruitment of new individuals into a population are important processes affecting the population dynamics, genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of plant populations. Spatial patterns of seedling recruitment were investigated in two populations of the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea using both univariate and bivariate point pattern analysis, parentage analysis and seed germination experiments. Both adults and recruits showed a clustered spatial distribution with cluster radii of c. 4-5 m. The parentage analysis resulted in offspring-dispersal distances that were slightly larger than distances obtained from the point pattern analyses. The suitability of microsites for germination differed among sites, with strong constraints in one site and almost no constraints in the other. These results provide a clear and coherent picture of recruitment patterns in a tuberous, perennial orchid. Seed dispersal is limited to a few metres from the mother plant, whereas the availability of suitable germination conditions may vary strongly from one site to the next. Because of a time lag of 3-4 yr between seed dispersal and actual recruitment, and irregular flowering and fruiting patterns of adult plants, interpretation of recruitment patterns using point patterns analyses ideally should take into account the demographic properties of orchid populations.

  16. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  17. Sistemas de producción de Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae en el centro-occidente de México

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    Blanca C Ramírez Hernández

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Describimos las características de los agroecosistemas y rasgos morfológicos, físicos y químicos relacionados con la calidad de los frutos de la guayaba, Spondias purpurea L., que se producen en poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas en el centro-occidente de México. Spondias purpurea se desarrolla en suelos rocosos, poco profundos e infértiles, poco aptos para la agricultura tradicional. En los frutos se registró el peso, longitud axial y radial, pH, sólidos solubles totales (SST, azúcares reductores, proteínas y contenido de minerales. El peso promedio de frutos en las variedades cultivadas (20 g resultó superior al de las silvestres (16 g. Las variedades cultivadas registraron en promedio los valores más altos de pH, SST, azúcares reductores y contenido de proteínas (3.3, 12.15º Brix, 0.38 g/100 g y 1.18 g/100 g, respectivamente que las silvestres (3.0, 8.31º Brix, 0.24 g/100 g y 0.14 g/100 g, respectivamente. La productividad de la especie es aceptable (de 0.15 ton ha-1 a 5.0 ton ha-1 dado que requiere de un mínimo de manejo agronómico. Esta especie tiene un contenido nutrimental comparable al de las especies frutales más importantes; además, produce frutos frescos durante los meses secos de la primavera por lo que S. purpurea es fuente de agua y alimento para la fauna silvestre y doméstica. Estas características resaltan su importancia agronómica y ecológica para los ambientes tropicales y subtropicales en donde puede ser utilizada en programas de reforestación por su capacidad para desarrollarse en suelos rocosos infértiles, y en agroecosistemas en los que se practica agricultura de subsistencia. De hecho, el cultivo de S. purpurea puede ayudar a convertir suelos marginales en productivos.Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae in Central West México. Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central

  18. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2014-05-01

    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  19. Deuterium NMR used to indicate a common mechanism for the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid by Ricinus communis and Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billault, Isabelle; Mantle, Peter G; Robins, Richard J

    2004-03-17

    Previous studies have shown that ricinoleic acid from castor bean oil of Ricinus communis is synthesized by the direct hydroxyl substitution of oleate, while it has been proposed that ricinoleate is formed by hydration of linoleate in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. The mechanism of the enzymes specific to ricinoleate synthesis has not yet been established, but hydroxylation and desaturation of fatty acids in plants apparently involve closely related mechanisms. As mechanistic differences in the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products can lead to different isotopic distributions in the product, we could expect ricinoleate isolated from castor or ergot oil to show distinct (2)H distribution patterns. To obtain information concerning the substrate and isotope effects that occur during the biosynthesis of ricinoleate, the site-specific natural deuterium distributions in methyl ricinoleate isolated from castor oil and in methyl ricinoleate and methyl linoleate isolated from ergot oils have been measured by quantitative (2)H NMR. First, the deuterium profiles for methyl ricinoleate from the plant and fungus are equivalent. Second, the deuterium profile for methyl linoleate from ergot is incompatible with this chemical species being the precursor of methyl ricinoleate. Hence, it is apparent that 12-hydroxylation in C. purpurea is consistent with the biosynthetic mechanisms proposed for R. communis and is compatible with the general fundamental mechanistic similarities between hydroxylation and desaturation previously proposed for plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

  20. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

  1. Echinacea—A Source of Potent Antivirals for Respiratory Virus Infections

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    Selvarani Vimalanathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinacea species have been used traditionally in North America for the control of symptoms of colds, influenza, and other diseases, and some of them have become very popular as “herbal medicines”. Recent studies have revealed that preparations derived from certain species and plant parts, but not all of them, possess potent antiviral activities, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, particularly against membrane-containing viruses. Thus all strains of human and avian influenza viruses tested (including a Tamiflu-resistant strain, as well as herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses, were very sensitive to a standardized Echinacea purpurea preparation. In mechanistic studies the influenza virus-specific hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were inhibited. In addition some extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity in virus-infected cells, and numerous other effects on the expression of cellular genes. Multiple components, either discrete compounds or mixtures, appeared to be responsible for the various antiviral activities.

  2. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  3. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals.

  4. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change.

  5. Estimulación de cardenólidos en brotes de Digitalis purpurea L. cultivados in vitro mediante elicitores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Lisbet Pérez-Alonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Stimulation of cardenolides production in Digitalis purpurea L. shoot cultures by elicitors additionTítulo corto: Elicitores en la producción de cardenólidosResumen: Digitalis purpurea L. es una de las principales fuentes de cardenólidos tales como digoxina y digitoxina. Estos fármacos son ampliamente usados en la disfunción cardíaca y para regular las arritmias del corazón. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de tres elicitores en el cultivo de brotes de Digitalis purpurea var. Roter Berggold para incrementar la producción in vitro de cardenólidos. La elicitación es una estrategia para incrementar la producción de biomasa y metabolitos secundarios en el cultivo in vitro. Los elicitores evaluados fueron ChitoPlant (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 g.L-1; SilioPlant (0,01; 0,1; 1,0 g.L-1 y Jasmonato de metilo (60, 80 y 100 µM, descritos por primera vez para el incremento de cardenólidos. Se demostró que la elicitación es una estrategia viable para el incremento de cardenólidos en brotes de D. purpurea. El ChitoPlant®, redujo la altura sin afectación en el resto de las variables morfológicas evaluadas. Además indujo un incremento significativo en el contenido de cardenólidos. El SilioPlant® (0,01 g.L-1 no provocó afectaciones en la biomasa e incrementó significativamente la síntesis de cardenólidos en los brotes en 3,6 y 6,9 veces el contenido de digoxina y digitoxina respectivamente. La elicitación con el jasmonato de metilo provocó una reducción de la biomasa. Los contenidos de digoxina y digitoxina se incrementaron ligera y significativamente con 80 y 100 µM de jasmonato de metilo respectivamente. El mejor resultado integral se obtuvo con 0,01 g.L-1 de SilioPlant, el cual indujo la mayor producción neta de cardenólidos por frasco de cultivo (4,72 µg digoxina y 88,27 µg digitoxina. Palabras clave: chitoplant, digitoxina, digoxina, jasmonato de metilo, silioplantAbstract:

  6. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  7. Estimation of efficacy of echinacea compositum C and teraflex application in orthodontic moving of teeth on the background of experimental goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik K.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of the thyroid status may be negatively reflected on the biological processes underlying orthodontic tooth movement. Research object – in experiment to estimate efficacy of application of drug complex with osteotropic and immunomodulating action in orthodontic moving of teeth (ОМT on the background of euthyroid goiter. In 75 rats of Vistar line of gregarious breeding (females, 5 months, 210±28 g experimental goiter was modeled by injection of 1% perchlorate potassium solution with drinking water within 20 days. Intragastric solution of potassium Iodidum (PI in the dose of 20 mkg/kg was introduced to rats of the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups from the 22nd day. Intragastrically drug «Echinacea compositum C» was introduced to animals of the 3rd and 5th groups from the 22nd day during 5 days. OMT was reproduced on the 29th day from the beginning of experiment. On the background of PI injection, teraflex in a dose on glucosaminglican of 750 mg/kg was introduced to the rats of the 4th and 5th groups. A mandible for calculation of carious cavities and definition of atrophy degree of an alveolar process, and the maxilla – for definition of alkaline activity, acidic phosphatase, elastase and general proteolytic activity (GPA, pulp of incisors – for phosphatases definition of activity were isolated. Echinacea compositum, potassium Iodidum and teraflex in the idea of monotherapy caused some positive influence on phosphatases of an alveolar bone. To completely prevent disturbances of activity of bone phosphatases and proteinases was possibly only at application of a full complex: PІ – throughout all treatment, echinacea compositum C – before fixation of closing springs, teraflex – after fixation. Thus, stage-by-stage use of drugs – potassium Iodidum, «Echinacea compositum C» and Teraflex promoted to normalization of activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in pulp and bone tissue of alveolar process, and rendered protective

  8. Síndrome distérmica (hipertermia em bovinos associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilha Marcia R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56% adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a boca aberta e, em alguns casos, com a língua para fora da cavidade oral. Os animais acometidos procuravam sombra ou permaneciam dentro d'água. Houve diminuição de 10 a 30% no consumo de alimentos e perda de peso. A redução na produção de leite foi de 30 a 50%. Os sinais clínicos se intensificavam durante o dia e eram diretamente proporcionais à elevação da temperatura ambiental. Os achados de necropsia em um bovino que foi eutanasiado, incluíram leve enfisema pulmonar, principalmente na região dorsal dos lobos pulmonares diafragmáticos. Histologicamente havia moderada hipertrofia da musculatura lisa dos bronquíolos e ruptura de septos alveolares formando cotos alveolares em clava. Nos três estabelecimentos onde ocorreram os surtos, escleródios de C. purpurea foram observados nas amostras de ração fornecida aos bovinos. Os animais afetados recuperaram-se após aproximadamente 60 dias da retirada da ração contaminada. O diagnóstico baseou-se em dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, na presença de escleródios de C. purpurea na ração fornecida aos animais, nos achados de necropsia e na histopatologia. A patogenia e o quadro clínico-patológico observados são discutidos e comparados com outros relatos dessa enfermidade.

  9. Efeito do período de chuva no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea pelos herbicidas glyphosate e sulfosate Effect of rainfall on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea control by glyphosate and sulfosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do período de chuva sobre a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos, além da testemunha, consistiram na aplicação de duas doses em equivalente ácido dos herbicidas sulfosate (0,66 e 1,32 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (0,72 e 1,44 kg ha-1, sendo as plantas tratadas submetidas à simulação de chuva de 20 mm durante 30 minutos, nos intervalos de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 48 horas após a aplicação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A eficácia no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada 7, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT e a matéria seca, aos 28 DAT. E. heterophylla não foi eficazmente controlada pelo herbicida glyphosate, exigindo intervalo sem chuva superior a 24 horas após a aplicação para obter, na maior dose, controle de apenas 60%. Por sua vez, o herbicida sulfosate proporcionou controle de 75%, mesmo na menor dose, quando a chuva ocorreu quatro horas depois da aplicação. I. purpurea também não foi controlada de maneira eficaz pelo herbicida glyphosate, independentemente da dose e do intervalo de chuva; no entanto, somente a maior dose do herbicida sulfosate foi eficiente no controle desta espécie, a partir de quatro horas sem chuva. Para ambas as espécies, o herbicida sulfosate foi menos afetado pelo período da chuva.The influence of rainfall occurrence was evaluated on the efficacy of the herbicides glyphosate and sulfosate applied in post-emergence on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, in Araras-SP, Brazil. The treatments,plus control, consisted of two doses, in acid equivalent of sulfosate (0.66 and 1.32 kg ha-1 and glyphosate (0.72 and

  10. Copper and cadmium tolerance, uptake and effect on chloroplast ultrastructure. Studies on Salix purpurea and Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakmaoui, A.; Ater, A. [Abdelmalek Essaadi Univ., Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. of Biology; Boka, K. [Eoetvoes Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Anatomy; Baron, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the effect of toxic Cu and Cd concentrations on growth, metal accumulation, and chloroplast ultrastructure of willow (Salix purpurea L.) and reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.]. After a 10-day treatment, both species have tolerated to some extent the lowest concentration of both metals; however, plant growth was strongly reduced at the highest Cu and Cd concentrations. These plants could be described as Cu-tolerant at the lowest concentration tested, showing a higher tolerance index in reed than in willow; in contrast, willow exhibited higher tolerance against Cd. Both plants appeared to be moderate root accumulators of Cu and Cd. Ultrastructural studies revealed special features that can provide some protection against heavy metals stress, such as ferritin aggregates in the stroma. In addition, Cu and Cd induced distortion of thylakoids, reduction of grana stacks, as well as an increased number and size of plastoglobuli and peripheral vesicles. (orig.)

  11. Activity-guided isolation of constituents of Tephrosia purpurea with the potential to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Gerhäuser, C; Song, L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1997-09-01

    An isoflavone, 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (1), and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin (2), both novel compounds, as well as six constituents of known structure, (+)-purpurin (3), pongamol (4), lanceolatin B (5), (-)-maackiain (6), (-)-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-8,9-methylene-dioxypterocarpan (7), and (-)-medicarpin (8), were obtained as active compounds from Tephrosia purpurea, using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Additionally, three inactive compounds of known structure, 3'-methoxydaidzein, desmoxyphyllin B, and 3,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxycoumestan, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was carried out by spectral data interpretation.

  12. Open, multicenter study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of Echinaforce Forte tablets in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ronald; Büechi, Samuel; Suter, Andy

    2006-01-01

    This open, multicenter study investigated the tolerability and efficacy of a new tablet formulation of Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce Forte; A. Vogel, Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland) in 80 subjects actively involved in sports. Most investigators (97.5%) rated the treatment as having "very good" or "good" tolerability. About 75% of patients and investigators rated its efficacy during a common cold as "very good" or "good," and 71% of subjects were free of cold episodes. This study is the first to suggest that Echinaforce is effective in the prophylaxis, as well as the treatment, of the common cold in persons who actively participate in sports.

  13. Localization of ergot alkaloids in sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopstadt, Julian; Vens-Cappell, Simeon; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Cramer, Benedikt; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea produces highly toxic ergot alkaloids and accumulates these in the hardened bodies of fungal mycelium. These so-called sclerotia, or ergot bodies, replace the crop seed of infected plants, which can include numerous important food- and feedstuff such as rye and wheat. While several studies have explored details of the infection process and development of ergot bodies, little information is available on the spatial distribution of the mycotoxins in the sclerotia. Here we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) at a lateral resolution of 35 μm to visualize the distribution of two representative alkaloids, ergocristine and ergometrine, produced by Ecc93 and Gal 310 variants of C. purpurea, respectively, after infection of rye. To improve cryosectioning of this fragile biological material tissue with complex texture, we developed a practical embedding protocol based on cellulose polymers. The MALDI-MS images recorded from the so produced intact tissues sections revealed that ergometrine exhibited a relatively homogeneous distribution throughout the ergot body, whereas ergocristine was found to be enriched in the proximal region. This finding can be correlated to the morphological development of sclerotia as ergot alkaloids are only produced in the sphacelial stage. The ability to localize toxins and other secondary metabolites in intact sections of crop-infecting fungi with high lateral resolution renders MALDI-MSI a powerful tool for investigating biosynthetic pathways and for obtaining a deeper understanding of the parasite-host interaction. Graphical abstract Workflow for identification and spatial localization of ergot alkaloids in infected rye grains.

  14. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

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    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  15. Use of herbal medicines in children following EBM criteria. Effectiveness and tolerability of echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile

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    Domenico Careddu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent appreciation of phytotherapy is related to the evidence of efficacy of herbal medicines, as well as to the continuous improvement of scientific and clinical knowledge of their effects. Unfortunately among herbal medicine it is frequent to find products that are neither registered nor controlled by regulatory bodies, with a lack of proofs regarding their constituents and quality.Phytotherapy can find its role among medical therapies only if each medication is standardised and controlled according to the requirements of an official Pharmacopoeia, and produced on the basis of Good Manufacturing Practices similar to those used in pharmaceutical companies. This is even more important in paediatric age, also because often parents administer herbal medications to their children, without asking the physician or the pharmacist for advice, being convinced that “natural products” are always safe and do not have adverse events or interactions. The evaluation of these products, ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation,is an important challenge. To improve an evidence-based and safe use, herbal medicines should be titrated, standardised and labelled. Clinical applications, pharmacology, dosage, possible contraindications and precautions (i.e. during pregnancy, breastfeeding and paediatric age, and potential adverse reactions should be clearly described and codified, for example in the officialPharmacopeia and in the various Monographs (ESCOP, The European Scientific Cooperative On Phytotherapy, and WHO, World Health Organization.The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the safety and efficacy of some medicinal plants widely used in the paediatric age: echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile. The final aim is to help to use herbal medicine on the basis of the criteria of the Evidence Based Medicine.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DERYNG AND CLEVENGER-TYPE APPARATUS IN ISOLATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE MUTELINA PURPUREA THELL. FLOWERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Sieniawska, Elwira; Kowalski, Radoslaw; Wesolowskp, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, both qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of M. purpurea essential oil obtained in the Deryng and Clevenger-type apparatuses were compared. As a result, content of volatile compounds were: 785.67 mg/mL and 833.33 mg/mL in the oil obtained in the Deryng (D-EO) and Clevenger-type apparatuses (C-EO), respectively. The major components of both essential oils from M. purpurea were: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, (Z)-sesquisabinene hydrate, (E)-sesquisabinene hydrate, and a-bis-abolol. The correlation coefficients values are not determined by the differences in the concentrations of the components resulting from the application of two different methods of distillation.

  17. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae) shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguiyama, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Meirelles, Sergio T; Centeno, Danilo C; Braga, Marcia R

    2014-01-01

    Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP) of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80 and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  18. The isolation and synthesis of a novel benzofuran compound from Tephrosia purpurea, and the synthesis of several related derivatives, which suppress histamine H1 receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Das, Asish Kumar; Itou, Tomohiro; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    A novel naturally occurring compound with a benzofuran skeleton was isolated from a plant, Tephrosia purpurea collected in Bangladesh. The chemical synthesis of this compound confirmed its structure, and preliminary biological results showed its suppressive activity towards histamine H1 gene expression. One isomer and four derivatives were also synthesized, and their suppression activity was investigated. Although only small quantities of this compound can be isolated from its natural source, a 10 g scale synthesis was demonstrated by the newly developed method.

  19. Effect of potassium chloride and phenyl mercuric acetate on the regulation of stomatal opening and water economy in Tephrosia purpurea Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, T.; Sen, D.N.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the effects of potassium chloride and phenylmercuric acetate on the plant Tephrosia purpurea. KCl and PMA were sprayed on the plants, and consequent water loss and leaf water content were measured at different time intervals. KCl treated plants lost more water than PMA treated ones; their stomata remained wide open. The percentage of absolute moisture remained higher in the PMA treated plants than in the KCl treated plants.

  20. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80% and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  1. Domestication and the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison J; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-05-01

    Domestication occurs as humans select and cultivate wild plants in agricultural habitats. The amount and structure of variation in contemporary cultivated populations has been shaped, in part, by how genetic material was transferred from one cultivated generation to the next. In some cultivated tree species, domestication involved a shift from sexually reproducing wild populations to vegetatively propagated cultivated populations; however, little is known about how domestication has impacted variation in these species. We employed AFLP data to explore the amount, structure, and distribution of variation in clonally propagated domesticated populations and sexually reproducing wild populations of the Neotropical fruit tree, Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae). Cultivated populations from three different agricultural habitats were included: living fences, backyards, and orchards. AFLP data were analysed using measures of genetic diversity (% polymorphic loci, Shannon's diversity index, Nei's gene diversity, panmictic heterozygosity), population structure (F(ST) analogues), and principal components analyses. Levels of genetic variation in cultivated S. purpurea populations are significantly less than variation found in wild populations, although the amount of diversity varies in different agricultural habitats. Cultivated populations have a greater proportion of their genetic variability distributed among populations than wild populations. The genetic structure of backyard populations resembles that of wild populations, but living fence and orchard populations have 1/3 more variability distributed among populations, most likely a reflection of relative levels of vegetative reproduction. Finally, these results suggest that S. purpurea was domesticated in two distinct regions within Mesoamerica.

  2. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    Orchids, particularly terrestrial taxa, rely mostly on basidiomycete fungi in the Cantharellales and Sebacinales that trigger the process of seed germination and/or initiate the full development of the seedling. During the course of development, orchids may associate with the same fungus, or they may enlist other types of fungi for their developmental needs leading to resilience in a natural setting. This study examined in vitro seed germination and seedling developmental behavior of Cynorkis purpurea, a terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar. This species is mostly restricted to gallery forests in the Itremo Massif, in moist substrate between rocks bordering streams. The main objective was to understand the influence of diverse mycorrhizal fungi on seed germination and further development of C. purpurea. The study aims to compare symbiotic versus asymbiotic germination and seedling development with seeds and fungi collected from a 13-km(2) area in the Itremo region. Seeds collected from the wild were sown with diverse orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) spanning 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in three genera (Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Sebacina) acquired from different habitats. Treatments were assessed in terms of the percentage of germinated seeds and fully developed seedlings against those in asymbiotic control media treatments. Overall, OMF significantly improved seedling development within the 12-week experiment period. Sebacina as a genus was the most effective at promoting seedling development of C. purpurea, as well as having the ability to enter into successful symbiotic relationships with orchids of different life forms; this new knowledge may be especially useful for orchid conservation practiced in tropical areas like Madagascar. A Sebacina isolate from an epiphytic seedling of Polystachya concreta was the most effective at inducing rapid seedling development and was among the five that outperformed fungi isolated from roots

  3. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  4. A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Wilson, Ariana; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting that populations of this species sampled from agricultural fields have experienced genetic bottleneck events that have led to lower neutral genetic diversity. Heterozygosity excess tests indicate that these bottlenecks may have occurred prior to 2003. A greenhouse assay of individuals sampled from the field as seed found that populations of this species, on average, exhibited modest increases in herbicide resistance over time. However, populations differed significantly between sampling years for resistance: some populations maintained high resistance between the sampling years whereas others exhibited increased or decreased resistance. Our results show that populations of this noxious weed, capable of adapting to strong selection imparted by herbicide application, may lose genetic variation as a result of this or other environmental factors. We probably uncovered only modest increases in resistance on average between sampling cohorts due to a strong and previously identified fitness cost of resistance in this species, along with the potential that nonresistant migrants germinate from the seed bank.

  5. 复方紫锥菊对肉鸡部分血液生化指标的影响%Effects of Echinacea compound prescription on blood biochemical indexes in broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓琳; 郭世宁; 石达友; 吴鸿

    2008-01-01

    @@ 紫锥菊(Echinacea)是原产于北美和加拿大南部的一种松果菊属植物,该属植物共有8种和数个变种,目前作为药物开发的主要有紫松果菊(Echinacea purpurea即紫锥菊)、狭叶紫锥菊(Echinacea augustifolia)和白色紫锥菊(Echinaceapallida),是国际市场需求量最大的植物药之一,主要用于治疗普通感冒、咳嗽、支气管炎和上呼吸道感染及其它因素引起的感染.现代研究表明,紫锥菊可通过刺激机体的免疫系统而增强机体对细菌和病毒感染的抵抗力,具有抗生素样作用.本试验旨在研究紫锥菊及其复方对蛋白质、脂肪、血糖相关血液生化指标的影响,以期为紫锥菊及紫锥菊复方在畜牧养殖上的开发和应用提供参考依据.

  6. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26 was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm, as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2 and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1 were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling.

  7. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  8. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns.

  9. Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae (Festuco-Brometea class in the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland after 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Towpasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.

  10. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-09-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose-response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape.

  11. Detection of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in a dairy feed component by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, P G

    1996-11-01

    A dairy feed that contained barley malt screenings caused hyperthermia in dairy cattle. The feed was suspected of containing ergot and was subsequently analyzed to determine the ricinoleate component, a special and prominent feature of oil-rich ergot tissue. Triglyceride oil was extracted by organic solvents from the dairy feed, and the oil was saponified to release fatty acids. Ricinoleate, as a methyl ester, was selectively resolved from other fatty acids by silica gel chromatography and was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which demonstrated the presence of the methyl ricinoleate molecule and proved that the feed contained ergot. The methodology may be refined to monitor for ergot in powdered dairy feed more routinely.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16361-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 93 |pid:none) Streptomyces griseus subsp. gri... 46 0.012 EU423701_1( EU423701 |pid:none) Echinacea tennesse...n... 45 0.021 EU423621_1( EU423621 |pid:none) Echinacea pallida isolate 315A-112...... 43 0.022 EU423645_1( EU423645 |pid:none) Echinacea paradoxa isolate 321A-01... 43 0.022 EU423685_1( EU423685 |pid:none) Echinacea... simulata isolate 308C-00... 43 0.022 EU423652_1( EU423652 |pid:none) Echinacea purp...urea isolate 104A-01... 43 0.022 EU423689_1( EU423689 |pid:none) Echinacea tennes

  13. INHIBITION OF HSV-1 MULTIPLICATION BY FIVE SPECIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Farahani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. As viral resistance to available chemical drugs causes problems in the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection, there is an evolving need for new antiherpes drugs. Therefore in the present study 5 species of medicinal plants with ethno-medical background were screened for antiherpes effect against HSV-1in Hep-2(Human epithelial type 2 cells. Different parts of the plants were collected and aqueous extract of them were prepared. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line by cytopathic effect (CPE assay at concentrations 50-1000 μg/ml. Antiherpes properties of the extracts were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Four plants extract; Thymus kotschyanus, Echinacea purpurea, Camellia sinensis and Echium amoenum L exhibited significant antiherpes effect against HSV-1 at nontoxic concentrations to the cell lines used. The extracts of Thymus kotschyanus and Camellia sinensis showed highest antiherpes activity against HSV-1 at most concentrations. Our findings indicated that Camellia sinensis extract has inhibit HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations 50-1000 μg/ml while this figure for Thymus kotschyanus is 100-800 μg/ml and for Echinacea purpurea and Echium amoenum L are >400 μg/ml. Four plants extract of assay exhibited significant antiherpes activity at a concentration nontoxic to the cell line used. EC50 of Camellia sinensis extract was best sample and findings showed Camellia sinensis has most selectivity indices. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of these plants which may be useful in the development of new antiviral drugs.

  14. 口服紫锥菊对清醒比格犬心率、心电、血压和呼吸的影响%Effects of Oral Echinacea purpurea on Heart Rate,ECG,Blood Pressure and Respiration of Awake Beagle Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞云露; 钟英杰; 付海宁; 钟雁; 蒋贻海

    2014-01-01

    本试验研究了口服紫锥菊对清醒比格犬心率、心电、血压和呼吸的影响.结果显示,口服0.125~1.25 g/kg紫锥菊对清醒比格犬心率有明显降低作用,对心电图P波、T波、R波、Q-T间期、QRS间期、P-R间期及血压、呼吸均无显著影响(P>0.05).表明紫锥菊对犬的呼吸系统和心血管系统均无明显影响,在药效剂量应用时安全可靠.

  15. 黄瓜花叶病毒紫松果菊分离物外壳蛋白特性分析%The Analysis on the Characteristics of the Coat Protein Genes of Cucumber mosaic Virus Isolated from Echinacea purpurea Moench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永江; 李桂芬; 朱水芳; 施宗伟; 李明福

    2007-01-01

    以紫松果菊上分离的黄瓜花叶病毒2-1-2的RNA为模板,采用RT-PCR(反转录聚合酶链式反应,下同)技术对2-1-2的外壳蛋白(coat protein,CP)基因进行了克隆和序列测定.该CP基因全长657个碱基,编码218个氨基酸.其核苷酸序列和推导的氨基酸序列与亚组I代表株系Fny的同源性分别为94.5%和98.1%,与亚组II代表株系Q的同源性分别为77.7%和82.5%.对包括该分离物在内的20个CP序列与地域之间的关系进行了分析,结果表明CMV不同分离物的亚组类型与地域无明显关系.

  16. 施氮、覆膜处理对紫锥菊物候期及活性物质的影响%Effect of Treatment of Application Nitrogen and Covering Plastic Film on Phenological Phase and Active Material in Echinacea purpurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳萍; 吴华; 李洪兵; 陈新梅

    2016-01-01

    以紫锥菊为试材,采用田间试验方法,研究了施氮、覆膜处理对紫锥菊物候期、生物产量及活性成分的影响,以期为紫锥菊资源的有效开发提供基础数据.结果表明:最先进入蕾期是覆膜处理,其次是对照,施肥处理最晚,覆膜与施氮相比盛花期提前14d;与对照和施氮相比,覆膜处理地上部分单株平均重差异极显著(P<0.01),对照和施氮之间差异不显著(P>0.05);与对照相比,覆膜、施氮处理地上部分菊苣酸含量分别提高84.98%和11.64%.由此可见,覆膜处理对紫锥菊生物产量和活性物质为最佳.

  17. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  18. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  19. De novo assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea uncovers gene expression changes associated with herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Trent; Baucom, Regina S

    2014-08-25

    Human-mediated selection can lead to rapid evolution in very short time scales, and the evolution of herbicide resistance in agricultural weeds is an excellent example of this phenomenon. The common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but genetic investigations of this trait have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the annotated transcriptome of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, along with an examination of whole genome expression profiling to assess potential gene expression differences between three artificially selected herbicide resistant lines and three susceptible lines. The assembled Ipomoea transcriptome reported in this work contains 65,459 assembled transcripts, ~28,000 of which were functionally annotated by assignment to Gene Ontology categories. Our RNA-seq survey using this reference transcriptome identified 19 differentially expressed genes associated with resistance-one of which, a cytochrome P450, belongs to a large plant family of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The differentially expressed genes also broadly implicated receptor-like kinases, which were down-regulated in the resistant lines, and other growth and defense genes, which were up-regulated in resistant lines. Interestingly, the target of glyphosate-EPSP synthase-was not overexpressed in the resistant Ipomoea lines as in other glyphosate resistant weeds. Overall, this work identifies potential candidate resistance loci for future investigations and dramatically increases genomic resources for this species. The assembled transcriptome presented herein will also provide a valuable resource to the Ipomoea community, as well as to those interested in utilizing the close relationship between the Convolvulaceae and the Solanaceae for phylogenetic and comparative genomics examinations.

  20. The influence of light intensity on anatomical structure and pigment contents of Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antonio Sousa Paiva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of five different light intensities on the anatomical structure and on the pigment contents in leaves of Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea. Once light intensity became lower, the thickness of leaf lamina and mesophyll were reduced. Adjustments in light-harvesting antenna size were observed: an increase in chlorophyll a + b/carotenoids ratio at low-light growth conditions. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the light intensity values and anthocyanin contents. Hence, T. pallida cv. purpurea acclimation to distinct environmental conditions might be related to its capacity of altering structurally and physiologically its phenotype.As espécies de Tradescantia colonizam uma ampla faixa de ambientes, desde aqueles completamente expostos a luz até aqueles caracteristicamente sombreados. Suas estratégias adaptativas e eficiência como invasoras de culturas estão provavelmente associadas a sua adaptação a intensidades luminosas distintas. Este trabalho mostra os efeitos de cinco diferentes intensidades luminosas na estrutura anatômica e no teor de pigmentos em folhas de Tradescantia pallida. As espessuras da lâmina foliar e do mesofilo foram alteradas, tornando-se mais delgadas à medida que a intensidade luminosa diminuiu. Observou-se um ajuste nos pigmentos fotossintéticos caracterizado por aumentos na razão clorofilas/carotenóides sob condições de baixa intensidade luminosa. Houve uma forte correlação linear positiva entre os valores de intensidade luminosa e teores de antocianinas. Deste modo, pode-se concluir que a aclimatação da espécie aos diferentes habitats está relacionada a alterações estruturais e fotossintéticas.

  1. Perfil de flavonoides e avaliação do potencial antioxidante e citotóxico de Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae da região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraes dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae. Plants of the Bauhinia species (Fabaceae are used in the treatment of several infections and diseases, especially diabetes. In this paper, with an aim to contribute to the knowledge of the chemistry and therapeutic potential of the Amazonian species of the genus Bauhinia, flavonoid profiles in the leaves and branches of Bauhinia purpurea collected in Manaus and São Gabriel da Cachoeira/AM were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and ESIMS. Differences in the flavonoid profiles were detected along with the presence of rutin and isoquercitrin in the leaves collected in Manaus. All samples showed antioxidant activity, however, no cytotoxic activity against cell lines MDA-MB435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, and SF-295 (glioblastoma could be detected.

  2. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  3. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  4. Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y la calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Almacenamiento en Condiciones Ambientales Effect of the drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Storage under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia combinada de diferentes métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento al ambiente y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de B. purpurea, en la capacidad germinativa y en la calidad de estas. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres, B artificial, y C al sol. Se determinó el porcentaje de viabilidad y de germinación, así como el contenido de humedad (CH, con una frecuencia mensual durante un año de almacenamiento; además se registró la temperatura y la humedad relativa (máxima y mínima durante el período evaluado. En el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron análisis multivariados (GLM y Factorial. En los tratamientos A y C se observaron semejanzas en cuanto a la viabilidad y la germinación, aunque las semillas alcanzaron la muerte fisiológica a los siete y nueve meses de permanencia en el almacén, respectivamente. El secado de las semillas con silicagel mostró que la pérdida de la capacidad germinativa siguió un modelo polinomial cúbico, con una marcada tendencia a la linealidad, y al finalizar el estudio fue de 70%. Las diferencias entre el CH de las semillas secadas artificialmente (B y al sol (C permitieron confirmar que la longevidad en B fue dos a cuatro veces mayor que en C. Los factores más influyentes en el ritmo de pérdida de la calidad de las semillas B. purpurea almacenadas al ambiente fueron el contenido de humedad y la edad.A trial was carried out with the objective of determining the combined influence of different drying methods, the storage under ambient conditions and the physiological age of the seeds from B. purpurea, on their germination capacity and quality. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods, B artificial and C under sunlight. The percentage of viability and germination, as well as the moisture content (MC, were determined, with a monthly frequency during a year of storage; in addition the

  5. Isolation and identification of insecticidal compounds from Tephrosia purpurea(Fabaceae) bark and their insecticidal activity%灰毛豆树皮中的杀虫成分及其杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有志; 李冠华; 魏孝义; 刘仲华; 徐汉虹

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine insecticidal compounds from the methanol extracts of Tephrosia purpurea bark,the active compounds were isolated by activity-guided fractionation with column chromatography and identified based on NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS(mass spectrometry) data.Slidedip method was performed to determine the insecticidal activities of each compound against Myzus persicae adults,and topical application was conducted to determine contact toxicity of each compound against the 3rd instar larvae of Pluttella xylostella.Ten known compounds were isolated and identified,i.e.,12a-hydroxyrotenone,4'-hydroxyemoroidocarpan,pachyrrhizine,rotenone,6-methoxycoumarin,(-)-edunol,obovatin,pongachin,12-acetyelliptinol and 2-hydroxyrotenone.All these compounds exhibited insecticidal activity against the 4th instar larvae of Aedes albopictus with the LC50 value being 12.5,22.1,25.0,34.1,43.4,58.4,121.9,191.0,219.8 and 250.0 mg/L,respectively at 24 h after treatment.Moreover,three compounds(4'-hydroxyemoroidocarpan,rotenone and 12a-hydroxyrotenone) exhibited insecticidal activity against M.persicae adults and the 3rd instar larvae of P.xylostella with their corresponding LC50 values being 49.9,1.9 and 0.9 mg/L against M.persicae adults,and with the LD50values being 49.8,197.1 and 40.9 μg/individual against P.xylostella larvae,respectively.Eight known compounds, i.e., 4'-hydroxyemoroidocarpan, 2-hydroxyrotenone, 6-methoxycoumarin,pachyrrhizine,(-)-edunol,12-acetyelliptinol,pongachin and obovatin,were isolated from T.purpurea bark for the first time.The elucidation of the structure of these phytochemicals and their insecticidal activity is important not only for understanding the insect-plant relationships,but also for assessing the potential of this plant as botanical insecticide to be explored and utilized.%为确定灰毛豆Tephrosia purpurea树皮甲醇提取物中的杀虫成分,以白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus4龄幼虫为靶标昆虫,在活性跟踪的基础上

  6. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface.

  7. A novel benzofuran, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide, from Tephrosia purpurea suppressed histamine H1 receptor gene expression through a protein kinase C-δ-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Kadota, Takuya; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Hisao; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and its expression level is strongly correlated with the severity of allergic symptoms. We previously reported isolation of the putative anti-allergic compound, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide (MBCA) from Tephrosia purpurea and its chemical synthesis (Shill et al., Bioorg Med Chem 2015;23:6869-6874). However, the mechanism underlying its anti-allergic activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the mechanism of MBCA on phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)- or histamine-induced upregulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells, and in vivo effects of MBCA were also determined in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized rats. MBCA suppressed PMA- and histamine-induced upregulation of H1R expression at both mRNA and protein levels and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ at Tyr(311) and subsequent translocation to the Golgi. Furthermore, MBCA ameliorated allergic symptoms and suppressed the elevation of H1R and helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine mRNAs in TDI-sensitized rats. Data suggest that MBCA alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats through the inhibition of H1R and Th2 cytokine gene expression. The mechanism of its H1R gene suppression underlies the inhibition of PKCδ activation.

  8. Metabolic responses of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaves to mycorrhization as revealed by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy metabolite profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Chamoun, Rony; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-01-01

    The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants' metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html) are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs. PMID:26042135

  9. Metabolic Responses of Willow (Salix purpurea L. Leaves to Mycorrhization as Revealed by Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR Spectroscopy Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants’ metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L. leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs.

  10. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  11. Crosslinked Spondia purpurea gum: NaCl and p H effects on the gel absorption capability; Goma de ciriguela reticulada: efeito de sal e PH na capacidade de absorcao do gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Paula, Haroldo C.B. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Exudate gum from Spondia purpurea tree was cross linked with epichlorohydrin and its swelling behaviour as a function of Na Cl concentration and pH was investigated. Preliminary structural study was carried out by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The gum was found to absorb 35 time its own weight in water. Swelling increased with pH, being maximal in the pH range 8-10. The equilibrium water content was found to decrease with increasing Na Cl concentration. (author)

  12. The toxic action of essential oils from Tephrosia purpurea on Rhizopertha dominica%灰毛豆精油对谷蠹的毒杀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠华; 王苏宁; 曾东强; 姚振威; 李有志

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess insecticidal activities of the essential oils from Tephrosiapurpurea leaves, T.purpurea barks and T.purpurea seeds against Rhizopertha dominica, the repellent, contact, fumigant and population inhibition toxicity of the three kinds of essential oils to R.dominica were determined respectively.The results showed: 1) Repellent rate reached to the maximum value with the corresponding repellency percentage of 82.3%, 90.7% and 94.3% after 48 h treatment; 2) All the three kinds of essential oils had exhibited contact toxicity against the 5-day old nymph of R.dominica after 24 h treatment, with the value of LD50 being 25.0, 27.9 and 27.8 mg/insect respectively; 3) Fumigant activity to the adult was examined after 48 hours' exposure to each of the three kinds of essential oils at the concentration of 10.0 g/m3; Their mortality ranged from 56.2% to 57.4%, and there was no significant difference among the mortality to the three kinds of essential oils; 4) At the dosage of 200 mg essential oils per 100 g paddy; the current population inhibition rate of the three kinds of essential oils against R.dominica population was 45.5%, 53.6% and 76.8%; F1 progeny population inhibition rate was 43.8%, 68.7% and 75.1%, and essential oils from the seeds exhibited more noted population inhibition activity than that of the other two kinds of essential oils.%为评价灰毛豆叶、树皮和种子精油对谷蠹的毒杀活性,分别测定了它们对谷蟗的驱避活性、触杀活性、熏蒸活性及种群抑制作用.结果表明,处理48 h后,3种精油对谷蠹成虫的驱避率达到最大值,分别是82.3%、90.7%和94.3%;3种精油都对谷蠹5日龄若虫具有触杀活性,其LD50值分别为每虫25.0、27.9和27.8 mg;在用量为20.0 mg/L时,3种精油对谷蠹成虫都具有熏蒸活性,熏蒸48 h后成虫的死亡率为56.2%~57.4%,3种精油的熏蒸活性无显著性差异;当100 g稻谷中拌有200 mg精油时,3种精油对当代

  13. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  14. Éxito reproductivo y calidad de los frutos en poblaciones del extremo sur de la distribución de Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galetto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de frutos y semillas en Ipomea purpurea en relación con diferentes tratamientos de polinización (autopolinización espontánea, autopolinización manual y polinización cruzada, durante dos temporadas reproductivas. La masa de los frutos, de las semillas y el número de semillas por fruto, se compararon entre tratamientos y entre años, a fin de detectar diferencias en la calidad de los frutos. Los resultados para las poblaciones estudiadas en el centro de Argentina confirman que se trata de una especie autocompatible y con la capacidad de producir frutos por autogamia espontánea. Los valores de éxito reproductivo mediados por polinización natural fueron altos (> 50%. Un fruto maduro pesa 0,1 g y contiene 4-6 semillas; la masa del total de semillas producidas por un fruto representa alrededor del 60% de la masa total del fruto. Los caracteres de los frutos y las semillas no presentaron diferencias significativas entre años o tratamientos. Asimismo, se compararon los frutos provenientes de polinización natural entre los individuos con distinto color de flor. En general, tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas. Sólo los frutos provenientes de flores rosa presentaron un número significativamente menor de semillas que los frutos de los otros morfotipos florales (blanco o púrpura. El grupo principal de visitantes florales fue el de los Himenópteros, que pueden ser considerados polinizadores. Se registraron otros grupos de visitantes florales que no tendrían un papel preponderante en la transferencia de polen

  15. Kwaliteitsverlies in de keten voor elke landplant anders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalfsen, van P.; Miller, B.

    2006-01-01

    De weg tussen rooien en opnieuw oppotten is lang. Voor landplanten loert steeds het gevaar van kwaliteitsverlies.Het onderzoek in seizoen 2004/2005 van PPO Bomen naar kwaliteitsverlies in de keten is uitgevoerd met vijf verschillende vaste planten: Echinacea purpurea 'Magnus', Helleborus orientalis

  16. Conventional and homeopathic treatments in late pregnant goats: effects on metabolic status and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional and homeopathic treatments on metabolic status and immune response in late pregnant goats. Administration of an antichetogenic preparation and of Echinacea purpurea in homeopathic dilution did not exert unequivocal effects on metabolic status, but improved some immunological parameters of periparturient goats.

  17. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  18. Installation Summaries from the 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    herbstobatae Echinacea laevigata Smooth E Plant Onsite TRADOC Ft. Jackson None In Preparation Coneflower Onsite NGB Leesburg TS None In Preparation Contig. AMC...confluentus Sanicula mariversa No Common E Plant Both USARPAC Makua MR None In Preparation Name Sanicula purpurea No Common PE Plant Both USARPAC Kawailoa

  19. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  20. First report of purple coneflower phyllody associated with a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) is a flowering perennial plant native to North America and widely grown as an ornamental flower. During the summers of 1994 and 2007, purple coneflower plants in Maryland sporadically exhibited symptoms resembling those caused by phytoplasma infect...

  1. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  2. Kwaliteitsverlies in de keten voor elke landplant anders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalfsen, van P.; Miller, B.

    2006-01-01

    De weg tussen rooien en opnieuw oppotten is lang. Voor landplanten loert steeds het gevaar van kwaliteitsverlies.Het onderzoek in seizoen 2004/2005 van PPO Bomen naar kwaliteitsverlies in de keten is uitgevoerd met vijf verschillende vaste planten: Echinacea purpurea 'Magnus', Helleborus orientalis

  3. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  4. The sequestration of trace elements by willow (Salix purpurea)--which soil properties favor uptake and accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Mercier, Catherine; Courchesne, François

    2014-03-01

    The effect of soil properties on trace element (TE) extraction by the Fish Creek willow cultivar was assessed in a 4-month greenhouse experiment with two contrasted soils and two mycorrhizal treatments (Rhizophagus irregularis and natives). Aboveground tissues represented more than 82 % of the willow biomass and were the major sink for TE. Cadmium and Zn were concentrated in leaves, while As, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mostly found in roots. Willow bioconcentration ratios were below 0.20 for As, Cu, Ni, and Pb and reached 10.0 for Cd and 1.97 for Zn. More significant differences in willow biomass, TE concentrations, and contents were recorded between soil types than between mycorrhizal treatments. A slight significant increase in Cu extraction by willow in symbiosis with Rhizophagus irregularis was observed and was linked to increased shoot biomass. Significant regression models between TE in willow and soil properties were found in leaves (As, Ni), shoots (As, Cd, Cu, Ni), and roots (As, Cu, Pb). Most of the explanation was shared between soil water-soluble TE and fertility variables, indicating that TE phytoextraction is related to soil properties. Managing interactions between TE and major nutrients in soil appeared as a key to improve TE phytoextraction by willows.

  5. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  6. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...