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  1. Feasibility of epicardial adipose tissue quantification in non-ECG-gated low-radiation-dose CT: comparison with prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT

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    Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Viteri-Ramirez, Guillermo; Saiz-Mendiguren, Ramon; Slon-Roblero, Pedro J.; Paramo, Maria [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Bastarrika, Gorka [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Cardiac Imaging Unit, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)], e-mail: bastarrika@unav.es

    2012-06-15

    Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This parameter is generally assessed on ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) images. Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and reliability of EAT quantification on non-gated thoracic low-radiation-dose CT examinations with respect to prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition. Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive asymptomatic smokers (47 men; mean age 64 {+-} 9.8 years) underwent low-dose CT of the chest and prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisitions (64-slice dual-source CT). The two examinations were reconstructed with the same range, field of view, slice thickness, and convolution algorithm. Two independent observers blindly quantified EAT volume using commercially available software. Data were compared with paired sample Student t-test, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed for EAT volume quantification with low-dose-CT (141.7 {+-} 58.3 mL) with respect to ECG-gated CT (142.7 {+-} 57.9 mL). Estimation of CCC showed almost perfect concordance between the two techniques for EAT-volume assessment (CCC, 0.99; mean difference, 0.98 {+-} 5.1 mL). Inter-observer agreement for EAT volume estimation was CCC: 0.96 for low-dose-CT examinations and 0.95 for ECG-gated CT. Conclusion: Non-gated low-dose CT allows quantifying EAT with almost the same concordance and reliability as using dedicated prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition protocols.

  2. Residual motion compensation in ECG-gated interventional cardiac vasculature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, C.; Rohkohl, C.; Lauritsch, G.; Müller, K.; Hornegger, J.

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac vasculature from angiographic C-arm CT (rotational angiography) data is a major challenge. Motion artefacts corrupt image quality, reducing usability for diagnosis and guidance. Many state-of-the-art approaches depend on retrospective ECG-gating of projection data for image reconstruction. A trade-off has to be made regarding the size of the ECG-gating window. A large temporal window is desirable to avoid undersampling. However, residual motion will occur in a large window, causing motion artefacts. We present an algorithm to correct for residual motion. Our approach is based on a deformable 2D-2D registration between the forward projection of an initial, ECG-gated reconstruction, and the original projection data. The approach is fully automatic and does not require any complex segmentation of vasculature, or landmarks. The estimated motion is compensated for during the backprojection step of a subsequent reconstruction. We evaluated the method using the publicly available CAVAREV platform and on six human clinical datasets. We found a better visibility of structure, reduced motion artefacts, and increased sharpness of the vessels in the compensated reconstructions compared to the initial reconstructions. At the time of writing, our algorithm outperforms the leading result of the CAVAREV ranking list. For the clinical datasets, we found an average reduction of motion artefacts by 13 ± 6%. Vessel sharpness was improved by 25 ± 12% on average.

  3. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Vauhkonen, Marko; Schwaiger, Markus; Hakulinen, Mikko A.

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes.

  4. Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, S M; Williams, P L; Williams, M P; Edwards, A J; Roobottom, C A; Morgan-Hughes, G J; Manghat, N E

    2010-01-01

    Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) with its high spatial and temporal resolution has now become an established and complementary method for cardiac imaging. It can now be used reliably to exclude significant coronary artery disease and delineate complex coronary artery anomalies, and has become a valuable problem-solving tool. Our experience with MDCT imaging suggests that it is clinically useful for imaging the pericardium. It is important to be aware of the normal anatomy of the pericardium and not mistake normal variations for pathology. The pericardial recesses are visible in up to 44% of non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated MDCT images. Abnormalities of the pericardium can now be identified with increasing certainty on 64-detector row CT; they may be the key to diagnosis and therefore must not be overlooked. This educational review of the pericardium will cover different imaging techniques, with a significant emphasis on MDCT. We have a large research and clinical experience of ECG-gated cardiac CT and will demonstrate examples of pericardial recesses, their variations and a wide variety of pericardial abnormalities and systemic conditions affecting the pericardium. We give a brief relevant background of the conditions and reinforce the key imaging features. We aim to provide a pictorial demonstration of the wide variety of abnormalities of the pericardium and the pitfalls in the diagnosis of pericardial disease. PMID:20197434

  5. Prospectively ECG Gated CT pulmonary angiography versus helical ungated CT pulmonary angiography: Impact on cardiac related motion artifacts and patient radiation dose

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    Shuman, William P., E-mail: wshuman@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Leipsic, Jonathon A., E-mail: JLeipsic@providencehealth.bc.ca [University of British Columbia and St. Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z1Y6 (Canada); Busey, Janet M., E-mail: jbonny@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Douglas E., E-mail: dougreen@uw.edu [Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pipavath, Sudhakar N., E-mail: snjp@u.wwashington.edu [Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hague, Cameron J., E-mail: cjhague@interchange.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia and St. Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z1Y6 (Canada); Koprowicz, Kent M., E-mail: kentk@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To compare prospectively ECG gated CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with routine helical ungated CTPA for cardiac related motion artifacts and patient radiation dose. Subjects and methods: Twenty patients with signs and symptoms suspicious for pulmonary embolism and who had a heart rate below 85 were scanned with prospectively ECG gated CTPA. These gated exams were matched for several clinical parameters to exams from twenty similar clinical patients scanned with routine ungated helical CTPA. Three blinded independent reviewers subjectively evaluated all exams for overall pulmonary artery enhancement and for several cardiac motion related artifacts, including vessel blurring, intravascular shading, and double line. Reviewers also measured pulmonary artery intravascular density and image noise. Patient radiation dose for each technique was compared. Fourteen clinical prospectively ECG gated CTPA exams from a second institution were evaluated for the same parameters. Results: Prospectively ECG gated CTPA resulted in significantly decreased motion-related image artifact scores in lung segments adjacent to the heart compared to ungated CTPA. Measured image noise was not significantly different between the two types of CTPA exams. Effective dose was 28% less for prospectively ECG gated CTPA (4.9 mSv versus 6.8 mSv, p = 0.02). Similar results were found in the prospectively ECG gated exams from the second institution. Conclusion: Compared to routine helical ungated CTPA, prospectively ECG gated CTPA may result in less cardiac related motion artifact in lung segments adjacent to the heart and significantly less patient radiation dose.

  6. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

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    Wang Rui, E-mail: rui_wang1979@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Qin, E-mail: tel1367@gmail.com [Department of Emergency, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); He Yi, E-mail: heyi139@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lu Dongxu, E-mail: larry.hi@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 {+-} 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 {+-} 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 {+-} 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  7. Diagnostic value of ECG-gated multidetector computed tomography in the early phase of suspected acute myocarditis. A preliminary comparative study with cardiac MRI

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    Dambrin, Gregoire; Caussin, Christophe; Lancelin, Bernard; Paul, Jean F. [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laissy, Jean P.; Serfaty, Jean M. [AP-HP, Hospital Bichat, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced echocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the setting of suspected acute myocarditis compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study group consisted of 12 consecutive patients admitted for suspected acute myocarditis less than 10 days after onset of symptoms. All patients had clinical, electrocardiographic signs, and laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis. All patients but one (severe claustrophobia) underwent cardiac MRI using T1-weighted delayed-enhancement images after injection of gadolinium. ECG-gated MDCT was performed in all patients and included a first-pass contrast-enhanced acquisition and a delayed acquisition. MRI revealed abnormal focal or multifocal myocardial enhancement and confirmed the diagnosis in 11 patients. The first-pass MDCT acquisition showed homogenous left-ventricle contrast enhancement and absence of coronary stenosis in all patients. Delayed MDCT acquisition, performed 5 min later without reinjection of contrast medium revealed multiple areas of myocardial hyperenhancement in a focal or a multifocal pattern (six and six patients, respectively). Extent and location of hyperenhancement at MDCT correlated well with that observed at MR examination for all 11 patients evaluated by both techniques (r=0.9167, p=0.0004). These preliminary results show that ECG-gated MDCT could be a useful alternative noninvasive diagnostic test in the early phase of acute myocarditis. (orig.)

  8. Real-time QRS detection using integrated variance for ECG gated cardiac MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, a patient’s vital signs are required for different purposes. In cardiac MRI (CMR, an electrocardiogram (ECG of the patient is required for triggering the image acquisition process. However, a reliable QRS detection of an ECG signal acquired inside an MRI scanner is a challenging task due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD effect which interferes with the ECG. The aim of this work was to develop a reliable QRS detector usable inside the MRI which also fulfills the standards for medical devices (IEC 60601-2-27. Therefore, a novel real-time QRS detector based on integrated variance measurements is presented. The algorithm was trained on ANSI/AAMI EC13 test waveforms and was then applied to two databases with 12-lead ECG signals recorded inside and outside an MRI scanner. Reliable results for both databases were achieved for the ECG signals recorded inside (DBMRI: sensitivity Se = 99.94%, positive predictive value +P = 99.84% and outside (DBInCarT: Se = 99.29%, +P = 99.72% the MRI. Due to the accurate R-peak detection in real-time this can be used for monitoring and triggering in MRI exams.

  9. Evaluation of regional wall motion in myocardial infarction using animation ECG gated cardiac computed tomography

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    Shimizu, Takahiko; Hyodo, Haruo; Hayashi, Terumi; Yamamoto, Hideo; Yagi, Shigeru

    1984-08-01

    Regional wall motion of the left ventricle was evaluated in 21 patients with myocardial infarction using an animation system of gated cardiac computed tomographic (CT) images (animation gated CCT). The results obtained were compared with data by two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE). 1. Evaluation of the asynergic area by animation gated CCT and 2-DE: Animation gated CCT detected the following specific regions with asynergy established by 2-DE; 10/10 cases (100%) at the anterior wall of the left ventricle, 14/14 cases (100%) at the interventricular septum, and 9/11 cases (81.8%) at the infero-posterior wall. In addition, one false positive case and one negative case were observed at the lateral wall and the apex, respectively. Of 37 instances with asynergic areas established by 2-DE, 21 cases or 89.2% were detected by animation gated CCT; the sensitivity was 91.9%. 2. Evaluation of severity of asynergy by animation gated CCT and 2-DE: The degree of asynergy evaluated by both methods was compared with each other, and the agreement was as follows: 10/10 cases (100%) at the left-ventricular anterior wall, 13/13 cases (100%) at the interventricular septum, and 7/9 cases (77.8%) at the infero-posterior wall. 3. Evaluation of the asynergic area by nonanimation gated CCT and 2-DE: Nonanimation gated CCT detected asynergic areas ascertained by 2-DE at the following areas; 8/10 cases (80%) at the left-ventricular anterior wall, 12/14 cases (85.7%) at the interventricular septum, and 4/11 cases (36.4%) at the infero-posterior wall. The difference between animation and nonanimation gated CCT was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The severity of asynergy could not be evaluated by nonanimation gated CCT. (J.P.N.).

  10. Diagnostic quality of time-averaged ECG-gated CT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Oostveen, L.J.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Hoogeveen, Y.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Slump, C.H.; Renema, W.K.J.; Samei, Ehsan; Hsieh, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CTA allows visualization of the aneurysm and stentgraft during the different phases of the cardiac cycle, although with a lower SNR per cardiac phase than without ECG gating using the same dose. In our institution, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is evaluated using non-ECG-gated C

  11. Bicuspid aortic valves: Diagnostic accuracy of standard axial 64-slice chest CT compared to aortic valve image plane ECG-gated cardiac CT

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    Murphy, David J., E-mail: david.murphy@st-vincents.ie [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); McEvoy, Sinead H., E-mail: s.mcevoy@st-vincents.ie [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Iyengar, Sri, E-mail: sri.iyengar@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth Devon PL6 8DH (United Kingdom); Feuchtner, Gudrun, E-mail: Gudrun.Feuchtner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstr. 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Cury, Ricardo C., E-mail: r.cury@baptisthealth.net [Department of Radiology, Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, 8900 North Kendall Drive, Miami, FL 33176 (United States); Roobottom, Carl, E-mail: carl.roobottom@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Plymouth Devon PL6 8DH (United Kingdom); Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry (United Kingdom); Baumueller, Stephan, E-mail: Hatem.Alkadhi@usz.ch [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem, E-mail: stephan.baumueller@usz.ch [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Dodd, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonniedodd@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of standard axial 64-slice chest CT compared to aortic valve image plane ECG-gated cardiac CT for bicuspid aortic valves. Materials and methods: The standard axial chest CT scans of 20 patients with known bicuspid aortic valves were blindly, randomly analyzed for (i) the appearance of the valve cusps, (ii) the largest aortic sinus area, (iii) the longest aortic cusp length, (iv) the thickest aortic valve cusp and (v) valve calcification. A second blinded reader independently analyzed the appearance of the valve cusps. Forty-two age- and sex-matched patients with known tricuspid aortic valves were used as controls. Retrospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT multiphase reconstructions of the aortic valve were used as the gold-standard. Results: Fourteen (21%) scans were scored as unevaluable (7 bicuspid, 7 tricuspid). Of the remainder, there were 13 evaluable bicuspid valves, ten of which showed an aortic valve line sign, while the remaining three showed a normal Mercedes-Benz appearance owing to fused valve cusps. The 35 evaluable tricuspid aortic valves all showed a normal Mercedes-Benz appearance (P = 0.001). Kappa analysis = 0.62 indicating good interobserver agreement for the aortic valve cusp appearance. Aortic sinus areas, aortic cusp lengths and aortic cusp thicknesses of ≥3.8 cm{sup 2}, 3.2 cm and 1.6 mm respectively on standard axial chest CT best distinguished bicuspid from tricuspid aortic valves (P < 0.0001 for all). Of evaluable scans, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of standard axial chest CT in diagnosing bicuspid aortic valves was 77% (CI 0.54–1.0), 100%, 100% and 70% respectively. Conclusion: The aortic valve is evaluable in approximately 80% of standard chest 64-slice CT scans. Bicuspid aortic valves may be diagnosed on evaluable scans with good diagnostic accuracy. An aortic valve line sign, enlarged aortic sinuses and elongated, thickened valve cusps are specific CT

  12. Evaluation of regional work from ECG-gated SPECT images through solution of equations of continuity for fluids-mechanical cardiac work calculated using thin wall model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hisatoshi

    2012-03-01

    Regional contraction work (RCW) of left ventricle (LV) was evaluated from cardiac perfusion images of ECG-gated single photon emission computed tomography (ECG-SPECT). The mechanical work was computed as a product of force and displaced distance. Force was determined from Laplace's law under a rectangle pressure. Deformation of wireframe representing LV was calculated from equations of continuity for two-dimensional fluids. Experiments were performed with homemade life-sized cardiac models. Total contraction work (TCW) and stroke work (SW) were 524.0 ± 166.1 mJ/beat and 709.8 ± 169.5 mJ/beat, respectively, in normal subjects (n = 23). Moderate correlation was seen between TCW and SW (y = -43.4 + 0.779 x, r = 0.815). The regional contraction amplitude (RCA), synchronous contraction index and RCW were 35.4 ± 3.5%, 95.4 ± 3.1% and 5.58 ± 0.97 mJ cm(-2)/beat in normal subjects, whereas those in patients with decreased ejection raction (EF) ≤ 30% (n = 6) were 19.6 ± 7.7%, 64.4 ± 32.2% and 2.58 ± 0.82 mJ cm(-2)/beat (p < 0.0001, Student's t-test). There was a poor correlation between RCW and RCA (y = 1.648 ± 0.116 x, r = 0.501) in normal subjects, suggesting that it might not be suitable to use RCA as an alternative to evaluate RCW.

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT scans; Praevalenz und klinische Bedeutung inzidenteller Herzbefunde im nicht EKG-getriggerten Thorax-CT

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    Quentin, M.; Kroepil, P.; Lanzman, R.S.; Blondin, D.; Miese, F.; Scherer, A. [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Steiner, S. [Klinikum der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Pneumologie und Angiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Choy, G.; Abbara, S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT. Non-ECG-gated chest CT examinations of 300 patients were retrospectively analyzed for incidental cardiac findings. Subsequently, these findings were evaluated for their clinical relevance by a cardiologist. A total of 107 out of 300 examined patients had 174 incidental cardiac findings including coronary calcification (90), aortic/mitral valve calcification (42), iatrogenic changes (23), pericardial effusion (6), dilatation of the heart (4), myocardial changes (3), thrombus in the left ventricle (2), constrictive pericarditis (2) and atrial myxoma (1). Of the cardiac findings 51% were described in the written report and in 53 out of the 107 patients the cardiac findings were unknown. Newly detected incidental findings from 8 patients were rated as clinically significant: pericardial effusion (4), constrictive pericarditis (1), thrombus in the left ventricle (1), atrial myxoma (1) and dilatation of the heart (1). Incidental cardiac findings are frequent in non-ECG-gated chest CT and may have a high clinical relevance. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Praevalenz und klinische Bedeutung inzidenteller Herzbefunde im nicht EKG-getriggerten Thorax-CT ohne primaer kardiale Fragestellung zu evaluieren. Dreihundert nicht EKG-getriggerte Thorax-CT-Untersuchungen wurden retrospektiv bzgl. inzidenteller Herzbefunde analysiert. Die klinische Bedeutung wurde von einem Kardiologen bewertet. Von 300 Patienten hatten 107 insgesamt 174 Herzbefunde: Koronarsklerose (90), Aorten-/Mitralklappenverkalkung (42), iatrogene Veraenderungen (23), Perikarderguss (6), Herzvergroesserung (4), Myokardpathologien (3), Perikardverkalkungen (2), Thrombus im linken Ventrikel (2) und Myxom (1). Im radiologischen Bericht wurden 51% aller Herzbefunde beschrieben. Bei 53 der 107 Patienten mit Herzbefund waren diese klinisch nicht bekannt. Als

  14. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA: A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J.W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  15. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA: a quantitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Oostveen, L.J.; Greuter, M.J.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Kool, L.J.; Slump, C.H.; Renema, W.K.J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  16. Detectability of motions in AAA with ECG-gated CTA : A quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Kool, Leo J. Schultze; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CT enables the visualization of motions caused by the beating of the heart. Although ECG gating is frequently used in cardiac CT imaging, this technique is also very promising for evaluating vessel wall motion of the aortic artery and the motions of (stent grafts inside) abdominal

  17. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG Gated MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn N.J. Paley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3. A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG and fECG simultaneously was modified by the manufacturer (Monica Healthcare, Nottingham, UK to provide an external TTL trigger signal from the detected fECG which could be used to trigger a standard 1.5 T MR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA gating system with suitable attenuation. The MR scanner was tested by triggering rapidly during image acquisition at a typical fetal heart rate (123 beats per minute using a simulated fECG waveform fed into the gating system. Gated MR images were also acquired from volunteers who were attending for a repeat fetal Central Nervous System (CNS examination using an additional rapid cardiac imaging sequence triggered from the measured fECG. No adverse safety effects were encountered. This is the first time fECG gating has been used with MRI and opens up a range of new possibilities to study a developing foetus.

  18. Erroneous cardiac ECG-gated PET list-mode trigger events can be retrospectively identified and replaced by an offline reprocessing approach: first results in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Guido; Todica, Andrei; Vai, Alessandro; Lehner, Sebastian; Xiong, Guoming; Mille, Erik; Ilhan, Harun; la Fougère, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [18F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group, we

  19. Non-ECG-gated CT pulmonary angiography and the prediction of right ventricular dysfunction in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Mortensen, Jann; Mørk, Mette Louise;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is an important prognostic factor of 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiovascular parameters attained during computed tomography pulmonary...... angiography (CTPA) could predict RVD in patients suspected of PE using ECG-gated cardiac CT angiography as reference. METHODS: Consecutive patients suspected of PE were referred to a ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission tomography (V/Q-SPECT) as first-line imaging procedure. Patients had a V....../Q-SPECT/CT, a CTPA and an ECG-gated cardiac CT angiography performed the same day. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients were available for analysis. Seventeen patients (24%) had RVD. The non-ECG-gated dimensions of left and right ventricle and the major vessels were correlated with ECG-gated cardiac dimensions. The size...

  20. ECG门控自动毫安技术在MSCT冠状动脉成像中的应用价值%The Application of ECG-gated Automatic mA Modulation Technique in the MSCT Cardiac Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同江; 刘建新; 李坚

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究总结ECG门控自动毫安调制技术在MSCT冠状动脉成像中的应用价值,探讨心脏CT低剂量技术的初步经验和方法.方法:患者60例,其中30例随机使用固定毫安扫描,另30例使用ECG门控自动毫安调制技术扫描.以64排螺旋CT行冠状动脉成像,扫描前进行心率控制措施,使用后门控数据采集、容积再现(VR)、最大密度投影(MIP)、曲面重建(CPR);以MIP图像评价冠状动脉管腔;以VR图像5级记分法评价图像质量.结果:60例患者均成功获得冠状动脉影像.自动毫安组较固定毫安组平均剂量降低10.46%,而图像质量两组一致,无统计学差异.ECG门控自动毫安技术在保证图像质量的前提下能有效降低患者平均辐射剂量.结论:ECG门控自动毫安技术能有效降低患者射线剂量,只要准备措施有效及方法得当,就能够用低剂量完成64排MSCT冠状动脉检查,并可获得较满意的效果.%Objective: To research and summarize the application value of the ECG-gated automatic mA modulation technique in the cardiac visualization, and to investigate the initial experience and methods of the low dose using the process of 64-MSCT cardiac imaging. Methods: Sixty patients devided into two groups randomly,thirty patients who underwent the examination of MSCT cardiac imaging with fixed-ma, the other patients with ECG-gated automatic-ma technique. To control heart rate (HR) before examination, and underwent the post-processing with volume rendering (VR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). Evaluated the cardiac vessel with the MIP imaging, and recorded the quality of imaging using the 5 grades.Results: Acquired cardiac imaging of all patients successfiully. Compared to the group of the using fixed-ma, the group of using ECG automatic-ma reduced average dosage 10.46%, and two groups had identical imaging quality.There was not significant difference between them. Conclusion: With the

  1. Evaluation of right ventricular volume and mass using retrospective ECG-gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: comparison with first-pass radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yongdong Severance Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ryu, Young Hoon; Hur, Jin; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Young; Kim, Hyung Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pulmonology, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the right ventricular (RV) volume and mass using cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to compare the cardiac MDCT results with those from first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRA). Twenty patients were evaluated for the RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), the RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), the RV ejection fraction (RVEF), and RV mass using cardiac MDCT with a two-phase reconstruction method based on ECG. The end-diastolic phase was reconstructed at the starting point of the QRS complex on ECG, and the end-systolic phase was reconstructed at the halfway point of the ascending T-wave on ECG. The RV mass was measured for the end-systole. The RVEF was also obtained by FPRA. The mean RVEF (47{+-}7%) measured by cardiac MDCT was well correlated with that (44{+-}6%) measured by FPRA (r=0.854). A significant difference in the mean RVEF was found between cardiac MDCT and FPRA (p=0.001), with an overestimation of 2.9{+-}5.3% by cardiac MDCT versus FPRA. The interobserver variability was 4.4% for the RVEDV, 6.8% for the RVESV, and 7.9% for the RV mass, respectively. Cardiac MDCT is relatively simple and allows the RV volume and mass to be assessed, and the RVEF obtained by cardiac MDCT correlates well with that measured by FPRA. (orig.)

  2. The amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: initial clinical results using multiparametric ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Sebastian; Uebleis, Christopher; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schuessler, Franziska; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Estner, Heidi [University of Munich, Medical Department I, Munich (Germany); Van Kriekinge, Serge D.; Germano, Guido [UCLA, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Theraphy, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    There is still a significant amount of patients who do not sufficiently respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Previous studies demonstrated that the amount of dyssynchronous myocardium was predictive of response to CRT. Otherwise, non-response is frequently associated with high amounts of scar tissue. The combination of these parameters might yield a more accurate prediction of response. We hypothesized that the probability of a CRT response increases with the presence of high amounts of ''viable and dyssynchronous'' myocardium. A total of 19 patients (17 male, 61 {+-} 10 years) underwent ECG-gated [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) myocardial positron emission tomography (PET) before CRT device implantation and were followed for 6 months. Response to CRT was defined as clinical improvement of at least one New York Heart Association (NYHA) class in combination with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) improvement of >5 %. Twelve responders (71 %) and seven non-responders (29 %) were identified. For each patient bullseye maps of FDG uptake and phase analysis were calculated (QPS/QGS 2012, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, CA, USA) and fused. Amounts of myocardium representing ''viable and synchronous'', ''scar and synchronous'', viable and dyssynchronous or ''scar and dyssynchronous'' myocardium were quantified by planimetric measurements of the fused bullseye maps. Responders by definition showed significant decrease in NYHA class and significant increase of LVEF. Furthermore, a significantly higher amount of viable and dyssynchronous myocardium was found as compared to non-responders (21 {+-} 13 % vs 6 {+-} 5 %; p < 0.05). Combined assessment of myocardial viability and LV dyssynchrony is feasible using multiparametric [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and could improve conventional response prediction criteria for CRT. (orig.)

  3. Non-ECG-gated myocardial perfusion MRI using continuous magnetization-driven radial sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Behzad; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Arsanjani, Reza; Thomson, Louise; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Berman, Daniel S; Li, Debiao

    2014-12-01

    Establishing a high-resolution non-ECG-gated first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac MRI technique may improve accessibility and diagnostic capability of FPP imaging. We propose a non-ECG-gated FPP imaging technique using continuous magnetization-driven golden-angle radial acquisition. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate whether, in the simple case of single-slice two-dimensional imaging, adequate myocardial contrast can be obtained for accurate visualization of hypoperfused territories in the setting of myocardial ischemia. A T1-weighted pulse sequence with continuous golden-angle radial sampling was developed for non-ECG-gated FPP imaging. A sliding-window scheme with no temporal acceleration was used to reconstruct 8 frames/s. Canines were imaged at 3T with and without coronary stenosis using the proposed scheme and a conventional magnetization-prepared ECG-gated FPP method. Our studies showed that the proposed non-ECG-gated method is capable of generating high-resolution (1.7 × 1.7 × 6 mm(3) ) artifact-free FPP images of a single slice at high heart rates (92 ± 21 beats/min), while matching the performance of conventional FPP imaging in terms of hypoperfused-to-normal myocardial contrast-to-noise ratio (proposed: 5.18 ± 0.70, conventional: 4.88 ± 0.43). Furthermore, the detected perfusion defect areas were consistent with the conventional FPP images. Non-ECG-gated FPP imaging using optimized continuous golden-angle radial acquisition achieves desirable image quality (i.e., adequate myocardial contrast, high spatial resolution, and minimal artifacts) in the setting of ischemia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Contrast material and radiation dose reduction strategy for triple-rule-out cardiac CT angiography: feasibility study of non-ECG-gated low kVp scan of the whole chest following coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidoh, Masafumi; Nakaura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shinichi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Harada, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dedicated coronary computed tomography (CT) scan has been proven to be an accurate diagnostic modality in evaluating coronary artery disease. A second phase scan starting immediately after the coronary CT scan might enable visualization of the different vascular territories of the entire chest. To investigate the feasibility of a contrast material and radiation dose reduction triple-rule-out (TRO) CT angiography (CTA) protocol with serial non-ECG-gated low kVp scan of the whole chest, which utilizes a recirculated contrast agent. Thirty patients were scanned with the new TRO-CTA protocol; after the coronary scan with retrospective ECG-gating, non-ECG-gated whole-chest CTA was performed at 80 kVp to evaluate aortic arch (AAr) and pulmonary trunk (PT). Another 30 patients were scanned by our conventional TRO-CTA protocol at 120 kVp with retrospective ECG-gating. We compared the estimated effective dose (ED), contrast material (CM) dose, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the ascending aorta (AAo), and the rate of patients who could achieve adequate attenuation of the AAr and PT between the two protocols. The total ED of the new TRO-CTA protocol was 29.6% lower than that of the conventional protocol (P TRO-CTA protocol was significantly lower than in the conventional protocol (60.1 ± 9.6 mL vs. 91.8 ± 22.6 mL, P TRO-CTA protocol than with the conventional protocol (P 0.05). The new TRO-CTA protocol can reduce the total dose of radiation and the contrast dose and yield adequate vascular enhancement compared with the conventional protocol. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Optimization of Ecg Gating in Quantitative Femoral Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Berglund, I.; Erikson, U. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Johansson, J.; Walldius, G. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). King Gustav V Research Inst.

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To determine which phase of the heart cycle would yield the highest reproducibility in measuring atherosclerosis-related variables such as arterial lumen volume and edge roughness. Material and Methods: 35 patients with hypercholesterolemia underwent select ive femoral angiography, repeated four times at 10-min intervals. The angiographies were performed with Ecg-gated exposures. In angiographies 1 and 2 the delay from R-wave maximum to each exposure was 0.1 s, in angiographies 3 and 4 the delay was 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 s or the exposures were performed 1/s without Ecg gating. Arterial lumen volume and edge roughness were measured in a 20-cm segment of the superficial femoral artery using a computer-based densitometric method. Measurement reproducibility was determined by comparing angiographies 1-2 and angiographies 3-4. Results: When measuring arterial lumen volume and edge roughness of a 20-cm segment of the femoral artery, reproducibility was not dependent on Ecg gating. In measuring single arterial diameters and cross-sectional areas, the reproducibility was better when exposures were made 0.1 s after the R-wave maximum than when using other settings of the Ecg gating device or without Ecg gating. Conclusion: The influence of pulsatile flow upon quantitative measurement in femoral angiograms seems to be the smallest possible in early systole, as can be demonstrated when measuring single diameters and cross-sectional areas. In variables based on integration over longer segments, measurement reproducibility seems to be independent of phase.

  6. Impact of ECG gating in contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the assessment of the pulmonary veins and the left atrium anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, M.; Buecker, A.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Guenther, R.W.; Spuentrup, E. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schauerte, P. [Medizinische Klinik 1, Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: Implementation of ECG gating in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) for improved visualization of the pulmonary veins, the left atrium, and the thoracic vessels. Materials and Methods: CeMRA was performed on twelve patients with a history of recurrent atrial fibrillation for the purpose of an intra-individual comparison with and without ECG gating on a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, NL). Objective image quality parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the blood and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the blood and myocardium or lung parenchyma were analyzed. The contour sharpness of the pulmonary veins, left atrium, ascending aorta, and pulmonary trunk was also measured. In addition, the artifact level was subjectively assessed by two observers blinded with respect to the sequence parameters. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the procedures were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson Chi-square test. Results: The use of ECG gating in ceMRA significantly reduced artifacts caused by cardiac motion and vessel pulsation. This in turn lead to a significant increase in the contour sharpness of the left atrium and the thoracic vessels. In addition, higher SNR and CNR were found using ECG-gated ceMRA compared to standard ceMRA. Conclusion: The use of ECG gating in ceMRA results in artifact-free and sharper delineation of the structures of the heart and thoracic vessels. (orig.)

  7. AUTOMATED AGATSTON SCORE COMPUTATION IN A LARGE DATASET OF NON ECG-GATED CHEST COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán; Washko, George R; Estépar, Raúl San José

    2016-04-01

    The Agatston score, computed from ECG-gated computed tomography (CT), is a well established metric of coronary artery disease. It has been recently shown that the Agatston score computed from chest CT (non ECG-gated) studies is highly correlated with the Agatston score computed from cardiac CT scans. In this work we present an automated method to compute the Agatston score from chest CT images. Coronary arteries calcifications (CACs) are defined as voxels contained within the coronary arteries with a value greater or equal to 130 Hounsfield Units (HU). CACs are automatically detected in chest CT studies by locating the heart, generating a region of interest around it, thresholding the image in such region and applying a set of rules to discriminate CACs from calcifications in the main vessels or from metallic implants. We evaluate the methodology in a large cohort of 1500 patients for whom manual reference standard is available. Our results show that the Pearson correlation coefficient between manual and automated Agatston score is ρ = 0.86 (p < 0.0001).

  8. ECG-gated HYPR reconstruction for undersampled CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Michael A.; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Reeder, Scott B.; Supanich, Mark; Nett, Brian E.; Zambelli, Joseph; Chang, Su Min; Hsieh, Jiang; Chen, Guang-Hong; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2007-03-01

    In this study we develop a novel ECG-gated method of HYPR (HighlY constrained backPRojection) CT reconstruction for low-dose myocardial perfusion imaging and present its first application in a porcine model. HYPR is a method of reconstructing time-resolved images from view-undersampled projection data. Scanning and reconstruction techniques were explored using x-ray projections from a 50 sec contrast-enhanced axial scan of a 47 kg swine on a 64-slice MDCT system. Scans were generated with view undersampling factors from 2 to 10. A HYPR reconstruction algorithm was developed in which a fully-sampled composite image is generated from views collected from multiple cardiac cycles within a diastolic window. A time frame image for a heartbeat was produced by modifying the composite with projections from the cycle of interest. Heart rate variations were handled by automatically selecting cardiac window size and number of cycles per composite within defined limits. Cardiac window size averaged 35% of the R-R interval for 2x undersampling and increased to 64% R-R using 10x undersampling. The selected window size and cycles per composite was sensitive to synchrony between heart rate, gantry rate, and the view undersampling pattern. Temporal dynamics and perfusion metrics measured in conventional short-scan (FBP) images were well-reproduced in the undersampled HYPR time series. Mean transit times determined from HYPR myocardial time-density curves agreed to within 8% with the FBP results. The results indicate potential for an order of magnitude reduction in dose requirement per image in cardiac perfusion CT via undersampled scanning and ECG-gated HYPR reconstruction.

  9. Retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT of the chest: does ECG-gating improve three-dimensional visualization of the bronchial tree?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertler, T.; Wildermuth, S.; Willmann, J.K.; Crook, D.W.; Marincek, B.; Boehm, T. [Dept. Medical Radiology, Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT (MDCT) on three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the bronchial tree and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) as compared to non-ECG-gated data acquisition. Materials and Methods: Contrast-enhanced retrospectively ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT of the chest was performed in 25 consecutive patients referred for assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts and pathology of the ascending aorta. ECG-gated MDCT data were reconstructed in diastole using an absolute reverse delay of -400 msec in all patients. In 10 patients additional reconstructions at -200 msec, -300 msec, and -500 msec prior to the R-wave were performed. Shaded surface display (SSD) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) for visualization of the bronchial segments was performed with ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT data. The visualization of the bronchial tree underwent blinded scoring. Effective radiation dose and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both techniques were compared. Results: There was no significant difference in visualizing single bronchial segments using ECG-gated compared to non-ECG-gated MDCT data. However, the total sum of scores for all bronchial segments visualized with non-ECG-gated MDCT was significantly higher compared to ECG-gated MDCT (P<0.05). The summary scores for visualization of bronchial segments for different diastolic reconstructions did not differ significantly. The effective radiation dose and the SNR were significantly higher with the ECG-gated acquisition technique (P<0.05). Conclusion: The bronchial tree is significantly better visualized when using non-ECG-gated MDCT compared to ECG-gated MDCT. Additionally, non-ECG-gated techniques require less radiation exposure. Thus, the current retrospective ECG-gating technique does not provide any additional benefit for 3D visualization of the bronchial tree and VB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung des Einflusses der retrospektiven EKG-Synchronisierung auf

  10. Pulmonary artery and right ventricle assessment in pulmonary hypertension. Correlation between functional parameters of ECG-gated CT and right-side heart catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Elodie; Jankowski, Adrien [Clinique univ. de radiologie et imagerie medicale, CHU Grenoble (France); Pison, Christophe [Clinique univ. de pneumologie, CHU Grenoble (France); Bosson, Jean Luc [Dept. of Statistics, CIC, CHU Grenoble (France); Bouvaist, Helene [Clinique univ. de cardiologie, CHU Grenoble (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R. [Clinique univ. de radiologie et imagerie medicale, CHU Grenoble (France); Univ. J. Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U 823, Inst. A. Bonniot, la Tronche (France)], e-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr

    2012-09-15

    Background: Right ventricular function predicts outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Therefore accurate assessment of right ventricular function is essential to graduate severity, assess follow-up, and response to therapy. Purpose: To evaluate whether PH severity could be assessed using electrocardiography-gated CT (ECG-gated CT) functional parameters. A further objective was to evaluate cardiac output (CO) using two ECG-gated CT methods: the reference Simpson technique and the fully automatic technique generated by commercially available cardiac software. Material and Methods: Our institutional review board approved this study; patient consent was not required. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone ECG-gated CT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent observers measured pulmonary artery (PA) diameter, PA distensibility, aorta diameter, right ventricular cardiac output (CT-RVCO) and right ventricular ejection fraction (CT-RVEF) with automatic and Simpson techniques on ECG-gated CT. RHC-CO and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) were measured on RHC. Relationship between ECG-gated CT and RHC measurements was tested with linear regression analysis. Results: Inter-observer agreement was good for all measurements (r > 0.7) except for CT-RVCO calculated with Simpson's technique (r = 0.63). Pulmonary artery (PA) distensibility was significantly correlated to mPAP (r = -0.426, P = 0.027). CT-RVEF was correlated with mPAP only when issued from Simpson technique (r = -0.417, P = 0.034). CT-RVEF was not significantly correlated to RHC-CO (P > 0.2). CT-RVCO measured with Simpson technique (r = 0.487, P = 0.010) and automatic segmentation (r = 0.549, P 0.005) correlated equally with RHC-CO. Conclusion: CT-RVEF and CT-RVCO measured on ECG-gated CT are significantly correlated, respectively, to mPAP and RHC-CO in this population with severe reduction of the right ventricular ejection fraction and could be useful for

  11. Quantification of Intracranial Aneurysm Morphodynamics from ECG-gated CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firouzian, A.; Manniesing, R.; Metz, C.T.; Risselada, R.; Klein, S.; Kooten, F. van; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Lugt, A. van der; Niessen, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Aneurysm morphodynamics is potentially relevant for assessing aneurysm rupture risk. A method is proposed for automated quantification and visualization of intracranial aneurysm morphodynamics from ECG-gated computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. Materials and Methods:

  12. Evaluation of exposure dose reduction in multislice CT coronary angiography (MS-CTA) with prospective ECG-gated helical scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takamasa; Tsuyuki, Masaharu; Okumura, Miwa; Sano, Tomonari; Kondo, Takeshi; Takase, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    A novel low-dose ECG-gated helical scan method to investigate coronary artery diseases was developed. This method uses a high pitch for scanning (based on the patient's heart rate) and X-rays are generated only during the optimal cardiac phases. The dose reduction was obtained using a two-level approach: 1) To use a 64-slice CT scanner (Aquilion, Toshiba, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan) with a scan speed of 0.35 s/rot. to helically scan the heart at a high pitch based on the patient's heart rate. By changing the pitch from the conventional 0.175 to 0.271 for a heart rate of 60 bpm, the exposure dose was reduced to 65%. 2) To employ tube current gating that predicts the timing of optimal cardiac phases from the previous cardiac cycle and generates X-rays only during the required cardiac phases. The combination of high speed scanning with a high pitch and appropriate X-ray generation only in the cardiac phases from 60% to 90% allows the exposure dose to be reduced to 5.6 mSv for patients with a heart rate lower than 65 bpm. This is a dose reduction of approximately 70% compared to the conventional scanning method recommended by the manufacturer when segmental reconstruction is considered. This low-dose protocol seamlessly allows for wide scan ranges (e.g., aortic dissection) with the benefits of ECG-gated helical scanning: smooth continuity for longitudinal direction and utilization of data from all cardiac cycles.

  13. Assessment of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Associated with Multiple Malformations in Pediatric Patients Using Retrospective ECG-Gated Dual-Source Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Shi

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of retrospective electrocardiographically (ECG-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT for the assessment of double outlet right ventricle (DORV and associated multiple malformations in pediatric patients.Forty-seven patients <10 years of age with DORV underwent retrospective ECG-gated DSCT. The location of the ventricular septal defect (VSD, alignment of the two great arteries, and associated malformations were assessed. The feasibility of retrospective ECG-gated DSCT in pediatric patients was assessed, the image quality of DSCT and the agreement of the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE were evaluated, the diagnostic accuracies of DSCT and TTE were referred to surgical results, and the effective doses were calculated.Apart from DORV, 109 associated malformations were confirmed postoperatively. There was excellent agreement (κ = 0.90 for the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and TTE. However, DSCT was superior to TTE in demonstrating paracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, coronary artery anomalies: 100% vs. 80.00%, anomalies of great vessels: 100% vs. 88.57%, separate thoracic and abdominal anomalies: 100% vs. 76.92%, respectively. Combined with TTE, DSCT can achieve excellent diagnostic performance in intracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, 91.30% vs. 100%. The mean image quality score was 3.70 ± 0.46 (κ = 0.76. The estimated mean effective dose was < 1 mSv (0.88 ± 0.34 mSv.Retrospective ECG-gated DSCT is a better diagnostic tool than TTE for pediatric patients with complex congenital heart disease such as DORV. Combined with TTE, it may reduce or even obviate the use of invasive cardiac catheterization, and thus expose the patients to a much lower radiation dose.

  14. ECG-gated computed tomography: a new role for patients with suspected aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagman, Erika; Flinck, Agneta; Lamm, Carl [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Perrotta, Sossio [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Anaesthesia, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bech-Hanssen, Odd [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Olaison, Lars [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gothenburg (Sweden); Svensson, Gunnar [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Anaesthesia, Gothenburg (Sweden); The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the agreement in findings between ECG-gated CT and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Twenty-seven consecutive patients with PVE underwent 64-slice ECG-gated CT and TEE and the results were compared. Imaging was compared with surgical findings (surgery was performed in 16 patients). TEE suggested the presence of PVE in all patients [thickened aortic wall (n = 17), vegetation (n = 13), abscess (n = 16), valvular dehiscence (n = 10)]. ECG-gated CT was positive in 25 patients (93 %) [thickened aortic wall (n = 19), vegetation (n = 7), abscess (n = 18), valvular dehiscence (n = 7)]. The strength of agreement [kappa (95 % CI)] between ECG-gated CT and TEE was very good for thickened wall [0.83 (0.62-1.0)], good for abscess [0.68 (0.40-0.97)] and dehiscence [0.75 (0.48-1.0)], and moderate for vegetation [0.55 (0.26-0.88)]. The agreement was good between surgical findings (abscess, vegetation and dehiscence) and imaging for ECG-gated CT [0.66 (0.49-0.87)] and TEE [0.79 (0.62-0.96)] and very good for the combination of ECG-gated CT and TEE [0.88 (0.74-1.0)]. Our results indicate that ECG-gated CT has comparable diagnostic performance to TEE and may be a valuable complement in the preoperative evaluation of patients with aortic PVE. (orig.)

  15. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  16. Integrated cardio-thoracic imaging with ECG-Gated 64-slice multidetector-row CT: initial findings in 133 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Randa; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Delhaye, Damien; Khalil, Chadi; Teisseire, Antoine; Remy, Jacques [Hospital Calmette, University Center of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, LILLE cedex (France); Delannoy-Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille, Place de Verdun, Department of Medical Statistics, LILLE cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of assessing the underlying respiratory disease as well as cardiac function during ECG-gated CT angiography of the chest with 64-slice multidetector-row CT (MDCT). One hundred thirty-three consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with known or suspected ventricular dysfunction underwent an ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the chest without {beta}-blockers using the following parameters: (1) collimation: 32 x 0.6 mm with z-flying focal spot for the acquisition of 64 overlapping 0.6-mm slices (Sensation 64; Siemens); rotation time: 0.33 s; pitch: 0.3; 120 kV; 200 mAs; ECG-controlled dose modulation (ECG-pulsing) and (2) 120 ml of a 35% contrast agent. Data were reconstructed: (1) to evaluate the underlying respiratory disease (1-mm thick lung and mediastinal scans reconstructed at 55% of the R-R interval; i.e., ''morphologic scans'') and (2) to determine right (RVEF) and left (LVEF) ventricular ejection fractions (short-axis systolic and diastolic images; Argus software; i.e., ''functional scans''). The mean heart rate was 73 bpm (range: 42-120) and the mean scan time was 18.11{+-}2.67 s (range: 10-27). A total of 123 examinations (92%) had both lung and mediastinal images rated as diagnostic scans, whereas 10 examinations (8%) had non-diagnostic images altered by the presence of respiratory-motion artifacts (n=4) or cyclic artifacts related to the use of a pitch value of 0.3 in patients with a very low heart rate during data acquisition (n=6). Assessment of right and left ventricular function was achievable in 124 patients (93%, 95% CI: 88-97%). For these 124 examinations, the mean RVEF was 46.10% ({+-}9.5; range: 20-72) and the mean LVEF was 58.23% ({+-}10.88; range: 20-83). In the remaining nine patients, an imprecise segmentation of the right and left ventricular cavities was considered as a limiting factor for precise calculation of end-systolic and end

  17. Achieving consistent image quality with dose optimization in 64-row multidetector computed tomography prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zilai; Pang, Lifang; Li, Jianying; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Wenjie; Ding, Bei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin; Yao, Weiwu

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of a body mass index (BMI) based tube current (mA) selection method for obtaining consistent image quality with dose optimization in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring. A formula for selecting mA to achieve desired image quality based on patient BMI was established using a control group (A) of 200 MDCT cardiac patients with a standard scan protocol. One hundred patients in Group B were scanned with this BMI-dependent mA for achieving a desired noise level of 18 HU at 2.5 mm slice thickness. The CTDIvol and image noise on the ascending aorta for the two groups were recorded. Two experienced radiologists quantitatively evaluated the image quality using scores of 1-4 with 4 being the highest. The image quality scores had no statistical difference (P = 0.71) at 3.89 ± 0.32, 3.87 ± 0.34, respectively, for groups A and B of similar BMI. The image noise in Group A had linear relationship with BMI. The image noise in Group B using BMI-dependent mA was independent of BMI with average value of 17.9 HU and smaller deviations for the noise values than in Group A (2.0 vs. 2.9 HU). There was a 35% dose reduction with BMI-dependent mA selection method on average with the lowest effective dose being only 0.35 mSv for patient with BMI of 18.3. A quantitative BMI-based mA selection method in MDCT prospective ECG gated coronary calcium scoring has been proposed to obtain a desired and consistent image quality and provide dose optimization across patient population.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Surugadai Hospital] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses {>=}50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  19. Comprehensive cardiovascular ECG-gated MDCT as a standard diagnostic tool in patients with acute chest pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runza, G. [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: grunza@sirm.org; La Grutta, L.; Alaimo, V. [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo (Italy); Evola, S. [Department of Cardiology, University of Palermo (Italy); Lo Re, F.; Bartolotta, T.V. [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo (Italy); Cademartiri, F. [Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Cardiovascular CT Unit, University Hospital, Parma (Italy); Midiri, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and aortic dissection are diseases associated with acute chest pain and may lead to severe morbidity and mortality. These diseases may not be trivial to diagnose in the settings of emergency room. ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), already established for the assessment of pulmonary embolism and aortic dissection, provides reliable information regarding the triage of patients with acute coronary syndrome in the emergency room. MDCT recently appeared to be logistically feasible and a promising comprehensive method for the evaluation of cardiac and non-cardiac chest pain in emergency department patients. The possibility to scan the entire thorax visualizing the thoracic aorta, the pulmonary arteries, and the coronary arteries could provide a new approach to the triage of acute chest pain. The inherent advantage of MDCT with cardiac state-of-the-art capabilities is the rapid investigation of the main sources of acute chest pain with a high negative predictive value. Recent studies also reports an advantage in terms of costs. With current evidence, the selection of patients with acute chest pain candidates to MDCT should remain restricted to avoid unjustified risk of ionizing radiation.

  20. Effect of physiological heart rate variability on quantitative T2 measurement with ECG-gated Fast Spin Echo (FSE) sequence and its retrospective correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roquefeuil, Marion; Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Escanyé, Jean-Marie; Felblinger, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Quantitative T2 measurement is applied in cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and follow-up of myocardial pathologies. Standard Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated fast spin echo pulse sequences can be used clinically for T2 assessment, with multiple breath-holds. However, heart rate is subject to physiological variability, which causes repetition time variations and affects the recovery of longitudinal magnetization between TR periods. The bias caused by heart rate variability on quantitative T2 measurements is evaluated for fast spin echo pulse sequence. Its retrospective correction based on an effective TR is proposed. Heart rate variations during breath-holds are provided by the ECG recordings from healthy volunteers. T2 measurements were performed on a phantom with known T2 values, by synchronizing the sequence with the recorded ECG. Cardiac T2 measurements were performed twice on six volunteers. The impact of T1 on T2 is also studied. Maximum error in T2 is 26% for phantoms and 18% for myocardial measurement. It is reduced by the proposed compensation method to 20% for phantoms and 10% for in vivo measurements. Only approximate knowledge of T1 is needed for T2 correction. Heart rate variability may cause a bias in T2 measurement with ECG-gated FSE. It needs to be taken into account to avoid a misleading diagnosis from the measurements. © 2013.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of prospective ECG gated coronary computed tomography on a 256 slices scanner: Daily practice experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Fareed

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: In a highly prevalence diseased population, prospective ECG-gated CTCA using 256-slice scanner is highly accurate for detection and quantification of the degree of coronary luminal stenosis in comparison to ICA.

  2. Prospective ECG-gated 320-row CT angiography of the whole aorta and coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu.; Fan, Zhanming; Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Xin, Haiyan; Zhang, Nan [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education, The Key Laboratory of Remodeling-Related Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    To investigate the feasibility of using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the whole aorta and coronary arteries (CA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with suspected acute aortic diseases underwent CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume CT protocol without heart rate (HR) control. The exposure window was set at 40-50 % of R-R interval (HR {>=}70 bpm) or 70-80 % of R-R interval (HR <70 bpm) in a single heartbeat. The image quality of the ascending aorta, aortic valve and CA was evaluated for motion artefacts. The mean attenuation was measured at different levels of the aorta. The radiation dose and contrast medium volume were recorded. All of the examinations were performed successfully. The image quality was acceptable in the ascending aorta, aortic valve (100 %) and CA (94.4 %). The mean radiation dose was 18.42 {+-} 5.02 mSv. Of 61 patients, 14 were diagnosed with aortic aneurysm and 35 were diagnosed with aortic dissection or intramural haematoma. Coronary artery stenosis was detected in 12 patients. For patients with aortic diseases, CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol has the potential to provide additional information about the CA and aortic valve with lower radiation exposure. (orig.)

  3. Acute chest pain in emergency room. Preliminary findings with 40-64-slice CT ECG-gated of the whole chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, E

    2007-01-01

    ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest represents the latest technical advance in the diagnostic work-up of atypical chest pain. The authors report their preliminary experience with the use of 40 and 64-slice CT in the emergency room and recommend to study only patients with moderate likelihood of coronary artery disease. ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest will be preferentially performed on 64-slice MDCT rather than 40-slice MDCT because it enable to reduce the scan time (18 seconds versus 28 seconds acquisition time), the volume of contrast medium (82 mL + 15 mL versus 97 mL + 15 mL of highly concentrated contrast agent for a patient of 70 kgs) and radiation exposure (17 mSv versus 19 mSv). Approximately 1500 to 2000 of images are produced and need to be analysed on a dedicated workstation by a radiologist expert in cardiac and thoracic disorders. At the present time, only a few studies exist in the literature showing some promising results but further large clinical studies are needed before to implement such sophisticated protocol in emergency room.

  4. Evaluation of biventricular ejection fraction with ECG-gated 16-slice CT: preliminary findings in acute pulmonary embolism in comparison with radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Goncette, Louis; Maldague, Baudouin [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States); Roelants, Veronique [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); D' Hoore, William [Catholic University of Louvain, Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Verschuren, Franck [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of cardiac global function evaluation during a whole-chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) acquisition in patients referred for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE), and to compare the results with planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNA). Ten consecutive haemodynamically stable patients (six female, four male; mean age 69.7 years; heart rate 65-99 bpm) with suspicion of PE underwent an MSCT and ERNA within a 6 h period. CT acquisition was performed after contrast medium injection by using 16 x 1.5 mm collimation and retrospective ECG gating. Left ventricular (LVEF) and right ventricular (RVEF) ejection fractions were calculated using dedicated three-dimensional software. Relationships between measurements obtained with MSCT and ERNA were assessed using linear regression analysis and reliability of MSCT was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement between MSCT and ERNA. MSCT was performed successfully in ten patients with a mean acquisition time of 16.5{+-}2.8 s. Functional cardiac evaluation was possible on CT for all patients except for one due to poor opacification of right ventricle. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between MSCT and ERNA for the LVEF (R=0.91) and the RVEF (R=0.89) measurements. Intra-class correlation was superior for LVEF (0.92) than for the RVEF (0.68). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that MSCT substantially overestimated the ERNA RVEF. Morphological CT data demonstrated PE in four of ten of patients and alternative diagnoses in five of ten patients. Our study reveals that MSCT with retrospective ECG gating may provide in one modality a morphological and a functional cardiopulmonary evaluation. Comparison with ERNA demonstrated a good correlation for both ventricular ejection fractions. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of biventricular ejection fraction with ECG-gated 16-slice CT: preliminary findings in acute pulmonary embolism in comparison with radionuclide ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Roelants, Véronique; D'Hoore, William; Verschuren, Franck; Goncette, Louis; Maldague, Baudouin

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of cardiac global function evaluation during a whole-chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) acquisition in patients referred for suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE), and to compare the results with planar equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNA). Ten consecutive haemodynamically stable patients (six female, four male; mean age 69.7 years; heart rate 65-99 bpm) with suspicion of PE underwent an MSCT and ERNA within a 6 h period. CT acquisition was performed after contrast medium injection by using 16x1.5 mm collimation and retrospective ECG gating. Left ventricular (LVEF) and right ventricular (RVEF) ejection fractions were calculated using dedicated three-dimensional software. Relationships between measurements obtained with MSCT and ERNA were assessed using linear regression analysis and reliability of MSCT was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate limits of agreement between MSCT and ERNA. MSCT was performed successfully in ten patients with a mean acquisition time of 16.5+/-2.8 s. Functional cardiac evaluation was possible on CT for all patients except for one due to poor opacification of right ventricle. Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between MSCT and ERNA for the LVEF (R=0.91) and the RVEF (R=0.89) measurements. Intra-class correlation was superior for LVEF (0.92) than for the RVEF (0.68). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that MSCT substantially overestimated the ERNA RVEF. Morphological CT data demonstrated PE in four of ten of patients and alternative diagnoses in five of ten patients. Our study reveals that MSCT with retrospective ECG gating may provide in one modality a morphological and a functional cardiopulmonary evaluation. Comparison with ERNA demonstrated a good correlation for both ventricular ejection fractions.

  6. Prospective and retrospective ECG-gating for CT coronary angiography perform similarly accurate at low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzmann, Paul, E-mail: paul.stolzmann@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Goetti, Robert; Baumueller, Stephan [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre; Falk, Volkmar [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Scheffel, Hans; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Leschka, Sebastian [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To compare, in patients with suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) and low heart rates, image quality, diagnostic performance, and radiation dose values of prospectively and retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for the diagnosis of significant coronary stenoses. Materials and methods: Two-hundred consecutive patients with heart rates {<=}70 bpm were retrospectively enrolled; 100 patients undergoing prospectively ECG-gated CTCA (group 1) and 100 patients undergoing retrospectively-gated CTCA (group 2). Coronary artery segments were assessed for image quality and significant luminal diameter narrowing. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of both CTCA groups were determined using conventional catheter angiography (CCA) as reference standard. Radiation dose values were calculated. Results: Both groups were comparable regarding gender, body weight, cardiovascular risk profile, severity of CAD, mean heart rate, heart rate variability, and Agatston score (all p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of non-assessable coronary segments between group 1 (1.6%, 24/1404) and group 2 (1.4%, 19/1385; p = 0.77); non-diagnostic image quality was significantly (p < 0.001) more often attributed to stair step artifacts in group 1. Segment-based sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 98%, 98%, 88%, 100%, and 100% among group 1; 96%, 99%, 90%, 100%, and 98% among group 2, respectively. Parameters of diagnostic performance were similar (all p > 0.05). Mean effective radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gated CTCA (2.2 {+-} 0.4 mSv) was significantly (p < 0.0001) smaller than that of retrospectively ECG-gated CTCA (8.1 {+-} 0.6 mSv). Conclusion: Prospectively ECG-gated CTCA yields similar image quality, performs as accurately as retrospectively ECG-gated CTCA in patients having heart rates {<=}70 bpm

  7. Dual-source computed tomography: Estimation of radiation exposure of ECG-gated and ECG-triggered coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: dominik.ketelsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Thomas, Christoph; Werner, Matthias; Luetkhoff, Marie H. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, Markus [Departments of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Burgstahler, Christof [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Ottfried-Mueller-Strasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brodoefel, Harald; Kopp, Andreas F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Heuschmid, Martin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to estimate radiation exposure of coronary calcium scoring and angiography using ECG-gated and ECG-triggered dual-source computed tomography. Materials and methods: An Alderson Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for all dose measurements. Effective dose was calculated according to ICRP 103. Radiation exposure was performed on a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) scanner with standard protocols for calcium scoring (DSCT-Ca) and coronary angiography (DSCTA) at different heart rates (40-100 beats/min). Furthermore, a scanning protocol with ECG-triggering as well as a standard chest CT scan were evaluated. Results: Depending on gender, heart rate and ECG-pulsing, the effective dose of a complete cardiac DSCT (DSCT-Ca and DSCTA) scan varies from 10.2 to 32.6 mSv. The effective radiation dose increased significantly with lower heart rates (p < 0.035). ECG-pulsing reduced the radiation exposure significantly in DSCTA (p < 0.001). Due to breast tissue in the primary scan range, females' doses showed an increase up to 69.9% compared to males in scan protocols without ECG-pulsing. Prospective ECG-triggered DSCTA resulted in estimated effective doses from 2.8 mSv (males) to 4.1 mSv (females). Conclusion: The ECG-pulsing technique has proven its effectiveness to reduce effective dose in coronary CT angiography and is recommended for all patients with regular heart rates. The patient's heart rate influences the radiation exposure with a significant decrease at higher heart rates. Due to its lower dose, ECG-triggered DSCTA should be implemented for special indications, i.e. for diagnosis of pathologies of the aortic root and the ascending aorta.

  8. Prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging in asymptomatic patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease on initiation of haemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Babazono, Tetsuya [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Takatomo [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently develop cardiac events within several years of the initiation of haemodialysis. The present study assesses the prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with diabetic CKD requiring haemodialysis. Fifty-five asymptomatic patients with diabetic stage V CKD and no history of heart disease scheduled to start haemodialysis were enrolled in this study (56{+-}11 years old; 49 with type 2 diabetes mellitus). All patients underwent {sup 201}Tl stress ECG-gated MPI 1 month before or after the initiation of haemodialysis to assess myocardial involvement. We evaluated SPECT images using 17-segment defect scores graded on a 5-point scale, summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference scores (SDS). The patients were followed up for at least 2 years (42{+-}15 months) to determine coronary intervention (CI) and heart failure (HF) as soft events and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all causes of deaths as hard events. The frequencies of myocardial ischaemia, resting perfusion defects, low ejection fraction and left ventricular (LV) dilatation were 24,20,29 and 49%, respectively. Ten events (18%) developed during the follow-up period including four CI, one HF, one AMI and four sudden deaths. Multivariate Cox analysis selected SDS (p=0.0011) and haemoglobin A{sub 1c} (HbA{sub 1c}) (p=0.0076) as independent prognostic indicators for all events. Myocardial ischaemia, in addition to glycaemic control, is a strong prognostic marker for asymptomatic patients with diabetic CKD who are scheduled to start haemodialysis. Stress MPI is highly recommended for the management and therapeutic stratification of such patients. (orig.)

  9. The Effectiveness of Non-ECG-Gated Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomomi; Furuse, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kato, Masahiko; Ogawa, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-28

    Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) can be difficult to diagnose accurately, especially in the hyper-acute phase. Non-ECG-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (non-ECG-gated CE-CT) has been used in many institutions for screening acute chest pain. Although early defects (EDs) observed in non-ECG-gated CE-CT have been reported as a sign of acute myocardial ischemia, the precise diagnostic value of this sign for acute coronary syndrome has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the usefulness of non-ECG-gated CE-CT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS. We retrospectively reviewed 556 patients who were hospitalized for acute-onset chest pain and who underwent emergent coronary angiography. Non-ECG-gated CE-CT was performed in 23 of these patients. Two readers independently analyzed CT images using a 5-point scale. Of the 23 patients, 13 were diagnosed with NSTE-ACS. The remaining 10 patients were diagnosed with other conditions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, respectively, of EDs on non-ECG-gated CE-CT to detect NSTE-ACS were 84.6%, 90%, 91.7%, and 81.8%. The identification of EDs was consistent between the two readers. Non-ECG-gated CE-CT may be useful not only to triage patients with chest pain by ruling out other conditions, but also to accurately diagnose NSTE-ACS.

  10. The impact of hypertension on diastolic left ventricular function, evaluated by quantitative ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.M. Sayed

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Quantitative ECG-gated Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT reveals that hypertensive patients with preserved global LV systolic function may have significant changes in diastolic LV function. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT reports are always lacking in these changes in diastolic function. We recommend inclusion of such changes in diastolic function in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT reports that can help in proper management of hypertensive patients.

  11. Assessment of left ventricular performance by ECG-gated SPECT. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadamura, Eiji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    In the measurement of a left ventricular volume, MIBI-QGS was compared with MRI. Because it became clear by the experiment using phantom that a volume calculated with QGS was smaller than the actual volume, data of clinical study were corrected. Subjects were 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen patients had anamnesis of myocardial infarct. ECG-gated SPECT was performed one hour after intravenous injection of MIBI (600 MBq) in rest. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated using QGS. Cine-MR image was obtained by using MR system of 1.5 Tesla within 1 week after SPECT. A condition was as follows; segmented k-space gradient echo with view sharing, TR=11 ms, TE=1.4 ms, flip angle 20 degree, field of view 32 cm, matrix 256 x 196, 8 lines per segment. LVEF, ESV and EF were analysed by Bland-Altman method, and the difference between MIBI-gated-SPECT and MRI was no problem. Horizontal dislocation image and vertical major axis dislocation image were provided. Minor axis crossing images of 10-12 slice were also filmed in order to cover all left ventricles. As a result, availability of MIBI-QGS became clear. Some factors which produces the measurement error are examined. (K.H.)

  12. Coronary Artery Stent Evaluation Using a Vascular Model at 64-Detector Row CT: Comparison between Prospective and Retrospective ECG-Gated Axial Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furui, Shigeru; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Miyazawa, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Yasunari; Konno, Kumiko [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwahara, Sadatoshi; Mehta, Dhruv [Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd. Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the performance of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial scans for assessing coronary stents as compared with retrospective ECG-gated helical scans. As for a vascular model of the coronary artery, a tube of approximately 2.5-mm inner diameter was adopted and as for stents, three (Bx-Velocity, Express2, and Micro Driver) different kinds of stents were inserted into the tube. Both patent and stenotic models of coronary artery were made by instillating different attenuation (396 vs. 79 Hounsfield unit [HU]) of contrast medium within the tube in tube model. The models were scanned with two types of scan methods with a simulated ECG of 60 beats per minute and using display field of views (FOVs) of 9 and 18 cm. We evaluated the in-stent stenosis visually, and we measured the attenuation values and the diameter of the patent stent lumen. The visualization of the stent lumen of the vascular models was improved with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans and a 9-cm FOV. The inner diameters of the vascular models were underestimated with mean measurement errors of -1.10 to -1.36 mm. The measurement errors were smaller with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans (Bx-Velocity and Express2, p < 0.0001; Micro Driver, p = 0.0004) and a 9-cm FOV (all stents: p < 0.0001), as compared with the other conditions, respectively. The luminal attenuation value was overestimated in each condition. For the luminal attenuation measurement, the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans provided less measurement error compared with the retrospective ECG-gated helical scans (all stents: p < 0.0001), and the use of a 9-cm FOV tended to decrease the measurement error. The visualization of coronary stents is improved by the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans and using a small FOV with reduced blooming artifacts and increased spatial resolution.

  13. Ascending aorta measurements as assessed by ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography: a pilot study to establish normative values for transcatheter therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tri-Linh C.; Rizzo, Elena [University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Huber, Christoph H.; Segesser, Ludwig K. von [University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland); Dehmeshki, Jashmid [Kingston University, Digital Imaging Research Centre, Faculty of Computing, Information Systems and Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Qanadli, Salah D. [University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[BH-07, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Service de Radiodiagnostic et de Radiologie interventionnelle, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to provide an insight into normative values of the ascending aorta in regards to novel endovascular procedures using ECG-gated multi-detector CT angiography. Seventy-seven adult patients without ascending aortic abnormalities were evaluated. Measurements at relevant levels of the aortic root and ascending aorta were obtained. Diameter variations of the ascending aorta during cardiac cycle were also considered. Mean diameters (mm) were as follows: LV outflow tract 20.3{+-}3.4, coronary sinus 34.2{+-}4.1, sino-tubular junction 29.7{+-}3.4 and mid ascending aorta 32.7{+-}3.8 with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 12 to 17%. Mean distances (mm) were: from the plane passing through the proximal insertions of the aortic valve cusps to the right brachio-cephalic artery (BCA) 92.6{+-}11.8, from the plane passing through the proximal insertions of the aortic valve cusps to the proximal coronary ostium 12.1{+-}3.7, and between both coronary ostia 7.2{+-}3.1, minimal arc of the ascending aorta from left coronary ostium to right BCA 52.9{+-}9.5, and the fibrous continuity between the aortic valve and the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve 14.6{+-}3.3, CV 13-43%. Mean aortic valve area was 582.0{+-}131.9 mm{sup 2}. The variation of the antero-posterior and transverse diameters of the ascending aorta during the cardiac cycle were 8.4% and 7.3%, respectively. Results showed large inter-individual variations in diameters and distances but with limited intra-individual variations during the cardiac cycle. A personalized approach for planning endovascular devices must be considered. (orig.)

  14. Coronary artery aneurysm and type-A aortic dissection demonstrated by retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, Eva Maria; Juergens, Kai Uwe; Fischbach, Roman [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Muenster (Germany); Wichter, Thomas [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Muenster (Germany); Scheld, Hans H. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Muenster (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with a coronary aneurysm of the proximal left descending artery (LAD) combined with circumferential type-A dissection of the ascending aorta is reported. Computed tomography angiography of the coronary arteries was performed using multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with retrospective ECG gating. Anatomical relations of the LAD aneurysm as well as the origin of the left coronary artery from the false lumen of the dissection were well depicted for planning of the surgical intervention using this new noninvasive imaging modality. (orig.)

  15. Identification and Assessment of Paradoxical Ventricular Wall Motion Using ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan - Comparison of cine Loop , Phase Analysis and Paradox Image -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Gwang Weon; Lee, Kyu Bo; Chung, Byung Chun; Whang, Kee Suk; Chae, Sung Chul; Paek, Wee Hyun; Cheon, Jae Eun [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Woo; Chung, Jin Hong [Yeongnam National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Sixty-four patients with paradoxical ventricular wall motion noticed both in angiocardiography or 2-dimensional echocardiography were assessed by ECG gated blood pool scan (GBPS). Endless cine loop image, phase and amplitude images and paradox image obtained by visual inspection of each cardiac beat or Fourier transformation of acquired raw data were investigated to determine the incremental value of GBPS with these processing methods for identification of paradoxical ventricular wall motion. The results were as follows:1) Paradoxical wall motions were observed on interventricular septum in 34 cases, left ventricular free wall in 26 and right ventricular wall in 24. Underlying heart diseases were is chemic (23 cases) valvular(9), congenital heart disease (12), cardiomyopathy (5), pericardial effusion(5), post cardiac surgery(3), corpulmonale (2), endocarditis (l) and right ventricular tumor(l). 2) Left ventricular ejection fractions of patients with paradoxical left ventricular wall motion were significantly lower than those with paradoxical septal motion (p <0.005). 3) The sensitivity of each processing methods for detecting paradoxical wall motion was 76.9% by phase analysis, 74.6% by endless cine loop mapping and 68.4% by paradox image manipulation respectively. Paradoxial motions visualized only in phase, paradox or both images were appeared as hypokinesia or akinesia in cine loop image. 4) All events could be identified by at least one of above three processing methods, however only 34 cases (48.4%) showed the paradoxical motions in all of the three images. By these findings, we concluded that simultaneous inspection of all above three processing methods-endless cine loop, phase analysis and paradox image is necessary for accurate identification and assessment of paradoxical ventricular wall motion when performing GBPS.

  16. Validation of an image registration and segmentation method to measure stent graft motion on ECG-gated CT using a physical dynamic stent graft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenrades, Maaike A.; Struijs, Ella M.; Klein, Almar; Kuipers, Henny; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2017-03-01

    The application of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair has expanded over the last decade. However, the long-term performance of stent grafts, in particular durable fixation and sealing to the aortic wall, remains the main concern of this treatment. The sealing and fixation are challenged at every heartbeat due to downward and radial pulsatile forces. Yet knowledge on cardiac-induced dynamics of implanted stent grafts is sparse, as it is not measured in routine clinical follow-up. Such knowledge is particularly relevant to perform fatigue tests, to predict failure in the individual patient and to improve stent graft designs. Using a physical dynamic stent graft model in an anthropomorphic phantom, we have evaluated the performance of our previously proposed segmentation and registration algorithm to detect periodic motion of stent grafts on ECG-gated (3D+t) CT data. Abdominal aortic motion profiles were simulated in two series of Gaussian based patterns with different amplitudes and frequencies. Experiments were performed on a 64-slice CT scanner with a helical scan protocol and retrospective gating. Motion patterns as estimated by our algorithm were compared to motion patterns obtained from optical camera recordings of the physical stent graft model in motion. Absolute errors of the patterns' amplitude were smaller than 0.28 mm. Even the motion pattern with an amplitude of 0.23 mm was measured, although the amplitude of motion was overestimated by the algorithm with 43%. We conclude that the algorithm performs well for measurement of stent graft motion in the mm and sub-mm range. This ultimately is expected to aid in patient-specific risk assessment and improving stent graft designs.

  17. Cardiac mouse lymphatics: developmental and anatomical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaht-Zabost, Aleksandra; Gula, Grzegorz; Ciszek, Bogdan; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Madej, Maria; Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota; Ratajska, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The adult mouse heart possesses an extensive lymphatic plexus draining predominantly the subepicardium and the outer layer of the myocardial wall. However, the development of this plexus has not been entirely explored, partially because of the lack of suitable methods for its visualization as well as prolonged lymphatic vessel formation that starts prenatally and proceeds during postnatal stages. Also, neither the course nor location of collecting vessels draining lymph from the mouse heart have been precisely characterized. In this article, we report that murine cardiac lymphatic plexus development that is limited prenatally only to the subepicardial area, postnatally proceeds from the subepicardium toward the myocardial wall with the base-to-apex gradient; this plexus eventually reaches the outer half of the myocardium with a predominant location around branches of coronary arteries and veins. Based on multiple marker immunostaining, the molecular marker-phenotype of cardiac lymphatic endothelial cells can be characterized as: Prox-1(+), Lyve-1(+), VEGFR3(+), Podoplanin(+), VEGFR2(+), CD144(+), Tie2(+), CD31(+), vWF(-), CD34(-), CD133(-). There are two major collecting vessels: one draining the right and left ventricles along the left conal vein and running upwards to the left side of the pulmonary trunk and further to the nearest lymph nodes (under the aortic arch and near the trachea), and the other one with its major branch running along the left cardiac vein and further on the surface of the coronary sinus and the left atrium to paratracheal lymph nodes. The extracardiac collectors gain the smooth muscle cell layer during late postnatal stages.

  18. Quantification of aortic distensibility in abdominal aortic aneurysm using ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganten, Maria-Katharina [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Krautter, Ute; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Delorme, Stefan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Boeckler, Dittmar; Schumacher, Hardy [Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, Wolfram; Bock, Michael [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, Guenter W. [Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To detect distensibility changes that might be an indicator for an increased risk of rupture, cross-sectional area changes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been determined using ECG-gated CT. Distensibility measurements of the aorta were performed in 67 patients with AAA. Time-resolved images were acquired with a four detector-row CT system using a modified CT-angiography protocol. Pulsatility-related cross-sectional area changes were calculated above and at AAA level by semiautomatic segmentation; distensibility values were obtained using additional systemic blood pressure measurements. Values were compared for small Oe< 5 cm (n=44) and large Oe> 5 cm (n = 23) aneurysms. The aorta could be segmented successfully in all patients. Upstream AAA distensibility D was significantly higher than at AAA level for both groups: means above AAA (at AAA) D{sub above} = (1.3 {+-}0.8) .10 {sup -5} Pa {sup -1} (D{sub AAA} = (0.6 {+-}0.5) .10 {sup -5} Pa {sup -1}) t-test p{sub D}<0.0001. Differences of the distensibility between smaller and larger aneurysms were not found to be significant. Distensibility can be measured non-invasively with ECG-gated CT. The reduction of distensibility within aneurysms compared to normal proximal aorta is subtle; the lack of difference between both small and large aneurysms suggests that this reduction occurs early in the aneurysm's development. Hence, reduced distensibility might be a predictive parameter in patients with high risk of aortic disease. (orig.)

  19. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Garattoni, Monica; Buia, Francesco; Attina, Domenico; Lovato, Luigi; Zompatori, Maurizio [University Hospital ' ' S.Orsola' ' , Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, Cardio-Thoracic Radiology Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94 % of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50 %, with only 21.5 % of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8 % (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6 % (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. (orig.)

  20. Reproducibility of ECG-gated Ultrasound Diameter Assessment of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, K; Eldrup, N; Meyer, C

    2013-01-01

    No standardised ultrasound procedure to obtain reliable growth estimates for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently available. We investigated the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel approach controlling for a combination of vessel wall delineation and cardiac cycle variation....

  1. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J. [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 {+-} 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  2. The effect of relaxing music on heart rate and heart rate variability during ECG GATED-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Ozdemir, Semra; Temiz, Ahmet; Celik, Fatmanur

    2015-05-01

    The positive changes in human behavior caused by relaxing music demonstrate the psychological effect of music on human body. A meta-analytical study has shown that relaxing music affects blood pressure and heart rate in coronary heart patients and cancer patients. The aim of our study is to research whether there is a significant effect on heart rate and heart rate variability due to listening to relaxing music during ECG GATED MPS imaging under gamma camera. The music group (n = 50 patients) could choose from 15 different musical types including folk music (no lyric). The other 50 patients were placed in a "no music group" and did not get headphones or any music. There was a statistically significant reduction in the heart rate of patients in the music group compared to those in the control group. Relaxing music provides great benefits to both patient and clinician. There is close relationship between relaxing music and health procedure, can use every area of the health noninvasiv, safe, cheap and is a method don't have side effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of low-dose prospective ECG-gated dual-source CT angiography in the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, P. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, X., E-mail: wxming369@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cheng, Z.; Duan, Y.; Ji, X. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, J. [CT Research Collaboration, Siemens, Beijing (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Aim: To investigate the value of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Materials and methods: Seventeen patients clinically suspected of having CoA underwent prospective ECG-gated DSCT angiography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Surgery was performed in all patients. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT angiography and TTE was compared with the surgical findings as the reference standard. Image quality was evaluated using a five-point scale. Effective radiation dose was calculated from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: CoA was diagnosed in 17 patients by DSCT angiography and in 16 patients by TTE. A total of 46 separate cardiovascular abnormalities were confirmed by surgical findings. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT angiography and TTE was 96.32% and 97.06%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between DSCT angiography and TTE ({chi}{sup 2} = 0, p > 0.05). The mean score of image quality was 4.2 {+-} 0.8. The mean effective dose was 0.69 {+-} 0.09 mSv. Conclusion: Prospective ECG-gated DSCT with a low radiation dose is a valuable technique in the diagnosis of CoA in infants and children.

  4. Coronary imaging quality in routine ECG-gated multidetector CT examinations of the entire thorax: preliminary experience with a 64-slice CT system in 133 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, Damien; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Salem, Randa; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques [Hospital Calmette, University Center of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Lille Cedex (France); Delannoy-Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    To evaluate image quality in the assessment of the coronary arteries during routine ECG-gated multidetector CT (MDCT) of the chest. One hundred and thirty three patients in sinus rhythm underwent an ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the entire chest without {beta}-blockers with a 64-slice CT system. In 127 patients (95%), it was possible to assess the coronary arteries partially or totally; coronary artery imaging failed in six patients (5%), leading to a detailed description of the coronary arteries in 127 patients. Considering ten coronary artery segments per patient, 75% of coronary segments were assessable (948/1270 segments). When the distal segments were excluded from the analysis (i.e., seven coronary segments evaluated per patient), the percentage of assessable segments was 86% (768/889 proximal and mid coronary segments) and reached 93% (474/508) when assessing proximal segments exclusively. The mean number of assessable segments was significantly higher in patients with a heart rate {<=}80 bpm (n=95) than in patients with a heart rate >80 bpm (n=38) (p<0.002). Proximal and mid-coronary segments can be adequately assessed during a whole-chest ECG-gated CT angiographic examination without administration of {beta}-blockers in patients with a heart rate below 80 bpm. (orig.)

  5. Self-gated fat-suppressed cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, R Reeve; Santos, Juan M; Overall, William R; McConnell, Michael V; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2015-05-01

    To develop a self-gated alternating repetition time balanced steady-state free precession (ATR-SSFP) pulse sequence for fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging. Cardiac gating is computed retrospectively using acquired magnetic resonance self-gating data, enabling cine imaging without the need for electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. Modification of the slice-select rephasing gradients of an ATR-SSFP sequence enables the acquisition of a one-dimensional self-gating readout during the unused short repetition time (TR). Self-gating readouts are acquired during every TR of segmented, breath-held cardiac scans. A template-matching algorithm is designed to compute cardiac trigger points from the self-gating signals, and these trigger points are used for retrospective cine reconstruction. The proposed approach is compared with ECG-gated ATR-SSFP and balanced steady-state free precession in 10 volunteers and five patients. The difference of ECG and self-gating trigger times has a variability of 13 ± 11 ms (mean ± SD). Qualitative reviewer scoring and ranking indicate no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between self-gated and ECG-gated ATR-SSFP images. Quantitative blood-myocardial border sharpness is not significantly different among self-gated ATR-SSFP ( 0.61±0.15 mm -1), ECG-gated ATR-SSFP ( 0.61±0.15 mm -1), or conventional ECG-gated balanced steady-state free precession cine MRI ( 0.59±0.15 mm -1). The proposed self-gated ATR-SSFP sequence enables fat-suppressed cardiac cine imaging at 1.5 T without the need for ECG gating and without decreasing the imaging efficiency of ATR-SSFP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Coronary artery bypass graft imaging using ECG-gated multislice computed tomography: Comparison with catheter angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.K.G. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: moore@roger.go-legend.net; Sampson, C. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); MacDonald, S. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Moynahan, C. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Groves, D. [National Refractory Angina Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Chester, M.R. [National Refractory Angina Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    AIM: To compare the value of multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) in imaging coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) by direct quantitative comparison with standard invasive angiography. METHODS: Using MSCT, 50 consecutive patients who had previously undergone CABG surgery and had recently undergone invasive angiography for recurrent angina pectoris, were studied further using MSCT after intravenous injection of non-ionic contrast agent; cardiac imaging was performed during a single breath-hold. Graft anatomy was quantified, using both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and MSCT, by different investigators blinded to each other. Reproducibility was quantified using the standard error of the measurement expressed as a percentage in log-transformed values (CV%) and intraclass correlation (ICC). RESULTS: All 150 grafts were imaged using MSCT; only 4 patent grafts were not imaged using selective angiography. Good agreement was achieved between MSCT and QCA on assessment of proximal anastomoses (CV% 25.2, ICC 0.84), mid-vessel luminal diameter (CV% 15.5, ICC 0.91) and aneurysmal dilations (CV% 14.3). Reasonable agreement was reached on assessment of distal anastomoses (CV% 26.7, ICC 0.66) and categorization of distal run-off (ICC 0.73). Good agreement was observed for stenoses of over 50% luminal loss (CV% 8.7, ICC 0.97) but agreement on assessment of less severe lesions was poor (CV% 208.7, ICC 0.51). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CABGs can be quantitatively evaluated using MSCT, and that significant lesions present in all CABG segments can be reliably identified. Agreement between MSCT and QCA for lesions of less than 50% luminal loss was poor.

  7. Low-dose adaptive sequential scan for dual-source CT coronary angiography in patients with high heart rate: Comparison with retrospective ECG gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yang Lin, E-mail: anna7949@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Li Yu, E-mail: athen06@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Xiaohai, E-mail: maxi8238@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lv Biao, E-mail: biao_lu2007@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To explore feasibility of dual-source CT (DS-CT) prospective ECG-gated coronary angiography in patients with heart rate (HR) higher than 70 beat per minute (bpm), and evaluate image quality and radiation dose with comparison to retrospective ECG-gated spiral scan. Materials and methods: One hundred patients who underwent DS-CT coronary angiography (DS-CTCA) with mean HR higher than 70 bpm but below 110 bpm were enrolled in the study, 50 were scanned by adaptive sequential scan and another 50 were analyzed by retrospectively gated CT scan. The imaging quality of coronary artery segments in the two groups was evaluated using a four-point grading scale by two independent reviewers. Patient radiation dose was calculated by multiplying dose length product by conversion coefficient of 0.017. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups for mean HR (p = 0.305), HR variability (p = 0.103), body mass index (p = 0.472), and scan length (p = 0.208). There was good agreement for image quality scoring between the two reviewers (Kappa = 0.72). Coronary evaluability of adaptive sequential scan was 99.7% (608 of 610 segments), while that of retrospective gated scan was 98.7% (614 of 622 segments), showing similar coronary evaluability (p = 0.061). Effective doses of adaptive sequential scan and retrospective gated scan were 5.1 {+-} 1.6 and 11.8 {+-} 4.5 mSv, respectively (p < 0.001), showing that adaptive sequential scan reduced radiation dose by 57% compared with that of retrospective gated scan. Conclusions: In patients with 70-110 bpm HR, DS-CTCA adaptive sequential scan shows similar image quality as retrospective ECG-gated spiral scan with 57% reduction of radiation dose.

  8. The utility of cardiac CT beyond the assessment of suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakouros, N. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Giles, J.; Crundwell, N.B. [Conquest Hospital, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex (United Kingdom); McWilliams, E.T.M., E-mail: eric.mcwilliams@esht.nhs.uk [Conquest Hospital, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Extensive work has been done over recent years to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac computed tomography (CT). Advances in both hardware and software analysis have enabled the development of non-invasive coronary angiography. However, these high-quality examinations lend themselves to multiple additional applications beyond coronary angiography. In this review, we illustrate and discuss some established and some emerging applications of ECG-gated cardiac CT beyond the assessment of suspected coronary disease, particularly in light of recent recommendations on the appropriate use of this technology.

  9. Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source coronary CT angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison with retrospectively ECG-gated helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yining; Jin, Zhengyu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Longjiang; Lu, Guangming [Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-07-15

    To investigate the feasibility of applying prospectively ECG-triggered sequential coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and evaluate the image quality and radiation dose compared with a retrospectively ECG-gated helical protocol. 100 patients with persistent AF were enrolled. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to a prospective protocol and the other patients to a retrospective protocol using a second-generation dual-source CT (DS-CT). Image quality was evaluated using a four-point grading scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = moderate, 4 = poor) by two reviewers on a per-segment basis. The coronary artery segments were considered non-diagnostic with a quality score of 4. The radiation dose was evaluated. Diagnostic segment rate in the prospective group was 99.4 % (642/646 segments), while that in the retrospective group was 96.5 % (604/626 segments) (P < 0.001). Effective dose was 4.29 {+-} 1.86 and 11.95 {+-} 5.34 mSv for each of the two protocols (P < 0.001), which was a 64 % reduction in the radiation dose for prospective sequential imaging compared with retrospective helical imaging. In AF patients, prospectively ECG-triggered sequential CCTA is feasible using second-generation DS-CT and can decrease >60 % radiation exposure compared with retrospectively ECG-gated helical imaging while improving diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  10. Nonenhanced ECG-gated quiescent-interval single-shot MRA (QISS-MRA) of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, P. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Bi, X. [Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL (United States); Sansone, R. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, H.-J.; Kroepil, P.; Quentin, M.; Kuhlemann, J.; Miese, F. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heiss, C.; Kelm, M. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) for nonenhanced assessment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 66.6 {+-} 10.8 years) with PAOD were included in the study. QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of the lower extremity were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In each patient, subjective image quality and the degree of stenosis were evaluated on a four-point scale for 15 predefined arterial segments. Results: Twenty-five of the 27 patients were considered for analysis. Subjective image quality of QISS-MRA was significantly lower for the distal aorta, pelvic arteries, and femoral arteries as compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.01), while no significant difference was found for other vascular segments. The degree of stenosis was overestimated with QISS-MRA in 23 of 365 (6.3%) segments and underestimated in two of 365 (0.5%) segments. As compared to CE-MRA, QISS-MRA had a high sensitivity (98.6%), specificity (96%) as well as positive and negative predictive value (88.7 and 99.6%, respectively) for the detection of significant stenosis ({>=}50%). Conclusion: ECG-gated QISS-MRA is a promising imaging technique for reliable assessment of PAOD without the use of contrast material.

  11. Cardiac disease and arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Choy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony. Last but not least, pharmacological models, despite being simplistic, have enabled us to understand the physiological mechanisms of arrhythmias and evaluate the anti-arrhythmic properties of experimental agents, such as gap junction modulators, that may be exert therapeutic effects in other cardiac diseases. In this article, we examine these in turn, demonstrating that primary inherited arrhythmic syndromes are now recognized to be more complex than abnormality in a particular ion channel, involving alterations in gene expression and structural remodelling. Conversely, in cardiomyopathies and heart failure, mutations in ion channels and proteins have been identified as underlying causes, and electrophysiological remodelling are recognized pathological features. Transgenic techniques causing mutagenesis in mice are extremely powerful in dissecting the relative contributions of different genes play in producing disease phenotypes. Mouse models can serve as useful systems in which to explore how protein defects contribute to arrhythmias and direct future therapy.

  12. Mouse models of SCN5A-related cardiac arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien eCharpentier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of SCN5A gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.5, underlie hereditary cardiac arrhythmic syndromes such as the type 3 long QT syndrome, cardiac conduction diseases, the Brugada syndrome, the sick sinus syndrome, atrial standstill and numerous overlap syndromes. Patch-clamp studies in heterologous expression systems have provided important information to understand the genotype-phenotype relationships of these diseases. However, they could not clarify how SCN5A mutations can be responsible for such a large spectrum of diseases, for the late age of onset or the progressiveness of some of these diseases and for the overlapping syndromes. Genetically modified mice rapidly appeared as promising tools for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac SCN5A-related arrhythmic syndromes and several mouse models have been established. This paper reviews some of the results obtained on these models that, for most of them, recapitulate the clinical phenotypes of the patients. It also points out that these models also have their own limitations. Overall, mouse models appear as powerful tools to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of SCN5A-related diseases and offer the opportunity to investigate the secondary cellular consequences of SCN5A mutations such as the expression remodelling of other genes that might participate to the overall phenotype. Finally, they constitute useful tools for addressing the role of genetic and environmental modifiers on cardiac electrical activity.

  13. Is It Possible to Predict Heart Rate and Range during Enhanced Cardiac CT Scan from Previous Non-enhanced Cardiac CT?

    OpenAIRE

    Horiguchi, Jun; Yamamoto, Hideya; Arie, Ryuichi; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Ohtaki, Megu; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The effect of heart rate and variation during cardiac computed tomography (CT) on the examination quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to predict heart rate and range during enhanced cardiac computed CT scan from previous non-enhanced cardiac CT scan. Electrocardiograph (ECG) files from 112 patients on three types of cardiac 64-slice CT (non-enhanced, prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated enhanced scans) were recorded. The mean heart rate...

  14. The Image Quality and Radiation Dose of 100-kVp versus 120-kVp ECG-Gated 16-Slice CT Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal; Kang, Jin Hwa; Yin, Yong Hu; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of performing 100-kVp electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated coronary CT angiography, as compared to 120-kVp ECG-gated coronary CT angiography. We retrospectively evaluated one hundred eighty five gender- and body mass index-matched 16-slice coronary CT sets of data, which were obtained using either 100 kVp and 620 effective mAs or 120 kVp and 500 effective mAs. The density measurements (image noise, vessel density, signal-tonoise ratio [SNR] and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) and the estimated radiation dose were calculated. As a preference test, two image readers were independently asked to choose one image from each pair of images. The results of both protocols were compared using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The 100-kVp images showed significantly more noise and a significantly higher vessel density than did the 120-kVp images. There were no significant differences in the SNR and CNR. The estimated reduction of the radiation dose for the 100-kVp protocol was 24%; 7.8 {+-} 0.4 mSV for 100-kVp and 10.1 {+-} 1.0 mSV for 120-kVp (p < 0.001). The readers preferred the 100-kVp images for reading (reader 1, p = 0.01; reader 2, p = 0.06), with their preferences being stronger when the subject's body mass index was less than 25. Reducing the tube kilovoltage from 120 to 100 kVp allows a significant reduction of the radiation dose without a significant change in the SNR and the CNR.

  15. Prospective versus retrospective ECG gating for dual source CT of the coronary stent: Comparison of image quality, accuracy, and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lei, E-mail: zhaolei219@sohu.com [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Zhang Zhaoqi; Fan Zhanming; Yang Lin; Du Jing [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: To compare image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of prospective and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gated dual source computed tomography (DSCT) for the evaluation of the coronary stent, using conventional coronary angiography (CA) as a standard reference. Design, setting and patients: Sixty patients (heart rates {<=}70 bpm) with previous stent implantation who were scheduled for CA were divided in two groups, receiving either prospective or retrospective ECG gated DSCT separately. Two reviewers scored coronary stent image quality and evaluated stent lumen. Results: There was no significant difference in image quality between the two groups. In the prospective group, there were 86.4% (51/59) stents with interpretable images, in the retrospective group, there were 87.5% (49/56) stents with interpretable images. Image quality was not influenced by age, body mass index or heart rate in either group, but heart rate variability had a weak impact on the image quality of the prospective group. Image noise was higher in the prospective group, but this difference reached statistical significance only by using a smooth kernel reconstruction. Per-stent based sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were 100%, 84.1%, 68.2%, and 100%, respectively, in the prospective CT angiography group and 94.4%, 86.8%, 77.3%, and 97.1%, respectively, in the retrospective CT angiography group. There was a significant difference in the effective radiation dose between the two groups, mean effective dose in the prospective and retrospective group was 2.2 {+-} 0.5 mSv (1.5-3.2 mSv) and 14.6 {+-} 3.3 mSv (10.0-20.4 mSv) (p < .001) respectively. Conclusions: Compared with retrospective CT angiography, prospective CT angiography has a similar performance in assessing coronary stent patency, but a lower effective dose in selected patients with regular heart rates {<=}70 bpm.

  16. Comparison of 128-Slice Low-Dose Prospective ECG-Gated CT Scanning and Trans-Thoracic Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guilin; Miao, Ying; Bin, Jingwen; Deng, Sheng; Liu, Taowen; Jiang, Hongchun; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare prospective ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the diagnosis of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with complex CHD (age ECG-gated 128-slice spiral CT in the week before surgery. Effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated from volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Image quality (5-point scale) was assessed independently by two radiologists. Using surgical findings as the reference, the diagnostic capabilities of MSCT and TTE were compared. Results Thirty-five patients (19 males) aged 1.59±1.58 years (range, 3 days to 74 months) were included. CTDIvol, DLP and ED were 0.90±0.24 mGy, 12.9±4.7 mGy∙cm and 0.64±0.21 mSv (range, 0.358–1.196 mSv), respectively. Image quality score was 4.3±0.5, and all images met the diagnostic requirements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for diagnosing CHD were 97.2%, 99.8%, 99.0%, and 99.5%, respectively, for MSCT, and 90.6%, 99.8%, 99.0%, and 98.4%, respectively, for TTE. MSCT not only had a higher sensitivity than TTE overall (97.2% vs. 90.6%; PECG-gated CT scanning has important clinical value in the diagnosis of complex CHD in children, complementing and extending the findings of TTE. PMID:27788237

  17. Interrupted aortic arch diagnosed by ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography angiography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yang-yang; HAN Ping; FENG Gan-sheng; LIANG Bo

    2005-01-01

    @@ Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital cardiovascular disease with major intracardiac defects and always with multisystem non-cardiac malformations. It occurs in 1: 10,000 births, and about 1% of the patients with congenital heart defects.

  18. Low-dose ECG-gated 64-slices helical CT angiography of the chest: evaluation of image quality in 105 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agostino, A.G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Khalil, C.; Remy, J. [University Center of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Delannoy-Deken, V.; Duhamel, A. [University of Lille, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille (France); Flohr, T. [Siemens Medical, Research and Development Department, CT Division, Forchheim (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality of low-dose electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multislice helical computed tomography (CT) angiograms of the chest. One hundred and five consecutive patients with a regular sinus rhythm (72 men; 33 women) underwent ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the chest without administration of beta blockers using the following parameters: (a) collimation 32 x 0.6 mm with z-flying focal spot for the acquisition of 64 overlapping 0.6-mm slices, rotation time 0.33 s, pitch 0.3; (b) 120 kV, 200 mAs; (c) use of two dose modulation systems, including adjustment of the mAs setting to the patient's size and anatomical shape and an ECG-controlled tube current. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists in consensus on 3-mm-thick scans reconstructed at 55% of the response rate (RR) interval. The population and protocol characteristics included: (a) a mean [{+-}standard deviation (SD)] body mass index (BMI) of 24.47 ({+-}4.64); (b) a mean ({+-}SD) heart rate of 72.04 ({+-}15.76) bpm; (c) a mean ({+-}SD) scanning time of 18.3 ({+-}2.73) s; (d) a mean ({+-}SD) dose-length product (DLP) value of 260.57 ({+-}83.67) mGy/cm; (e) an estimated average effective dose of 4.95 ({+-}1.59) mSv. Subjective noise was depicted in a total of nine examinations (8.5%), always rated as mild. Objective noise was assessed by measuring the standard deviation of pixel values in a homogeneous region of interest within the trachea and descending aorta; SD was 15.91 HU in the trachea and 22.16 HU in the descending aorta, with no significant difference in the mean value of the standard deviations between the four categories of BMI except for obese patients, who had a higher mean SD within the aorta. Interpolation artefacts were depicted in 22 patients, with a mean heart rate significantly lower than that of patients without interpolation artifacts, rated as mild in 11 patients and severe in 11 patients. The severity of

  19. Diagnostic performance of prospectively ECG triggered versus retrospectively ECG gated 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography in a heterogeneous patient population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.lehmkuhl@med.uni-leipzig.de [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Struempellstrasse 39, D-04289 Leipzig (Germany); Herz, Franziska; Foldyna, Borek [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Struempellstrasse 39, D-04289 Leipzig (Germany); Nagel, Hans Dieter [Dr. HD Nagel - Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany); Grothoff, Matthias; Nitzsche, Stefan [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Struempellstrasse 39, D-04289 Leipzig (Germany); Thiele, Holger [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department for Cardiology (Germany); Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department for Cardiovascular Surgery (Germany); Hindricks, Gerhard [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department for Cardiology (Germany); Gutberlet, Matthias [University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Struempellstrasse 39, D-04289 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To compare diagnostic performance and applicability of prospectively versus retrospectively gated 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (pro-CTCA vs. retro-CTCA) in a heterogeneous patient population compared to invasive coronary angiography. Methods: 77 patients referred to an ECG-gated-CT of the chest were retrospectively included. Pro-CTCA was applied, whenever possible, alternatively retro-CTCA was performed. All coronary artery segments {>=}1.5 mm were analysed and image quality was assessed. Results: In 39 patients retro-CTCA and in 38 patients pro-CTCA was applied, mean heart rate (HR) was 69.5 {+-} 9.1 min{sup -1} and 62.8 {+-} 5.9, respectively. For a stenosis {>=}50% segment-based (patient-based) analysis revealed a sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97%, 98%, 71%, 100% (91%, 82%, 67%, 96%) using retro-CTCA and 94%, 97%, 75%, 99% (93%, 96%, 93%, 96%) using pro-CTCA. Sensitivity and NPV increased in the pro-CTCA group in patients with a HR < 65. Vessel-based analysis showed lower diagnostic performance for the right coronary artery (RCA) using pro-CTCA, which increased when HR < 65. Image quality did not differ significantly in both groups. Conclusions: Prospectively triggered CTCA in a heterogeneous patient group has a very high diagnostic accuracy and image quality, when used in HR {<=} 65. A low HR is of special importance for the evaluation of the RCA.

  20. Assessment of automatic quantification of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function derived from ECG gated myocardial SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Mitsunori; Habara, Hirokazu; Tatsuno, Hironari; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hamada, Noriko; Kazatani, Yukio [Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Non-invasive assessment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) requires information of both myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. Recently, automatic quantification of ECG-gated myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (QGS) can provide both of them. QGS, coronary angiograms (CAG) and left venticulograms (LVG) were performed in 83 patients with severe IHD in same period. Significant stenosis of coronary artery in CAG were assessed by QGS. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of significant stenosis by QGS was excellent (85%, 93% and 88%). The LV end-distolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV and ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF) and regional LV wall motion determined by QGS were compared to LVG. There was a good correlation between the values obtained from QGS and LVG (EDV: r=0.86, ESV: r=0.94, EF: r=0.84, p<0.0001), but QGS tended to underestimate EDV and EF. High complete agreement of regional LV wall motion was gained with 427 (74.0%) out of total 581 segments. In conclusion, QGS data was considered to be useful for assessment of determine significant stenosis and LV function in severe IHD. (author)

  1. Safety and efficacy of a drug regimen to control heart rate during 64-slice ECG-gated coronary CTA in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Nicholas, Angela C. [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, 2300 Children' s Plaza, Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); deFreitas, R.A. [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Leidecker, Christianne [Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Johanek, Andrew J. [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, 2300 Children' s Plaza, Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Provena St. Joseph Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Joliet, IL (United States); Anley, Peter [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Pharmacy Department, Chicago (United States); Wang, Deli [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Biostatistical Research Department, Chicago, IL (United States); Uejima, Tetsu [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The adult practice for ECG-gated single-source 64-slice coronary CTA (CCTA) includes administering beta-blockers to reduce heart rate. There are limited data on this process in children. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a drug regimen to decrease heart rate before performing CCTA in children. IV remifentanil and esmolol infusion were chosen to decrease heart rate in 41 children (mean age 6.5 years) while they were under general anesthesia (GA) for CCTA. Drug doses, changes in heart rate and procedural complications were recorded. CCTA image quality was graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The relationships between image quality and heart rate and image quality and age were evaluated. Patient effective radiation doses were calculated. Heart rates were lowered utilizing esmolol (4 children), remifentanil (2 children) or both (35 children); 26 children received nitroglycerin for coronary vasodilation. The mean decrease in heart rate was 26%. There were no major complications. The average image-quality score was 4.4. Higher heart rates were associated with worse image quality (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). Older age was associated with better image quality (r = 0.66, P < 0.0001). Effective radiation doses were 0.7 to 7.0 mSv. Heart rate reduction for pediatric CCTA can be safely and effectively achieved while yielding high-quality images. (orig.)

  2. Computer-based automated left atrium segmentation and volumetry from ECG-gated coronary CT angiography data. Comparison with manual slice segmentation and ultrasound planimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, R.W.; Kraus, B.; Kerl, J.M.; Lehnert, T.; Vogl, T.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Bernhardt, D.; Vega-Higuera, F. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany). Computed Tomography; Ackermann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Biostatistik und Mathematische Modellierung

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Enlargement of the left atrium is a risk factor for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. We evaluated the performance of prototype software for fully automated segmentation and volumetry of the left atrium. Materials and Methods: In 34 retrospectively ECG-gated coronary CT angiography scans, the end-systolic (LAVsys) and end-diastolic (LAVdia) volume of the left atrium was calculated fully automatically by prototype software. Manual slice segmentation by two independent experienced radiologists served as the reference standard. Furthermore, two independent observers calculated the LAV utilizing two ultrasound planimetric methods ('area length' and 'prolate ellipse') on CTA images. Measurement periods were compared for all methods. Results: The left atrial volumes calculated with the prototype software were in excellent agreement with the results from manual slice segmentation (r = 0.97 - 0.99; p < 0.001; Bland-Altman) with excellent interobserver agreement between both radiologists (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). Ultrasound planimetric methods clearly showed a higher variation (r = 0.72 - 0.86) with moderate interobserver agreement (r = 0.51 - 0.79). The measurement period was significantly lower with the software (267 {+-} 28 sec; p < 0.001) than with ultrasound methods (431 {+-} 68 sec) or manual slice segmentation (567 {+-} 91 sec). Conclusion: The prototype software showed excellent agreement with manual slice segmentation with the least time consumption. This will facilitate the routine assessment of the LA volume from coronary CTA data and therefore risk stratification. (orig.)

  3. Interobserver agreement for the detection of atherosclerotic plaque in coronary CT angiography: comparison of two low-dose image acquisition protocols with standard retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Rixe, Johannes; Hamm, Christian [University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Marwan, Mohamed; Gauss, Soeren; Muschiol, Gerd; Ropers, Dieter; Daniel, Werner G.; Achenbach, Stephan [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [University of Giessen, Department of Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We compared the interobserver variability concerning the detection of calcified and non-calcified plaque in two different low-dose and standard retrospectively gated protocols for coronary CTA. 150 patients with low heart rates and less than 100 kg body weight were randomised and examined by contrast-enhanced dual-source CT coronary angiography (100 kV, 320 mAs). 50 patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered axial acquisition, 50 patients with prospectively ECG-triggered high pitch spiral acquisition, and 50 patients using spiral acquisition with retrospective ECG gating. Two investigators independently analysed the datasets concerning the presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque on a per-segment level. Mean effective dose was 1.4 {+-} 0.2 mSv for axial, 0.8 {+-} 0.07 mSv for high-pitch spiral, and 5.3 {+-} 2.6 mSV for standard spiral acquisition (P < 0.0001). In axial acquisition, interobserver agreement concerning the presence of atherosclerotic plaque was achieved in 650/749 coronary segments (86.8%). In high-pitch spiral acquisition, agreement was achieved in 664/748 segments (88.8%, n.s.). In standard spiral acquisition, agreement was achieved in 672/738 segments (91.0%, P < 0.0001). Interobserver agreement was significantly higher for calcified than for non-calcified plaque in all data acquisition modes. Low-dose coronary CT angiography permits the detection of coronary atherosclerotic plaque with good interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution 3D non-contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Petersen, Steffen E. [The London Chest Hospital, Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, London (United Kingdom); Heidt, Martin C. [Cardiovascular Center Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Schulze, Thomas; Schmitt, Peter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Application and Workflow Development, Erlangen (Germany); Bergemann, Sabine [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of non-contrast-enhanced, 3D-high-resolution, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography (non-ceMRA) of the lower extremities using a modified turbo-spin-echo technique in comparison to 1.0-molar contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) in patients with suspected peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Fifty consecutive patients underwent non-ceMRA before ceMRA within the same session. We assessed examination time, image quality, localisation and severity of stenosis. Examination time was shorter for ceMRA (12 {+-} 4 min) compared with non-ceMRA (28 {+-} 6 min, p < 0.001). The image quality of the aorta-iliac, femoral and combined popliteal and lower leg arteries was inferior for non-ceMRA (2.8 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.9) versus ceMRA (4.7 {+-} 0.8/4.8 {+-} 0.6/4.8 {+-} 0.7) on a 5-point scale with 5 for maximum quality (p < 0.01). CeMRA offered more assessable data sets than non-ceMRA (98% vs. 90%). For detecting stenosis >50% or occlusions of pelvic and femoral arteries using non-ceMRA the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 86%, 67% and 98% and for popliteal and lower leg arteries 93%, 87%, 69% and 98%, respectively. We demonstrated that 3D non-ceMRA represents a very promising technique in patients with lower extremities PVD and could be used as an alternative if gadolinium-based contrast agents cannot be administered. (orig.)

  5. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  6. Cardiac Dysfunction in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analyne M Schroeder

    Full Text Available While Huntington's disease (HD is classified as a neurological disorder, HD patients exhibit a high incidence of cardiovascular events leading to heart failure and death. In this study, we sought to better understand the cardiovascular phenotype of HD using the BACHD mouse model. The age-related decline in cardiovascular function was assessed by echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, histological and microarray analysis. We found that structural and functional differences between WT and BACHD hearts start at 3 months of age and continue throughout life. The aged BACHD mice develop cardiac fibrosis and ultimately apoptosis. The BACHD mice exhibited adaptive physiological changes to chronic isoproterenol treatment; however, the medication exacerbated fibrotic lesions in the heart. Gene expression analysis indicated a strong tilt toward apoptosis in the young mutant heart as well as changes in genes involved in cellular metabolism and proliferation. With age, the number of genes with altered expression increased with the large changes occurring in the cardiovascular disease, cellular metabolism, and cellular transport clusters. The BACHD model of HD exhibits a number of changes in cardiovascular function that start early in the disease progress and may provide an explanation for the higher cardiovascular risk in HD.

  7. Cardiac MRI and CT features of inheritable and congenital conditions associated with sudden cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, Patrick; Merchant, Naeem; Provost, Yves; Doyle, Deirdre; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Cardiac MRI (CMR) and electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) are increasingly important tools in the identification and assessment of cardiac-related disease processes, including those associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). While the commonest cause of SCD is coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients under 35 years inheritable cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are important aetiologies. CMR in particular offers both accurate delineation of the morphological abnormalities associated with these and other conditions and the possibility for risk stratification for development of ventricular arrhythmias with demonstration of macroscopic scar by delayed enhancement imaging with intravenous gadolinium. (orig.)

  8. 256层CT冠状动脉造影中前瞻性心电门控技术的应用价值%Application Value of Prospective ECG-gated 256-slice CT Coronary Angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩玲; 李菁菁; 谢秀丽; 徐克

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value and limitation of prospective ECG-gated 256-slice CT coronary angiography by comparing image quality and patient radiation dose received by prospective ECG-gated scan with those obtained by retrospective ECG-gated scan. Methods A total of 193 cases were collected in this study. 90 cases accepted prospective ECG-gated 256-slice CT coronary angiography (group A) and 103 cases accepted retrospective ECG-gated scan as a contrast group (group B). The CT dose index of volume,length of scan field were recorded immediately after scan and the dose length product and effective radiation dose (ED) were calculated. Post processing methods included volume rendering,curved planar reconstruction and multiplanar reconstruction. Each coronary segment was scored according to the post-processed image quality. Results The mean ED in group A with an average heart rate of 69 bpm was (4.11 ±1.36) mSv and that in group B with an average heart rate of 78 bpm (12.10±5.62) mSv. The evaluable rate in group A was 94.1% and that in group B was 93.6%. There was statistically significant difference in the mean ED (P 0.05) between group A and group B. Conclusion Prospective ECG-gated 256-slice CT coronary angiography could keep satisfactory image quality and reduce radiation dose. It should be used in clinic at the most if the heart rate adaptive.%目的 通过比较256层CT前瞻性与回顾性心电门控冠状动脉造影的图像质量和辐射剂量,探讨前瞻性心电门控在冠状动脉造影中的应用价值和限度.方法 收集接受冠状动脉CT造影检查并采用前瞻性心电门控扫描者90例,采用回顾性心电门控扫描者103例.扫描时记录容积剂量指数及扫描野长度,计算剂量长度乘积和有效辐射剂量.所有患者均采用容积重建、曲面重建及多平面重建等后处理技术,对各冠状动脉节段的图像质量进行评分.结果 前瞻性心电门控扫描组和回顾性心电门控

  9. Reliability analysis of visual ranking of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT of the thorax for lung cancer screening: comparison with ECG-gated calcium scoring CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Sung, Yon Mi; Cho, So Hyun; Park, Young Nam; Choi, Hye-Young

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is frequently detected on low-dose CT (LDCT) of the thorax. Concurrent assessment of CAC and lung cancer screening using LDCT is beneficial in terms of cost and radiation dose reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT compared to Agatston score (AS) on electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated calcium scoring CT. We studied 576 patients who were consecutively registered for health screening and undergoing both LDCT and ECG-gated calcium scoring CT. We excluded subjects with an AS of zero. The final study cohort included 117 patients with CAC (97 men; mean age, 53.4 ± 8.5). AS was used as the gold standard (mean score 166.0; range 0.4-3,719.3). Two board-certified radiologists and two radiology residents participated in an observer performance study. Visual ranking of CAC was performed according to four categories (1-10, 11-100, 101-400, and 401 or higher) for coronary artery disease risk stratification. Weighted kappa statistics were used to measure the degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT. The degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT compared to ECG-gated calcium scoring CT was excellent for board-certified radiologists and good for radiology residents. A high degree of association was observed with 71.6% of visual rankings in the same category as the Agatston category and 98.9% varying by no more than one category. Visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT is reliable for predicting AS rank categorization.

  10. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery bypass graft with retrospectively ECG-gated four-row multi-detector spiral computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, Riccardo; Storto, Maria Luigia; Maddestra, Nicola; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Clinical Sciences and Bioimaging, Section of Radiology, University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , Ospedale ' ' SS. Annunziata' ' , Via dei Vestini, 66100, Chieti (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of four-row multi-detector CT (MDCT) in the evaluation of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with at least a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafted to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), because of the conduit of choice in bypass surgery and the greater difficulty of evaluation with non-invasive diagnostic tools. Included in the study were 57 patients with a total of 122 grafts (95 arterial and 27 venous) who underwent MDCT (4 x 2.5-mm detector-collimation, 3-mm slice width, 1.5-mm reconstruction increment) with retrospective ECG gating. Twelve patients (21%) with high heart rates were given beta-blockers in order to obtain a heart rate {<=}70 bpm in all patients. The ECG-synchronized axial images, reconstructed in the mid-diastole, MPR, MIP and 3D-VR images were independently and blindly assessed by two radiologists for graft patency and presence of high grade stenosis. Conventional angiography was the standard of reference. MDCT correctly classified 92/94 patent grafts and 26/28 occluded grafts (sensitivity/specificity 93%/97.8%); sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for assessment of arterial grafts were 100 and 98.7% (77/78 patent grafts and 17/17 occluded grafts). Image quality was considered adequate for assessment of significant stenoses in 62/92 (67%) patent grafts, with a significant differences between LIMA and non-LIMA conduits (44/57 vs. 18/65; P=0.002), according to the coronary vessel area supplied (anterior>lateral>posterior-inferior wall; P=0.002). In the remaining 30 patent grafts (33%), the assessment of stenoses was hampered by surgical clips, calcifications and motion artifacts. Sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for detection of significant graft stenoses were 80 and 96%, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was good (K=0.73). MDCT seems to be a valuable diagnostic tool for non-invasive assessment of patency of both venous and arterial grafts. An accurate evaluation

  11. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Petrashevskaya, Natalia; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2016-01-15

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/- mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2-4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6-14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS.

  12. Non-enhanced ECG-gated respiratory-triggered 3-D steady-state free-precession MR angiography with slab-selective inversion: initial experience in visualisation of renal arteries in free-breathing children without renal artery abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Lanzman, Rotem Shlomo; Blondin, Dirk; Antoch, Gerald; Schaper, Joerg [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Oh, Jun [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology, Hamburg (Germany); Salgin, Burak; Mayatepek, Ertan [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    ECG-gated non-enhanced balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MR angiography requires neither breath-holding nor administration of contrast material. To investigate the image quality of free-breathing ECG-gated non-enhanced bSSFP MR angiography of renal arteries in children. Fourteen boys and seven girls (mean age, 9.7 years; range, 7 weeks-17 years) with no history of renovascular disease were included. MRI was performed at 1.5 T. Subjective image quality of axial and coronal maximum-intensity-projection reconstructions of four segments (I, aorta and renal artery ostium; II, main renal artery; III, segmental branches; IV, intrarenal vessels) was evaluated using a 4-point scale (4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = acceptable, 1 = non-diagnostic). Image quality was excellent for segments I (mean {+-} SD, 3.9 {+-} 0.3) and II (4.0 {+-} 0.1), good for segment III (3.4 {+-} 0.9) and acceptable for segment IV (2.3 {+-} 1.1). Mean image quality did not differ between sedated and non-sedated children. bSSFP MR angiography enables visualisation of renal arteries in children. (orig.)

  13. Meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography with prospective ECG gating based on step-and-shoot, Flash and volume modes for detection of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Linfeng; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Ruijie; Peng, Zhaohui; Ding, Juan; Wang, Sen; Li, Min; Sun, Gang [Jinan Military General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Lin [Jinan Military General Hospital, Department of Medical Cardiology, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with prospective electrocardiograph (ECG) gating based on step-and-shoot (SAS), Flash and volume imaging modes. We searched the electronic databases PubMed for all published studies regarding CCTA. We used an exact binomial rendition of the bivariate mixed-effects regression model developed for synthesis of diagnostic data. A total of 21,852 segments, 4,851 vessels and 1,375 patients were identified using database searches. Patient-level pooled sensitivity was 0.99 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.00); specificity was 0.88 (CI, 0.85-0.91). The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant stenosis did not differ in the three protocols (P = 0.24). No heterogeneity was found at the patient level for sensitivity (Q = 26.23; P = 0.12; I {sup 2} = 27.56 % [CI, 0.00-67.02 %]) and specificity (Q = 19.54; P = 0.42; I {sup 2} = 2.78 % [CI, 0.00-66.26 %]). CCTA with prospective ECG gating has similar high diagnostic value to rule out CAD in all three presented modes. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI in tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Elwin C; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Wilson, Brent D; DiBella, Edward V R; Dosdall, Derek J; Ranjan, Ravi; McGann, Christopher J; Kim, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated breath-hold cine MRI is considered to be the gold standard test for the assessment of cardiac function. However, it may fail in patients with arrhythmia, impaired breath-hold capacity and poor ECG gating. Although ungated real-time cine MRI may mitigate these problems, commercially available real-time cine MRI pulse sequences using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatiotemporal resolution because of their low image acquisition efficiency. As an extension of our previous work, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with compressed sensing (CS) for the quantification of cardiac function in tachycardia, where it is challenging for real-time cine MRI to provide sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. We evaluated the performances of eight-fold-accelerated cine MRI with CS, three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (TGRAPPA) and ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI in 21 large animals with tachycardia (mean heart rate, 104 beats per minute) at 3T. For each cine MRI method, two expert readers evaluated the diagnostic quality in four categories (image quality, temporal fidelity of wall motion, artifacts and apparent noise) using a Likert scale (1-5, worst to best). One reader evaluated the left ventricular functional parameters. The diagnostic quality scores were significantly different between the three cine pulse sequences, except for the artifact level between CS and TGRAPPA real-time cine MRI. Both ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI and eight-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all four scores of ≥ 3.0 (acceptable), whereas three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all scores below 3.0, except for artifact (3.0). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements agreed better between ECG-gated cine MRI and eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI

  15. 心电门控CTA评价急性主动脉夹层的临床应用研究%Clinical Application of ECG Gated CTA in Evaluation of Acute Aortic Dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤丽; 刘挨师

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we would compare to the routine aorta CTA and ECG gated aorta CTA image quality, in order to know the advantage of ECG gated aorta CTA in evaluation of aortic dissection. Methods:Through the imaging system retrospectively selected 62 patients who underwent aorta CTA from 2013 January to 2016 March, divided into two groups. Group A underwent triple rule out scanning (13 cases), group B underwent aortic CTA (49 cases). Evaluation of aortic image quality and assessment of various indexes of aortic dissection. The measurement data were compared by two independent samplesttest, and count data were compared using chi-square test. A(P0.05). Conclusions: Applying the ECG gated aortic CTA compared with the conventional spiral aorta CTA, it could clearly displaythe index of aortic dissection, evaluate prognosis ofaortic dissection, guide the therapy and formulate operation /endovascular treatment plan.%目的:本研究通过主动脉CTA与胸痛三联排查扫描(心电门控)CTA主动脉图像质量的比较,明确施加心电门控的 CTA 在临床选择与评价主动脉夹层治疗方案中的价值。方法:通过影像数据存储与传输系统(PACS)回顾性选取2013年1月至2016年3月间行胸痛三联排查与主动脉CTA 的患者62例,分为两组,A 组行胸痛三联排查扫描(13例),B 组行主动脉 CTA(49例)。评价主动脉图像质量与主动脉夹层各项指标可评估性。计量资料比较采用两独立样本t检验,计数资料比较采用χ2检验。P0.05)。结论:施加心电门控的主动脉CTA较常规螺旋扫描主动脉CTA可以更加清晰地显示主动脉夹层各项指标,在进行疾病预后评估、指导治疗方案与制定手术/血管内治疗计划中具有一定作用。

  16. RyR2 modulates a Ca2+-activated K+ current in mouse cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hui Mu

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs binds to and activates RyR2 channels, resulting in subsequent Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and cardiac contraction. Previous research has documented the molecular coupling of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels to VDCCs in mouse cardiac muscle. Little is known regarding the role of RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release in the SK channels in cardiac muscle. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we observed that a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK,Ca recorded from isolated adult C57B/L mouse atrial myocytes was significantly decreased by ryanodine, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2, or by the co-application of ryanodine and thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. The activation of RyR2 by caffeine increased the IK,Ca in the cardiac cells (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. We further analyzed the effect of RyR2 knockdown on IK,Ca and Ca2+ in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes using a whole-cell patch clamp technique and confocal imaging. RyR2 knockdown in mouse atrial cells transduced with lentivirus-mediated small hairpin interference RNA (shRNA exhibited a significant decrease in IK,Ca (p<0.05 and [Ca2+]i fluorescence intensity (p<0.01. An immunoprecipitated complex of SK2 and RyR2 was identified in native cardiac tissue by co-immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings indicate that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release is responsible for the activation and modulation of SK channels in cardiac myocytes.

  17. Paediatric cardiac computed tomography: a review of imaging techniques and radiation dose consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Carolyn; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The significant challenges involved in imaging the heart in small children (<15 kg) have been addressed by, and partially resolved with improvement in temporal and spatial resolution secondary to the advent of new multi-detector CT technology. This has enabled both retrospective and prospective ECG-gated imaging in children even at high heart rates (over 100 bpm) without the need for beta blockers. Recent studies have highlighted that the radiation burden associated with cardiac CT can be reduced using prospective ECG-gating. Our experience shows that the resultant dose reduction can be optimised to a level equivalent to that of a non-gated study. This article reviews the different aspects of ECG-gating and the preferred technique for cardiac imaging in the young child (<15 kg). We summarize our evidenced based recommendations for readers, referencing recent articles and using our in house data, protocols and dose measurements discussing the various methods available for dose calculations and their inherent bias. (orig.)

  18. Second heart field cardiac progenitor cells in the early mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francou, Alexandre; Saint-Michel, Edouard; Mesbah, Karim; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Rana, M Sameer; Christoffels, Vincent M; Kelly, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    At the end of the first week of mouse gestation, cardiomyocyte differentiation initiates in the cardiac crescent to give rise to the linear heart tube. The heart tube subsequently elongates by addition of cardiac progenitor cells from adjacent pharyngeal mesoderm to the growing arterial and venous poles. These progenitor cells, termed the second heart field, originate in splanchnic mesoderm medial to cells of the cardiac crescent and are patterned into anterior and posterior domains adjacent to the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. Perturbation of second heart field cell deployment results in a spectrum of congenital heart anomalies including conotruncal and atrial septal defects seen in human patients. Here, we briefly review current knowledge of how the properties of second heart field cells are controlled by a network of transcriptional regulators and intercellular signaling pathways. Focus will be on 1) the regulation of cardiac progenitor cell proliferation in pharyngeal mesoderm, 2) the control of progressive progenitor cell differentiation and 3) the patterning of cardiac progenitor cells in the dorsal pericardial wall. Coordination of these three processes in the early embryo drives progressive heart tube elongation during cardiac morphogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction.

  19. Genetic Dissection of Cardiac Remodeling in an Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jen-Chu Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to understand the genetic control of cardiac remodeling using an isoproterenol-induced heart failure model in mice, which allowed control of confounding factors in an experimental setting. We characterized the changes in cardiac structure and function in response to chronic isoproterenol infusion using echocardiography in a panel of 104 inbred mouse strains. We showed that cardiac structure and function, whether under normal or stress conditions, has a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates of left ventricular mass between 61% and 81%. Association analyses of cardiac remodeling traits, corrected for population structure, body size and heart rate, revealed 17 genome-wide significant loci, including several loci containing previously implicated genes. Cardiac tissue gene expression profiling, expression quantitative trait loci, expression-phenotype correlation, and coding sequence variation analyses were performed to prioritize candidate genes and to generate hypotheses for downstream mechanistic studies. Using this approach, we have validated a novel gene, Myh14, as a negative regulator of ISO-induced left ventricular mass hypertrophy in an in vivo mouse model and demonstrated the up-regulation of immediate early gene Myc, fetal gene Nppb, and fibrosis gene Lgals3 in ISO-treated Myh14 deficient hearts compared to controls.

  20. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Olmo-Turrubiarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH, in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP isoproterenol (ISO was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB, neonates (7–15 days and young adults (6 weeks of age. Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR, alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  1. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzke, D.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Unterhumer, S.; Loewe, C.; Wolf, F. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, V. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Spitzer, E. [Bern University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bern (Switzerland); Feuchtner, G.M. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria); Gyoengyoesi, M. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Uyanik-Uenal, K.; Zuckermann, A. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  2. Genetic deletion of NOS3 increases lethal cardiac dysfunction following mouse cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, David G; Orbelyan, Gerasim A; Inouye, Brendan T; Costakis, James G; Hamann, Kimm J; McNally, Elizabeth M; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac arrest mortality is significantly affected by failure to obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Severe myocardial dysfunction and cardiovascular collapse further affects mortality within hours of initial ROSC. Recent work suggests that enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling within minutes of CPR can improve myocardial function and survival. We studied the role of NO signaling on cardiovascular outcomes following cardiac arrest and resuscitation using endothelial NO synthase knockout (NOS3(-/-)) mice. Adult female wild-type (WT) and NOS3(-/-) mice were anesthetized, intubated, and instrumented with left-ventricular pressure-volume catheters. Cardiac arrest was induced with intravenous potassium chloride. CPR was performed after 8min of untreated arrest. ROSC rate, cardiac function, whole-blood nitrosylhemoglobin (HbNO) concentrations, heart NOS3 content and phosphorylation (p-NOS3), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and phospho-troponin I (p-TnI) were measured. Despite equal quality CPR, NOS3(-/-) mice displayed lower rates of ROSC compared to WT (47.6% [10/21] vs. 82.4% [14/17], pNOS3(-/-) vs. WT mice exhibited increased left-ventricular dysfunction and 120min mortality. Prior to ROSC, myocardial effectors of NO signaling including cGMP and p-TnI were decreased in NOS3(-/-) vs. WT mice (pNOS3-dependent increases in circulating HbNO were seen by 120min. Significant increases in cardiac p-NOS3 occurred between end-arrest and 15min post-ROSC, while total NOS3 content was increased by 120min post-ROSC (pNOS3 decreases ROSC rate and worsens post-ROSC left-ventricular function. Poor cardiovascular outcomes are associated with differences in NOS3-dependent myocardial cGMP signaling and circulating NO metabolites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhalation of diesel exhaust does not exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy or heart failure in two mouse models of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Chien, Wei-Ming; Medvedev, Ivan O; Weldy, Chad S; Luchtel, Daniel L; Rosenfeld, Michael E; Chin, Michael T

    2013-10-05

    Strong associations have been observed between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In particular, exposure to traffic related PM2.5 has been associated with increases in left ventricular hypertrophy, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. As much of traffic related PM2.5 is derived from diesel exhaust (DE), we investigated the effects of chronic DE exposure on cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in the adult mouse by exposing mice to DE combined with either of two mouse models of cardiac hypertrophy: angiotensin II infusion or pressure overload induced by transverse aortic banding. Wild type male C57BL/6 J mice were either infused with angiotensin II (800 ng/kg/min) via osmotic minipump implanted subcutaneously for 1 month, or underwent transverse aortic banding (27 gauge needle 1 week for observing acute reactions, 26 gauge needle 3 months or 6 months for observing chronic reactions). Vehicle (saline) infusion or sham surgery was used as a control. Shortly after surgery, mice were transferred to our exposure facility and randomly assigned to either diesel exhaust (300 or 400 μg/m(3)) or filtered air exposures. After reaching the end of designated time points, echocardiography was performed to measure heart structure and function. Gravimetric analysis was used to measure the ventricular weight to body weight ratio. We also measured heart rate by telemetry using implanted ambulatory ECG monitors. Both angiotensin II and transverse aortic banding promoted cardiac hypertrophy compared to vehicle or sham controls. Transverse aortic banding for six months also promoted heart failure in addition to cardiac hypertrophy. In all cases, DE failed to exacerbate the development of hypertrophy or heart failure when compared to filtered air controls. Prolonged DE exposure also led to a decrease in average heart rate. Up to 6-months of DE exposure had no effect on cardiac hypertrophy and heart function induced by

  4. Comparative cardiac toxicity of anthracyclines in vitro and in vivo in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Toldo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The antineoplastic efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by their cardiac toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of doxorubicin, non-pegylated liposomal-delivered doxorubicin, and epirubicin in HL-1 adult cardiomyocytes in culture as well as in the mouse in vivo. METHODS: The cardiomyocytes were incubated with the three anthracyclines (1 µM to assess reactive oxygen generation, DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. CF-1 mice (10/group received doxorubicin, epirubicin or non-pegylated liposomal-doxorubicin (10 mg/kg and cardiac function was monitored by Doppler echocardiography to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, heart rate (HR and cardiac output (CO both prior to and 10 days after drug treatment. RESULTS: In HL-1 cells, non-pegylated liposomal-doxorubicin generated significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS, as well as less DNA damage and apoptosis activation when compared with doxorubicin and epirubicin. Cultured breast tumor cells showed similar sensitivity to the three anthracyclines. In the healthy mouse, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin showed a minimal and non-significant decrease in LVEF with no change in HR or CO, compared to doxorubicin and epirubicin. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for reduced cardiac toxicity of non-pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin characterized by attenuation of ROS generation, DNA damage and apoptosis in comparison to epirubicin and doxorubicin.

  5. Multimodality evaluation of ventricular function: comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and planar and SPECT blood pool imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiglin, David H.; Krol, Andrzej; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen M.; Szeverenyi, Nikolaus M.; Thomas, Frank D.

    2001-05-01

    Fifteen patients underwent resting echocardiography (EC), ECG gated cardiac MR ventriculography (MRV) and blood pool planar and SPECT ventriculography (SPV) sequentially on the same day. In addition, 36 patients had sequential ECG gated blood pool and SPV and 20 normal volunteers, age > 18 years, had sequential ECG gated cardiac MRI performed on both Siemens closed, 1.5T, and open, 0.2T, magnets. Echocardiography was performed using a HP 5500 system equipped with an S4 transducer in 2D mode. MRV at 0.2T and 1.5T used a circular polarized body coil. Nuclear Medicine studies used 25 mCi Tc- 99m labeled red blood cells. Gated planar and SPV were acquired on a dual head Siemens E-Cam system. We have found that MRV affords the most accurate measurement of ventricular function. SPV and MRV provide similar estimations of left ventricular function (LVEF). Further, SPV consistently provides higher LVEF, as compared to the planar data simultaneously acquired. Observed significant differences in intermodality measurements indicate that follow up studies in patients, especially in patients whose management is critically dependent on functional measurement changes, should be monitored by one modality only.

  6. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, S P; Hoover, D B

    2012-09-27

    Very little is known about the development of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth of cholinergic neurons and nerve fibers in mouse hearts from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) through postnatal day 21(P21). Cholinergic perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Satellite cells and Schwann cells in adjacent sections were identified by immunostaining for S100β calcium binding protein (S100) and brain-fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP). We found that cardiac ganglia had formed in close association to the atria and cholinergic innervation of the atrioventricular junction had already begun by E18.5. However, most cholinergic innervation of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, developed postnatally (P0.5-P21) along with a doubling of the cross-sectional area of cholinergic perikarya. Satellite cells were present throughout neonatal cardiac ganglia and expressed primarily B-FABP. As they became more mature at P21, satellite cells stained strongly for both B-FABP and S100. Satellite cells appeared to surround most cardiac parasympathetic neurons, even in neonatal hearts. Mature Schwann cells, identified by morphology and strong staining for S100, were already present at E18.5 in atrial regions that receive cholinergic innervation at later developmental times. The abundance and distribution of S100-positive Schwann cells increased postnatally along with nerve density. While S100 staining of cardiac Schwann cells was maintained in P21 and older mice, Schwann cells did not show B-FABP staining at these times. Parallel development of satellite cells and cholinergic perikarya in the cardiac ganglia and the increase in abundance of Schwann cells and varicose cholinergic nerve fibers in the atria suggest that neuronal-glial interactions could be important for development of the parasympathetic nervous

  7. Study on motion artifacts in coronary arteries with an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom on an ECG-gated multidetector computed tomography unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, MJW; Dorgelo, J; Tukker, WGJ; Oudkerk, M

    2005-01-01

    Acquisition time plays a key role in the quality of cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and is directly related to the rotation time of the scanner. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of heart rate and a multisector reconstruction algorithm on the image quality of co

  8. In vivo MRI characterization of progressive cardiac dysfunction in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Stuckey

    Full Text Available AIMS: The mdx mouse has proven to be useful in understanding the cardiomyopathy that frequently occurs in muscular dystrophy patients. Here we employed a comprehensive array of clinically relevant in vivo MRI techniques to identify early markers of cardiac dysfunction and follow disease progression in the hearts of mdx mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serial measurements of cardiac morphology and function were made in the same group of mdx mice and controls (housed in a non-SPF facility using MRI at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after birth. Left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV systolic and diastolic function, response to dobutamine stress and myocardial fibrosis were assessed. RV dysfunction preceded LV dysfunction, with RV end systolic volumes increased and RV ejection fractions reduced at 3 months of age. LV ejection fractions were reduced at 12 months, compared with controls. An abnormal response to dobutamine stress was identified in the RV of mdx mice as early as 1 month. Late-gadolinium-enhanced MRI identified increased levels of myocardial fibrosis in 6, 9 and 12-month-old mdx mice, the extent of fibrosis correlating with the degree of cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: MRI could identify cardiac abnormalities in the RV of mdx mice as young as 1 month, and detected myocardial fibrosis at 6 months. We believe these to be the earliest MRI measurements of cardiac function reported for any mice, and the first use of late-gadolinium-enhancement in a mouse model of congenital cardiomyopathy. These techniques offer a sensitive and clinically relevant in vivo method for assessment of cardiomyopathy caused by muscular dystrophy and other diseases.

  9. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  10. Coronary endothelial function assessment using self-gated cardiac cine MRI and k-t sparse SENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Jérôme; Ginami, Giulia; Nordio, Giovanna; Coristine, Andrew J; Coppo, Simone; Monney, Pierre; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cine MRI, paired with isometric handgrip exercise, can be used to accurately, reproducibly, and noninvasively measure coronary endothelial function (CEF). Obtaining a reliable ECG signal at higher field strengths, however, can be challenging due to rapid gradient switching and an increased heart rate under stress. To address these limitations, we present a self-gated cardiac cine MRI framework for CEF measurements that operates without ECG signal. Cross-sectional slices of the right coronary artery (RCA) were acquired using a two-dimensional golden angle radial trajectory. This sampling approach, combined with the k-t sparse SENSE algorithm, allows for the reconstruction of both real-time images for self-gating signal calculations and retrospectively reordered self-gated cine images. CEF measurements were quantitatively compared using both the self-gated and the standard ECG-gated approach. Self-gated cine images with high-quality, temporal, and spatial resolution were reconstructed for 18 healthy volunteers. CEF as measured in self-gated images was in good agreement (R(2)  = 0.60) with that measured by its standard ECG-gated counterpart. High spatial and temporal resolution cross-sectional cine images of the RCA can be obtained without ECG signal. The coronary vasomotor response to handgrip exercise compares favorably with that obtained with the standard ECG-gated method. Magn Reson Med 76:1443-1454, 2015. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Improved Cuff Technique for Establishing a Mouse-Rat Heterotopic Cardiac Xenotransplantation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Qi, F; Liu, T; Wang, H; Wang, P-Z

    2015-01-01

    The small animal model of cardiac transplantation is the most common model in organ transplantation studies. The cervical heterotopic transplantation is widely performed because this allows for direct observation of the graft heartbeat and contributes to early prediction of graft rejection. A mouse-rat cervical heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation model was modified with respect to the anesthesia method, cardiac graft harvesting method, and perioperative treatment. These improvements ensure the stability and reliability of xenotransplantation models for in vivo studies of immune-mediated graft rejection. After establishing isoflurane inhalation anesthesia, the donors' hearts were harvested. The experimental method involved separate ligation of the left and right superior venae cavae; the other blood vessels were ligated in a cluster. Both the donor and recipient animals were placed on a heating pad intraoperatively to maintain a body temperature of 37-40 °C. The model establishment was divided into 3 stages: practice, stabilization, and stereotyping. The surgical success rate and operation time were recorded. Specimens were harvested at different time points for histopathological examination. The anesthetic effect of isoflurane was well maintained, and no animals died of adverse anesthetic events. Body temperature was maintained at 37-40 °C which effectively shortened the time to restoration. The modification of the cardiac graft harvesting method is conducive to rebeating of the donor heart. The success rates in the stabilization and stereotyping stages were significantly higher than that in the practice stage (P rat cervical heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation model is the ideal animal model for studying xenograft rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

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    Armin Arshi, Yasuhiro Nakashima, Haruko Nakano, Sarayoot Eaimkhong, Denis Evseenko, Jason Reed, Adam Z Stieg, James K Gimzewski and Atsushi Nakano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell–cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  13. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  14. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: cardiac findings in patients and Abcc6-deficient mouse model.

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    Fabrice Prunier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, is a rare multiorgan disease characterized by the mineralization and fragmentation of elastic fibers in connective tissue. Cardiac complications reportedly associated with PXE are mainly based on case reports. METHODS: A cohort of 67 PXE patients was prospectively assessed. Patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR, treadmill testing, and perfusion myocardial scintigraphy (SPECT. Additionally, the hearts of a PXE mouse models (Abcc6(-/- and wild-type controls (WT were analyzed. RESULTS: Three patients had a history of proven coronary artery disease. In total, 40 patients underwent exercise treadmill tests, and 28 SPECT. The treadmill tests were all negative. SPECT showed mild perfusion abnormalities in two patients. Mean left ventricular (LV dimension and function values were within the normal range. LV hypertrophy was found in 7 (10.4% patients, though the hypertrophy etiology was unknown for 3 of those patients. Echocardiography revealed frequent but insignificant mitral and tricuspid valvulopathies. Mitral valve prolapse was present in 3 patients (4.5%. Two patients exhibited significant aortic stenosis (3.0%. While none of the functional and histological parameters diverged significantly between the Abcc6(-/- and WT mice groups at age of 6 and 12 months, the 24-month-old Abcc6(-/- mice developed cardiac hypertrophy without contractile dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite sporadic cases, PXE does not appear to be associated with frequent cardiac complications. However, the development of cardiac hypertrophy in the 24-month-old Abcc6(-/- mice suggests that old PXE patients might be prone to developing late cardiopathy.

  15. FTY720, a new immunosuppressant,as rescue therapy in mouse cardiac transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGMing-Hui; VitaliyMILEKHIN; ZHANGHua; HUANGHong-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: FTY720 is a new synthetic immunosuppressive agent which has a unique mechanism of action and induceslong-term graft acceptance in rat and dog allotransplantation as prophylactic administration. The present studyinvestigated whether FTY720 was able to rescue ongoing acute rejection of solid organ transplants in a mouseheterotopic cardiac transplantation model. METHODS: BALB/c hearts were heterotopically grafted in C57BL/6mice. FTY720, at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 5 mg.kg-l.d-1 or vehicle was administered to recipients once daily by oralgavage from d 3 to d 7 after transplantation. Histological changes of grafts, and the lymphocyte number in theperipheral blood and the peripheral lymph nodes were determined on d 5 after transplantation. RESULTS: FTY720prolonged the median graft survival time dose-dependently and significantly. Histological evaluation revealed lesslymphocytic infiltration in cardiac allografts treated with FTY720. Moreover, FTY720 remarkably lowered thenumber of peripheral blood lymphocytes but significantly increased the lymphocyte number in the mesentericlymph nodes and the peripheral lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: FTY720 used orally as rescue therapy significantlyextended allograft survival in mouse heterotopic cardiac transplantation.

  16. Ionizing Radiation Impacts on Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Alexander; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine; Pignalosa, Diana; Schroeder, Insa S.; Durante, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on the earliest stages of embryonic development although it is well recognized that ionizing radiation is a natural part of our environment and further exposure may occur due to medical applications. The current study addresses this issue using D3 mouse embryonic stem cells as a model system. Cells were irradiated with either X-rays or carbon ions representing sparsely and densely ionizing radiation and their effect on the differentiation of D3 cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes through embryoid body (EB) formation was measured. This study is the first to demonstrate that ionizing radiation impairs the formation of beating cardiomyocytes with carbon ions being more detrimental than X-rays. However, after prolonged culture time, the number of beating EBs derived from carbon ion irradiated cells almost reached control levels indicating that the surviving cells are still capable of developing along the cardiac lineage although with considerable delay. Reduced EB size, failure to downregulate pluripotency markers, and impaired expression of cardiac markers were identified as the cause of compromised cardiomyocyte formation. Dysregulation of cardiac differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the expression of endodermal and ectodermal markers that were more severe after carbon ion irradiation than after exposure to X-rays. In conclusion, our data show that carbon ion irradiation profoundly affects differentiation and thus may pose a higher risk to the early embryo than X-rays. PMID:26506910

  17. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the calf station at 3.0 T: intraindividual comparison of non-enhanced ECG-gated flow-dependent MRA, continuous table movement MRA and time-resolved MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Riffel, Philipp; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim-University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    To compare 3D non-enhanced ECG-gated inflow-dependent MRA (NE-MRA) vs. continuous table movement (CTM) MR-angiography and time-resolved TWIST-MRA in the calf station at 3.0 T in a clinical patient collective. 36 patients (27 male/9 female, 66.1 {+-} 14.4 years) with PAOD (stage II-IV) underwent during a single MRI: NE-MRA, contrast-enhanced CTM-MRA and TWIST-MRA with a single dose of a gadolinium-based contrast agent. The image quality (IQ) and the degree of stenoses were rated on a four-point scale. Positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), sensitivity (SS) and specificity (SP) for stenoses detection were calculated for NE-MRA vs. CTM-MRA and vs. TWIST-MRA. Values were obtained for overall graduation of wall changes and for severe stenoses (>70%). With NE-MRA 122/288 segments were not assessable. Compared with CTM-MRA and TWIST-MRA the IQ was significantly inferior (p < 0.0001 to p = 0.0426). CTM-MRA/TWIST-MRA detected stenoses in 44.9%/46.1% of the segments, NE-MRA in 53.5%. SS/NPV of the NE-MRA ranged from 97.8 to 100%. The SP and PPV ranged from 72.7 to 85.5% and 66.7 to 78.2%. Contrast-enhanced MRA techniques are superior to NE-MRA regarding IQ and correct identification of stenoses. If technically successful, NE-MRA is characterised by high NPV and overestimation of the degree of stenoses. (orig.)

  18. 3D non-contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MR angiography of the lower extremities with dual-source radiofrequency transmission at 3.0 T: Intraindividual comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography in PAOD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasper, Michael; Wildgruber, Moritz; Settles, Marcus; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Zimmermann, Alexander; Reeps, Christian; Rummeny, Ernst J; Huber, Armin M

    2016-09-01

    To compare prospectively image quality and diagnostic confidence of flow-sensitive 3D turbo spin echo (TSE)-based non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (NE-MRA) at 3.0 T using dual-source radiofrequency (RF) transmission with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). After consent was obtained, 35 patients (mean age 69.1 ± 10.6 years) with PAOD stage II-IV underwent NE-MRA followed by CE-MRA. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. Subjective image quality was independently assessed by two radiologists and stenosis scoring was performed in 875 arterial segments. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for stenosis classification were calculated using CE-MRA as a reference method. Diagnostic agreement with CE-MRA was evaluated with Cohen's kappa statistics. NE-MRA provided high objective and subjective image quality at all levels of the arterial tree. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of relevant stenosis was 91 % and 89 %, respectively; the NPV was 96 % and the PPV 78 %. There was good concordance between CE-MRA and NE-MRA in stenosis scoring. 3D electrocardiography (ECG)-gated TSE NE-MRA with patient-adaptive dual-source RF transmission at 3.0 T is a promising alternative for PAOD patients with contraindications for gadolinium-based contrast agents. It offers high sensitivity and NPV values in the detection of clinically relevant arterial stenosis. • Flow-sensitive TSE NE-MRA is a promising technique for PAOD evaluation. • Diagnostic accuracy is comparable to contrast-enhanced MRA. • NE-MRA eliminates the risk of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. • Costs arising from the use of contrast agents can be avoided.

  19. Short-term pacing in the mouse alters cardiac expression of connexin43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindler Michael J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac insults such as ischemia, infarction, hypertrophy and dilatation are often accompanied by altered abundance and/or localization of the connexin43 gap junction protein, which may predispose towards arrhythmic complications. Models of chronic dyssynchronous cardiac activation have also been shown to result in redistribution of connexin43 in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that alterations in connexin43 expression and localization in the mouse heart might be induced by ventricular pacing over a short period of time. Results The subdiaphragmatic approach was used to pace a series of wild type mice for six hours before the hearts were removed for analysis. Mice were paced at 10–15% above their average anesthetized sinus rate and monitored to ensure 1:1 capture. Short-term pacing resulted in a significant reduction in connexin43 mRNA abundance, a partial redistribution of connexin43 from the sarcolemma to a non-sarcolemmal fraction, and accumulation of ubiquitinated connexin43 without a significant change in overall connexin43 protein levels. These early pacing-induced changes in connexin43 expression were not accompanied by decreased cardiac function, prolonged refractoriness or increased inducibility into sustained arrhythmias. Conclusion Our data suggest that short-term pacing is associated with incipient changes in the expression of the connexin43 gap junction, possibly including decreased production and a slowed rate of degradation. This murine model may facilitate the study of early molecular changes induced by pacing and may ultimately assist in the development of strategies to prevent gap junction remodeling and the associated arrhythmic complications of cardiac disease.

  20. An optimized and simplified system of mouse embryonic stem cell cardiac differentiation for the assessment of differentiation modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Hartman

    Full Text Available Generating cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells is an important technique for understanding cardiovascular development, the origins of cardiovascular diseases and also for providing potential reagents for cardiac repair. Numerous methods have been published but often are technically challenging, complex, and are not easily adapted to assessment of specific gene contributions to cardiac myocyte differentiation. Here we report the development of an optimized protocol to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiac myocytes that is simplified and easily adapted for genetic studies. Specifically, we made four critical findings that distinguish our protocol: 1 mouse embryonic stem cells cultured in media containing CHIR99021 and PD0325901 to maintain pluripotency will efficiently form embryoid bodies containing precardiac mesoderm when cultured in these factors at a reduced dosage, 2 low serum conditions promote cardiomyocyte differentiation and can be used in place of commercially prepared StemPro nutrient supplement, 3 the Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 is dispensable for efficient cardiac differentiation and 4 tracking differentiation efficiency may be done with surface expression of PDGFRα alone. In addition, cardiac mesodermal precursors generated by this system can undergo lentiviral infection to manipulate the expression of specific target molecules to assess effects on cardiac myocyte differentiation and maturation. Using this approach, we assessed the effects of CHF1/Hey2 on cardiac myocyte differentiation, using both gain and loss of function. Overexpression of CHF1/Hey2 at the cardiac mesoderm stage had no apparent effect on cardiac differentiation, while knockdown of CHF1/Hey2 resulted in increased expression of atrial natriuretic factor and connexin 43, suggesting an alteration in the phenotype of the cardiomyocytes. In summary we have generated a detailed and simplified protocol for generating cardiomyocytes from m

  1. 心率对256层CT前瞻性心电门控冠状动脉成像质量的影响%Prospectively ECG-gated coronary angiograhpy with 256-slice CT:impact of heart rate on image quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 赖紫霞; 唐秉航; 李芳云; 李良才; 黄晖; 何亚奇; 吴任国; 黄德成; 梁建雄

    2011-01-01

    运动伪影的临界点。256层螺旋CT前瞻性心电门控技术具有广阔的应用空间。%Objective:To investigate the impact of heart rate on image quality with prospectively ECG-gated coronary artery angiography (CAA) using a 256-slice CT.and compared with retrospectively-ECG-gated CAA. Methods:Prospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CAA was performed in 156 patients and retrospectively ECG-gated CAA was performed in 73 patients. The two scan modes were divided into six groups with the heart rate as 0. 05). Using retrospectively ECG-gated scan,the image quality of CA segments as excellent and good (score 1 and 2) in each group was 100% ,95% ,90% ,88% ,92% and 49% respectively,showing significant differences between different heart rate groups (P<0. 05). Image quality of coronary segments fulfilled the requirement of diagnosis in each group was 100%, 99% , 98%, 98%, 98% and 100% respectively with prospectively-ECG-gated scan, and 100%, 100%,99%, 100%, 100% and 96% respectively with retrospectively ECG-gated scan. Apart from the mean heart rate as 80~89b/m,the diagnostic image quality for coronary segments between prospective ECG-gated mode and retrospectively-ECG-gated mode showed no significant difference. With prospectively ECG-gated scan mode,significant correlation of mean heart rate and motion artifact was revealed on ROC analysis (AUC=0. 783;95% CI:0. 709,0. 856;F<0. 01). Conclusion: Using prospectively ECG-gated mode of CAA with 256-slice CT.mean heart rate did not show significant correlation with image quality,and similar diagnostic image quality could be acquired with that of using retrospectively ECG-gated mode. Appearance of motion artifact of CA could be affected by mean heart rate,heart beat as 65. 5b/m could be used as the critical point of the occurrence of motion artifact of CA. Prospectively ECG-gated CAA with 256-slice CT could be used commonly for coronary angiography in clinical practice.

  2. Kruppel-like factor 2 is required for normal mouse cardiac development.

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    Aditi R Chiplunkar

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 is expressed in endothelial cells in the developing heart, particularly in areas of high shear stress, such as the atrioventricular (AV canal. KLF2 ablation leads to myocardial thinning, high output cardiac failure and death by mouse embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 in a mixed genetic background. This work identifies an earlier and more fundamental role for KLF2 in mouse cardiac development in FVB/N mice. FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos die earlier, by E11.5. E9.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have multiple, disorganized cell layers lining the AV cushions, the primordia of the AV valves, rather than the normal single layer. By E10.5, traditional and endothelial-specific FVB/N KLF2-/- AV cushions are hypocellular, suggesting that the cells accumulating at the AV canal have a defect in endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT. E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have reduced glycosaminoglycans in the cardiac jelly, correlating with the reduced EMT. However, the number of mesenchymal cells migrating from FVB/N KLF2-/- AV explants into a collagen matrix is reduced considerably compared to wild-type, suggesting that the EMT defect is not due solely to abnormal cardiac jelly. Echocardiography of E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos indicates that they have abnormal heart function compared to wild-type. E10.5 C57BL/6 KLF2-/- hearts have largely normal AV cushions. However, E10.5 FVB/N and C57BL/6 KLF2-/- embryos have a delay in the formation of the atrial septum that is not observed in a defined mixed background. KLF2 ablation results in reduced Sox9, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugdh, Gata4 and Tbx5 mRNA in FVB/N AV canals. KLF2 binds to the Gata4, Tbx5 and Ugdh promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, indicating that KLF2 could directly regulate these genes. In conclusion, KLF2-/- heart phenotypes are genetic background-dependent. KLF2 plays a role in EMT through its regulation of important cardiovascular genes.

  3. Funny current and cardiac rhythm: insights from HCN knockout mouse models

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    Mirko eBaruscotti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the adult animal the sinoatrial node (SAN rhythmically generates a depolarizing wave that propagates to the rest of the heart. However, the SAN is more than a simple clock; it is a clock that adjusts its pace according to the metabolic requirements of the organism. The Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated channels (HCN1-4 are the structural component of the funny (If channels; in the SAN the If current is the main driving electrical force of the diastolic depolarization and the HCN4 is the most abundant isoform. The generation of HCN KO mouse models has advanced the understanding of the role of these channels in cardiac excitability. The HCN4 KO models that were first developed allowed either global or cardiac-specific constitutive ablation of HCN4 channels, and resulted in embryonic lethality. A further progress was made with the development of three separate inducible HCN4 KO models; in one model KO was induced globally in the entire organism, in a second, ablation occurred only in HCN4-expressing cells, and finally in a third model KO was confined to cardiac cells. Unexpectedly, the three models yielded different results; similarities and differences among these models will be presented and discussed. The functional effects of HCN2 and HCN3 knockout models and transgenic HCN4 mouse models will also be discussed.In conclusion, HCN KO/transgenic models have allowed to evaluate the functional role of the If currents in intact animals as well as in single SAN cells isolated from the same animals. This opportunity is therefore unique since it allows to 1 verify the contribution of specific HCN isoforms to cardiac activity in intact animals, and 2 to compare these results to those obtained in single cell experiments. These combined studies were not possible prior to the development of KO models. Finally, these models represent critical tools to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of some inheritable arrhythmic human

  4. Abnormal sodium current properties contribute to cardiac electrical and contractile dysfunction in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algalarrondo, Vincent; Wahbi, Karim; Sebag, Frédéric; Gourdon, Geneviève; Beldjord, Chérif; Azibi, Kamel; Balse, Elise; Coulombe, Alain; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Eymard, Bruno; Duboc, Denis; Hatem, Stéphane N

    2015-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common neuromuscular disorder and is associated with cardiac conduction defects. However, the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias in DM1 are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that abnormalities in the cardiac sodium current (INa) are involved, and used a transgenic mouse model reproducing the expression of triplet expansion observed in DM1 (DMSXL mouse). The injection of the class-I antiarrhythmic agent flecainide induced prominent conduction abnormalities and significantly lowered the radial tissular velocities and strain rate in DMSXL mice compared to WT. These abnormalities were more pronounced in 8-month-old mice than in 3-month-old mice. Ventricular action potentials recorded by standard glass microelectrode technique exhibited a lower maximum upstroke velocity [dV/dt](max) in DMSXL. This decreased [dV/dt](max) was associated with a 1.7 fold faster inactivation of INa in DMSXL myocytes measured by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Finally in the DMSXL mouse, no mutation in the Scn5a gene was detected and neither cardiac fibrosis nor abnormalities of expression of the sodium channel protein were observed. Therefore, alterations in the sodium current markedly contributed to electrical conduction block in DM1. This result should guide pharmaceutical and clinical research toward better therapy for the cardiac arrhythmias associated with DM1.

  5. Loss of Mouse P2Y6 Nucleotide Receptor Is Associated with Physiological Macrocardia and Amplified Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet, Sophie; Di Pietrantonio, Larissa; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos-Panagiotis; Esfahani, Hrag; Horckmans, Michael; Vanorlé, Marion; Lemaire, Anne; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Beauloye, Christophe; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Communi, Didier

    2016-07-22

    The study of the mechanisms leading to cardiac hypertrophy is essential to better understand cardiac development and regeneration. Pathological conditions such as ischemia or pressure overload can induce a release of extracellular nucleotides within the heart. We recently investigated the potential role of nucleotide P2Y receptors in cardiac development. We showed that adult P2Y4-null mice displayed microcardia resulting from defective cardiac angiogenesis. Here we show that loss of another P2Y subtype called P2Y6, a UDP receptor, was associated with a macrocardia phenotype and amplified pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiomyocyte proliferation and size were increased in vivo in hearts of P2Y6-null neonates, resulting in enhanced postnatal heart growth. We then observed that loss of P2Y6 receptor enhanced pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced after isoproterenol injection. We identified an inhibitory effect of UDP on in vitro isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The present study identifies mouse P2Y6 receptor as a regulator of cardiac development and cardiomyocyte function. P2Y6 receptor could constitute a therapeutic target to regulate cardiac hypertrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Comparative study of image quality and radiation dose between prospective and retrospective ECG gating technique in coronary artery imaging with 64-slice spiral CT%64排螺旋CT冠状动脉成像的前瞻性与回顾性心电门控技术的图像质量及辐射剂量的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 刘剑; 窦砚彬; 王继琛; 孙洪跃

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究前瞻性心电门控触发(prospective ECG-triggering)与回顾性心电门控(retrosp-ective ECG gating)两种技术方法行冠状动脉CTA检查时,对冠状动脉图像质量及辐射剂量的比较.方法 33名疑似冠状动脉疾病的患者分两组进行对比研究.前瞻组16例为前瞻性心电门控成像,心率小于65次/min;回顾组17例为回顾性心电门控成像,心率小于75次/min.记录两组的辐射剂量并统计分析,同时进行图像质量评价.结果 两组图像质量比较,差异无统计学意义(P0.05).前瞻性心电门控冠状动脉CTA的平均DLP 234.4 mGy·cm,占回顾性心电门控冠状动脉CTA的平均DLP 974.4 mGy·cm的24.1%.前瞻性心电门控冠状动脉CTA的患者的平均有效剂量为3.2 mSy,回顾心电门控冠状动脉CTA患者的为13.6 mSv,降低76.47%.结论 64排螺旋CT在前瞻性心电门控冠状动脉CTA与回顾性心电门控冠状动脉CTA比较可以获得相似的图像质量,可大幅降低患者的有效剂量对于不能接受高辐射剂量且心率较低的受检人群具有重要的临床价值.%Objective To compare the image quality and radiation dose between prospective ECG-trigering and retrospective ECG gating technique in coronary artery imaging. Methods 33 patients suspected coronary artery disease were included in this study and divided into experimental group (prospective ECG-triggering coronary artery imaging, heart rate < 65 bpm, 16 patients)and control group (retrospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging, heart rate < 75 bpm, 17 patients). Radiation dose was recorded for statistical analysis. At the same time, image quality was evaluated. Results There were no significant differences in image quality 3.2 msy. Effective dose reduced 76.47 %. Conclusions Prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging can obtain the similar image quality compared with prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging but the effective dose reduced 76.47 %. Prospective ECG

  7. Cardiac Dysfunction in HIV-1 Transgenic Mouse: Role of Stress and BAG3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Klotman, Paul E; Khalili, Kamel; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-08-01

    Since highly active antiretroviral therapy improved long-term survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, AIDS cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly relevant clinical problem. We used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic (Tg26) mouse to explore molecular mechanisms of AIDS cardiomyopathy. Tg26 mice had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) mass and smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes. Under basal conditions, cardiac contractility and relaxation and single myocyte contraction dynamics were not different between wild-type (WT) and Tg26 mice. Ten days after open heart surgery, contractility and relaxation remained significantly depressed in Tg26 hearts, suggesting that Tg26 mice did not tolerate surgical stress well. To simulate heart failure in which expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is reduced, we down-regulated BAG3 by small hairpin ribonucleic acid in WT and Tg26 hearts. BAG3 down-regulation significantly reduced contractility in Tg26 hearts. BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing the HIV-1 protein Tat. We conclude: (i) Tg26 mice exhibit normal contractile function at baseline; (ii) Tg26 mice do not tolerate surgical stress well; (iii) BAG3 down-regulation exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in Tg26 mice; (iv) BAG3 overexpression rescued contractile abnormalities in myocytes expressing HIV-1 protein Tat; and (v) BAG3 may occupy a role in pathogenesis of AIDS cardiomyopathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. NDR Kinases Are Essential for Somitogenesis and Cardiac Looping during Mouse Embryonic Development.

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    Debora Schmitz-Rohmer

    Full Text Available Studies of mammalian tissue culture cells indicate that the conserved and distinct NDR isoforms, NDR1 and NDR2, play essential cell biological roles. However, mice lacking either Ndr1 or Ndr2 alone develop normally. Here, we studied the physiological consequences of inactivating both NDR1 and NDR2 in mice, showing that the lack of both Ndr1/Ndr2 (called Ndr1/2-double null mutants causes embryonic lethality. In support of compensatory roles for NDR1 and NDR2, total protein and activating phosphorylation levels of the remaining NDR isoform were elevated in mice lacking either Ndr1 or Ndr2. Mice retaining one single wild-type Ndr allele were viable and fertile. Ndr1/2-double null embryos displayed multiple phenotypes causing a developmental delay from embryonic day E8.5 onwards. While NDR kinases are not required for notochord formation, the somites of Ndr1/2-double null embryos were smaller, irregularly shaped and unevenly spaced along the anterior-posterior axis. Genes implicated in somitogenesis were down-regulated and the normally symmetric expression of Lunatic fringe, a component of the Notch pathway, showed a left-right bias in the last forming somite in 50% of all Ndr1/2-double null embryos. In addition, Ndr1/2-double null embryos developed a heart defect that manifests itself as pericardial edemas, obstructed heart tubes and arrest of cardiac looping. The resulting cardiac insufficiency is the likely cause of the lethality of Ndr1/2-double null embryos around E10. Taken together, we show that NDR kinases compensate for each other in vivo in mouse embryos, explaining why mice deficient for either Ndr1 or Ndr2 are viable. Ndr1/2-double null embryos show defects in somitogenesis and cardiac looping, which reveals their essential functions and shows that the NDR kinases are critically required during the early phase of organogenesis.

  9. Doxycycline attenuates protein aggregation in cardiomyocytes and improves survival of a mouse model of cardiac proteinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanqiao; Tang, Mingxin; Zheng, Qingwen; Kumarapeli, Asangi R K; Horak, Kathleen M; Tian, Zongwen; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-10-19

    The goal of this pre-clinical study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline (Doxy) for desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRC) and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. DRC, exemplifying cardiac proteinopathy, is characterized by intrasarcoplasmic protein aggregation and cardiac insufficiency. No effective treatment for DRC is available presently. Doxy was shown to attenuate aberrant intranuclear aggregation and toxicity of misfolded proteins in noncardiac cells and animal models of other proteinopathies. Mice and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with transgenic (TG) expression of a human DRC-linked missense mutation R120G of αB-crystallin (CryAB(R120G)) were used for testing the effect of Doxy. Doxy was administered via drinking water (6 mg/ml) initiated at 8 or 16 weeks of age. Doxy treatment initiated at 16 weeks of age significantly delayed the premature death of CryAB(R120G) TG mice, with a median lifespan of 30.4 weeks (placebo group, 25 weeks; p Doxy treatment initiated at 8 weeks of age significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in 1 month. Further investigation revealed that Doxy significantly reduced the abundance of CryAB-positive microscopic aggregates, detergent-resistant CryAB oligomers, and total ubiquitinated proteins in CryAB(R120G) TG hearts. In cell culture, Doxy treatment dose-dependently suppressed the formation of both microscopic protein aggregates and detergent-resistant soluble CryAB(R120G) oligomers and reversed the up-regulation of p62 protein induced by adenovirus-mediated CryAB(R120G) expression. Doxy suppresses CryAB(R120G)-induced aberrant protein aggregation in cardiomyocytes and prolongs CryAB(R120G)-based DRC mouse survival. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ivabradine and metoprolol differentially affect cardiac glucose metabolism despite similar heart rate reduction in a mouse model of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Fanny; Lauzier, Benjamin; Ruiz, Matthieu; Shi, Yanfen; Lachance, Dominic; Rivard, Marie-Eve; Bolduc, Virginie; Thorin, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    While heart rate reduction (HRR) is a target for the management of patients with heart disease, contradictory results were reported using ivabradine, which selectively inhibits the pacemaker If current, vs. β-blockers like metoprolol. This study aimed at testing whether similar HRR with ivabradine vs. metoprolol differentially modulates cardiac energy substrate metabolism, a factor determinant for cardiac function, in a mouse model of dyslipidemia (hApoB(+/+);LDLR(-/-)). Following a longitudinal study design, we used 3- and 6-mo-old mice, untreated or treated for 3 mo with ivabradine or metoprolol. Cardiac function was evaluated in vivo and ex vivo in working hearts perfused with (13)C-labeled substrates to assess substrate fluxes through energy metabolic pathways. Compared with 3-mo-old, 6-mo-old dyslipidemic mice had similar cardiac hemodynamics in vivo but impaired (P ivabradine-treated hearts displayed significantly higher stroke volume values and glycolysis vs. their metoprolol-treated counterparts ex vivo, values for the ivabradine group being often not significantly different from 3-mo-old mice. Further analyses highlighted additional significant cardiac alterations with disease progression, namely in the total tissue level of proteins modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), whose formation is governed by glucose metabolism via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which showed a similar pattern with ivabradine vs. metoprolol treatment. Collectively, our results emphasize the implication of alterations in cardiac glucose metabolism and signaling linked to disease progression in our mouse model. Despite similar HRR, ivabradine, but not metoprolol, preserved cardiac function and glucose metabolism during disease progression.

  11. Induction and enhancement of cardiac cell differentiation from mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells with cyclosporin-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are novel stem cells derived from adult mouse and human tissues by reprogramming. Elucidation of mechanisms and exploration of efficient methods for their differentiation to functional cardiomyocytes are essential for developing cardiac cell models and future regenerative therapies. We previously established a novel mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC and iPSC differentiation system in which cardiovascular cells can be systematically induced from Flk1(+ common progenitor cells, and identified highly cardiogenic progenitors as Flk1(+/CXCR4(+/VE-cadherin(- (FCV cells. We have also reported that cyclosporin-A (CSA drastically increases FCV progenitor and cardiomyocyte induction from mouse ESCs. Here, we combined these technologies and extended them to mouse and human iPSCs. Co-culture of purified mouse iPSC-derived Flk1(+ cells with OP9 stroma cells induced cardiomyocyte differentiation whilst addition of CSA to Flk1(+ cells dramatically increased both cardiomyocyte and FCV progenitor cell differentiation. Spontaneously beating colonies were obtained from human iPSCs by co-culture with END-2 visceral endoderm-like cells. Appearance of beating colonies from human iPSCs was increased approximately 4.3 times by addition of CSA at mesoderm stage. CSA-expanded human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes showed various cardiac marker expressions, synchronized calcium transients, cardiomyocyte-like action potentials, pharmacological reactions, and ultra-structural features as cardiomyocytes. These results provide a technological basis to obtain functional cardiomyocytes from iPSCs.

  12. The ionic bases of the action potential in isolated mouse cardiac Purkinje cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ravi; O'Connell, Ryan P; Deo, Makarand; Milstein, Michelle L; Furspan, Philip; Herron, Todd J; Pandit, Sandeep V; Musa, Hassan; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José; Anumonwo, Justus M B

    2013-01-01

    Collecting electrophysiological and molecular data from the murine conduction system presents technical challenges. Thus, only little advantage has been taken of numerous genetically engineered murine models to study excitation through the cardiac conduction system of the mouse. To develop an approach for isolating murine cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs), to characterize major ionic currents and to use the data to simulate action potentials (APs) recorded from PCs. Light microscopy was used to isolate and identify PCs from apical and septal cells. Current and voltage clamp techniques were used to record APs and whole cell currents. We then simulated a PC AP on the basis of our experimental data. APs recorded from PCs were significantly longer than those recorded from ventricular cells. The prominent plateau phase of the PC AP was very negative (≈-40 mV). Spontaneous activity was observed only in PCs. The inward rectifier current demonstrated no significant differences compared to ventricular myocytes (VMs). However, sodium current density was larger, and the voltage-gated potassium current density was significantly less in PCs compared with myocytes. T-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca,T)) were present in PCs but not VMs. Computer simulations suggest that I(Ca,T) and cytosolic calcium diffusion significantly modulate AP profile recorded in PCs, as compared to VMs. Our study provides the first comprehensive ionic profile of murine PCs. The data show unique features of PC ionic mechanisms that govern its excitation process. Experimental data and numerical modeling results suggest that a smaller voltage-gated potassium current and the presence of I(Ca,T) are important determinants of the longer and relatively negative plateau phase of the APs. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the development of cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Beverly; Chu, Po-Yin; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Smith, A Ian; Horlock, Duncan; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kaye, David M; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidantN-acetylcysteine can attenuate cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure. Minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in wild-type mice (n = 20) and mice with cardiomyopathy secondary to cardiac specific overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST-1;n = 18) to administerN-acetylcysteine (40 mg/kg per day) or saline for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of this period, cardiac remodeling and function was assessed via echocardiography. Fibrosis, oxidative stress, and expression of collagen types I andIIIwere quantified in heart tissues. Cardiac perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were greater by 114% and 209%, respectively, inMST-1 compared to wild type (P ≤ 0.001). InMST-1 mice administeredN-acetylcysteine, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were 40% and 57% less, respectively, compared to those treated with saline (P ≤ 0. 03). Cardiac oxidative stress was 119% greater inMST-1 than in wild type (P cardiac fibrosis and related remodeling in the setting of heart failure potentially by reducing oxidative stress. This study provides the basis to investigate the role ofN-acetylcysteine in chronic heart failure.

  14. Assessment of cardiac function by magnetic resonance imaging: segmented versus real time steady-state free precession sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Leonardo Bernardo [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: warrenhellwind@yahoo.com.br; Marchiori, Edson; Pontes, Paulo V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to compare ventricular systolic parameters on segmented and real-time steady-state free precession cine-MRI sequences and ECG-gated MRI in patients presenting or not with cardiac arrhythmias. Materials and methods: ejection fraction and end-diastolic/end-systolic volumes have been compared in 31 patients, 11 presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, and 20 with regular sinus rhythm, using ECG-gated segmented and real-time sequences. The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman agreement plot, with p < 0.01. Results: real-time acquisitions demonstrated endocardial borders blurring effects, but both sequences presented a clear, positive correlation: ejection fraction r = 0.94; end-diastolic volume r = 0.93 and end-systolic volume r 0.98. The assessment of 11 patients with arrhythmias has not demonstrated a statistically significant difference, despite the lower blood pool-myocardial contrast ratio. Conclusion: real-time sequences may be utilized for cardiac function assessment, regardless the patient's cardiac rhythm. (author)

  15. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  16. Beta-adrenergic signals regulate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lihui; Jia, Zhuqing; Cui, Jingjing; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Huangtian; Zhang, Yongzhen; Zhou, Chunyan

    2011-08-01

    As embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) have the potential to be used in cell replacement therapy, an understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate their terminal differentiation is imperative. In previous studies, we discovered the presence of adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of these receptors in cardiac differentiation and development, which is critically important in cardiac physiology and pharmacology. Here, we demonstrated that a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonist significantly enhanced cardiac differentiation as indicated by a higher percentage of beating embryoid bodies and a higher expression level of cardiac markers. Application of β1-AR and β2-AR antagonists partly abolished the effect of the β-AR agonist. In addition, by administering selective inhibitors we found that the effect of β-AR was driven via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular-signal regulated kinase pathway. These findings suggest that ESCs are also a target for β-adrenergic regulation and β-adrenergic signaling plays a role in ESC cardiac differentiation.

  17. Direct contact with endoderm-like cells efficiently induces cardiac progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs have emerged as a powerful tool to study cardiogenesis in vitro and a potential cell source for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, available methods to induce CPCs are not efficient or require high-cost cytokines with extensive optimization due to cell line variations. OBJECTIVE: Based on our in-vivo observation that early endodermal cells maintain contact with nascent pre-cardiac mesoderm, we hypothesized that direct physical contact with endoderm promotes induction of CPCs from pluripotent cells. METHOD AND RESULT: To test the hypothesis, we cocultured mouse embryonic stem (ES cells with the endodermal cell line End2 by co-aggregation or End2-conditioned medium. Co-aggregation resulted in strong induction of Flk1(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs in a dose-dependent manner, but the conditioned medium did not, indicating that direct contact is necessary for this process. To determine if direct contact with End2 cells also promotes the induction of committed cardiac progenitors, we utilized several mouse ES and induced pluripotent (iPS cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins under regulation of the CPC lineage markers Nkx2.5 or Isl1. In agreement with earlier data, co-aggregation with End2 cells potently induces both Nkx2.5(+ and Isl1(+ CPCs, leading to a sheet of beating cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, co-aggregation with End2 cells greatly promotes the induction of KDR(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs from human ES cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our co-aggregation method provides an efficient, simple and cost-effective way to induce CPCs from mouse and human pluripotent cells.

  18. Regulation of excitation-contraction coupling in mouse cardiac myocytes: integrative analysis with mathematical modelling

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    Weckström Matti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cardiomyocyte is a prime example of inherently complex biological system with inter- and cross-connected feedback loops in signalling, forming the basic properties of intracellular homeostasis. Functional properties of cells and tissues have been studied e.g. with powerful tools of genetic engineering, combined with extensive experimentation. While this approach provides accurate information about the physiology at the endpoint, complementary methods, such as mathematical modelling, can provide more detailed information about the processes that have lead to the endpoint phenotype. Results In order to gain novel mechanistic information of the excitation-contraction coupling in normal myocytes and to analyze sophisticated genetically engineered heart models, we have built a mathematical model of a mouse ventricular myocyte. In addition to the fundamental components of membrane excitation, calcium signalling and contraction, our integrated model includes the calcium-calmodulin-dependent enzyme cascade and the regulation it imposes on the proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. With the model, we investigate the effects of three genetic modifications that interfere with calcium signalling: 1 ablation of phospholamban, 2 disruption of the regulation of L-type calcium channels by calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK and 3 overexpression of CaMK. We show that the key features of the experimental phenotypes involve physiological compensatory and autoregulatory mechanisms that bring the system to a state closer to the original wild-type phenotype in all transgenic models. A drastic phenotype was found when the genetic modification disrupts the regulatory signalling system itself, i.e. the CaMK overexpression model. Conclusion The novel features of the presented cardiomyocyte model enable accurate description of excitation-contraction coupling. The model is thus an applicable tool for further studies of both

  19. Influence of Respiratory Gating, Image Filtering, and Animal Positioning on High-Resolution Electrocardiography-Gated Murine Cardiac Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were injected with 99m technetium (99mTc-tetrofosmin, and each was scanned in supine and prone positions in a U-SPECT-II scanner with respiratory and electrocardiographic (ECG gating. ECG-gated SPECT images were created without applying respiratory motion correction or with two different respiratory motion correction strategies. The images were filtered with a range of three-dimensional gaussian kernels, after which end-diastolic volumes (EDVs, end-systolic volumes (ESVs, and left ventricular ejection fractions were calculated. No significant differences in the measured cardiac parameters were detected when any strategy to reduce or correct for respiratory motion was applied, whereas big differences (> 5% in EDV and ESV were found with regard to different positioning of animals. A linear relationship (p < .001 was found between the EDV or ESV and the kernel size of the gaussian filter. In short, respiratory gating did not significantly affect the cardiac parameters of mice obtained with ultra-high-resolution SPECT, whereas the position of the animals and the image filters should be the same in a comparative study with multiple scans to avoid systematic differences in measured cardiac parameters.

  20. miR-1 exacerbates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse models.

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    Zhenwei Pan

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs in regulating cardiac injury. Among them, the cardiac enriched microRNA-1(miR-1 has been extensively investigated and proven to be detrimental to cardiac myocytes. However, solid in vivo evidence for the role of miR-1 in cardiac injury is still missing and the potential therapeutic advantages of systemic knockdown of miR-1 expression remained unexplored. In this study, miR-1 transgenic (miR-1 Tg mice and locked nucleic acid modified oligonucleotide against miR-1 (LNA-antimiR-1 were used to explore the effects of miR-1 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. The cardiac miR-1 level was significantly increased in miR-1 Tg mice, and suppressed in LNA-antimiR-1 treated mice. When subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, miR-1 overexpression exacerbated cardiac injury, manifested by increased LDH, CK levels, caspase-3 expression, apoptosis and cardiac infarct area. On the contrary, LNA-antimiR-1 treatment significantly attenuated cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of PKCε and HSP60 was significantly repressed by miR-1 and enhanced by miR-1 knockdown, which may be a molecular mechanism for the role miR-1 in cardiac injury. Moreover, luciferase assay confirmed the direct regulation of miR-1 on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60. In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-1 is a causal factor for cardiac injury and systemic LNA-antimiR-1 therapy is effective in ameliorating the problem.

  1. A three-dimensional model-based partial volume correction strategy for gated cardiac mouse PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchel, Tyler; Thorn, Stephanie; Kordos, Myra; DaSilva, Jean; Beanlands, Rob S. B.; deKemp, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Quantification in cardiac mouse positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is limited by the imaging spatial resolution. Spillover of left ventricle (LV) myocardial activity into adjacent organs results in partial volume (PV) losses leading to underestimation of myocardial activity. A PV correction method was developed to restore accuracy of the activity distribution for FDG mouse imaging. The PV correction model was based on convolving an LV image estimate with a 3D point spread function. The LV model was described regionally by a five-parameter profile including myocardial, background and blood activities which were separated into three compartments by the endocardial radius and myocardium wall thickness. The PV correction was tested with digital simulations and a physical 3D mouse LV phantom. In vivo cardiac FDG mouse PET imaging was also performed. Following imaging, the mice were sacrificed and the tracer biodistribution in the LV and liver tissue was measured using a gamma-counter. The PV correction algorithm improved recovery from 50% to within 5% of the truth for the simulated and measured phantom data and image uniformity by 5-13%. The PV correction algorithm improved the mean myocardial LV recovery from 0.56 (0.54) to 1.13 (1.10) without (with) scatter and attenuation corrections. The mean image uniformity was improved from 26% (26%) to 17% (16%) without (with) scatter and attenuation corrections applied. Scatter and attenuation corrections were not observed to significantly impact PV-corrected myocardial recovery or image uniformity. Image-based PV correction algorithm can increase the accuracy of PET image activity and improve the uniformity of the activity distribution in normal mice. The algorithm may be applied using different tracers, in transgenic models that affect myocardial uptake, or in different species provided there is sufficient image quality and similar contrast between the myocardium and surrounding structures.

  2. Differentiation induction of mouse cardiac stem cells into sinus node-like cells by co-culturing with sinus node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Xuan; Wen, Jing; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Feng-Xu; Deng, Ming-Bin; Wu, Chang-Xue; Liao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Sinus nodal cells can generate a diastolic or "pacemaker" depolarization at the end of an action potential driving the membrane potential slowly up to the threshold for firing the next action potential. It has been proved that adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) can differentiate into sinus nodal cells by demethylating agent. However, there is no report about adult CSCs-derived sinus nodal cells with pacemaker current (the funny current, I f). In this study, we isolated the mouse adult CSCs from mouse hearts by the method of tissue explants adherence. The expression of c-kit protein indicated the isolation of CSCs. Then we co-cultured mouse CSCs with mouse sinus node tissue to induce the differentiation of these CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which was proved by identifying the enhanced expression of marker proteins cTnI, cTnT and α-Actinin with Immunofluorescence staining. At the same time, with whole-cell patch-clamp we detected the I f current, which can be blocked by CsCl, in these differentiated cells. In conclusion, by confirming specific I f current in the induced node-like cells, our work shows a method inducing differentiation of CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which can provide helpful information for the further research on sick sinus syndrome.

  3. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology.

  4. Optimized Heart Sampling and Systematic Evaluation of Cardiac Therapies in Mouse Models of Ischemic Injury: Assessment of Cardiac Remodeling and Semi-Automated Quantification of Myocardial Infarct Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Mariana; Araújo, Ana; Esteves, Tiago; Laundos, Tiago L; Freire, Ana G; Quelhas, Pedro; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana S

    2015-12-02

    Cardiac therapies are commonly tested preclinically in small-animal models of myocardial infarction. Following functional evaluation, post-mortem histological analysis is essential to assess morphological and molecular alterations underlying the effectiveness of treatment. However, non-methodical and inadequate sampling of the left ventricle often leads to misinterpretations and variability, making direct study comparisons unreliable. Protocols are provided for representative sampling of the ischemic mouse heart followed by morphometric analysis of the left ventricle. Extending the use of this sampling to other types of in situ analysis is also illustrated through the assessment of neovascularization and cellular engraftment in a cell-based therapy setting. This is of interest to the general cardiovascular research community as it details methods for standardization and simplification of histo-morphometric evaluation of emergent heart therapies. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Early manifestation of alteration in cardiac function in dystrophin deficient mdx mouse using 3D CMR tagging

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    Zhong Jia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is caused by the absence of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. In DMD patients, dilated cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure may occur during adolescence. However, early cardiac dysfunction is frequently undetected due to physical inactivity and generalized debilitation. The objective of this study is to determine the time course of cardiac functional alterations in mdx mouse, a mouse model of DMD, by evaluating regional ventricular function with CMR tagging. Methods In vivo myocardial function was evaluated by 3D CMR tagging in mdx mice at early (2 months, middle (7 months and late (10 months stages of disease development. Global cardiac function, regional myocardial wall strains, and ventricular torsion were quantified. Myocardial lesions were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Results Global contractile indexes were similar between mdx and C57BL/6 mice in each age group. Histology analysis showed that young mdx mice were free of myocardial lesions. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 7 month mdx mice, with further development into patches or transmural lesions at 10 months of age. As a result, 10 month mdx mice showed significantly reduced regional strain and torsion. However, young mdx mice showed an unexpected increase in regional strain and torsion, while 7 month mdx mice displayed similar regional ventricular function as the controls. Conclusion Despite normal global ventricular function, CMR tagging detected a biphasic change in myocardial wall strain and torsion, with an initial increase at young age followed by progressive decrease at older ages. These results suggest that CMR tagging can provide more sensitive measures of functional alterations than global functional indexes in dystrophin-related cardiomyopathies.

  6. Targeted inactivation of Cerberus like-2 leads to left ventricular cardiac hyperplasia and systolic dysfunction in the mouse.

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    Ana Carolina Araújo

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of the Cerberus like 2 knockout (Cerl2-/- mouse revealed a significant mortality during the first day after birth, mostly due to cardiac defects apparently associated with randomization of the left-right axis. We have however, identified Cerl2-associated cardiac defects, particularly a large increase in the left ventricular myocardial wall in neonates that cannot be explained by laterality abnormalities. Therefore, in order to access the endogenous role of Cerl2 in cardiogenesis, we analyzed the embryonic and neonatal hearts of Cerl2 null mutants that did not display a laterality phenotype. Neonatal mutants obtained from the compound mouse line Cer2-/-::Mlc1v-nLacZ24+, in which the pulmonary ventricle is genetically marked, revealed a massive enlargement of the ventricular myocardium in animals without laterality defects. Echocardiography analysis in Cerl2-/- neonates showed a left ventricular systolic dysfunction that is incompatible with a long lifespan. We uncovered that the increased ventricular muscle observed in Cerl2-/- mice is caused by a high cardiomyocyte mitotic index in the compact myocardium which is mainly associated with increased Ccnd1 expression levels in the left ventricle at embryonic day (E 13. Interestingly, at this stage we found augmented left ventricular expression of Cerl2 levels when compared with the right ventricle, which may elucidate the regionalized contribution of Cerl2 to the left ventricular muscle formation. Importantly, we observed an increase of phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2 levels in embryonic (E13 and neonatal hearts indicating a prolonged TGFβs/Nodal-signaling activation. Concomitantly, we detected an increase of Baf60c levels, but only in Cerl2-/- embryonic hearts. These results indicate that independently of its well-known role in left-right axis establishment Cerl2 plays an important role during heart development in the mouse, mediating Baf60c levels by exerting an important control of

  7. Overexpression of mitofilin in the mouse heart promotes cardiac hypertrophy in response to hypertrophic stimuli.

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    Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Luo, Yu-Xuan; An, Xi-Zhou; Zhang, Ran; Liu, Guang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei

    2014-10-20

    Mitofilin was originally described as a heart muscle protein because of its abundance in the heart tissue; however, its function in the heart is still to be elucidated. Thus, this study aims at investigating the role of mitofilin in the heart in response to hypertrophic stimuli. In this study, a significant increase in mitofilin expression was observed in the hearts of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Transgenic (TG) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of mitofilin were generated, and cardiac hypertrophy was introduced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO). In TG mice overexpressing mitofilin, the level of cardiac hypertrophy was significantly greater than that in wild-type (WT) mice after TAC and ISO stimulation. A detailed analysis showed that compared with WT mice, the level of reactive oxygen species was increased after TAC and ISO induction and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity in the TG hearts was lower. These alterations may contribute to the aggravated cardiac hypertrophy observed in response to TAC and ISO stimulation. Over-expression of mitofilin promotes cardiac hypertrophy under pathological conditions both in vivo and in vitro. Mitofilin, a mitochondria protein, is shown to be related to cardiac hypertrophy for the first time, which enhances our understanding of the role of mitochondria in cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

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    Christopher F Spurney

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  9. MicroRNA-22 Downregulation by Atorvastatin in a Mouse Model of Cardiac Hypertrophy: a new Mechanism for Antihypertrophic Intervention

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    Yingfeng Tu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in various cardiac processes including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the modulation of miRNA by pharmacological intervention in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has not been disclosed yet. Methods: We constructed neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II stimulation and subjected to cardiomyocyte immunochemistry, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. In addition, we constructed the mouse cardiac hypertrophy using angomir-22 stimulation and demonstrated the potential antihypertrophic mechnism of atorvastatin. Results: The results showed that a collection of miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by angiotensin II stimulation. In addition, overexpression of miR-22 was found in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, whereas administration of atorvastatin could reverse the upregulation of miRNA-22 nearly back to the control level. Furthermore, up-regulation of miRNA-22 in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo could induce cardiac hypertrophy, which could suppress the protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN. Concomitantly, the production of ANP, BNP and β-MHC was enhanced and cardiomyocyte size was increased. However, atorvastatin could markedly knockdown miRNA-22 expression and reverse these changes in cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the contribution of atrovastatin to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be involved in downregulation of miRNA-22 expression, which modulates the activity of PTEN in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time the modulation of miRNA-22 can be achieved by pharmacological intervention. The data generated from this study provides a rationale for the development of miRNA-based strategies for antihypertrophic treatment.

  10. Ouabain facilitates cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yee-ki LEE; Kwong-man NG; Wing-hon LAI; Cornelia MAN; Deborah K LIEU; Chu-pak LAU; Hung-fat TSE; Chung-wah SIU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of the cardiotonic steroid, ouabain, on cardiac differentiation of murine embyronic stem cells (mESCs).Methods:Cardiac differentiation of murine ESCs was enhanced by standard hanging drop method in the presence of ouabain (20 μmol/L) for 7 d. The dissociated ES derived cardiomyocytes were examined by flow cytometry, RT-PCR and confocal calcium imaging.Results:Compared with control, mESCs treated with ouabain (20 μmol/L) yielded a significantly higher percentage of cardiomyocytesand significantly increased expression of a panel of cardiac markers including Nkx 2.5, α-MHC, and β-MHC. The α1 and 2- isoforms Na+/K+ -ATPase, on which ouabain acted, were also increased in mESCs during differentiation. Among the three MAPKs involved in the cardiac hypertrophy pathway, ouabain enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Blockage of the Erk1/2 pathway by U0126 (10 μmol/L) inhibited cardiac differentiation while ouabain (20 μmol/L) rescued the effect. Interestingly, the expression of calcium handling proteins, includ ing ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sacroplasmic recticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) was also upregulated in ouabain-treated mESCs.ESC-derived cardiomyocyes (CM) treated with ouabain appeared to have more mature calcium handling. As demonstrated by confocal Ca2+ imaging, cardiomyocytes isolated from ouabain-treated mESCs exhibited higher maximum upstroke velocity (P<0.01) and maximum decay velocity (P<0.05), as well as a higher amplitude of caffeine induced Ca2+ transient (P<0.05), suggesting more mature sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR).Conclusion:Ouabain induces cardiac differentiation and maturation of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes via activation of Erk1/2 and more mature SR for calcium handling.

  11. Implantation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells preserves function of infarcted murine hearts.

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    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation holds great promise for the treatment of myocardial infarction injury. We recently described the embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelium, and smooth muscle. In this study, we hypothesized that transplanted CPCs will preserve function of the infarcted heart by participating in both muscle replacement and neovascularization. Differentiated CPCs formed functional electromechanical junctions with cardiomyocytes in vitro and conducted action potentials over cm-scale distances. When transplanted into infarcted mouse hearts, CPCs engrafted long-term in the infarct zone and surrounding myocardium without causing teratomas or arrhythmias. The grafted cells differentiated into cross-striated cardiomyocytes forming gap junctions with the host cells, while also contributing to neovascularization. Serial echocardiography and pressure-volume catheterization demonstrated attenuated ventricular dilatation and preserved left ventricular fractional shortening, systolic and diastolic function. Our results demonstrate that CPCs can engraft, differentiate, and preserve the functional output of the infarcted heart.

  12. Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Defects in a Mouse Model of Human Barth Syndrome*

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    Acehan, Devrim; Vaz, Frederic; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; James, Jeanne; Moore, Vicky; Tokunaga, Chonan; Kulik, Willem; Wansapura, Janaka; Toth, Matthew J.; Strauss, Arnold; Khuchua, Zaza

    2011-01-01

    Barth syndrome is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations in the tafazzin (taz) gene and characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy, exercise intolerance, chronic fatigue, delayed growth, and neutropenia. Tafazzin is a mitochondrial transacylase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Although tafazzin function has been studied in non-mammalian model organisms, mammalian genetic loss of function approaches have not been used. We examined the consequences of tafazzin knockdown on sarcomeric mitochondria and cardiac function in mice. Tafazzin knockdown resulted in a dramatic decrease of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin in cardiac and skeletal muscles and accumulation of monolysocardiolipins and cardiolipin molecular species with aberrant acyl groups. Electron microscopy revealed pathological changes in mitochondria, myofibrils, and mitochondrion-associated membranes in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe cardiac abnormalities, including left ventricular dilation, left ventricular mass reduction, and depression of fractional shortening and ejection fraction in tafazzin-deficient mice. Tafazzin knockdown mice provide the first mammalian model system for Barth syndrome in which the pathophysiological relationships between altered content of mitochondrial phospholipids, ultrastructural abnormalities, myocardial and mitochondrial dysfunction, and clinical outcome can be completely investigated. PMID:21068380

  13. Alterations in the interleukin-1/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist balance modulate cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction in the mouse.

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    Antonio Abbate

    Full Text Available Healing after acute myocardial infarction (AMI is characterized by an intense inflammatory response and increased Interleukin-1 (IL-1 tissue activity. Genetically engineered mice lacking the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1-/-, not responsive to IL-1 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, enhanced response to IL-1 have an altered IL-1/IL-1Ra balance that we hypothesize modulates infarct healing and cardiac remodeling after AMI.IL-1R1-/- and IL-1Ra-/- male mice and their correspondent wild-types (WT were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation or sham surgery. Infarct size (trichrome scar size, apoptotic cell death (TUNEL and left ventricular (LV dimensions and function (echocardiography were measured prior to and 7 days after surgery.When compared with the corresponding WT, IL-1R1-/- mice had significantly smaller infarcts (-25%, less cardiomyocyte apoptosis (-50%, and reduced LV enlargement (LV end-diastolic diameter increase [LVEDD], -20% and dysfunction (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] decrease, -50%, whereas IL-1Ra-/- mice had significantly larger infarcts (+75%, more apoptosis (5-fold increase, and more severe LV enlargement (LVEDD increase,+30% and dysfunction (LVEF decrease, +70%(all P values <0.05.An imbalance in IL-1/IL-1Ra signaling at the IL-1R1 level modulates the severity of cardiac remodeling after AMI in the mouse, with reduced IL-1R1 signaling providing protection and unopposed IL-1R1 signaling providing harm.

  14. Dataset of Sgo1 expression in cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatic and neuronal tissue in mouse.

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    Song, Andrew T; Galli, Antonella; Leclerc, Severine; Nattel, Stanley; Mandato, Craig; Andelfinger, Gregor

    2017-08-01

    The data shown in this article are related to the research article entitled "Characterization of Sgo1 expression pattern in developing and adult mouse" (Song et al., 2017) [3]. The article provides novel data on Sgo1 gene expression pattern utilizing Sgo1_LacZ_Knock in mouse line and immunohistochemistry in wild type mice. The data presents Sgo1 expression pattern during development, and in post-developmental proliferative and quiescent tissue. The article describes following tissues: developing heart, neural tube, adult colon, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, liver, and testis.

  15. Markov models of use-dependence and reverse use-dependence during the mouse cardiac action potential.

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    Qinlian Zhou

    Full Text Available The fast component of the cardiac transient outward current, I(Ktof, is blocked by a number of drugs. The major molecular bases of I(Ktof are Kv4.2/Kv4.3 voltage-gated potassium channels. Drugs with similar potencies but different blocking mechanisms have differing effects on action potential duration (APD. We used in silico analysis to determine the effect of I(Ktof-blocking drugs with different blocking mechanisms on mouse ventricular myocytes. We used our existing mouse model of the action potential, and developed 4 new Markov formulations for I(Ktof, I(Ktos, I(Kur, I(Ks. We compared effects of theoretical I(Ktof-specific channel blockers: (1 a closed state, and (2 an open channel blocker. At concentrations lower or close to IC(50, the drug which bound to the open state always had a much greater effect on APD than the drug which bound to the closed state. At concentrations much higher than IC(50, both mechanisms had similar effects at very low pacing rates. However, an open state binding drug had a greater effect on APD at faster pacing rates, particularly around 10 Hz. In summary, our data indicate that drug effects on APD are strongly dependent not only on IC(50, but also on the drug binding state.

  16. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Mediated Electrical Remodeling in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes.

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    Jeremy Kim

    Full Text Available We recently characterized an autocrine renin angiotensin system (RAS in canine heart. Activation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors (AT1Rs induced electrical remodeling, including inhibition of the transient outward potassium current Ito, prolongation of the action potential (AP, increased calcium entry and increased contractility. Electrical properties of the mouse heart are very different from those of dog heart, but if a similar system existed in mouse, it could be uniquely studied through genetic manipulations. To investigate the presence of a RAS in mouse, we measured APs and Ito in isolated myocytes. Application of angiotensin II (A2 for 2 or more hours reduced Ito magnitude, without affecting voltage dependence, and prolonged APs in a dose-dependent manner. Based on dose-inhibition curves, the fast and slow components of Ito (Ito,fast and IK,slow appeared to be coherently regulated by [A2], with 50% inhibition at an A2 concentration of about 400 nM. This very high K0.5 is inconsistent with systemic A2 effects, but is consistent with an autocrine RAS in mouse heart. Pre-application of the microtubule destabilizing agent colchicine eliminated A2 effects on Ito and AP duration, suggesting these effects depend on intracellular trafficking. Application of the biased agonist SII ([Sar1-Ile4-Ile8]A2, which stimulates receptor internalization without G protein activation, caused Ito reduction and AP prolongation similar to A2-induced changes. These data demonstrate AT1R mediated regulation of Ito in mouse heart. Moreover, all measured properties parallel those measured in dog heart, suggesting an autocrine RAS may be a fundamental feedback system that is present across species.

  17. Manifold learning based ECG-free free-breathing cardiac CINE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Atkinson, David; Kolbitsch, Christoph; Schaeffter, Tobias; Prieto, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    To present and validate a manifold learning (ML)-based method that can estimate both cardiac and respiratory navigator signals from electrocardiogram (ECG)-free free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to achieve self-gated retrospective CINE reconstruction. In this work the use of the ML method is demonstrated for 2D cardiac CINE to achieve both cardiac and respiratory self-gating without the need of an external navigator or ECG signal. This is achieved by sequentially applying ML to two sets of retrospectively reconstructed real-time images with differing temporal resolutions. A 1D cardiac signal is estimated by applying ML to high temporal resolution real-time images reconstructed from the acquired data. Using the estimated cardiac signal, a 1D respiratory signal was obtained by applying the ML method to low temporal resolution images reconstructed from the same acquired data for each cardiac cycle. Data were acquired in five volunteers with a 2D golden angle radial trajectory in a balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) acquisition. The accuracy of the estimated cardiac signal was calculated as the standard deviation of the temporal difference between the estimated signal and the recorded ECG. The correlation between the estimated respiratory signal and standard pencil beam navigator signal was evaluated. Gated CINE reconstructions (20 cardiac phases per cycle, temporal resolution ∼30 msec) using the estimated cardiac and respiratory signals were qualitatively compared against conventional ECG-gated breath-hold CINE acquisitions. Accurate cardiac signals were estimated with the proposed method, with an error standard deviation in comparison to ECG lower than 20 msec. Respiratory signals estimated with the proposed method achieved a mean cross-correlation of 94% with respect to standard pencil beam navigator signals. Good quality visual scores of 2.80 ± 0.45 (scores from 0, bad, to 4, excellent quality) were observed for the

  18. Detecting cardiac contractile activity in the early mouse embryo using multiple modalities

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    Chiann-mun eChen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart is one of the first organs to develop during mammalian embryogenesis. In the mouse, it starts to form shortly after gastrulation, and is derived primarily from embryonic mesoderm. The embryonic heart is unique in having to perform a mechanical contractile function while undergoing complex morphogenetic remodelling. Approaches to imaging the morphogenesis and contractile activity of the developing heart are important in understanding not only how this remodelling is controlled but also the origin of congenital heart defects. Here, we describe approaches for visualising contractile activity in the developing mouse embryo, using brightfield time lapse microscopy and confocal microscopy of calcium transients. We describe an algorithm for enhancing this image data and quantifying contractile activity from it. Finally we describe how atomic force microscopy can be used to record contractile activity prior to it being microscopically visible.

  19. Tube current modulation based on the lateral chest diameter and CT value on a scout view in prospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography%定位像胸部横径与CT值调制前瞻性序列扫描冠状动脉成像管电流的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒荣宝; 仝开军; 王岳松; 严芳; 罗潇; 董学滨; 周华飞; 章聪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of the patient's individually tube current modulation based on the lateral chest diameter (LD) and average CT value (CTchest) on a scout view in prospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography (PG CTCA).Methods Totally 194 consecutive patients were randomly divided into three groups:Group RG (retrospectively ECG-gated CTCA,69 patients,standard protocol with a fixed 600 mA),Group PG1 (prospectively ECG-gated CTCA,68 patients) and PG2 (the control group,57 patients).On the scout AP view,the chest LD was measured at the upper border of T10 vertebra;and the density (CTchest) was measured at the intercostal space of right midclavicular line above the diaphragm.The chest anteroposterior diameter (APD) were measured at the same level on the scout lateral view.The CTCA image noise was measured at the root of ascending aorta.A tube current conversion formula and quick list were conducted after matching the measured parameters with the noise.The tube current (mA) used in PG1 was determined by the list established previously.The tube current used in group PG2 wad fixed with reference to body mass (400 mA when < 77 kg;500 mA when ≥77 kg).The image quality scores,image noise,volume CT dose index(CTDIvol),and effective dose(E) were evaluated for each patient.LD,CTchest CTDIvol,DLP,E and image noise were all analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis among 3 groups.And the image quality scores of the coronary artery were analyzed using R × 2 contingency tables x2 test.Results The tube current conversion formnula was as mA=600/282.(0.487LD+0.064CTchest + 13.7)2(R2 =0.53,F =36.13,P =0.00).There were no statistical differences among three groups in LD and CTchest on the scout view (P > 0.05).There were magnificent statistical differences among three groups in SD,mA,and CTDIvol (F =44.96,167.37,1 071.26,P<0.05),There were also no statistical difference on image quality scores and the assessable vessels among 3 groups(x2 =6.89,2.54,P

  20. ICOS-Ig combined with CsA induces long term survival of cardiac allografts in mouse

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    Zhang Peng; Wang Zhenmeng; Qin Qin; Tang Yi; Wang Quanxing; Shen Qian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the synergistic effect of ICOS-Ig combined with cyclosporine (CsA) on mouse heart transplantation and explore its therapeutic potential. Methods: ICOS-Ig fusion protein was generated by fusing the extracellular portion of human ICOS and Fc portion of human IgG. To investigate the effect of ICOS-Ig on T-cell proliferation in vitro, ICOS-Ig or IgG was added to the primary MLR cultures (BALB/c spleen T cells as responder cells and irradiated C57BL/6 spleen cells as stimulator cells). The cells responsiveness rates were detected by 3H-TdR methods. Then the T cells of each group in primary MLR were cultured as responder cells for secondary MLR, and irradiated C57BL/6 (donor) or C3H (third party) spleen cells as stimulator cells. To study the effect of ICOS-Ig on T-cell proliferation in vivo, CFSE-labeled C57BL/6 spleen cells were transferred to irradiated BALB/c mice. Mice were then treated with IgG, ICOS-Ig or CsA. Seventy two hours after transfer, the spleen cells of the mice were harvested for the detection of CD4+CFSE+ and CD8+CFSE+ by FACS. C57BL/6 mouse underwent transplantation of the hearts of BALB/c mouse and were then randomly divided into five equal groups: no treatment group, control IgG treated group (250 μg i.p. d2, 4, 6), ICOS-Ig treated group (250 μg i.p. d2, 4, 6), CsA treated group (10 mg/kg i.p. d0-6), ICOS-Ig combined with CsA group. The cardiac allograft survival was monitored by daily palpation. Results: In primary MLR, ICOS-Ig inhibited T-cell proliferation, (inhibition ratio 58±8.2% in 50 μg/ml). In secondary MLR, ICOS-Ig specifically inhibited donor spleen cells, which suggested ICOS-Ig could induce donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. In the CFSE dye assay, CD4+CFSE+ and CD8+CFSE+ in ICOS-Ig and CsA group was stronger than those in control group, which showed ICOS-Ig and CsA could inhibit the proliferation of allo-reactive T cells in vivo. In mouse heart transplantation model, survival was significantly prolonged in

  1. FoxO3 induces reversible cardiac atrophy and autophagy in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schips, Tobias G; Wietelmann, Astrid; Höhn, Katharina; Schimanski, Silvia; Walther, Paul; Braun, Thomas; Wirth, Thomas; Maier, Harald J

    2011-09-01

    The transcription factor FoxO3 contributes to anti-hypertrophic signalling in the heart presumably by regulating autophagic-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways. We wanted to study FoxO3 function in the adult heart in vivo by expressing a constitutively active mutant of FoxO3 in transgenic mice. We generated transgenic mice in which a tetracycline-regulated constitutively active FoxO3 transgene (FoxO3-CA) is controlled by the heart-specific α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac-specific expression in adult mice resulted in a decrease in heart weight by 25% and a reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output. The decrease in heart size was due to a reduction in the size of individual cardiomyocytes, whereas there was no evidence for increased cell death. FoxO3 activation was accompanied by the initiation of a foetal gene programme with increased expression of β-myosin heavy chain and natriuretic peptides, and by the activation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin signalling. As shown by electron microscopy, FoxO3-CA massively stimulated destruction of sarcomeres and autophagy, and induced expression of LC3-II and BNIP3. When FoxO3-CA expression was shut off in affected mice, cardiac atrophy and dysfunction as well as molecular markers were normalized within 1 month. FoxO3-CA expression did not counteract hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction. Heart-specific expression of constitutively active FoxO3 leads to reversible heart atrophy. The reversibility of the phenotype suggests a remarkable ability of the adult myocardium to respond to different regulatory cues.

  2. Targeted disruption of the heat shock protein 20–phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) interaction protects against pathological cardiac remodelling in a mouse model of hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara P.; Hortigon-Vinagre, Maria P.; Findlay, Jane E.; Elliott, Christina; Currie, Susan; Baillie, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylated heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) is cardioprotective. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and a mouse model of pressure overload mediated hypertrophy, we show that peptide disruption of the HSP20–phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) complex results in attenuation of action potential prolongation and protection against adverse cardiac remodelling. The later was evidenced by improved contractility, decreased heart weight to body weight ratio, and reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. This study demonstrates that disruption of the specific HSP20–PDE4D interaction leads to attenuation of pathological cardiac remodelling. PMID:25426411

  3. Targeted disruption of the heat shock protein 20-phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) interaction protects against pathological cardiac remodelling in a mouse model of hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara P; Hortigon-Vinagre, Maria P; Findlay, Jane E; Elliott, Christina; Currie, Susan; Baillie, George S

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylated heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) is cardioprotective. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and a mouse model of pressure overload mediated hypertrophy, we show that peptide disruption of the HSP20-phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) complex results in attenuation of action potential prolongation and protection against adverse cardiac remodelling. The later was evidenced by improved contractility, decreased heart weight to body weight ratio, and reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. This study demonstrates that disruption of the specific HSP20-PDE4D interaction leads to attenuation of pathological cardiac remodelling.

  4. Targeted disruption of the heat shock protein 20–phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D interaction protects against pathological cardiac remodelling in a mouse model of hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated heat shock protein 20 (HSP20 is cardioprotective. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs and a mouse model of pressure overload mediated hypertrophy, we show that peptide disruption of the HSP20–phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D complex results in attenuation of action potential prolongation and protection against adverse cardiac remodelling. The later was evidenced by improved contractility, decreased heart weight to body weight ratio, and reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. This study demonstrates that disruption of the specific HSP20–PDE4D interaction leads to attenuation of pathological cardiac remodelling.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations in adult mouse cardiac side population cells

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    Lushaj, Entela B., E-mail: lushaj@surgery.wisc.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Lozonschi, Lucian; Barnes, Maria; Anstadt, Emily; Kohmoto, Takushi [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the presence and potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations in adult cardiac stem cells. Cardiac side population (SP) cells were isolated from 12-week-old mice. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen for the presence of mtDNA deletion mutations in (a) freshly isolated SP cells and (b) SP cells cultured to passage 10. When present, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutation was analyzed in single cell colonies. The effect of different levels of deletion mutations on SP cell growth and differentiation was determined. MtDNA deletion mutations were found in both freshly isolated and cultured cells from 12-week-old mice. While there was no significant difference in the number of single cell colonies with mtDNA deletion mutations from any of the groups mentioned above, the abundance of mtDNA deletion mutations was significantly higher in the cultured cells, as determined by quantitative PCR. Within a single clonal cell population, the detectable mtDNA deletion mutations were the same in all cells and unique when compared to deletions of other colonies. We also found that cells harboring high levels of mtDNA deletion mutations (i.e. where deleted mtDNA comprised more than 60% of total mtDNA) had slower proliferation rates and decreased differentiation capacities. Screening cultured adult stem cells for mtDNA deletion mutations as a routine assessment will benefit the biomedical application of adult stem cells.

  6. Dataset of Sgo1 expression in cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatic and neuronal tissue in mouse

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    Andrew T. Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data shown in this article are related to the research article entitled “Characterization of Sgo1 expression pattern in developing and adult mouse” (Song et al., 2017 [3]. The article provides novel data on Sgo1 gene expression pattern utilizing Sgo1_LacZ_Knock in mouse line and immunohistochemistry in wild type mice. The data presents Sgo1 expression pattern during development, and in post-developmental proliferative and quiescent tissue. The article describes following tissues: developing heart, neural tube, adult colon, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, liver, and testis.

  7. The effects of exercise training and caloric restriction on the cardiac oxytocin natriuretic peptide system in the diabetic mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Tom L; Jankowski, Marek; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Background Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)–natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Methods Five-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to the following groups: sedentary, ET, and ET + CR. Nonobese heterozygote littermates served as controls. ET was performed on a treadmill at moderate intensity, and CR was induced by reducing food intake by 30% of that consumed by sedentary db/db mice for a period of 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, only ET + CR, but not ET, slightly improved body weight compared to sedentary db/db mice. Regardless of the treatment, db/db mice remained hyperglycemic. Hearts from db/db mice demonstrated reduced expression of genes linked to the cardiac OT–NP system. In fact, compared to control mice, mRNA expression of GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), OT receptor, OT, brain NP, NP receptor type C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was decreased in hearts from sedentary db/db mice. Both ET alone and ET + CR increased the mRNA expression of GATA4 compared to sedentary db/db mice. Only ET combined with CR produced increased eNOS mRNA and protein expression. Conclusion Our data indicate that enhancement of eNOS by combined ET and CR may improve coronary endothelial vasodilator dysfunction in type 2 diabetes but did not prevent the downregulation of cardiac expression in the OT–NP system, possibly resulting from the sustained hyperglycemia and obesity in diabetic mice. PMID:28138261

  8. Cardiac metabolic pathways affected in the mouse model of barth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Powers, Corey; Madala, Satish K; Greis, Kenneth D; Haffey, Wendy D; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan; Javadov, Sabzali; Strauss, Arnold W; Khuchua, Zaza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid essential for electron transport chain (ETC) integrity. CL-deficiency in humans is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (Taz) gene and results in a multisystem pediatric disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS). It has been reported that tafazzin deficiency destabilizes mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and affects supercomplex assembly. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Taz-knockdown on the mitochondrial proteomic landscape and metabolic processes, such as stability of respiratory chain supercomplexes and their interactions with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in cardiac muscle. Proteomic analysis demonstrated reduction of several polypeptides of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, including Rieske and cytochrome c1 subunits of complex III, NADH dehydrogenase alpha subunit 5 of complex I and the catalytic core-forming subunit of F0F1-ATP synthase. Taz gene knockdown resulted in upregulation of enzymes of folate and amino acid metabolic pathways in heart mitochondria, demonstrating that Taz-deficiency causes substantive metabolic remodeling in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes are destabilized in CL-depleted mitochondria from Taz knockdown hearts resulting in disruption of the interactions between ETC and the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, potentially affecting the metabolic channeling of reducing equivalents between these two metabolic pathways. Mitochondria-bound myoglobin was significantly reduced in Taz-knockdown hearts, potentially disrupting intracellular oxygen delivery to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Our results identify the critical pathways affected by the Taz-deficiency in mitochondria and establish a future framework for development of therapeutic options for BTHS.

  9. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI.

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    Bastiaan J van Nierop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding mouse model. Therefore, we quantified time-dependent alterations in the ventricular morphology and function in two models of hypertrophy and heart failure and we studied the relationship between RV and LV function during the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure. METHODS: MRI was used to quantify RV and LV function and morphology in healthy (n = 4 and sham operated (n = 3 C57BL/6 mice, and animals with a mild (n = 5 and a severe aortic constriction (n = 10. RESULTS: Mice subjected to a mild constriction showed increased LV mass (P0.05. Animals with a severe constriction progressively developed LV hypertrophy (P<0.001, depressed LVEF (P<0.001, followed by a declining RVEF (P<0.001 and the development of pulmonary remodeling, as compared to controls during a 10-week follow-up. Myocardial strain, as a measure for local cardiac function, decreased in mice with a severe constriction compared to controls (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Relevant changes in mouse RV and LV function following an aortic constriction could be quantified using MRI. The well-controlled models described here open opportunities to assess the added value of new MRI techniques for the diagnosis of heart failure and to study the impact of new therapeutic strategies on disease progression and symptom occurrence.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of treatment efficacy of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell-differentiated cardiac pro-genitor cells in a myocardial injury mouse model

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    Truc Le-Buu Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell therapy has been investigated as a strategy to prevent or reverse damage to heart tissue. Although the results of cell transplantation in animal models and patients with myocardial ischemia are promising, the selection of the appropriate cell type remains an issue that requires consideration. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of cardiac progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia. The cardiac progenitor cells used for transplantation were differentiated from umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells. Animal models injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and healthy mice were used as controls. Cell grafting was assessed by changes in blood pressure and histological evaluation. After 14 days of transplantation, the results demonstrated that the blood pressure of transplanted mice was stable, similar to healthy mice, whereas it fluctuated in PBS-injected mice. Histological analysis showed that heart tissue had regenerated in transplanted mice, but remained damaged in PBS-injected mice. Furthermore, trichrome staining revealed that the transplanted mice did not generate significant amount of scar tissue compared with PBS-injected control mice. In addition, the cardiac progenitor cells managed to survive and integrate with local cells in cell-injected heart tissue 14 days after transplantation. Most importantly, the transplanted cells did not exhibit tumorigenesis. In conclusion, cardiac progenitor cell transplantation produced a positive effect in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 435-445

  11. Quantitative phosphoproteomic study of pressure-overloaded mouse heart reveals dynamin-related protein 1 as a modulator of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Wang, Qinchuan; Lin, Jim Jung-Ching; Chen, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chien-Chang

    2013-11-01

    Pressure-overload stress to the heart causes pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which increases the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. However, the detailed signaling pathways induced by pressure overload remain unclear. Here we used phosphoproteomics to delineate signaling pathways in the myocardium responding to acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy in mice. Myocardial samples at 4 time points (10, 30, 60 min and 2 weeks) after transverse aortic banding (TAB) in mice underwent quantitative phosphoproteomics assay. Temporal phosphoproteomics profiles showed 360 phosphorylation sites with significant regulation after TAB. Multiple mechanical stress sensors were activated after acute pressure overload. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential phosphorylation between hearts with acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy. Most interestingly, analysis of the cardiac hypertrophy pathway revealed phosphorylation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) by prohypertrophic kinases. Phosphorylation of DRP1 S622 was confirmed in TAB-treated mouse hearts and phenylephrine (PE)-treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. TAB-treated mouse hearts showed phosphorylation-mediated mitochondrial translocation of DRP1. Inhibition of DRP1 with the small-molecule inhibitor mdivi-1 reduced the TAB-induced hypertrophic responses. Mdivi-1 also prevented PE-induced hypertrophic growth and oxygen consumption in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. We reveal the signaling responses of the heart to pressure stress in vivo and in vitro. DRP1 may be important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  12. Influence of high- and low-LET radiation on the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Helm, Alexander

    2013-07-19

    The in utero exposure to ionising radiation poses a risk for the radiosensitive developing embryo. Effects of low-LET radiation on different developmental stages of the embryo are relatively well known due to experimental studies and epidemiological data. Data for effects on the very early stage of the embryonic development, particularly the effects of high-LET radiation instead are rather limited. However, unanticipated exposures of the early embryo to ionising radiation may occur through diagnostic or therapeutic applications or through radiation accidents. Additionally, protons and carbon ions are increasingly used in radiotherapy. Thus, a risk estimation of high-LET exposure especially to the early embryo is of a certain importance. To address this topic, pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells resembling the blastocyst stage were irradiated with high-LET carbon ions or low-LET X-rays and subsequently differentiated to mimic the early embryonic development. The occurrence of spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes was used as a marker to asses the radiation effects on the differentiation. Among others, cell inactivation, cell death and gene expression were analysed. A delay in the cardiac differentiation after radiation exposure was found. The results point to radiation-induced cell killing as the main effector of the developmental delay. Carbon ions were found to be more effective than X-rays.

  13. Genetically Modified Mouse Models Used for Studying the Role of the AT2 Receptor in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

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    Maria D. Avila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actions of Angiotensin II have been implicated in many cardiovascular conditions. It is widely accepted that the cardiovascular effects of Angiotensin II are mediated by different subtypes of receptors: AT1 and AT2. These membrane-bound receptors share a part of their nucleic acid but seem to have different distribution and pathophysiological actions. AT1 mediates most of the Angiotensin II actions since it is ubiquitously expressed in the cardiovascular system of the normal adult. Moreover AT2 is highly expressed in the developing fetus but its expression in the cardiovascular system is low and declines after birth. However the expression of AT2 appears to be modulated by pathological states such as hypertension, myocardial infarction or any pathology associated to tissue remodeling or inflammation. The specific role of this receptor is still unclear and different studies involving in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown conflicting data. It is essential to clarify the role of the AT2 receptor in the different pathological states as it is a potential site for an effective therapeutic regimen that targets the Angiotensin II system. We will review the different genetically modified mouse models used to study the AT2 receptor and its association with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

  14. Rapamycin Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival in a Mouse Model by Inducing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Nakao, T; Yoshimura, N; Ashihara, E

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are the main immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors induce immunosuppression is not fully understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) maintain host immunity; however, the relationship between mTOR inhibitors and MDSCs is unclear. Here, the results from a murine cardiac transplantation model revealed that rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, and 6) led to the recruitment of MDSCs and increased their expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that rapamycin induced the migration of iNOS-expressing MDSCs into the subintimal space within the allograft vessels, resulting in a significant prolongation of graft survival compared with that in the untreated group (67 days vs. 7 days, respectively). These effects were counterbalanced by the administration of an anti-Gr-1, which reduced allograft survival to 21 days. Moreover, adoptive transcoronary arterial transfer of MDSCs from rapamycin-treated recipients prolonged allograft survival; this increase was reversed by the anti-Gr-1 antibody. Finally, co-administration of rapamycin and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib reversed rapamycin-mediated MDSC recruitment. Thus, the mTOR and Raf/MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways appear to play an important role in MDSC expansion.

  15. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily.

  16. Fibulin-6 regulates pro-fibrotic TGF-β responses in neonatal mouse ventricular cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arpita; Hasselbach, Lisa; Echtermeyer, Frank; Jyotsana, Nidhi; Theilmeier, Gregor; Herzog, Christine

    2017-02-17

    Fibulin-6, an essential component of extracellular matrix determines the architecture of cellular junctions in tissues undergoing strain. Increased expression and deposition of fibulin-6 facilitates fibroblast migration in response to TGF-β, following myocardial infarction in mouse heart. The underlying mechanism still remains elusive. In conjunction with our previous study, we have now demonstrated that in fibulin-6 knockdown (KD) fibroblasts, not only TGF-β dependent migration, but also stress fiber formation, cellular networking and subsequently fibroblast wound contraction is almost abrogated. SMAD dependent TGF-β pathway shows ~75% decreased translocation of R-SMAD and co-SMAD into the nucleus upon fibulin-6 KD. Consequently, SMAD dependent pro-fibrotic gene expression is considerably down regulated to basal levels both in mRNA and protein. Also, investigating the non-SMAD pathways we observed a constitutive increase in pERK-levels in fibulin-6 KD fibroblast compared to control, but no change was seen in pAKT. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed 60% reduced interaction of TGF-β receptor II and I (TGFRII and I) accompanied by diminished phosphorylation of TGFRI at serin165 in fibulin-6 KD cells. In conclusion, fibulin-6 plays an important role in regulating TGF-β mediated responses, by modulating TGF-β receptor dimerization and activation to further trigger downstream pathways.

  17. Feasibility study to demonstrate cardiac imaging using fast kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography: phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Priti; Imai, Yasuhiro; Narayanan, Suresh; Dutta, Sandeep; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography is a novel imaging tool that has the potential to reduce beam hardening artifacts and enhance material separation over conventional imaging techniques. Dual-energy acquisitions can be performed by using a fast kVp technology to switch between acquiring adjacent projections at two distinct x-ray spectra (80 and 140 kVp). These datasets can be used to further compute material density and monochromatic images for better material separation and beam hardening reduction by virtue of the projection domain process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using dual-energy in cardiac imaging for myocardial perfusion detection and coronary artery lumen visualization. Data was acquired on a heart phantom, which consisted of the chambers and aorta filled with Iodine density solution (500 HU @ 120 kVp), a defect region between the aorta and chamber (40 HU @ 120 kVp), two Iodinefilled vessels (400 HU @ 120 kVp) of different diameters with high attenuation (hydroxyapatite) plaques (HAP), and with a 30-cm water equivalent body ring around the phantom. Prospective ECG-gated single-energy and prospective ECG-gated dual-energy imaging was performed. Results showed that the generated monochromatic images had minimal beam hardening artifacts which improved the accuracy and detection of the myocardial defect region. Material density images were useful in differentiating and quantifying the actual size of the plaque and coronary artery lumen. Overall, this study shows that dual-energy cardiac imaging will be a valuable tool for cardiac applications.

  18. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Gallo, Simona; Medico, Enzo; Cantarella, Daniela; Cimino, James; Ponzetto, Antonio; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level.

  19. ATP-binding cassette G-subfamily transporter 2 regulates cell cycle progression and asymmetric division in mouse cardiac side population progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereti, Konstantina-Ioanna; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Unno, Kazumasa; Cao, Xin; Qiu, Yiling; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-01-04

    After cardiac injury, cardiac progenitor cells are acutely reduced and are replenished in part by regulated self-renewal and proliferation, which occurs through symmetric and asymmetric cellular division. Understanding the molecular cues controlling progenitor cell self-renewal and lineage commitment is critical for harnessing these cells for therapeutic regeneration. We previously have found that the cell surface ATP-binding cassette G-subfamily transporter 2 (Abcg2) influences the proliferation of cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cells, but through unclear mechanisms. To determine the role of Abcg2 on cell cycle progression and mode of division in mouse CSP cells. Herein, using CSP cells isolated from wild-type and Abcg2 knockout mice, we found that Abcg2 regulates G1-S cell cycle transition by fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicators, cell cycle-focused gene expression arrays, and confocal live-cell fluorescent microscopy. Moreover, we found that modulation of cell cycle results in transition from symmetric to asymmetric cellular division in CSP cells lacking Abcg2. Abcg2 modulates CSP cell cycle progression and asymmetric cell division, establishing a mechanistic link between this surface transporter and cardiac progenitor cell function. Greater understanding of progenitor cell biology and, in particular, the regulation of resident progenitor cell homeostasis is vital for guiding the future development of cell-based therapies for cardiac regeneration.

  20. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level.

  1. 双源CT非心率控制自适应前瞻性心电门控序列扫描冠状动脉成像%CT coronary angiography without heart rate control with adaptive cardio sequence prospective ECG-gated using the second generation dual-source CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小琴; 钱农; 潘昌杰; 薛跃君; 王涛; 靳激扬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of improving image quality of low dose scanning using adaptive cardio sequence prospective ECG-gated without heart rate control by the second generation dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Methods Ninety-four consecutive patients were collected prospectively and underwent prospective ECG-gated a-daptive cardio sequence dual-source CTCA without heart rate control. Two experienced radiologists double-blindly assessed image quality of 15 segments of coronary arteries with five-score scale. Images with no less than 3 scores were usable for diagnosis. Correlation between image quality and heart rate, as well as with heart rate variability were analyzed. The intra-observer agreement for image quality was assessed. CT dose index of volume (CTDIvol) and effective dose (ED) were measured. Results The mean heart rate during scanning was (87. 24 13. 76) beats percent minute in all 94 patients. Totally 1410 segments of coronary arteries were included, and images useful for diagnosis (≥3 scores) were obtained in 1334 segments (94. 61%) of the coronary artery segments, while 76 segments (5. 39%) had non-assessable image quality. The mean image quality score for the whole coronary tree was 4. 25 0. 93. No correlation was observed between the mean heart rate (r= 0. 17, P = 0. 11) or heart rate variability (r=0. 10, P = 0. 32) and image quality. The Kappa value between two radiologists was 0.90 on image quality (P<0.001). CTDIvol and ED was (11.84+ 1.76)mGy and (2. 19 + 0. 45)mSv, respectively. Conclusion Using prospective ECG-gated adaptive cardio sequence, assessable image quality of coronary artery can be acquired with dual-source CT without heart rate control, and radiation dose can be obviously reduced.%目的 探讨双源CT非心率控制低剂量自适应前瞻性心电门控序列扫描冠状动脉成像的可行性.方法 前瞻性收集94例患者进行双源CT非心率控制自适应前瞻性心电门控序列扫

  2. Abcc6 deficiency causes increased infarct size and apoptosis in a mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.N. Mungrue; P. Zhao; Y. Yao; H. Meng; C. Rau; J.V. Havel; T.G.M.F. Gorgels; A.A.B. Bergen; W.R. Maclellan; T.A. Drake; K.I. Boström; A.J. Lusis

    2011-01-01

    ABCC6 genetic deficiency underlies pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) in humans, characterized by ectopic calcification, and early cardiac disease. The spectrum of PXE has been noted in Abcc6-deficient mice, including dystrophic cardiac calcification. We tested the role of Abcc6 in response to cardiac i

  3. Infrared fluorescent protein 1.4 genetic labeling tracks engrafted cardiac progenitor cells in mouse ischemic hearts.

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    Lijuan Chen

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has a potential for regenerating damaged myocardium. However, a key obstacle to cell therapy's success is the loss of engrafted cells due to apoptosis or necrosis in the ischemic myocardium. While many strategies have been developed to improve engrafted cell survival, tools to evaluate cell efficacy within the body are limited. Traditional genetic labeling tools, such as GFP-like fluorescent proteins (eGFP, DsRed, mCherry, have limited penetration depths in vivo due to tissue scattering and absorption. To circumvent these limitations, a near-infrared fluorescent mutant of the DrBphP bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans, IFP1.4, was developed for in vivo imaging, but it has yet to be used for in vivo stem/progenitor cell tracking. In this study, we incorporated IFP1.4 into mouse cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs by a lentiviral vector. Live IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were imaged by their near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF using an Odyssey scanner following overnight incubation with biliverdin. A significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of cells and NIRF signal intensity in in vitro studies. Lentiviral mediated IFP1.4 gene labeling is stable, and does not impact the apoptosis and cardiac differentiation of CPC. To assess efficacy of our model for engrafted cells in vivo, IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were intramyocardially injected into infarcted hearts. NIRF signals were collected at 1-day, 7-days, and 14-days post-injection using the Kodak in vivo multispectral imaging system. Strong NIRF signals from engrafted cells were imaged 1 day after injection. At 1 week after injection, 70% of the NIRF signal was lost when compared to the intensity of the day 1 signal. The data collected 2 weeks following transplantation showed an 88% decrease when compared to day 1. Our studies have shown that IFP1.4 gene labeling can be used to track the viability of transplanted cells in vivo.

  4. Culture of mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells in vitro%小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞的体外培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂秀; 杨明涛; 刘涛; 王浩宇; 刘康; 冯刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞培养体系.方法 4~6周的清洁级C57小鼠的心室肌,利用胰蛋白酶及Ⅱ型胶原酶消化过滤收集的滤液进行重新悬浮种植于明胶包被的培养瓶中,通过倒置电镜观察细胞的生长形态及生长状态,得出生长曲线,并利用免疫荧光鉴定(心肌微血管内皮细胞特异性抗原vWF)培养出的小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞.结果 通过形态学观察及免疫荧光鉴定证实为小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞.培养的小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞第1、2天生长相对缓慢,而到第3、4天细胞呈对数生长,第6、7天细胞达到融合.结论 采用明胶包被培养瓶,通过机械剪切、蛋白酶消化、过滤方法,并进行了相关鉴定,可获得较纯的小鼠心肌微血管内皮细胞,这为研究心肌微血管内皮细胞的迁移、血管再生等提供了实验来源.%Objective To establish the culture system of mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Methods The ventricular muscle from 4 to 6 weeks of C57 mice was digested by trypsin and type II collagen, then filtered and collected the filtrate to grow in culture bottle that was used gelatin to envelop. The morphology and growth curve of mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells was investigated by using electron microscopy. The immunofluorescence was uesd to identify culture of mouse primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells by the expression of factor vWF-related antigen. Results The mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were demonstrated by morphological observation and immunofluorescence. Culture of mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells grow were relatively slowly in 1 to 2 day, grow ogarithmicly in 3 to 4 day, grow cell fusion in 6 to 7 day. Conclusion In the experiment, used gelatin to envelope culture bottle,We can obtain mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells with higher purity by mechanical shearing, protease digestion, filtering, and

  5. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lee; Cuffe, James S M; Paravicini, Tamara M; Campbell, Sally; Dickinson, Hayley; Singh, Reetu R; Gezmish, Oksan; Black, M Jane; Moritz, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5) on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX) exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL) at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  6. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  7. Role of Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I in Mouse Stem Cell Cardiac Development

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    Valentina Spinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Nitric oxide (NO can trigger cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs, indicating a cardiogenic function of the NO synthetizing enzyme(s (NOS. However, the involvement of the NO/NOS downstream effectors soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and cGMP activated protein kinase I (PKG-I is less defined. Therefore, we assess the involvement of the entire NO/NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway during cardiac differentiation process. Methods. Mouse ESCs were differentiated toward cardiac lineages by hanging drop methodology for 21 days. NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway was studied quantifying genes, proteins, enzymatic activities, and effects of inhibition during differentiation. Percentages of beating embryoid bodies (mEBs were evaluated as an index of cardiogenesis. Results and Discussion. Genes and protein expression of enzymes were increased during differentiation with distinctive kinetics and proteins possessed their enzymatic functions. Exogenous administered NO accelerated whereas the blockade of PKG-I strongly slowed cardiogenesis. sGC inhibition was effective only at early stages and NOS blockade ineffective. Of NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway, PKG-I seems to play the prominent role in cardiac maturation. Conclusion. We concluded that exogenous administered NO and other pharmacological strategies able to increase the activity of PKG-I provide new tools to investigate and promote differentiation of cardiogenic precursors.

  8. The Effects of PDTC plus Leflunomide and Cyclosporine on the NF-кB Signaling Pathway in Mouse-to-rat Cardiac Xenografts

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    Guanglun YANG; Ping HUANG; Gang TU; Shiqiao LUO; Xin CHEN; Zhenxiang YAO

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the effects of pirrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) plus leflunomide (Lef) models were investigated.NIH mice and Wistar rats served as donors and recipients respectively.Mouse-to-rat cardiac xenotransplantation was performed.The recipients were divided into 5 groups:group A (the control group),group B (PDTC group),group C (PDTC plus CsA group),group D (PDTC plus Lef group) and group E (PDTC plus Lef and CsA group).The expressions of IKKα/β,by immunohistochemistry and Western blot as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).The median survival time of cardiac xenografts in the control group,PDTC group,PDTC plus CsA group,PDTC plus Lef group and PDTC plus Lef and CsA group was (2.17±0.41),(2.33±0.52),(4.67±1.21),(7.00±1.79) and (9.00±1.41) days respectively.The survival time of xenografts in the PDTC plus Lef and CsA group was significantly longer than that in other four groups (P<0.05 for all),that in the PDTC plus Lef group longer than that in the control group,PDTC group and PDTC plus CsA group (P<0.05 for all),that in PDTC plus CsA group longer than the control group and PDTC binding activity were notably increased in mouse-to-rat cardiac xenografts.The expressions were decreased in the control group,PDTC group,PDTC plus CsA group,PDTC plus Lef and PDTC plus Lef and CsA group in turn.It was concluded that PDTC plus Lef and CsA can significantly suppress prolonging the survival of the cardiac xenografts.

  9. Variations in Local Calcium Signaling in Adjacent Cardiac Myocytes of the Intact Mouse Heart Detected with Two-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy

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    Karin P Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyssynchronous local Ca release within individual cardiac myocytes has been linked to cellular contractile dysfunction. Differences in Ca kinetics in adjacent cells may also provide a substrate for inefficient contraction and arrhythmias. In a new approach we quantify variation in local Ca transients between adjacent myocytes in the whole heart.Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were loaded with Fluo-8 AM to detect Ca and Di-4-ANEPPS to visualize cell membranes. A spinning disc confocal microscope with a fast camera allowed us to record Ca signals within an area of 465 µm by 315 µm with an acquisition speed of 55 fps. Images from multiple transients recorded at steady state were registered to their time point in the cardiac cycle to restore averaged local Ca transients with a higher temporal resolution. Local Ca transients within and between adjacent myocytes were compared with regard to amplitude, time to peak and decay at steady state stimulation (250 ms cycle length.Image registration from multiple sequential Ca transients allowed reconstruction of high temporal resolution (2.4 ±1.3ms local CaT in 2D image sets (N= 4 hearts, n= 8 regions. During steady state stimulation, spatial Ca gradients were homogeneous within cells in both directions and independent of distance between measured points. Variation in CaT amplitudes was similar across the short and the long side of neighboring cells. Variations in TAU and TTP were similar in both directions. Isoproterenol enhanced the CaT but not the overall pattern of spatial heterogeneities.Here we detected and analyzed local Ca signals in intact mouse hearts with high temporal and spatial resolution, taking into account 2D arrangement of the cells. We observed significant differences in the variation of CaT amplitude along the long and short axis of cardiac myocytes. Variations of Ca signals between neighboring cells may contribute to the substrate of cardiac remodeling.

  10. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice.

  11. Cardiac MRI in suspected myocarditis; MRT des Herzens bei Verdacht auf Myokarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Mohrs, O. [Klinik fuer Radiologie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of ECG-gated breath-hold MRI in diagnosing acute myocardidits. Material and methods: Cardiac MRI was performed on 21 consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis. ECG-gated breath-hold T2-weighted images with fat suppression were acquired in 3 standard views. T1-weighted imaging (FLASH) was performed 10 min after IV administration of Gd-DTPA. Laboratory data included creatine kinase, troponin T and serological tests, ECG findings and echocardiography. Imaging findings were retrospectively compared to the discharge diagnoses. Signal alterations were semiquantitatively classified. Results: Acute myocarditis was diagnosed in 9 patients and cardiac sarcoidosis in 2 patients. Late enhancement was observed in 4 patients with acute myocarditis and in both patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. Semiquantitative evaluation revealed 9 true positive, 9 true negative, 1 false positive and 2 false negative results. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI has the potential to detect acute myocarditis and to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. Late enhancement of Gd-DTPA can be found in both viral myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Beurteilung des diagnostischen Potenzials der MRT des Herzens bei Verdacht auf akute Myokarditis. Material und Methoden: 21 konsekutive Patienten mit Verdacht auf Myokarditis wurden mit einem standardisierten Protokoll untersucht. Zunaechst wurden T{sub 2}-gewichtete, EKG-getriggerte fettsupprimierte Sequenzen in den 3 Standardebenen angefertigt. 10 Minuten nach intravenoeser Injektion von GD-DTPA wurden T{sub 1}-gewichtete TurboFLASH-Sequenzen angefertigt. Von allen Patienten wurden EKG, Echokardiographie und die Laborbefunde einschliesslich Creatinin-Kinase, Troponin T und der Infektionsserologie protokolliert. Das Ausmass der Signalveraenderungen im MRT wurde semiquantitativ klassifiziert. Die Ergebnisse der MRT wurden retrospektiv mit den Entlassungsdiagnosen korreliert. Ergebnisse: Bei 9 Patienten lag nach

  12. Regional contrast agent quantification in a mouse model of myocardial infarction using 3D cardiac T1 mapping

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    Nicolay Klaas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative relaxation time measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR are of paramount importance in contrast-enhanced studies of experimental myocardial infarction. First, compared to qualitative measurements based on signal intensity changes, they are less sensitive to specific parameter choices, thereby allowing for better comparison between different studies or during longitudinal studies. Secondly, T1 measurements may allow for quantification of local contrast agent concentrations. In this study, a recently developed 3D T1 mapping technique was applied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction to measure differences in myocardial T1 before and after injection of a liposomal contrast agent. This was then used to assess the concentration of accumulated contrast agent. Materials and methods Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced in 8 mice by transient ligation of the LAD coronary artery. Baseline quantitative T1 maps were made at day 1 after surgery, followed by injection of a Gd-based liposomal contrast agent. Five mice served as control group, which followed the same protocol without initial surgery. Twenty-four hours post-injection, a second T1 measurement was performed. Local ΔR1 values were compared with regional wall thickening determined by functional cine CMR and correlated to ex vivo Gd concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Results Compared to control values, pre-contrast T1 of infarcted myocardium was slightly elevated, whereas T1 of remote myocardium did not significantly differ. Twenty-four hours post-contrast injection, high ΔR1 values were found in regions with low wall thickening values. However, compared to remote tissue (wall thickening > 45%, ΔR1 was only significantly higher in severe infarcted tissue (wall thickening r = 0.81 was found between CMR-based ΔR1 values and Gd concentrations from ex vivo ICP-MS measurements. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that the

  13. Evaluation of retrospectively ECG-gated 4-row multidetector CT in patients planned for minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting; Die EKG-getriggerte 4-Zeilen-Spiral-CT des Herzens in der praeoperativen Bildgebung vor minimalinvasiver koronarer Bypass-Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begemann, P.G.C.; Ittrich, H.; Koops, A.; Adam, G.; Weber, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Radiologisches Zentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hamburg (Germany); Arnold, M.; Detter, C.; Boehm, D.H.; Reichenspurner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Herzzentrum, Herz und Gefaesschirurgie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) on the beating heart with full or mini-sternotomy are becoming more common in coronary bypass surgery of the left anterior descending (LAD). In the decision, which surgical approach (MIDCAB, OPCAB or conventional surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass) will be best used, knowledge of the anatomical field is of major importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospective ECG-gated 4-row multidetector CT (MDCT) in patients planned for MIDCAB as additional imaging to coronary angiography. Material and methods: The study included 25 consecutive patients. MSCT was performed as unenhanced (collimation 4 x 2.5 mm) and contrast-enhanced examination (140-170 ml, 300 mg Iodine/ml, collimation 4 x 1 mm). The evaluation included presence of LAD calcifications, distance of LAD and left internal mammarian artery (LIMA), coursek of LAD and LIMA, the presence or absence of bridging through myocardium or epicardial fat and the presence of pleural fibrosis. The MDCT results were correlated with intra-operative findings. Results: All MDCTs could be assessed with reference to the demands. In 20/25 operations, MDCT had direct influence as to the selection of the surgical approach (11 MIDCAB, 7 OPCAB with mini-sternotomy and 5 with full sternotomy, 2 conventional surgeries). The distance of LAD and LIMA varied from 0.9 to 4.5 cm in MDCT. As to calcifications, 3/25 correlated patients had calcifications and 10 patients had no calcifications in the middle LAD. Seven patients had intraoperative fibrosis of the vessel wall without calcification of the middle LAD, which could not be detected with MDCT. Another 5 patients had single calcified plaques in the middle LAD, 4 of these had a fibrosis of the vessel and 1 had a normal vessel at surgery. In these cases, the anastomosis was done between the calcified plaques. No myocardial bridging was detected by MDCT and

  14. Tissue-Mimicking Geometrical Constraints Stimulate Tissue-Like Constitution and Activity of Mouse Neonatal and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

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    Götz Pilarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the question of to what extent a geometrical support acts as a physiological determining template in the setup of artificial cardiac tissue. Surface patterns with alternating concave to convex transitions of cell size dimensions were used to organize and orientate human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC-derived cardiac myocytes and mouse neonatal cardiac myocytes. The shape of the cells, as well as the organization of the contractile apparatus recapitulates the anisotropic line pattern geometry being derived from tissue geometry motives. The intracellular organization of the contractile apparatus and the cell coupling via gap junctions of cell assemblies growing in a random or organized pattern were examined. Cell spatial and temporal coordinated excitation and contraction has been compared on plain and patterned substrates. While the α-actinin cytoskeletal organization is comparable to terminally-developed native ventricular tissue, connexin-43 expression does not recapitulate gap junction distribution of heart muscle tissue. However, coordinated contractions could be observed. The results of tissue-like cell ensemble organization open new insights into geometry-dependent cell organization, the cultivation of artificial heart tissue from stem cells and the anisotropy-dependent activity of therapeutic compounds.

  15. β3 integrin in cardiac fibroblast is critical for extracellular matrix accumulation during pressure overload hypertrophy in mouse.

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    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available The adhesion receptor β3 integrin regulates diverse cellular functions in various tissues. As β3 integrin has been implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling, we sought to explore the role of β3 integrin in cardiac fibrosis by using wild type (WT and β3 integrin null (β3-/- mice for in vivo pressure overload (PO and in vitro primary cardiac fibroblast phenotypic studies. Compared to WT mice, β3-/- mice upon pressure overload hypertrophy for 4 wk by transverse aortic constriction (TAC showed a substantially reduced accumulation of interstitial fibronectin and collagen. Moreover, pressure overloaded LV from β3-/- mice exhibited reduced levels of both fibroblast proliferation and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP1 expression in early time points of PO. To test if the observed impairment of ECM accumulation in β3-/- mice was due to compromised cardiac fibroblast function, we analyzed primary cardiac fibroblasts from WT and β3-/- mice for adhesion to ECM proteins, cell spreading, proliferation, and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF, a growth factor known to promote fibrosis stimulation. Our results showed that β3-/- cardiac fibroblasts exhibited a significant reduction in cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading, proliferation and migration. In addition, the activation of PDGF receptor associated tyrosine kinase and non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2, upon PDGF stimulation were impaired in β3-/- cells. Adenoviral expression of a dominant negative form of Pyk2 (Y402F resulted in reduced accumulation of fibronectin. These results indicate that β3 integrin-mediated Pyk2 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts plays a critical role in PO-induced cardiac fibrosis.

  16. Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with altered thioredoxin and ASK-1 signaling in a mouse model of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Sairam, M Ram; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Touyz, Rhian M

    2008-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in menopause-associated hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The role of antioxidants in this process is unclear. We questioned whether the downregulation of thioredoxin (TRX) is associated with oxidative stress and the development of hypertension and target-organ damage (cardiac hypertrophy) in a menopause model. TRX is an endogenous antioxidant that also interacts with signaling molecules, such as apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (ASK-1), independently of its antioxidant function. Aged female wild-type (WT) and follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice (20-24 wk), with hormonal imbalances, were studied. Mice were infused with ANG II (400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1); 14 days). Systolic blood pressure was increased by ANG II in WT (166+/-8 vs. 121+/-5 mmHg) and FORKO (176+/-7 vs. 115+/-5 mmHg; P<0.0001; n=9/group) mice. In ANG II-infused FORKO mice, cardiac mass was increased by 42% (P<0.001). This was associated with increased collagen content and augmented ERK1/2 phosphorylation (2-fold). Cardiac TRX expression and activity were decreased by ANG II in FORKO but not in WT (P<0.01) mice. ASK-1 expression, cleaved caspase III content, and Bax/Bcl-2 content were increased in ANG II-infused FORKO (P<0.05). ANG II had no effect on cardiac NAD(P)H oxidase activity or on O(2)(*-) levels in WT or FORKO. Cardiac ANG II type 1 receptor expression was similar in FORKO and WT. These findings indicate that in female FORKO, ANG II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are associated with the TRX downregulation and upregulation of ASK-1/caspase signaling. Our data suggest that in a model of menopause, protective actions of TRX may be blunted, which could contribute to cardiac remodeling independently of oxidative stress and hypertension.

  17. Single-Cell Expression Profiling Reveals a Dynamic State of Cardiac Precursor Cells in the Early Mouse Embryo.

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    Ioannis Kokkinopoulos

    Full Text Available In the early vertebrate embryo, cardiac progenitor/precursor cells (CPs give rise to cardiac structures. Better understanding their biological character is critical to understand the heart development and to apply CPs for the clinical arena. However, our knowledge remains incomplete. With the use of single-cell expression profiling, we have now revealed rapid and dynamic changes in gene expression profiles of the embryonic CPs during the early phase after their segregation from the cardiac mesoderm. Progressively, the nascent mesodermal gene Mesp1 terminated, and Nkx2-5+/Tbx5+ population rapidly replaced the Tbx5low+ population as the expression of the cardiac genes Tbx5 and Nkx2-5 increased. At the Early Headfold stage, Tbx5-expressing CPs gradually showed a unique molecular signature with signs of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Lineage-tracing revealed a developmentally distinct characteristic of this population. They underwent progressive differentiation only towards the cardiomyocyte lineage corresponding to the first heart field rather than being maintained as a progenitor pool. More importantly, Tbx5 likely plays an important role in a transcriptional network to regulate the distinct character of the FHF via a positive feedback loop to activate the robust expression of Tbx5 in CPs. These data expands our knowledge on the behavior of CPs during the early phase of cardiac development, subsequently providing a platform for further study.

  18. Single-Cell Expression Profiling Reveals a Dynamic State of Cardiac Precursor Cells in the Early Mouse Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinopoulos, Ioannis; Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Ruchaya, Prashant; Cabrera, Claudia; Struebig, Monika; Barnes, Michael; Terry, Anna; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Coppen, Steven; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Ameen, Torath; Mein, Charles; Hamada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken; Yashiro, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    In the early vertebrate embryo, cardiac progenitor/precursor cells (CPs) give rise to cardiac structures. Better understanding their biological character is critical to understand the heart development and to apply CPs for the clinical arena. However, our knowledge remains incomplete. With the use of single-cell expression profiling, we have now revealed rapid and dynamic changes in gene expression profiles of the embryonic CPs during the early phase after their segregation from the cardiac mesoderm. Progressively, the nascent mesodermal gene Mesp1 terminated, and Nkx2-5+/Tbx5+ population rapidly replaced the Tbx5low+ population as the expression of the cardiac genes Tbx5 and Nkx2-5 increased. At the Early Headfold stage, Tbx5-expressing CPs gradually showed a unique molecular signature with signs of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Lineage-tracing revealed a developmentally distinct characteristic of this population. They underwent progressive differentiation only towards the cardiomyocyte lineage corresponding to the first heart field rather than being maintained as a progenitor pool. More importantly, Tbx5 likely plays an important role in a transcriptional network to regulate the distinct character of the FHF via a positive feedback loop to activate the robust expression of Tbx5 in CPs. These data expands our knowledge on the behavior of CPs during the early phase of cardiac development, subsequently providing a platform for further study.

  19. 钙化积分扫描缩短冠脉CTA扫描范围及降低辐射量的作用%Effect of calcium scoring scan in reducing scan range and radiation dose in retrospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付维东; 龚建平; 宦坚; 张伟; 张博; 乔方

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find out a way of reducing scan range in retrospectively ECG-gated CT coronary angiography in order to reduce the radiation dose. Methods: Forty consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. The scan range of CT coronary angiography derived respectively from the scout view and from the axial images of calcium scoring were compared. The former was assumed to be determined from 1cm under the trachea carina to 2cm under the inferior margin of the heart. The latter was performed by identifying the left anterior descending coronary artery and posterior descending coronary artery and adding lcm cranially and caudally. Effective radiation doses were calculated for CT coronary angiography using both scout view-derived and calcium scoring-derived scan range. Results: The calcium scoring-derived range was (10. 40+.0. 60)cm; while the scout view-derived range was (12. 5 ± 0. 94)cm which was significantly larger than that of using the calcium scoring-derived scan (t = 17. 31,P<0. 01). The average difference between them was (2. 09±0. 76)cm, corresponding to a radiation dose reduction of (1. 67 ±0. 72)mSv. After offsetting the dose given for the calcium scoring scan,the savings in radiation exposure when using a calcium scoring-derived instead of a scout view-derived scan range for CT coronary angiography -including the radiation dose of the calcium scoring scan and the test bolus scan- was (1. 25 + 0. 72)mSv (t=10. 92.P<0. 01) ,which accounted for a dose reduction of 9. 20%. Conclusion:Using the images from calcium scoring instead of the scout view to determine the scan range of contrast-unenhanced CT coronary angiography can effectively decrease the scan range and reduce the radiation dose significantly.%目的:探讨使用钙化积分扫描缩短增强扫描范围以降低后门控冠状动脉CTA检查辐射量的临床应用价值.方法:40例患者行冠脉钙化积分及冠脉CTA检查,其增强扫描的实际扫描范围根据钙化积分扫描图

  20. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bor-Tsang; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tasi, Ching-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Kao, Chung-Lan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da

    2016-04-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Heart disease is the second leading cause of death in patients with Huntington's disease. This study was to evaluate whether cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways are activated in transgenic mice with Huntington's disease. Sixteen Huntington's disease transgenic mice (HD) and sixteen wild-type (WT) littermates were studied at 10.5 weeks of age. The cardiac characteristics, myocardial architecture, and two major apoptotic pathways in the excised left ventricle from mice were measured by histopathological analysis, Western blotting, and TUNEL assays. The whole heart weight and the left ventricular weight decreased significantly in the HD group, as compared to the WT group. Abnormal myocardial architecture, enlarged interstitial spaces, and more cardiac TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the HD group. The key components of Fas-dependent apoptosis (TNF-alpha, TNFR1, Fas ligand, Fas death receptors, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3) and the key components of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis (Bax, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, cytosolic cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3) increased significantly in the hearts of the HD group. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways were activated in transgenic mice with Huntington's disease, which might provide one of possible mechanisms to explain why patients with Huntington's disease will develop heart failure.

  1. Canadian Association of Radiologists: consensus guidelines and standards for cardiac CT

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    Dennie, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: cdennie@toh.on.ca; Leipsic, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Cardiology, Univ. of British Columbia and St Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Brydie, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Dalhousie Univ. and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Invasive coronary angiography remains the gold standard for imaging of the coronary arteries. Because of poor temporal and spatial resolution, noninvasive imaging of the heart using computed tomography (CT) had remained a challenge until the recent past. Since 1999, and the advent of 4-detector electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CT, there have been rapid technical developments in CT technology and postprocessing tools, thus enabling an accurate noninvasive assessment of cardiac anatomy including the coronary arteries as well as cardiac function. Today, this relatively new technique increasingly is being requested and performed on a routine basis. Although guidelines and standards for the performance of cardiac CT (CCT) have been published by other societies outside of Canada [1-5], the Canadian Association of Radiologists recognizes that Canadian radiologists play a leading and pivotal role in the safe and proper implementation of CCT throughout the country, as well as in the training and continuing medical education of physicians performing and interpreting CCT studies. This comprehensive article reviews the current evidence for CCT to date and outlines the standards for the implementation of a CCT program. Based on the review of the current literature and on expert opinion, recommendations regarding indications and contraindications for CCT also are provided. (author)

  2. Serum Positive for the Autoantibody against the β1-Adrenoceptor from Chinese Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Decreases Iss in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies targeting the β1-adrenergic receptor (AAB-β1 display agonist-like effects, which may have a pathogenic role in the progression of heart failure. Here, we used the electrophysiological recordings to explore the effects of AAB-β1-positive serum from Chinese patients with heart failure on the activity of the peak transient outward potassium current (Ito and the end 50 ms steady-state potassium current (Iss in mouse cardiac myocytes. We found that the AAB-β1-positive serum had no effect on the activity of Ito, but it produced a decrease in the currents of Iss. A low concentration of positive serum (1/100 had a small inhibitory effect on Iss. However, positive serum at 1 : 10, 1 : 20, and 1 : 50 significantly decreased Iss. The concentration-dependence analysis showed that the EC50 of AAB-β1-positive serum was 1/60.24 and its nH was 2.86. It indicated that the AAB-β1 could inhibit Iss in mouse cardiomyocyte in a concentration-dependent manner.

  3. Cardiomyopathy-related mutation (A30V) in mouse cardiac troponin T divergently alters the magnitude of stretch activation in α- and β-myosin heavy chain fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Alexis V; Gollapudi, Sampath K; Chandra, Murali

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation A28V in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the NH2 terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the functional effect of the NH2 terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms. Recombinant wild-type mouse TnT (TnTWT) and the mouse equivalent of the human A28V mutation (TnTA30V) were reconstituted into detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fibers extracted from normal (α-MHC) and transgenic (β-MHC) mice. Dynamic and steady-state contractile parameters were measured in reconstituted muscle fibers. Step-like length perturbation experiments demonstrated that TnTA30V decreased the magnitude of the muscle length-mediated recruitment of new force-bearing cross bridges (ER) by 30% in α-MHC fibers. In sharp contrast, TnTA30V increased ER by 55% in β-MHC fibers. Inferences drawn from other dynamic contractile parameters suggest that directional changes in ER in TnTA30V + α-MHC and TnTA30V + β-MHC fibers result from a divergent impact on cross bridge-regulatory unit (troponin-tropomyosin complex) cooperativity. TnTA30V-mediated effects on Ca(2+)-activated maximal tension and instantaneous muscle fiber stiffness (ED) were also divergently affected by α- and β-MHC. Our study demonstrates that TnTA30V + α-MHC and TnTA30V + β-MHC fibers show contrasting contractile phenotypes; however, only the observations from β-MHC fibers are consistent with the clinical data for A28V in humans.

  4. Image artefact propagation in motion estimation and reconstruction in interventional cardiac C-arm CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Maier, A K; Schwemmer, C; Lauritsch, G; De Buck, S; Wielandts, J-Y; Hornegger, J; Fahrig, R

    2014-06-21

    The acquisition of data for cardiac imaging using a C-arm computed tomography system requires several seconds and multiple heartbeats. Hence, incorporation of motion correction in the reconstruction step may improve the resulting image quality. Cardiac motion can be estimated by deformable three-dimensional (3D)/3D registration performed on initial 3D images of different heart phases. This motion information can be used for a motion-compensated reconstruction allowing the use of all acquired data for image reconstruction. However, the result of the registration procedure and hence the estimated deformations are influenced by the quality of the initial 3D images. In this paper, the sensitivity of the 3D/3D registration step to the image quality of the initial images is studied. Different reconstruction algorithms are evaluated for a recently proposed cardiac C-arm CT acquisition protocol. The initial 3D images are all based on retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated data. ECG-gating of data from a single C-arm rotation provides only a few projections per heart phase for image reconstruction. This view sparsity leads to prominent streak artefacts and a poor signal to noise ratio. Five different initial image reconstructions are evaluated: (1) cone beam filtered-backprojection (FDK), (2) cone beam filtered-backprojection and an additional bilateral filter (FFDK), (3) removal of the shadow of dense objects (catheter, pacing electrode, etc) before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection (cathFDK), (4) removal of the shadow of dense objects before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection and a bilateral filter (cathFFDK). The last method (5) is an iterative few-view reconstruction (FV), the prior image constrained compressed sensing combined with the improved total variation algorithm. All reconstructions are investigated with respect to the final motion-compensated reconstruction quality. The algorithms were tested on a mathematical

  5. The dopamine D3 receptor knockout mouse mimics aging-related changes in autonomic function and cardiac fibrosis.

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    Tracy L Johnson

    Full Text Available Blood pressure increases with age, and dysfunction of the dopamine D3 receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. To evaluate the role of the D3 receptor in aging-related hypertension, we assessed cardiac structure and function in differently aged (2 mo, 1 yr, 2 yr wild type (WT and young (2 mo D3 receptor knockout mice (D3KO. In WT, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and rate-pressure product (RPP significantly increased with age, while heart rate significantly decreased. Blood pressure values, heart rate and RPP of young D3KO were significantly elevated over age-matched WT, but similar to those of the 2 yr old WT. Echocardiography revealed that the functional measurements of ejection fraction and fractional shortening decreased significantly with age in WT and that they were significantly smaller in D3KO compared to young WT. Despite this functional change however, cardiac morphology remained similar between the age-matched WT and D3KO. Additional morphometric analyses confirmed an aging-related increase in left ventricle (LV and myocyte cross-sectional areas in WT, but found no difference between age-matched young WT and D3KO. In contrast, interstitial fibrosis, which increased with age in WT, was significantly elevated in the D3KO over age-matched WT, and similar to 2 yr old WT. Western analyses of myocardial homogenates revealed significantly increased levels of pro- and mature collagen type I in young D3KO. Column zymography revealed that activities of myocardial MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased with age in WTs, but in D3KO, only MMP-9 activity was significantly increased over age-matched WTs. Our data provide evidence that the dopamine D3 receptor has a critical role in the emergence of aging-related cardiac fibrosis, remodeling, and dysfunction.

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy mutation (R134W in mouse cardiac troponin T induces greater contractile deficits against α-myosin heavy chain than against β-myosin heavy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath K Gollapudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that depressed myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is common to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM in humans. However, it remains unclear whether a single determinant — such as myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity — is sufficient to characterize all cases of DCM because the severity of disease varies widely with a given mutation. Because dynamic features dominate in the heart muscle, alterations in dynamic contractile parameters may offer better insight on the molecular mechanisms that underlie disparate effects of DCM mutations on cardiac phenotypes. Dynamic features are dominated by myofilament cooperativity that stem from different sources. One such source is the strong tropomyosin binding region in troponin T (TnT, which is known to modulate crossbridge (XB recruitment dynamics in a myosin heavy chain (MHC-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that the effects of DCM-linked mutations in TnT on contractile dynamics would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC. After reconstitution with the mouse TnT equivalent (TnTR134W of the human DCM mutation (R131W, we measured dynamic contractile parameters in detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fiber bundles from normal (α-MHC and transgenic mice (β-MHC. TnTR134W significantly attenuated the rate constants of tension redevelopment, XB recruitment dynamics, XB distortion dynamics, and the magnitude of length-mediated XB recruitment only in α-MHC fiber bundles. TnTR134W decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity to a greater extent in α-MHC (0.14 pCa units than in β-MHC fiber bundles (0.08 pCa units. Thus, our data demonstrate that TnTR134W induces a more severe DCM-like contractile phenotype against α-MHC than against β-MHC background.

  7. Lengthening-contractions in isolated myocardium impact force development and worsen cardiac contractile function in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Janssen, Paul M L

    2011-02-01

    Lengthening-contractions exert eccentric stress on myofibers in normal myocardium. In congestive heart failure caused by a variety of diseases, the impact of lengthening-contractions of myocardium likely becomes more prevalent and severe. The present study introduces a method to investigate the role of stretching imposed by repetitive lengthening-contractions in myocardium under near-physiological conditions. By exerting various stretch-release ramps while the muscle is contracting, consecutive lengthening-contractions and their potential detrimental effect on cardiac function can be studied. We tested our model and hypothesis in age-matched (young and adult) mdx and wild-type mouse right ventricular trabeculae. These linear and ultrathin muscles possess all major cardiac cell types, and their contractile behavior very closely mimics that of the whole myocardium. In the first group of experiments, 10 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes of stretch were performed in trabeculae from 10-wk-old mdx and wild-type mice. In the second group, 100 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes were conducted in trabeculae from 10- and 20-wk-old mice. The peak isometric active developed tension (F(dev), in mN/mm(2)) and kinetic parameters time to peak tension (TTP, in ms) and time from peak tension to half-relaxation (RT50, in ms) were measured. Our results indicate lengthening-contractions significantly impact contractile behavior, and that dystrophin-deficient myocardium in mdx mice is significantly more susceptible to these damaging lengthening-contractions. The results indicate that lengthening-contractions in intact myocardium can be used in vitro to study this emerging contributor to cardiomyopathy.

  8. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

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    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Alexandre Costa [Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Cláudio Campi de; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A. [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer, E-mail: msbittencourt@mail.harvard.edu [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure.

  9. Multiple nickel-sensitive targets elicit cardiac arrhythmia in isolated mouse hearts after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-mediated chronotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevoufouet, Etienne E; Nembo, Erastus N; Distler, Fabian; Neumaier, Felix; Hescheler, Jürgen; Nguemo, Filomain; Schneider, Toni

    2017-03-01

    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 modulates various biological processes, from the cellular level to function specification. However, the cardiac actions of this neuropeptide are still under intense studies. Using control (+|+) and mice lacking (-|-) either R-type (Cav2.3) or T-type (Cav3.2) Ca(2+) channels, we investigated the effects of PACAP-27 on cardiac activity of spontaneously beating isolated perfused hearts. Superfusion of PACAP-27 (20nM) caused a significant increase of baseline heart frequency in Cav2.3(+|+) (156.9±10.8 to 239.4±23.4 bpm; p<0.01) and Cav2.3(-|-) (190.3±26.4 to 270.5±25.8 bpm; p<0.05) hearts. For Cav3.2, the heart rate was significantly increased in Cav3.2(-|-) (133.1±8.5 bpm to 204.6±27.9 bpm; p<0.05) compared to Cav3.2(+|+) hearts (185.7±11.2 bpm to 209.3±22.7 bpm). While the P wave duration and QTc interval were significantly increased in Cav2.3(+|+) and Cav2.3(-|-) hearts following PACAP-27 superfusion, there was no effect in Cav3.2(+|+) and Cav3.2(-|-) hearts. The positive chronotropic effects observed in the four study groups, as well as the effect on P wave duration and QTc interval were abolished in the presence of Ni(2+) (50μM) and PACAP-27 (20nM) in hearts from Cav2.3(+|+) and Cav2.3(-|-) mice. In addition to suppressing PACAP's response, Ni(2+) also induced conduction disturbances in investigated hearts. In conclusion, the most Ni(2+)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (R- and T-type) may modulate the PACAP signaling cascade during cardiac excitation in isolated mouse hearts, albeit to a lesser extent than other Ni(2+)-sensitive targets.

  10. Cardiac C-arm CT: 4D non-model based heart motion estimation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prümmer, M.; Fahrig, R.; Wigström, L.; Boese, J.; Lauritsch, G.; Strobel, N.; Hornegger, J.

    2007-03-01

    The combination of real-time fluoroscopy and 3D cardiac imaging on the same C-arm system is a promising technique that might improve therapy planning, guiding, and monitoring in the interventional suite. In principal, to reconstruct a 3D image of the beating heart at a particular cardiac phase, a complete set of X-ray projection data representing that phase is required. One approximate approach is the retrospectively ECG-gated FDK reconstruction (RG-FDK). From the acquired data set of N s multiple C-arm sweeps, those projection images which are acquired closest in time to the desired cardiac phase are retrospectively selected. However, this approach uses only 1/ N s of the obtained data. Our goal is to utilize data from other cardiac phases as well. In order to minimize blurring and motion artifacts, cardiac motion has to be compensated for, which can be achieved using a temporally dependent spatial 3D warping of the filtered-backprojections. In this work we investigate the computation of the 4D heart motion based on prior reconstructions of several cardiac phases using RG-FDK. A 4D motion estimation framework is presented using standard fast non-rigid registration. A smooth 4D motion vector field (MVF) represents the relative deformation compared to a reference cardiac phase. A 4D deformation regridding by adaptive supersampling allows selecting any reference phase independently of the set of phases used in the RG-FDK for a motion corrected reconstruction. Initial promising results from in vivo experiments are shown. The subjects individual 4D cardiac MVF could be computed from only three RG-FDK image volumes. In addition, all acquired projection data were motion corrected and subsequently used for image reconstruction to improve the signal-to-noise ratio compared to RG-FDK.

  11. In vivo cardiac glucose metabolism in the high-fat fed mouse: Comparison of euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp derived measures of glucose uptake with a dynamic metabolomic flux profiling approach

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    Kowalski, Greg M., E-mail: greg.kowalski@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); De Souza, David P. [Metabolomics Australia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Risis, Steve [Cellular and Molecular Metabolism Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Burch, Micah L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hamley, Steven [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Kloehn, Joachim [Metabolomics Australia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Selathurai, Ahrathy [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Lee-Young, Robert S. [Cellular and Molecular Metabolism Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia; O' Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J. [Metabolomics Australia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruce, Clinton R. [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia)

    2015-08-07

    Rationale: Cardiac metabolism is thought to be altered in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our understanding of the regulation of cardiac substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity has largely been derived from ex vivo preparations which are not subject to the same metabolic regulation as in the intact heart in vivo. Studies are therefore required to examine in vivo cardiac glucose metabolism under physiologically relevant conditions. Objective: To determine the temporal pattern of the development of cardiac insulin resistance and to compare with dynamic approaches to interrogate cardiac glucose and intermediary metabolism in vivo. Methods and results: Studies were conducted to determine the evolution of cardiac insulin resistance in C57Bl/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for between 1 and 16 weeks. Dynamic in vivo cardiac glucose metabolism was determined following oral administration of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose. Hearts were collected after 15 and 60 min and flux profiling was determined by measuring {sup 13}C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Cardiac insulin resistance, determined by euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp, was evident after 3 weeks of HFD. Despite the presence of insulin resistance, in vivo cardiac glucose metabolism following oral glucose administration was not compromised in HFD mice. This contrasts our recent findings in skeletal muscle, where TCA cycle activity was reduced in mice fed a HFD. Similar to our report in muscle, glucose derived pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle in the heart was almost exclusively via pyruvate dehydrogenase, with pyruvate carboxylase mediated anaplerosis being negligible after oral glucose administration. Conclusions: Under experimental conditions which closely mimic the postprandial state, the insulin resistant mouse heart retains the ability to stimulate glucose metabolism. - Highlights: • Insulin clamp was used to determine the evolution of cardiac

  12. Targeted disruption of the mouse Csrp2 gene encoding the cysteine- and glycine-rich LIM domain protein CRP2 result in subtle alteration of cardiac ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll Doris

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine and glycine rich protein 2 (CRP2 encoded by the Csrp2 gene is a LIM domain protein expressed in the vascular system, particularly in smooth muscle cells. It exhibits a bimodal subcellular distribution, accumulating at actin-based filaments in the cytosol and in the nucleus. In order to analyze the function of CRP2 in vivo, we disrupted the Csrp2 gene in mice and analysed the resulting phenotype. Results A ~17.3 kbp fragment of the murine Csrp2 gene containing exon 3 through 6 was isolated. Using this construct we confirmed the recently determined chromosomal localization (Chromosome 10, best fit location between markers D10Mit203 proximal and D10Mit150 central. A gene disruption cassette was cloned into exon 4 and a mouse strain lacking functional Csrp2 was generated. Mice lacking CRP2 are viable and fertile and have no obvious deficits in reproduction and survival. However, detailed histological and electron microscopic studies reveal that CRP2-deficient mice have subtle alterations in their cardiac ultrastructure. In these mice, the cardiomyocytes display a slight increase in their thickness, indicating moderate hypertrophy at the cellular level. Although the expression of several intercalated disc-associated proteins such as β-catenin, N-RAP and connexin-43 were not affected in these mice, the distribution of respective proteins was changed within heart tissue. Conclusion We conclude that the lack of CRP2 is associated with alterations in cardiomyocyte thickness and hypertrophy.

  13. Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in a mouse model of Rett syndrome with Na+-channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Pitcher, Meagan R; Percy, Alan K; Skinner, Steven; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2015-04-01

    One quarter of deaths associated with Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, are sudden and unexpected. RTT is associated with prolonged QTc interval (LQT), and LQT-associated cardiac arrhythmias are a potential cause of unexpected death. The standard of care for LQT in RTT is treatment with β-adrenergic antagonists; however, recent work indicates that acute treatment of mice with RTT with a β-antagonist, propranolol, does not prevent lethal arrhythmias. In contrast, acute treatment with the Na(+) channel blocker phenytoin prevented arrhythmias. Chronic dosing of propranolol may be required for efficacy; therefore, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with either propranolol or phenytoin on RTT mice. Phenytoin completely abolished arrhythmias, whereas propranolol showed no benefit. Surprisingly, phenytoin also normalized weight and activity, but worsened breathing patterns. To explore the role of Na(+) channel blockers on QT in people with RTT, we performed a retrospective analysis of QT status before and after Na(+) channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Individuals with RTT and LQT significantly improved their QT interval status after being started on Na(+) channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Thus, Na(+) channel blockers should be considered for the clinical management of LQT in individuals with RTT.

  14. Gene-Specific Assessment of Guanine Oxidation as an Epigenetic Modulator for Cardiac Specification of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonghoon Park

    Full Text Available Epigenetics have essential roles in development and human diseases. Compared to the complex histone modifications, epigenetic changes on mammalian DNA are as simple as methylation on cytosine. Guanine, however, can be oxidized as an epigenetic change which can undergo base-pair transversion, causing a genetic difference. Accumulating evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are important signaling molecules for embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation, possibly through transient changes on genomic DNA such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG. Technical limitations on detecting such DNA modifications, however, restrict the investigation of the role of 8-oxoG in ESC differentiation. Here, we developed a Hoogsteen base pairing-mediated PCR-sequencing assay to detect 8-oxoG lesions that can subsequently cause G to T transversions during PCR. We then used this assay to assess the epigenetic and transient 8-oxoG formation in the Tbx5 gene of R1 mouse ESCs subjected to oxidative stress by removing 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME from the culture media. To our surprise, significantly higher numbers of 8-oxoG-mediated G∙C to C∙G transversion, not G∙C to T∙A, were detected at 7th and 9th base position from the transcription start site of exon 1 of Tbx5 in ESCs in the (-2ME than (+2ME group (p < 0.05. This was consistent with the decrease in the amount of amplifiable of DNA harboring the 8-oxoG lesions at the Tbx5 promoter region in the oxidative stressed ESCs. The ESCs responded to oxidative stress, possibly through the epigenetic effects of guanine oxidation with decreased proliferation (p < 0.05 and increased formation of beating embryoid bodies (EBs; p < 0.001. Additionally, the epigenetic changes of guanine induced up-regulation of Ogg1 and PolB, two base excision repairing genes for 8-oxoG, in ESCs treated with (-2ME (p < 0.01. Together, we developed a gene-specific and direct quantification assay for guanine oxidation. Using oxidative

  15. Method for Automatic Tube Current Selection for Obtaining a Consistent Image Quality and Dose Optimization in a Cardiac Multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Weiwei; Du, Xiangke [Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate a quantitative method for individually adjusting the tube current to obtain images with consistent noise in electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CT cardiac scans. The image noise from timing bolus and cardiac CT scans of 80 patients (Group A) who underwent a 64-row multidetector (MD) CT cardiac examination with patient-independent scan parameters were analyzed. A formula was established using the noise correlation between the timing bolus and cardiac scans. This formula was used to predict the required tube current to obtain the desired cardiac CT image noise based on the timing bolus noise measurement. Subsequently, 80 additional cardiac patients (Group B) were scanned with individually adjusted tube currents using an established formula to evaluate its ability to obtain accurate and consistent image noise across the patient population. Image quality was evaluated using score scale of 1 to 5 with a score of 3 or higher being clinically acceptable. Using the formula, we obtained an average CT image noise of 28.55 Hounsfield unit (HU), with a standard deviation of only 1.7 HU, as opposed to a target value of 28 HU. Image quality scores were 4.03 and 4.27 for images in Groups A and B, respectively, and there was no statistical difference between the image quality scores between the two groups. However, the average CT dose index (CTDIvol) was 30% lower for Group B. Adjusting the tube current based on timing bolus scans may provide a consistent image quality and dose optimization for cardiac patients of various body mass index values.

  16. Evaluation of blood signal in cardiac MR imaging using ''black-blood'' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Yamada, Takayuki; Tamura, Akihisa; Miyasaka, Kenji; Kohata, Minako; Ono, Chiaki; Kajima, Toshio; Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Degradation of image quality encountered in cardiac imaging has been attributed to flowing blood signal in the ventricular cavity. To solve this problem, a sequence in which a pair of selective and non-selective inversion pulse in used for a preparation pulse, has been proposed. However, even with this sequence we frequently observed the signal in the blood pool caused by blood itself rather than blood flow. In this article, we investigated the characteristics of those signals. Five healthy normal volunteers and 13 patients with ischemic heart disease were scanned with a 1.5-tesla MR imager. Breath-hold ECG gated fast spin echo with the pair of inversion pulses was performed to obtain cardiac images with T{sub 2} contrast. Typical blood signal appeared as inhomogeneous high intense band adjacent to inner surface of left ventricular apex. At ventricular base, no such signal was encountered even at akinetic myocardium in patients with old myocardial infarction. This signal was observed in all volunteers and 39% of patients. Decrease of TR resulting from tachycardia tended to reduce the blood signal in the left ventricular cavity. Thicker slice section and selective inversion pulse tended to increase the blood signal. Recognition of the signal is essential to differentiate true myocardial infarcts from blood signal, although bright blood imaging like gradient echo or thinner section can partly be helpful. (author)

  17. Chromosome Y variants from different inbred mouse strains are linked to differences in the morphologic and molecular responses of cardiac cells to postpubertal testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported previously that when chromosome Y (chrY from the mouse strain C57BL/6J (ChrYC57 was substituted for that of A/J mice (ChrYA, cardiomyocytes from the resulting "chromosome substitution" C57BL/6J-chrYA strain were smaller than that of their C57BL/6J counterparts. In reverse, when chrYA from A/J mice was substituted for that of chrYC57, cardiomyocytes from the resulting A/J-chrYC57 strain were larger than in their A/J counterparts. We further used these strains to test whether: 1 the origin of chrY could also be linked to differences in the profile of gene expression in the hearts of adult male mice, and 2 post-pubertal testosterone could play a role in the differential morphologic and/or molecular effects of chrYC57 and chrYA. Results The increased size of cardiomyocytes from adult male C57BL/6J mice compared to C57BL/6J-chrYA resulted from the absence of hypertrophic effects of post-pubertal testosterone on cells from the latter strain. However, gene profiling revealed that the latter effect could not be explained on the basis of an insensitivity of cells from C57BL/6J-chrYA to androgens, since even more cardiac genes were affected by post-pubertal testosterone in C57BL/6J-chrYA hearts than in C57BL/6J. By testing for interaction between the effects of surgery and strain, we identified 249 "interaction genes" whose expression was affected by post-pubertal testosterone differentially according to the genetic origin of chrY. These interaction genes were found to be enriched within a limited number of signaling pathways, including: 1 p53 signaling, which comprises the interacting genes Ccnd1, Pten and Cdkn1a that are also potential co-regulators of the androgen receptors, and 2 circadian rhythm, which comprises Arntl/Bmal1, which may in turn regulate cell growth via the control of Cdkn1a. Conclusion Although post-pubertal testosterone increased the size of cardiomyocytes from male C56BL/6J mice but not that from

  18. 一种新的免疫抑制剂FTY720对小鼠心脏移植的救治作用%FTY720, a new immunosuppressant,as rescue therapy in mouse cardiac transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭辉; Vitaliy MILEKHIN; 张华; 黄洪铮

    2003-01-01

    AIM: FTY720 is a new synthetic immunosuppressive agent which has a unique mechanism of action and induces long-term graft acceptance in rat and dog allotransplantation as prophylactic administration. The present study investigated whether FTY720 was able to rescue ongoing acute rejection of solid organ transplants in a mouse heterotopic cardiac transplantation model. METHODS: BALB/c hearts were heterotopically grafted in C57BL/6 mice. FTY720, at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 5 mg@kg-1.d-1 or vehicle was administered to recipients once daily by oral gavage from d 3 to d 7 after transplantation. Histological changes of grafts, and the lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and the peripheral lymph nodes were determined on d 5 after transplantation. RESULTS: FTY720 prolonged the median graft survival time dose-dependently and significantly. Histological evaluation revealed less lymphocytic infiltration in cardiac allografts treated with FTY720. Moreover, FTY720 remarkably lowered the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes but significantly increased the lymphocyte number in the mesenteric lymph nodes and the peripheral lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: FTY720 used orally as rescue therapy significantly extended allograft survival in mouse heterotopic cardiac transplantation.

  19. 3D perfusion mapping in the intact mouse heart after myocardial infarction using myocardial contrast echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinbo; Yang, Zequan; French, Brent A.; Hossack, John A.

    2005-04-01

    An intact mouse model of surgically-induced myocardial infarction (MI) caused by permanent occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery was studied. Normal mice with no occlusion were also studied as controls. For each mouse, contrast enhanced ultrasound images of the heart were acquired in parallel cross-sections perpendicular to the sternum at millimeter increments. For accurate 3D reconstruction, ECG gating and a tri-axial adjustable micromanipulator were used for temporal and spatial registration. Ultrasound images at steady-state of blood refilling were color-coded in each slice to show relative perfusion. Myocardial perfusion defects and necrosis were also examined postmortem by staining with Phthalo blue and TTC red dyes. Good correlation (R>0.93) in perfused area size was observed between in vivo measurements and histological staining. A 3D multi-slice model and a 3D rendering of perfusion distribution were created and showed a promising match with postmortem results, lending further credence to its use as a more comprehensive and more reliable tool for in vivo assessment of myocardial perfusion than 2D tomographic analysis.

  20. MDCT evaluation of aortic root and aortic valve prior to TAVI. What is the optimal imaging time point in the cardiac cycle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurencak, Tomas; Turek, Jakub; Nijssen, Estelle C. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, Bastiaan L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ommen, Vincent G.V.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Garsse, Leen A.F.M. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To determine the optimal imaging time point for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) therapy planning by comprehensive evaluation of the aortic root. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) examination with retrospective ECG gating was retrospectively performed in 64 consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI assessment. Eighteen different parameters of the aortic root were evaluated at 11 different time points in the cardiac cycle. Time points at which maximal (or minimal) sizes were determined, and dimension differences to other time points were evaluated. Theoretical prosthesis sizing based on different measurements was compared. Largest dimensions were found between 10 and 20 % of the cardiac cycle for annular short diameter (10 %); mean diameter (10 %); effective diameter and circumference-derived diameter (20 %); distance from the annulus to right coronary artery ostium (10 %); aortic root at the left coronary artery level (20 %); aortic root at the widest portion of coronary sinuses (20 %); and right leaflet length (20 %). Prosthesis size selection differed depending on the chosen measurements in 25-75 % of cases. Significant changes in anatomical structures of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are crucial for TAVI planning. Imaging in systole is mandatory to obtain maximal dimensions. (orig.)

  1. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballinger Michelle R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed.

  2. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, W. Paul; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  3. Novel phase-based noise reduction strategy for quantification of left ventricular function and mass assessment by cardiac CT: Comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Bryan, E-mail: bwai@partners.org [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thai, Wai-ee [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Heather [Qi Imaging, Redwood City, California (United States); Truong, Quynh A. [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tube current modulation in retrospective ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) results in increased image noise and may reduce the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and mass assessment. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel CT phase-based noise reduction (NR) algorithm on LV EF and mass quantification as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: In 40 subjects, we compared the LV EF and mass between CT and CMR. In a subset of 24 subjects with tube current modulated CT, the effect of phase-based noise reduction strategies on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the assessment of LV EF and mass was compared to CMR. Results: There was excellent correlation between CT and CMR for EF (r = 0.94) and mass (r = 0.97). As compared to CMR, the limits of agreement improved with increasing strength of NR strategy. There was a systematic underestimation of LV mass by CT compared to CMR with no NR (−10.3 ± 10.1 g) and low NR (−10.3 ± 12.5 g), but was attenuated with high NR (−0.5 ± 8.3 g). Studies without NR had lower CNR compared to low and high NR at both the ES phase and ED phase (all p < 0.01). Conclusions: A high NR strategy on tube current modulated functional cardiac CT improves correlation of EF compared to CMR and reduces variability of EF and mass evaluation by increasing the CNR. In an effort to reduce radiation dose with tube current modulation, this strategy provides better image quality when LV function and mass quantification is needed.

  4. Novel phase-based noise reduction strategy for quantification of left ventricular function and mass assessment by cardiac CT: comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Bryan; Thai, Wai-Ee; Brown, Heather; Truong, Quynh A

    2013-08-01

    Tube current modulation in retrospective ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) results in increased image noise and may reduce the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and mass assessment. To examine the effects of a novel CT phase-based noise reduction (NR) algorithm on LV EF and mass quantification as compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In 40 subjects, we compared the LV EF and mass between CT and CMR. In a subset of 24 subjects with tube current modulated CT, the effect of phase-based noise reduction strategies on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the assessment of LV EF and mass was compared to CMR. There was excellent correlation between CT and CMR for EF (r=0.94) and mass (r=0.97). As compared to CMR, the limits of agreement improved with increasing strength of NR strategy. There was a systematic underestimation of LV mass by CT compared to CMR with no NR (-10.3±10.1g) and low NR (-10.3±12.5g), but was attenuated with high NR (-0.5±8.3g). Studies without NR had lower CNR compared to low and high NR at both the ES phase and ED phase (all p<0.01). A high NR strategy on tube current modulated functional cardiac CT improves correlation of EF compared to CMR and reduces variability of EF and mass evaluation by increasing the CNR. In an effort to reduce radiation dose with tube current modulation, this strategy provides better image quality when LV function and mass quantification is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bitopic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3) Antagonist Rescue from Complete Heart Block: Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Direct S1P3 Regulation of Mouse Cardiac Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, M. Germana; Vincent, Kevin P.; Repetto, Emanuela; Nguyen, Nhan; Brown, Steven J.; Abgaryan, Lusine; Riley, Sean W.; Leaf, Nora B.; Cahalan, Stuart M.; Kiosses, William B.; Kohno, Yasushi; Brown, Joan Heller; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pharmacology of the G protein–coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) provides important insight into established and new therapeutic targets. A new, potent bitopic S1P3 antagonist, SPM-354, with in vivo activity, has been used, together with S1P3-knockin and S1P3-knockout mice to define the spatial and functional properties of S1P3 in regulating cardiac conduction. We show that S1P3 is a key direct regulator of cardiac rhythm both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol in vivo and S1P in isolated hearts induced a spectrum of cardiac effects, ranging from sinus bradycardia to complete heart block, as measured by a surface electrocardiogram in anesthetized mice and in volume-conducted Langendorff preparations. The agonist effects on complete heart block are absent in S1P3-knockout mice and are reversed in wild-type mice with SPM-354, as characterized and described here. Homologous knockin of S1P3-mCherry is fully functional pharmacologically and is strongly expressed by immunohistochemistry confocal microscopy in Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Potassium Channel 4 (HCN4)-positive atrioventricular node and His-Purkinje fibers, with relative less expression in the HCN4-positive sinoatrial node. In Langendorff studies, at constant pressure, SPM-354 restored sinus rhythm in S1P-induced complete heart block and fully reversed S1P-mediated bradycardia. S1P3 distribution and function in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system suggest a direct mechanism for heart block risk that should be further studied in humans. A richer understanding of receptor and ligand usage in the pacemaker cells of the cardiac system is likely to be useful in understanding ventricular conduction in health, disease, and pharmacology. PMID:26494861

  6. Cardiac sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies.

  7. Cardiac imaging in diagnostic VCT using multi-sector data acquisition and image reconstruction: step-and-shoot scan vs. helical scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Hsieh, Jiang; Seamans, John L.; Dong, Fang; Okerlund, Darin

    2008-03-01

    Since the advent of multi-slice CT, helical scan has played an increasingly important role in cardiac imaging. With the availability of diagnostic volumetric CT, step-and-shoot scan has been becoming popular recently. Step-and-shoot scan decouples patient table motion from heart beating, and thus the temporal window for data acquisition and image reconstruction can be optimized, resulting in significantly reduced radiation dose, improved tolerance to heart beat rate variation and inter-cycle cardiac motion inconsistency. Multi-sector data acquisition and image reconstruction have been utilized in helical cardiac imaging to improve temporal resolution, but suffers from the coupling of heart beating and patient table motion. Recognizing the clinical demands, the multi-sector data acquisition scheme for step-and-shoot scan is investigated in this paper. The most outstanding feature of the multi-sector data acquisition combined with the stepand- shoot scan is the decoupling of patient table proceeding from heart beating, which offers the opportunities of employing prospective ECG-gating to improve dose efficiency and fine adjusting cardiac imaging phase to suppress artifacts caused by inter-cycle cardiac motion inconsistency. The improvement in temporal resolution and the resultant suppression of motion artifacts are evaluated via motion phantoms driven by artificial ECG signals. Both theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation show promising results for multi-sector data acquisition scheme to be employed with the step-and-shoot scan. With the ever-increasing gantry rotation speed and detector longitudinal coverage in stateof- the-art VCT scanners, it is expected that the step-and-shoot scan with multi-sector data acquisition scheme would play an increasingly important role in cardiac imaging using diagnostic VCT scanners.

  8. Role of the Galectin-7 expression in cardiac allografts in human and mouse%Galectin-7在人和鼠同种异体心脏移植物中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒真龙; 周鸿敏; 黄霞; 方静; 徐洪来; 高义; 杨超; 潘铁成; 陈忠华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the function of galectin-7 in acute rejection through detecting the expression galectin-7 in cardiac allografts in human and mouse.Methods Mouse models of cardiac allografts and isografts were constructed.Western blot and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used for detecting galectin-7 expression in the grafts.IHC was used for detecting galectin-7 expression in nyocardial tissues of 15 heart transplant patients with acute rejection and 10 normal individuals.Results The expression of galectin-7 in mouse allografts was significantly higher than that in isografts (1.34 ± 0.18,0.77 ± 0.03,P < 0.01).Galectin-7 mainly located in lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells in human allografts.Conclusion Galectin-7 is related to the acute rejection in human and mouse cardiac allografts.%目的:通过检测发生急性排斥反应的小鼠及人移植心脏的galectin-7表达,进而分析galectin-7在急排发生过程中的作用.方法:建立小鼠心脏移植模型,分为鼠急排组和鼠对照组.Western blot法和免疫组化法检测小鼠移植心脏galectin-7的表达情况.选择15例心脏移植急排患者(人急排组)和10例正常人(人对照组),免疫组化法检测心肌组织galectin-7的表达.结果:鼠急排组gatectin-7表达明显高于鼠对照组(1.34±0.18,0.77±0.03,P< 0.01).人急排组心脏galectin-7表达明显高于人对照组,且galectin-7主要定位于人急排心脏的浸润淋巴细胞及血管内皮细胞.结论:Galectin-7与人和鼠同种异体心脏移植急性排斥反应有相关性.

  9. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  10. SU-E-T-622: Planning Technique for Passively-Scattered Involved-Node Proton Therapy of Mediastinal Lymphoma with Consideration of Cardiac Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flampouri, S; Li, Z; Hoppe, B [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment planning method for passively-scattered involved-node proton therapy of mediastinal lymphoma robust to breathing and cardiac motions. Methods: Beam-specific planning treatment volumes (bsPTV) are calculated for each proton field to incorporate pertinent uncertainties. Geometric margins are added laterally to each beam while margins for range uncertainty due to setup errors, breathing, and calibration curve uncertainties are added along each beam. The calculation of breathing motion and deformation effects on proton range includes all 4DCT phases. The anisotropic water equivalent margins are translated to distances on average 4DCT. Treatment plans are designed so each beam adequately covers the corresponding bsPTV. For targets close to the heart, cardiac motion effects on dosemaps are estimated by using a library of anonymous ECG-gated cardiac CTs (cCT). The cCT, originally contrast-enhanced, are partially overridden to allow meaningful proton dose calculations. Targets similar to the treatment targets are drawn on one or more cCT sets matching the anatomy of the patient. Plans based on the average cCT are calculated on individual phases, then deformed to the average and accumulated. When clinically significant dose discrepancies occur between planned and accumulated doses, the patient plan is modified to reduce the cardiac motion effects. Results: We found that bsPTVs as planning targets create dose distributions similar to the conventional proton planning distributions, while they are a valuable tool for visualization of the uncertainties. For large targets with variability in motion and depth, integral dose was reduced because of the anisotropic margins. In most cases, heart motion has a clinically insignificant effect on target coverage. Conclusion: A treatment planning method was developed and used for proton therapy of mediastinal lymphoma. The technique incorporates bsPTVs compensating for all common sources of uncertainties

  11. Measurement of four chambers' volumes and ventricular masses by cardiac CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Naito, Hiroaki; Ohta, Mitsushige; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kito, Yoshitsugu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Using cardiac computed tomography (CT), the ''mean'' volume of each cardiac chamber and both ventricular masses were calculated from summation of a sliced volume by ungated scans obtained using rapid sequential scanning covering the whole heart. 1. Estimation of a normal value of each chamber's volume was attempted in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease and with normal heart function. The ''mean'' volume of the right atrium (RAMV), right ventricle (RVMV), and left atrium (LAMV) was 22.3 +- 6.5, 40.3 +- 6.5 and 28.7 +- 8.2ml/m/sup 2/, respectively. 2. In 54 patients with valvular heart diseases, each chamber's volume obrained by CT was compared with the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) estimated by ultrasonic Doppler technique or the grade of mitral regurgitation (MR) by left ventriculography (LVG). The RAMV (234 +- 119 ml/m/sup 2/) and the RVMV (101 +- 39 ml/m/sup 2/) were markedly increased in patients with severe TR (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). The LAMV (487 +- 231 ml/m/sup 2/) was also increased in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). 3. In 46 patients with valvular heart diseases, the LVMV by CT was well correlated with end-diastolic volume (EDV) obtained by LVG (r=0.92), and the LVEDVs by ECG gated CT and by LVG showed a fairly good correlation (r=0.95). 4. CT examination was performed before and after surgery in 17 patients with MR or TR for evaluation of the change of chamber volumes. The mean reduction ratio (MRR) of the RAMV after tricuspid annuloplasty, the LVMV after mitral valve plasty, and the LAMV after left atrial plication was 44%, 41%, and 60%, respectively.

  12. Icariin-mediated expression of cardiac genes and modulation of nitric oxide signaling pathway during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-yan ZHU; Yi-jia LOU

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To investigate effects of icariin on cardiac gene expression and the modulation of nitric oxide (NO)signal transduction during the differentiation of embryonic stem(ES)cells into cardiomyocytes in vitro.Methods:The expression levels of cardiac developmental-dependent genes were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The chronotropic responses of cardiomyocytes to β-adrenoceptor stimulation were determined.The levels of cAMP and cGMP in ES cells were measured using radioimmunoassay.Endogenous NO levels were measured by using the Griess reaction.Aminoguanidine (AG) was used to confirm the influence of icariin on the endogenous NO signal pathway.Results:Icariin significantly elevated mRNA levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5,and cardiac-specific α-MHC,MLC-2ν and β-AR genes in a concentration-and time-dependent manner (P<0.05).Cardiomyocytes derived from embryoid body (EB)treated with icariin were more sensitive to isoprenaline (P<0.01).Treatment of ES cells with icariin resulted in a continued elevation in the cAMP/cGMP ratio before a shift to the cardiomyocyte phenotype (P<0.05).AG decreased the NO level,and delayed and decreased the incidence of contracting EB to only approximately 35% on d 5+11,an effect that could be rescued by icariin.When cells were cocultured with icariin and AG,the percentage of beating EB reached a peak level of 73% on d 5+11(P<0.05).Conclusion:The inducible effects of icariin were partly related to increase in the expression of cardiac developmental-dependent genes,and elevation of the cAMP/cGMP ratio in ES cells,as well as upregulation of endogenous NO generation during the early stages of cardiac development.

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography using blood-pool contrast agents: comparison of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with gadofosveset trisodium in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, J; Taupitz, M; Schellenberger, E A; Warmuth, C; Fahlenkamp, U L; Wagner, S; Kaufels, N; Wagner, M

    2012-02-01

    To compare citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) with gadofosveset trisodium as blood pool contrast agents for cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) in pigs. Animal experiments were approved by the responsible authority. 10 CMRA-like examinations were performed at 1.5 T after administration of VSOP (0.06  mmol Fe/kg; 5 examinations) and gadofosveset trisodium (0.03  mmol Gd/kg; 5 examinations). The CMRA protocol included ECG-gated inversion-recovery-prepared T1-weighted gradient echo imaging (IR-GRE; one slice) and ECG-gated inversion recovery prepared steady state free precession imaging (IR SSFP; one slice) before and 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60  min after injection. At each time point, three different inversion times (TI; 200  msec, 300  msec, and 400  msec) were applied. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between blood and myocardium were calculated and compared using mixed linear models. No significant differences of CNR were found between IR-GRE and IR SSFP. At 3 and 5  min after contrast agent administration, VSOP showed a significantly higher CNR than gadofosveset trisodium when TI of 200  msec and 300 msec were applied (TI of 200  msec at 3 min: 8.2 ± 0.7 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7; TI of 200  msec at 5 min: 7.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8; TI of 300  msec at 3  min: 11.7 ± 0.7 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; TI of 300  msec at 5  min: 11.4 ± 0.7 vs. 8.0 ± 0.8; p VSOP were found for all time points from 10 to 40  min irrespective of TI (p VSOP has superior blood-pool properties compared to gadofosveset trisodium resulting in prolonged improvement of CNR on CMRA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography using blood-pool contrast agents. Comparison of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with gadofosveset trisodium in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, J.; Taupitz, M.; Schellenberger, E.A.; Warmuth, C.; Wagner, S.; Kaufels, N.; Wagner, M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fahlenkamp, U.L. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To compare citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) with gadofosveset trisodium as blood pool contrast agents for cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) in pigs. Materials and Methods: Animal experiments were approved by the responsible authority. 10 CMRA-like examinations were performed at 1.5 T after administration of VSOP (0.06 mmol Fe/kg; 5 examinations) and gadofosveset trisodium (0.03 mmol Gd/kg; 5 examinations). The CMRA protocol included ECG-gated inversion-recovery-prepared T1-weighted gradient echo imaging (IR-GRE; one slice) and ECG-gated inversion recovery prepared steady state free precession imaging (IR SSFP; one slice) before and 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after injection. At each time point, three different inversion times (TI; 200 msec, 300 msec, and 400 msec) were applied. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between blood and myocardium were calculated and compared using mixed linear models. Results: No significant differences of CNR were found between IR-GRE and IR SSFP. At 3 and 5 min after contrast agent administration, VSOP showed a significantly higher CNR than gadofosveset trisodium when TI of 200 msec and 300 msec were applied (TI of 200 msec at 3 min: 8.2 {+-} 0.7 vs. 5.4 {+-} 0.7; TI of 200 msec at 5 min: 7.9 {+-} 0.7 vs. 3.5 {+-} 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 3 min: 11.7 {+-} 0.7 vs. 8.8 {+-} 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 5 min: 11.4 {+-} 0.7 vs. 8.0 {+-} 0.8; p < 0.05). Moreover, significant differences in favor of VSOP were found for all time points from 10 to 40 min irrespective of TI (p < 0.05). Conclusion: VSOP has superior blood-pool properties compared to gadofosveset trisodium resulting in prolonged improvement of CNR on CMRA. (orig.)

  15. Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of Ecg-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging by a two-hour protocol: The Myofast study;Faisabilite et precision diagnostique d'un protocole de scintigraphie myocardique synchronisee a l'ECG en deux heures: l'etude Myofast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunet, V.; Costo, S.; Sabatier, R.; Grollier, G.; Bouvard, G.; Agostini, D. [CHU Cote-de-Nacre, Service de medecine nucleaire, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-04-15

    feasible and accurate. Early gated acquisition proves helpful for detecting post-stress stunning, which is a well known crucial prognostic factor of major cardiac events, and could help to speed up clinical management. (authors)

  16. Contribution of IL-6 to the Hsp72, Hsp25, and alphaB-crystallin [corrected] responses to inflammation and exercise training in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Kimberly A; Meador, Benjamin M

    2008-12-01

    The heat shock proteins (Hsps) Hsp72, Hsp25, and alphaB-crystallin (alphaB C) [corrected]may protect tissues during exercise and/or inflammatory insults; however, no studies have investigated whether exercise training increases both basal and inflammation-induced expression of these Hsps in skeletal or cardiac muscle. IL-6 is produced by muscle during both exercise and inflammation and has been shown to modulate Hsp expression. These studies tested the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running (RW) increases basal and inflammation-induced Hsp72, Hsp25, and alphaB C [corrected] protein through an IL-6-dependent mechanism. We compared Hsp72, Hsp25, alphaB C, [corrected] and IL-6 protein levels 4 h after systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in skeletal and cardiac muscles of wild-type (IL-6(+/+)) and IL-6 deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice after 2 wk of RW or normal cage activity (Sed). LPS significantly increased skeletal Hsp72 and Hsp25 relative to saline in Sed IL-6(+/+), but not IL-6(-/-) mice. LPS increased Hsp72 relative to saline in Sed IL-6(+/+) cardiac muscle. RW increased basal Hsp72, Hsp25, and alphaB C [corrected] in skeletal muscle in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. However, LPS was not associated with increases in any Hsp in RW IL-6(+/+) or IL-6(-/-) mice. LPS increased IL-6 protein in skeletal muscle and plasma in Sed and RW groups, with a significantly greater response in RW. The major results provide the first in vivo evidence that the absence of IL-6 is associated with reduced skeletal muscle Hsp72 and Hsp25 responses to LPS, but that IL-6 is not required for exercise-induced Hsp upregulation in skeletal or cardiac muscle.

  17. Neuroendocrine and cardiac metabolic dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in adipose tissue and pancreas following chronic spinal cord injury in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Nash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immuno-histochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  18. {beta}1-Adrenergic receptor activation induces mouse cardiac myocyte death through both L-type calcium channel-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Gao, Hui; Kubo, Hajime; Berretta, Remus M; Chen, Xiongwen; Houser, Steven R

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac diseases persistently increase the contractility demands of cardiac myocytes, which require activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent increases in myocyte Ca(2+) transients. Persistent exposure to sympathetic and/or Ca(2+) stress is associated with myocyte death. This study examined the respective roles of persistent beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) agonist exposure and high Ca(2+) concentration in myocyte death. Ventricular myocytes (VMs) were isolated from transgenic (TG) mice with cardiac-specific and inducible expression of the beta(2a)-subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC). VMs were cultured, and the rate of myocyte death was measured in the presence of isoproterenol (ISO), other modulators of Ca(2+) handling and the beta-adrenergic system, and inhibitors of caspases and reactive oxygen species generation. The rate of myocyte death was greater in TG vs. wild-type myocytes and accelerated by ISO in both groups, although ISO did not increase LTCC current (I(Ca-L)) in TG-VMs. Nifedipine, an LTCC antagonist, only partially prevented myocyte death. These results suggest both LTCC-dependent and -independent mechanisms in ISO induced myocyte death. ISO increased the contractility of wild type and TG-VMs by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticulum function and inhibiting sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and CaMKII partially protected myocyte from death induced by both Ca(2+) and ISO. Caspase and reactive oxygen species inhibitors did not, but beta(2)-AR activation did, reduce myocyte death induced by enhanced I(Ca-L) and ISO stimulation. Our results suggest that catecholamines induce myocyte necrosis primarily through beta(1)-AR-mediated increases in I(Ca-L), but other mechanisms are also involved in rodents.

  19. Neuroendocrine and Cardiac Metabolic Dysfunction and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Adipose Tissue and Pancreas following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E. Bigford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immunohistochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  20. Cardiac C-arm computed tomography using a 3D + time ROI reconstruction method with spatial and temporal regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mory, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.mory@philips.com [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Auvray, Vincent; Zhang, Bo [Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Grass, Michael; Schäfer, Dirk [Philips Research, Röntgenstrasse 24–26, D-22335 Hamburg (Germany); Chen, S. James; Carroll, John D. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 12605 East 16th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Rit, Simon [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard, 28 rue Laënnec, F-69373 Lyon (France); Peyrin, Françoise [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); X-ray Imaging Group, European Synchrotron, Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Douek, Philippe; Boussel, Loïc [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, 28 Avenue du Doyen Jean Lépine, 69500 Bron (France)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of the beating heart in 3D + time in the catheter laboratory using only the available C-arm system would improve diagnosis, guidance, device sizing, and outcome control for intracardiac interventions, e.g., electrophysiology, valvular disease treatment, structural or congenital heart disease. To obtain such a reconstruction, the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) must be recorded during the acquisition and used in the reconstruction. In this paper, the authors present a 4D reconstruction method aiming to reconstruct the heart from a single sweep 10 s acquisition. Methods: The authors introduce the 4D RecOnstructiOn using Spatial and TEmporal Regularization (short 4D ROOSTER) method, which reconstructs all cardiac phases at once, as a 3D + time volume. The algorithm alternates between a reconstruction step based on conjugate gradient and four regularization steps: enforcing positivity, averaging along time outside a motion mask that contains the heart and vessels, 3D spatial total variation minimization, and 1D temporal total variation minimization. Results: 4D ROOSTER recovers the different temporal representations of a moving Shepp and Logan phantom, and outperforms both ECG-gated simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique and prior image constrained compressed sensing on a clinical case. It generates 3D + time reconstructions with sharp edges which can be used, for example, to estimate the patient's left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions: 4D ROOSTER can be applied for human cardiac C-arm CT, and potentially in other dynamic tomography areas. It can easily be adapted to other problems as regularization is decoupled from projection and back projection.

  1. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  2. Accurate estimation of global and regional cardiac function by retrospectively gated multidetector row computed tomography: comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Bénédicte; Coche, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Agnès; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2006-07-01

    Retrospective reconstruction of ECG-gated images at different parts of the cardiac cycle allows the assessment of cardiac function by multi-detector row CT (MDCT) at the time of non-invasive coronary imaging. We compared the accuracy of such measurements by MDCT to cine magnetic resonance (MR). Forty patients underwent the assessment of global and regional cardiac function by 16-slice MDCT and cine MR. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes estimated by MDCT (134+/-51 and 67+/-56 ml) were similar to those by MR (137+/-57 and 70+/-60 ml, respectively; both P=NS) and strongly correlated (r=0.92 and r=0.95, respectively; both P<0.001). Consequently, LV ejection fractions by MDCT and MR were also similar (55+/-21 vs. 56+/-21%; P=NS) and highly correlated (r=0.95; P<0.001). Regional end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses by MDCT were highly correlated (r=0.84 and r=0.92, respectively; both P<0.001), but significantly lower than by MR (8.3+/-1.8 vs. 8.8+/-1.9 mm and 12.7+/-3.4 vs. 13.3+/-3.5 mm, respectively; both P<0.001). Values of regional wall thickening by MDCT and MR were similar (54+/-30 vs. 51+/-31%; P=NS) and also correlated well (r=0.91; P<0.001). Retrospectively gated MDCT can accurately estimate LV volumes, EF and regional LV wall thickening compared to cine MR.

  3. Accurate estimation of global and regional cardiac function by retrospectively gated multidetector row computed tomography. Comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belge, Benedicte; Pasquet, Agnes; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Division of Cardiology, Brussels (Belgium); Coche, Emmanuel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Division of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Gerber, Bernhard L. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Division of Cardiology, Brussels (Belgium); Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc UCL, Department of Cardiology, Woluwe St. Lambert (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Retrospective reconstruction of ECG-gated images at different parts of the cardiac cycle allows the assessment of cardiac function by multi-detector row CT (MDCT) at the time of non-invasive coronary imaging. We compared the accuracy of such measurements by MDCT to cine magnetic resonance (MR). Forty patients underwent the assessment of global and regional cardiac function by 16-slice MDCT and cine MR. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes estimated by MDCT (134{+-}51 and 67{+-}56 ml) were similar to those by MR (137{+-}57 and 70{+-}60 ml, respectively; both P=NS) and strongly correlated (r=0.92 and r=0.95, respectively; both P<0.001). Consequently, LV ejection fractions by MDCT and MR were also similar (55{+-}21 vs. 56{+-}21%; P=NS) and highly correlated (r=0.95; P<0.001). Regional end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses by MDCT were highly correlated (r=0.84 and r=0.92, respectively; both P<0.001), but significantly lower than by MR (8.3{+-}1.8 vs. 8.8{+-}1.9 mm and 12.7{+-}3.4 vs. 13.3{+-}3.5 mm, respectively; both P<0.001). Values of regional wall thickening by MDCT and MR were similar (54{+-}30 vs. 51{+-}31%; P=NS) and also correlated well (r=0.91; P<0.001). Retrospectively gated MDCT can accurately estimate LV volumes, EF and regional LV wall thickening compared to cine MR. (orig.)

  4. 颈部袖套法建立小鼠-大鼠异种心脏移植模型*☆%Establishment of a mouse-rat cervical cardiac xenotransplantation model by cuff technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 戚峰; 刘彤; 李富新; 王鹏志

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smal animal heart transplantation model is a common model and an important mean for basic and clinical research of organ transplantation, and the transplant part is often the neck and abdomen. The biggest advantage of cervical heterotopic transplantation is that the transplanted heart wil located in the neck subcutaneous, which is conducive to the direct observation of the beating of donor heart, thus early anticipating the rejection. OBJECTIVE: To improve the anesthesia, surgical procedures and perioperative management of the mouse-rat cervical cardiac xenotransplantation model, in order to establish a more stable animal model. METHODS: The mouse-rat heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation models were established by modified cuff technique to transfer the donor heart of mouse to the right side of the neck of rat, the method to remove the donor heart was improved, and the models received inhalation anesthesia of isoflurane with smal animal anesthesia machine. The experimental levels of establishing the models were divided into practicing, stable and skil ed stages. Part samples were taken for the histopathological examination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the three stages (practicing, stable, skil ed) of establishing the models, the successful rates of surgery were 53.33%, 85.71%, and 96.15% respectively. The successful rate in stable and skil ed stages was higher than that in the practicing stage (P < 0.05). The total operation time in the stable and skil ed stages was significantly shorter than that in the practicing stage (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination results showed that the cardiovascular endothelial injury, thrombosis, myocardial parenchymal damage, interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory cel infiltration after heterotopic cardiac xenotransplantation were more serious compared with normal heart transplantation and cardiac al ograft, and showed a time-depend manner, which identify the reliability of the model. It suggests that the mouse

  5. Aortic and Cardiac Structure and Function Using High-Resolution Echocardiography and Optical Coherence Tomography in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ling; Cui, Jason Z.; Cua, Michelle; Esfandiarei, Mitra; Sheng, Xiaoye; Chui, Winsey Audrey; Xu, Michael Haoying; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; van Breemen, Cornelius; Sandor, George G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene. Mortality is often due to aortic dissection and rupture. We investigated the structural and functional properties of the heart and aorta in a [Fbn1C1039G/+] MFS mouse using high-resolution ultrasound (echo) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Echo was performed on 6- and 12-month old wild type (WT) and MFS mice (n = 8). In vivo pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic root diameter, ejection fraction, stroke volume, left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV mass and mitral valve early and atrial velocities (E/A) ratio were measured by high resolution echocardiography. OCT was performed on 12-month old WT and MFS fixed mouse hearts to measure ventricular volume and mass. The PWV was significantly increased in 6-mo MFS vs. WT (366.6 ± 19.9 vs. 205.2 ± 18.1 cm/s; p = 0.003) and 12-mo MFS vs. WT (459.5 ± 42.3 vs. 205.3 ± 30.3 cm/s; pMarfan patients including significant aortic dilation, central aortic stiffness, LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. This is the first demonstration of the direct measurement in vivo of pulse wave velocity non-invasively in the aortic arch of MFS mice, a robust measure of aortic stiffness and a critical clinical parameter for the assessment of pathology in the Marfan syndrome. PMID:27824871

  6. Electrophysiological properties of mouse and epitope-tagged human cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 expressed in HEK293 cells [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/10d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pore-forming subunit of the cardiac sodium channel, Nav1.5, has been previously found to be mutated in genetically determined arrhythmias. Nav1.5 associates with many proteins that regulate its function and cellular localisation. In order to identify more in situ Nav1.5 interacting proteins, genetically-modified mice with a high-affinity epitope in the sequence of Nav1.5 can be generated. Methods: In this short study, we (1 compared the biophysical properties of the sodium current (INa generated by the mouse Nav1.5 (mNav1.5 and human Nav1.5 (hNav1.5 constructs that were expressed in HEK293 cells, and (2 investigated the possible alterations of the biophysical properties of the human Nav1.5 construct that was modified with specific epitopes. Results: The biophysical properties of mNav1.5 were similar to the human homolog. Addition of epitopes either up-stream of the N-terminus of hNav1.5 or in the extracellular loop between the S5 and S6 transmembrane segments of domain 1, significantly decreased the amount of INa and slightly altered its biophysical properties. Adding green fluorescent protein (GFP to the N-terminus did not modify any of the measured biophysical properties of hNav1.5. Conclusions: These findings have to be taken into account when planning to generate genetically-modified mouse models that harbour specific epitopes in the gene encoding mNav1.5.

  7. Measuring Left Ventricular Size in Non-Electrocardiographic-gated Chest Computed Tomography: What Radiologists Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe S; Folador, Luciano; Eifer, Diego A; Foppa, Murilo; Hanneman, Kate

    2017-06-15

    Non-electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the most commonly performed imaging studies. Although the heart is included in every CT study, cardiac findings are commonly underreported in radiology reports. Left ventricular size is one of the most important prognostic markers in multiple cardiac diseases and can be measured on almost all non-ECG-gated multidetector chest CT studies. This review will discuss the available evidence on different measurements of left ventricular size obtained on non-ECG-gated CT of the chest. Measurement thresholds, technical issues, and potential problems are emphasized, with practical recommendations.

  8. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pExercise markedly reduced oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study

  9. 鼠异种心脏移植miRNA表达谱分析%Analysis on Expression Profiles of miRNA in Cardiac Xenotransplantation Model of Mouse-to-Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 戚峰; 李富新; 刘彤

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究小鼠-大鼠异种异位心脏移植后供心miRNA表达谱的变化,为有效控制异种移植排斥反应奠定实验基础.方法 采用改良Cuff袖套法建立小鼠-大鼠异位心脏移植模型,分为同系对照组、异种24 h组和异种停跳组.通过miRNA芯片杂交筛选出异种心脏移植排斥反应中显著差异表达的miRNA,选取芯片结果中差异表达显著的miR-146a和miR-451进行相对定量研究,通过TaqMan miRNA Assays技术验证芯片结果.结果 异种24 h组与同系对照组比较有24个miRNA差异表达显著,其中11个下调,13个上调.异种停跳组与同系对照组比较有25个miRNA差异表达显著,其中12个下调,13个上调.异种组的miR-146a表达水平高于同系对照组,miR-451表达水平低于同系对照组(F 分别为15.530、13 431.6,均P < 0.05).结论 在小鼠-大鼠异种心脏移植排斥反应中出现多个miRNA显著差异表达,其中miR-146a高表达,miR-451低表达,提示miRNA在异种心脏移植排斥反应中发挥着重要的调控作用.%Objective To detect the miRNA expression profiles of the donor heart after the heterotopic mouse-rat cardiac xenotransplantation and provide the experimental evidences for effective regulation of xenotransplantation rejection. Methods The heterotopic cardiac mouse-rat xenotransplantation model was established by modified cuff sleeve method. The experimental animals were divided into syngeneic control group, xenogeneic group (24 hours) and xenogeneic group (arresting). Total of 579 miRNAs were detected by miRNA array and significantly differential expressed miRNAs were filtrated in the cardiac xenotransplantation rejection. MiR-146a and miR-451 in three groups, which were obviously changed during xenotransplantation, were analyzed by TaqMan(R)miRNA Assays, verifying the results of miRNA array. Results There were 24 miRNAs (11 down-regulated miRNAs and 13 up-regulated miRNAs) showed significant differences between xenogeneic group

  10. Pilot study of dynamic cine CT angiography for the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms : Implications for endograft treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teutelink, A; Rutten, A; Muhs, BE; Olree, M; van Herwaarden, JA; de Vos, AM; Prokop, M; Moll, FL; Verhagen, HJM

    Purpose: To utilize 40-slice electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated cine computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to characterize normal aortic motion during the cardiac cycle at relevant anatomical landmarks in preoperative abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Methods: In 10 consecutive

  11. Pilot study of dynamic cine CT angiography for the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms : Implications for endograft treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teutelink, A; Rutten, A; Muhs, BE; Olree, M; van Herwaarden, JA; de Vos, AM; Prokop, M; Moll, FL; Verhagen, HJM

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To utilize 40-slice electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated cine computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to characterize normal aortic motion during the cardiac cycle at relevant anatomical landmarks in preoperative abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Methods: In 10 consecutive preoperati

  12. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-02-14

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  13. Effect of oxygen on cardiac differentiation in mouse iPS cells: role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L Medley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbances in oxygen levels have been found to impair cardiac organogenesis. It is known that stem cells and differentiating cells may respond variably to hypoxic conditions, whereby hypoxia may enhance stem cell pluripotency, while differentiation of multiple cell types can be restricted or enhanced under hypoxia. Here we examined whether HIF-1alpha modulated Wnt signaling affected differentiation of iPS cells into beating cardiomyocytes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether transient and sustained hypoxia affects differentiation of cardiomyocytes derived from murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, assessed the involvement of HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and the canonical Wnt pathway in this process. METHODS: Embryoid bodies (EBs derived from iPS cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes and were exposed either to 24 h normoxia or transient hypoxia followed by a further 13 days of normoxic culture. RESULTS: At 14 days of differentiation, 59 ± 2% of normoxic EBs were beating, whilst transient hypoxia abolished beating at 14 days and EBs appeared immature. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in Brachyury and islet-1 mRNA expression, together with reduced troponin C expression. Collectively, these data suggest that transient and sustained hypoxia inhibits maturation of differentiating cardiomyocytes. Compared to normoxia, hypoxia increased HIF-1alpha, Wnt target and ligand genes in EBs, as well as accumulation of HIF-1alpha and beta-catenin in nuclear protein extracts, suggesting involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia impairs cardiomyocyte differentiation and activates Wnt signaling in undifferentiated iPS cells. Taken together the study suggests that oxygenation levels play a critical role in cardiomyocyte differentiation and suggest that hypoxia may play a role in early cardiogenesis.

  14. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  15. Ultrafast Cardiac Ultrasound Imaging%超高速心脏超声成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲菲; 佟玲; 罗建文

    2015-01-01

    Along with the developing and advancing technologies, ultrasound outperforms for cardiac imaging. Ultrafast ultrasound imaging can achieve high frame rate data acquisition, and provides new insights into cardiac disease diagnosis clinical y. Retrospective ECG gating, plane/diverging wave imaging, and multiline transmit imaging al fulfil high frame rate data acquisition while their main drawback is the reduced image quality. Therefore the proper imaging method might be chosen according to the requirements. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the technical principles behind these new ultrasound imaging methods, to summarize the related applications for cardiac functional imaging, and to briefly discourse their potential clinical values.%超高速(即超高帧频)心脏超声成像是近年来医学超声成像领域的研究热点。超高速成像可捕捉心动周期中的瞬时时相和事件,并可为心脏疾病的临床诊断与治疗提供新的思路。目前,能够实现高帧频超声成像的方法主要有回顾性心电门控、平面波成像、球面波成像及并行发射波束合成等。然而,无论采用哪种方法,都会对图像质量(包括图像分辨率与对比度)造成一定的影响。因此,在实际应用中,需要根据不同的成像目的(如心脏结构成像或功能成像),适当选择成像方法。本文旨在综述以上各种高帧频成像方法的原理及其在心脏成像方面的相关研究应用,并简要论述其在临床应用中的潜在价值。

  16. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  17. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  18. Ribose Supplementation Alone or with Elevated Creatine Does Not Preserve High Energy Nucleotides or Cardiac Function in the Failing Mouse Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiterie M E Faller

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of creatine and total adenine nucleotides (sum of ATP, ADP and AMP are hallmarks of chronic heart failure and restoring these pools is predicted to be beneficial by maintaining the diseased heart in a more favourable energy state. Ribose supplementation is thought to support both salvage and re-synthesis of adenine nucleotides by bypassing the rate-limiting step. We therefore tested whether ribose would be beneficial in chronic heart failure in control mice and in mice with elevated myocardial creatine due to overexpression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE.FOUR GROUPS WERE STUDIED: sham; myocardial infarction (MI; MI+ribose; MI+CrT-OE+ribose. In a pilot study, ribose given in drinking water was bioavailable, resulting in a two-fold increase in myocardial ribose-5-phosphate levels. However, 8 weeks post-surgery, total adenine nucleotide (TAN pool was decreased to a similar amount (8-14% in all infarcted groups irrespective of the treatment received. All infarcted groups also presented with a similar and substantial degree of left ventricular (LV dysfunction (3-fold reduction in ejection fraction and LV hypertrophy (32-47% increased mass. Ejection fraction closely correlated with infarct size independently of treatment (r(2 = 0.63, p<0.0001, but did not correlate with myocardial creatine or TAN levels.Elevating myocardial ribose and creatine levels failed to maintain TAN pool or improve post-infarction LV remodeling and function. This suggests that ribose is not rate-limiting for purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the chronically failing mouse heart and that alternative strategies to preserve TAN pool should be investigated.

  19. Low radiation dose non-contrast cardiac CT: is it of value in the evaluation of mechanical aortic valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeed, Mohamed Fayez (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura Univ. (Egypt)), email: m_bazeed@yahoo.com; Moselhy, Mohamed Saleh (Cardiology Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Rezk, Ahmad Ibrahim (Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Aim Shams Univ. (Egypt)); Al-Murayeh, Mushabab Ayedh (Dept. of Cardiac Services, Armed Forces Hospitals Southern Region (Saudi Arabia))

    2012-05-15

    Background: Prosthetic bileaflet mechanical valve function has been traditionally evaluated using echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a novel technique for cardiac evaluation. Purpose: To evaluate bileaflet mechanical aortic valves using a low-milliampere (mA), non-contrast MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. Material and Methods: Forty patients with a bileaflet mechanical aortic valve were evaluated using a non-contrast, low-mA, ECG-gated 64 MDCT protocol with a limited scan range. MDCT findings of opening and closing valve angles were correlated to fluoroscopy and echocardiography. Also, the valve visibility was evaluated on MDCT and fluoroscopy according to a 3-point grading scale. Results: The visualization score with the MDCT was significantly superior to the fluoroscopy (3 vs. 2.7). A strong correlation was noted between the opening (r = 0.82) and closing (r = 0.96) valve angles with MDCT and fluoroscopy without a statistically significant difference (P = 0.31 and 0.16, respectively). The mean effective radiation dose of the suggested protocol was 4 +- 0.5 mSv. Five valves were evaluated using transesophageal echocardiography because the valves were difficult to evaluate with transthoracic echocardiography, and all of these valves were evaluated optimally with MDCT. A high-pressure gradient was noted in nine valves, and the MDCT showed that seven of these valves inadequately opened, and two valves opened well, which resulted in patient valve mismatch. Incomplete valve closure was noted in five valves, and the echocardiography showed significant transvalvular regurgitation in all five valves. Conclusion: MDCT can provide a precise measurement of valve function and can potentially evaluate high-pressure gradients and transvalvular regurgitation

  20. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  1. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  2. Effect of Shensong Yangxin Capsule on Cardiac Remodelling of Myocardial Infarction Mouse Model%参松养心胶囊对心肌梗死模型小鼠心脏重构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向家培; 赵劲波; 王勇; 华晓芳; 黄浩; 雷玉华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Shensong Yangxin capsule on cardiac remodelling of myocardial infarction mouse model and the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods Adult male C57BL/6J mice were divided into sham operation group(n=10), model control group(n=20)and Shensong Yangxin group(n=20)according to random number table. Left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish myocardic infarction model in the model control group and Shensong Yangxin group. From the 2nd day after the surgery, Shensong Yangxin ( 400 mg . kg-1 ) was intragastrically administered, and the death rate of the mice was observed.Four weeks after the surgery, echocardiography was used to measure the cardiac function;myocardiac infarction area was detected by pathological staining;the expression levels of cardiac remodelling markers and extracellular matrix proteins were detected by RT-PCR. The possible molecular mechanisms were screened by Western blotting. Results As compared with the model control group, Shensong Yangxin significantly reduced the mortality after myocardial infarction in mice(P<0.05), as well as the myocardial infarct size(P<0.05).The mRNA expression levels of cardiac remodelling markers ANP, BNP, and β-MHC and the extracellular matrix proteins(collagenⅠ, collagen Ⅲ, CTGF, TGFβ) decreased significantly in the Shensong Yangxin group as compared with the model control group. Western blotting showed that Shensong Yangxin significantly decreased activation of smad3, and reduced expression level of smad4. Conclusion Shensong Yangxin attenuates cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction and the mechanism may be related with blockage of smad signaling pathway.%目的:探讨参松养心胶囊对小鼠心肌梗死后心脏重构的影响及其可能的分子机制。方法 C57BL/6J小鼠按照随机数字表法分为假手术组( n=10),模型对照组( n=20)和参松养心组( n=20)。模型对照组和参松养心组采用冠状动

  3. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangbo An; Jingjing Wang; Hao Li; Zhizhen Lu; Yan Bai; Han Xiao; Youyi Zhang; Yao Song

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy...

  4. Cardiac cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Mark I

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes.

  5. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac energetics: sense and nonsense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Colin L

    2003-08-01

    1. The background to current ideas in cardiac energetics is outlined and, in the genomic era, the need is stressed for detailed knowledge of mouse heart mechanics and energetics. 2. The mouse heart is clearly different to the rat in terms of its excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and the common assumption that heart rate difference between mice and humans will account for the eightfold difference in myocardial oxygen consumption is wrong, because the energy per beat of the mouse heart is approximately one-third that of the human heart. 3. In vivo evidence suggests that there may well be an eightfold species difference in the non-beating metabolism of mice and human hearts. It is speculated that the magnitude of basal metabolism in the heart is regulatable and that, in the absence of perfusion, it falls to approximately one-quarter of its in vivo rate and that in clinical conditions, such as hibernation, it probably decreases; its magnitude may be controlled by the endothelium. 4. The active energy balance sheet is briefly discussed and it is suggested that the activation heat accounts for 20-25% of the active energy per beat and cross-bridge turnover accounts for the balance. It is argued that force, not shortening, is the major determinant of cardiac energy usage. 5. The outcome of recent cardiac modelling with variants of the Huxley and Hill/Eisenberg models is described. It has been necessary to invoke 'loose coupling' to replicate the low cardiac energy flux measured at low afterloads (medium to high velocities of shortening). 6. Lastly, some of the unexplained or 'nonsense' energetic data are outlined and eight unsolved problems in cardiac energetics are discussed.

  7. Normal cardiac function in mice with supraphysiological cardiac creatine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Lucia; Hernandez, Alejandro; Nienaber, Jeffrey; Mishra, Rajashree; Pinilla, Miguel; Burchette, James; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Jacobs, Danny O

    2014-02-01

    Creatine and phosphocreatine levels are decreased in heart failure, and reductions in myocellular phosphocreatine levels predict the severity of the disease and portend adverse outcomes. Previous studies of transgenic mouse models with increased creatine content higher than two times baseline showed the development of heart failure and shortened lifespan. Given phosphocreatine's role in buffering ATP content, we tested the hypothesis whether elevated cardiac creatine content would alter cardiac function under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the creation of transgenic mice that overexpress the human creatine transporter (CrT) in cardiac muscle under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Cardiac transgene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and human CrT protein expression was documented on Western blots and immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-CrT antibody. High-energy phosphate metabolites and cardiac function were measured in transgenic animals and compared with age-matched, wild-type controls. Adult transgenic animals showed increases of 5.7- and 4.7-fold in the content of creatine and free ADP, respectively. Phosphocreatine and ATP levels were two times as high in young transgenic animals but declined to control levels by the time the animals reached 8 wk of age. Transgenic mice appeared to be healthy and had normal life spans. Cardiac morphometry, conscious echocardiography, and pressure-volume loop studies demonstrated mild hypertrophy but normal function. Based on our characterization of the human CrT protein expression, creatine and phosphocreatine content, and cardiac morphometry and function, these transgenic mice provide an in vivo model for examining the therapeutic value of elevated creatine content for cardiac pathologies.

  8. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction in high-fat diet fed mice is associated with lipotoxicity without impairment of cardiac energetics in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurrachim, Desiree; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wessels, Bart; Nabben, Miranda; Luiken, Joost J. F. P.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with abnormalities in cardiac morphology and function. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related cardiomyopathy is caused by impaired cardiac energetics. In a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we applied in vivo cardiac P-31 magnetic resonanc

  9. Evaluation of the influence of acquisition and reconstruction parameters for 16-row multidetector CT on coronary calcium scoring using a stationary and dynamic cardiac phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begemann, Philipp G.C.; Koops, Andreas; Adam, Gerhard; Nolte-Ernsting, Claus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Stevendaal, Udo van; Grass, Michael [Philips Research Laboratories Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Koester, Ralph [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Cardiology/Angiology, Hamburg (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H. [University of Technology Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A calcium-scoring phantom with hydroxyapatite-filled cylindrical holes (0.5 to 4 mm) was used. High-resolution scans were performed for an accuracy baseline. The phantom was mounted to a moving heart phantom. Non-moving data with the implementation of an ECG-signal were acquired for different pitches (0.2/0.3), heart rates (60/80/95 bpm) and collimations (16 x 0.75/16 x 1.5 mm). Images were reconstructed with a cone-beam multi-cycle algorithm at a standard thickness/increment of 3 mm/1.5 mm and the thinnest possible thickness (0.8/0.4 and 2/1). Subsequently, ECG-gated moving calcium-scoring phantom data were acquired. The calcium volume and Agatston score were measured. The temporal resolution and reconstruction cycles were calculated. High-resolution scans determine the calcium volume with a high accuracy (mean overestimation, 0.8%). In the non-moving measurements, the volume underestimation ranged from about 6% (16 x 0.75 mm; 0.8/0.4 mm) to nearly 25% (16 x 1.5 mm; 3/1.5 mm). Moving scans showed increased measurement errors depending on the reconstructed RR interval, collimation, pitch, heart rate and gantry rotation time. Also, a correlation with the temporal resolution could be found. The reliability of calcium-scoring results can be improved with the use of a narrower collimation, a lower pitch and the reconstruction of thinner images, resulting in higher patient doses. The choice of the correct cardiac phase within the RR interval is essential to minimize measurement errors. (orig.)

  10. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  11. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Nielsen, Jan M; Hellgren, Lars I;

    2009-01-01

    secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB) lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP); the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism...

  12. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of future heart problems, and to improve your health and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs increase ... exercise routine at home or at a local gym. You may also continue to ... health concerns. Education about nutrition, lifestyle and weight loss ...

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance: is phonocardiogram gating reliable in velocity-encoded phase contrast imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Communication Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of phonocardiogram (PCG) gated velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Flow quantification above the aortic valve was performed in 68 patients by acquiring a retrospectively PCG- and a retrospectively ECG-gated velocity-encoded GE-sequence at 1.5 T. Peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), forward volume (FV), reverse volume (RV), net forward volume (NFV), as well as the regurgitant fraction (RF) were assessed for both datasets, as well as for the PCG-gated datasets after compensation for the PCG trigger delay. PCG-gated image acquisition was feasible in 64 patients, ECG-gated in all patients. PCG-gated flow quantification overestimated PV ({Delta} 3.8 {+-} 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037) and underestimated FV ({Delta} -4.9 {+-} 15.7 ml; P = 0.015) and NFV ({Delta} -4.5 {+-} 16.5 ml; P = 0.033) compared with ECG-gated imaging. After compensation for the PCG trigger delay, differences were only observed for PV ({Delta} 3.8 {+-} 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037). Wide limits of agreement between PCG- and ECG-gated flow quantification were observed for all variables (PV: -23.9 to 31.4 cm/s; AV: -4.5 to 3.9 cm/s; FV: -35.6 to 25.9 ml; RV: -8.0 to 7.2 ml; NFV: -36.8 to 27.8 ml; RF: -10.4 to 10.2 %). The present study demonstrates that PCG gating in its current form is not reliable enough for flow quantification based on velocity-encoded phase contrast gradient echo (GE) sequences. (orig.)

  14. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  15. RGS4 causes increased mortality and reduced cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jason H.; Tamirisa, Praveen; Kovacs, Attila; Weinheimer, Carla; Courtois, Michael; Blumer, Kendall J.; Kelly, Daniel P; Muslin, Anthony J.

    1999-01-01

    RGS family members are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for heterotrimeric G proteins. There is evidence that altered RGS gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We investigated the ability of RGS4 to modulate cardiac physiology using a transgenic mouse model. Overexpression of RGS4 in postnatal ventricular tissue did not affect cardiac morphology or basal cardiac function, but markedly compromised the ability of the heart to adapt to transverse...

  16. mTOR Hyperactivation by Ablation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Dysfunction with the Increased Number of Small Mitochondria Mediated through the Down-Regulation of Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneike, Manabu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Omiya, Shigemiki; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Misaka, Tomofumi; Kitazume-Taneike, Rika; Austin, Ruth; Takaoka, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Gambello, Michael J; Shah, Ajay M; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis positively and autophagy negatively. Autophagy is a major system to manage bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components and organelles. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and 2 form a heterodimeric complex and inactivate Ras homolog enriched in brain, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the effects of hyperactivation of mTORC1 on cardiac function and structure using cardiac-specific TSC2-deficient (TSC2-/-) mice. TSC2-/- mice were born normally at the expected Mendelian ratio. However, the median life span of TSC2-/- mice was approximately 10 months and significantly shorter than that of control mice. TSC2-/- mice showed cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without considerable fibrosis, cell infiltration or apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. Ultrastructural analysis of TSC2-/- hearts revealed misalignment, aggregation and a decrease in the size and an increase in the number of mitochondria, but the mitochondrial function was maintained. Autophagic flux was inhibited, while the phosphorylation level of S6 or eukaryotic initiation factor 4E -binding protein 1, downstream of mTORC1, was increased. The upregulation of autophagic flux by trehalose treatment attenuated the cardiac phenotypes such as cardiac dysfunction and structural abnormalities of mitochondria in TSC2-/- hearts. The results suggest that autophagy via the TSC2-mTORC1 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintenance of cardiac function and mitochondrial quantity and size in the heart and could be a therapeutic target to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in failing hearts.

  17. Step-and-shoot prospectively ECG-gated versus retrospectively ECG-gated with tube current modulation coronary CT angiography using the 128-slice MDCT: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Dong Wook (Dept. of Family Medicine, Medial Research Institute, Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, School of Medicine, Gyeongsangnam-do, (Korea, Republic of)); Choo, Ki Seok; Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Yong Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae (Dept. of Radiology, Medial Research Institute, Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, School of Medicine, Gyeongsangnam-do, (Korea, Republic of)), email: kschoo0618@naver.com; Kim, Jeong Soo (Dept. of Cardiology, Medial Research Institute, Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, School of Medicine, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)); Lim, Soo Jin (Dept. of Cardiology, Kim Hae Joongang Hospital, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: Little is known regarding image quality and the required radiation dose for step-and-shoot and retrospective coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with tube current modulation (TCM) in 128-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare image quality and radiation dose in patients who underwent 128-slice MDCT by the step-and- shoot method with those in patients who underwent 128-slice MDCT with retrospective CCTA with TCM. Material and Methods: CCTA obtained with 128-slice MDCT was retrospectively evaluated in 160 patients. Two independent reviewers separately scored the subjective image quality of the coronary artery segments (1, excellent; 4, poor) for step-and-shoot (68, mean heart rate [HR]: 59.3+-6.8) and retrospective CCTA with TCM (77, mean HR: 59.1+-9.8). Interobserver variability was calculated. Effective radiation doses of both scan techniques were calculated with dose-length product. Results: There was good agreement for quality scores of coronary artery segment images between the independent reviewers (k=0.72). The number of coronary artery segments that could not be evaluated was 2.85% (27 of 947) in the step-and-shoot and 1.87% (20 of 1071) in retrospective CCTA with TCM. Image quality scores were not significantly different (P>.05). Mean patient radiation dose was 63% lower for step-and-shoot (1.94+-0.70 mSv) than for retrospective CCTA with TCM (4.51+-1.18 mSv) (P<0.0001). For patients who underwent step-and-shoot or retrospective CCTA with TCM, an average HR of 63.5 beats per minute was identified as the threshold for the prediction of non-diagnostic image quality for both protocols. There were no significant differences in the image quality of both methods between obese (body mass index [BMI>=25) and non-obese patients (BMI<25), but radiation doses were higher in the obesity group than in the non-obesity group for both methods. Conclusion: Both step-and-shoot and retrospective CCTA with TCM using 128-slice MDCT had similar subjective image quality scores, but step-and-shoot required a lower radiation dose than retrospective CCTA with TCM

  18. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2004-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  19. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  20. Quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties for detection of non-calcified plaques in ECG-gated coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques (NCPs) in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties in each vessel branch and extracted flow information to differentiate the presence and absence of stenosis in a vessel segment. Under rest conditions, blood flow in a single vessel branch was assumed to follow Poiseuille's law. For a uniform pressure distribution, two quantitative flow features, the normalized arterial compliance per unit length (Cu) and the normalized volumetric flow (Q) along the vessel centerline, were calculated based on the parabolic Poiseuille solution. The flow features were evaluated for a two-class classification task to differentiate NCP candidates obtained by prescreening as true NCPs and false positives (FPs) in cCTA. For evaluation, a data set of 83 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from 83 patient files with IRB approval. A total of 118 NCPs were identified by experienced cardiothoracic radiologists. The correlation between the two flow features was 0.32. The discriminatory ability of the flow features evaluated as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 for Cu and 0.63 for Q in comparison with AUCs of 0.56-0.69 from our previous luminal features. With stepwise LDA feature selection, volumetric flow (Q) was selected in addition to three other luminal features. With FROC analysis, the test results indicated a reduction of the FP rates to 3.14, 1.98, and 1.32 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. The study indicated that quantitative blood flow analysis has the potential to provide useful features for the detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  1. Prospective ECG triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts compared with retrospective ECG gating on 256-slice CT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symersky, P.; Habets, J.; Westers, P.; Mol, B.A. de; Prokop, M.; Budde, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has diagnostic value for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but it is hampered by artefacts. We hypothesised that image acquisition using prospective triggering instead of retrospective gating would reduce artefacts related

  2. Prospective ECG triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts compared with retrospective ECG gating on 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symersky, Petr [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Westers, Paul [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Biostatistics, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Bas A.J.M. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Technology Eindhoven, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has diagnostic value for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but it is hampered by artefacts. We hypothesised that image acquisition using prospective triggering instead of retrospective gating would reduce artefacts related to pulsating PHV. In a pulsatile in vitro model, a mono- and bileaflet PHV were imaged using 256 MDCT at 60, 75 and 90 beats per minute (BPM) with either retrospective gating (120 kV, 600 mAs, pitch 0.2, CTDI{sub vol} 39.8 mGy) or prospective triggering (120 kV, 200 mAs, CTDI{sub vol} 13.3 mGy). Two thresholds (>175 and <-45HU), derived from the density of surrounding structures, were used for quantification of hyper- and hypodense artefacts. Image noise and artefacts were compared between protocols. Prospective triggering reduced hyperdense artefacts for both valves at every BPM (P = 0.001 all comparisons). Hypodense artefacts were reduced for the monoleaflet valve at 60 (P = 0.009), 75 (P = 0.016) and 90 BPM (P = 0.001), and for the bileaflet valves at 60 (P = 0.001), 90 (P = 0.001) but not at 75 BPM (P = 0.6). Prospective triggering reduced image noise at 60 (P = 0.001) and 75 (P < 0.03) but not at 90 BPM. Compared with retrospective gating, prospective triggering reduced most artefacts related to pulsating PHV in vitro. circle Computed tomographic images are often degraded by prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts circle Prospective triggering reduces prosthetic heart valve-induced artefacts in vitro circle Artefact reduction at 90 beats per minute occurs without image noise reduction circle Prospective triggering may improve CT image quality of moving hyperdense structures. (orig.)

  3. Automatic slice-alignment method in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the right ventricle in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Nitta, Shuhei; Kuhara, Shigehide; Ishimura, Rieko; Kariyasu, Toshiya; Imai, Masamichi; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Takeguchi, Tomoyuki; Shiodera, Taichiro

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new automatic slice-alignment method, which enables right ventricular scan planning in addition to the left ventricular scan planning developed in our previous work, to simplify right ventricular cardiac scan planning and assess its accuracy and the clinical acceptability of the acquired imaging planes in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences covering the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase with ECG gating were used to acquire 2D axial multislice images. To realize right ventricular scan planning, two morphological feature points are added to be detected and a total of eight morphological features of the heart were extracted from these series of images, and six left ventricular planes and four right ventricular planes were calculated simultaneously based on the extracted features. The subjects were 33 patients (25 with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and 8 with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension). The four right ventricular reference planes including right ventricular short-axis, 4-chamber, 2-chamber, and 3-chamber images were evaluated. The acceptability of the acquired imaging planes was visually evaluated using a 4-point scale, and the angular differences between the results obtained by this method and by conventional manual annotation were measured for each view. The average visual scores were 3.9±0.4 for short-axis images, 3.8±0.4 for 4-chamber images, 3.8±0.4 for 2-chamber images, and 3.5±0.6 for 3-chamber images. The average angular differences were 8.7±5.3, 8.3±4.9, 8.1±4.8, and 7.9±5.3 degrees, respectively. The processing time was less than 2.5 seconds in all subjects. The proposed method, which enables right ventricular scan planning in addition to the left ventricular scan planning developed in our previous work, can provide clinically acceptable planes in a short time and is useful because special proficiency in performing cardiac MR for

  4. Stem cell sources for cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccio, M; Goumans, M J; Sluijter, J P G; Doevendans, P A

    2008-03-01

    Cell-based cardiac repair has the ambitious aim to replace the malfunctioning cardiac muscle developed after myocardial infarction, with new contractile cardiomyocytes and vessels. Different stem cell populations have been intensively studied in the last decade as a potential source of new cardiomyocytes to ameliorate the injured myocardium, compensate for the loss of ventricular mass and contractility and eventually restore cardiac function. An array of cell types has been explored in this respect, including skeletal muscle, bone marrow derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and more recently cardiac progenitor cells. The best-studied cell types are mouse and human ESC cells, which have undisputedly been demonstrated to differentiate into cardiomyocyte and vascular lineages and have been of great help to understand the differentiation process of pluripotent cells. However, due to their immunogenicity, risk of tumor development and the ethical challenge arising from their embryonic origin, they do not provide a suitable cell source for a regenerative therapy approach. A better option, overcoming ethical and allogenicity problems, seems to be provided by bone marrow derived cells and by the recently identified cardiac precursors. This report will overview current knowledge on these different cell types and their application in cardiac regeneration and address issues like implementation of delivery methods, including tissue engineering approaches that need to be developed alongside.

  5. Cardiac-Specific PID1 Overexpression Enhances Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqiu Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: PID1 was originally described as an insulin sensitivity relevance protein, which is also highly expressed in heart tissue. However, its function in the heart is still to be elucidated. Thus this study aimed to investigate the role of PID1 in the heart in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Methods: Samples of human failing hearts from the left ventricles of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM patients undergoing heart transplants were collected. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of PID1 were generated, and cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiography as well as pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Results: A significant increase in PID1 expression was observed in failing human hearts and TAC-treated wild-type mouse hearts. When compared with TAC-treated wild-type mouse hearts, PID1-TG mouse showed a significant exacerbation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Further analysis of the signaling pathway in vivo suggested that these adverse effects of PID1 were associated with the inhibition of AKT, and activation of MAPK pathway. Conclusion: Under pathological conditions, over-expression of PID1 promotes cardiac hypertrophy by regulating the Akt and MAPK pathway.

  6. Cardiac-specific PID1 overexpression enhances pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoqiu; Shen, Yahui; Zhu, Jingai; Liu, Ming; Li, Xing; Chen, Yumei; Kong, Xiangqing; Song, Guixian; Qian, Lingmei

    2015-01-01

    PID1 was originally described as an insulin sensitivity relevance protein, which is also highly expressed in heart tissue. However, its function in the heart is still to be elucidated. Thus this study aimed to investigate the role of PID1 in the heart in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Samples of human failing hearts from the left ventricles of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients undergoing heart transplants were collected. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of PID1 were generated, and cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiography as well as pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. A significant increase in PID1 expression was observed in failing human hearts and TAC-treated wild-type mouse hearts. When compared with TAC-treated wild-type mouse hearts, PID1-TG mouse showed a significant exacerbation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Further analysis of the signaling pathway in vivo suggested that these adverse effects of PID1 were associated with the inhibition of AKT, and activation of MAPK pathway. Under pathological conditions, over-expression of PID1 promotes cardiac hypertrophy by regulating the Akt and MAPK pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A provisional gene regulatory atlas for mouse heart development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Chen

    Full Text Available Congenital Heart Disease (CHD is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD.

  9. Muscle ring finger 1 mediates cardiac atrophy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S; Rojas, Mauricio; Li, Luge; Selzman, Craig H; Tang, Ru-Hang; Stansfield, William E; Rodriguez, Jessica E; Glass, David J; Patterson, Cam

    2009-04-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by various etiologies such as high blood pressure and aortic stenosis, develops in response to increased afterload and represents a common intermediary in the development of heart failure. Understandably then, the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular event risk and represents an important, yet underdeveloped, target of therapeutic research. Recently, we determined that muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1), a muscle-specific protein, inhibits the development of experimentally induced pathological; cardiac hypertrophy. We now demonstrate that therapeutic cardiac atrophy induced in patients after left ventricular assist device placement is associated with an increase in cardiac MuRF1 expression. This prompted us to investigate the role of MuRF1 in two independent mouse models of cardiac atrophy: 1) cardiac hypertrophy regression after reversal of transaortic constriction (TAC) reversal and 2) dexamethasone-induced atrophy. Using echocardiographic, histological, and gene expression analyses, we found that upon TAC release, cardiac mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas in MuRF1(-/-) mice decreased approximately 70% less than in wild type mice in the 4 wk after release. This was in striking contrast to wild-type mice, who returned to baseline cardiac mass and cardiomyocyte size within 4 days of TAC release. Despite these differences in atrophic remodeling, the transcriptional activation of cardiac hypertrophy measured by beta-myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle actin, and brain natriuretic peptide was attenuated similarly in both MuRF1(-/-) and wild-type hearts after TAC release. In the second model, MuRF1(-/-) mice also displayed resistance to dexamethasone-induced cardiac atrophy, as determined by echocardiographic analysis. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MuRF1 is essential for cardiac atrophy in vivo, both in the setting of therapeutic

  10. Optogenetic Light Crafting Tools for the Control of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claudia; Christoph, Jan; Lehnart, Stephan E; Luther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The control of spatiotemporal dynamics in biological systems is a fundamental problem in nonlinear sciences and has important applications in engineering and medicine. Optogenetic tools combined with advanced optical technologies provide unique opportunities to develop and validate novel approaches to control spatiotemporal complexity in neuronal and cardiac systems. Understanding of the mechanisms and instabilities underlying the onset, perpetuation, and control of cardiac arrhythmias will enable the development and translation of novel therapeutic approaches. Here we describe in detail the preparation and optical mapping of transgenic channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) mouse hearts, cardiac cell cultures, and the optical setup for photostimulation using digital light processing.

  11. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  12. Cardiac Expression of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Is Increased in Obesity and Serves to Attenuate Cardiac Triglyceride Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Emil D.; Nielsen, Jan M.; Hellgren, Lars I.; Ploug, Thorkil; Nielsen, Lars B.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and β-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB) lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP); the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease. PMID:19390571

  13. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  14. Cardiac tamponade (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac tamponade is a condition involving compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the space ... they cannot adequately fill or pump blood. Cardiac tamponade is an emergency condition that requires hospitalization.

  15. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedure Learn more about cardiac medications , including dual antiplatelet therapy, that you may need to take after your ... Procedure Learn more about cardiac medications , including dual antiplatelet therapy, that you may need to take after your ...

  16. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  17. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  18. Action of SNAIL1 in Cardiac Myofibroblasts Is Important for Cardiac Fibrosis following Hypoxic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Hirak; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic injury to the heart results in cardiac fibrosis that leads to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. SNAIL1 is a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in fibrosis following organ injury and cancer. To determine if the action of SNAIL1 contributed to cardiac fibrosis following hypoxic injury, we used an endogenous SNAIL1 bioluminescence reporter mice, and SNAIL1 knockout mouse models. Here we report that SNAIL1 expression is upregulated in the infarcted heart, especially in the myofibroblasts. Utilizing primary cardiac fibroblasts in ex vivo cultures we find that pro-fibrotic factors and collagen I increase SNAIL1 protein level. SNAIL1 is required in cardiac fibroblasts for the adoption of myofibroblast fate, collagen I expression and expression of fibrosis-related genes. Taken together this data suggests that SNAIL1 expression is induced in the cardiac fibroblasts after hypoxic injury and contributes to myofibroblast phenotype and a fibrotic scar formation. Resultant collagen deposition in the scar can maintain elevated SNAIL1 expression in the myofibroblasts and help propagate fibrosis. PMID:27706205

  19. RNA干扰技术阻断CD40/CD40L共刺激通路对小鼠移植心存活时间的影响%Effects of blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway by RNA interference on the survival of mouse cardiac allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰昌; 付蔚华; 朱理玮

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway by the lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference on the survival of mouse cardiac allograft. Methods Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were infected by CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector in vitro, and tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) with decreased CD40 expression were prepared. Fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were used to analyze the expression of CD40 mRNA and DC surface antigens CD40, CD11c, MHC Ⅱ before and after infection. Mouse model of heterotropic abdominal heart transplantation was established. Seven days prior to heart transplantation, Tol-DCs with decreased CD40 expression were transfused into recipient mice intravenously (lentivirus infected DC group). Control group and non-infected DC group were assigned simultaneously. The survival of cardiac allograft was monitored and pathological grade of acute rejection 7 days after heterotropic abdominal heart transplantation was determined. Results The transcription of CD40 mRNA of DCs was down-regulated significantly at 48 h after CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector infection, and the inhibition rate was 80. 9%. The expression of CD40 protein was also significantly decreased as compared with control group (40. 07% ± 4. 03% ) ( P < 0. 05 ).Compared to control group (8 ± 2 days) and non-infected DC group (9 ± 1 days), the survival time of cardiac allograft in CD40-RNAi lentivirus infected DC group (14 ± 4 days) was significantly prolonged (P< 0. 05 ), and the pathological grade of acute rejection decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway could hamper the activation of allogeneic T lymphocyte, inhibit the acute rejection and prolong the survival of mouse cardiac allograft.%目的 探讨慢病毒介导RNA干扰(RNAi)技术阻断CD40/CD40L共刺激通路对小鼠移植心存活时间的影响.方法 以针对小鼠CD40基因的RNAi慢病毒载体在体外

  20. Mechanisms of cardiac pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Robert D; Garrett, Kennon M; Blair, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Angina pectoris is cardiac pain that typically is manifested as referred pain to the chest and upper left arm. Atypical pain to describe localization of the perception, generally experienced more by women, is referred to the back, neck, and/or jaw. This article summarizes the neurophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms for referred cardiac pain. Spinal cardiac afferent fibers mediate typical anginal pain via pathways from the spinal cord to the thalamus and ultimately cerebral cortex. Spinal neurotransmission involves substance P, glutamate, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors; release of neurokinins such as nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb) in the spinal cord can modulate neurotransmission. Vagal cardiac afferent fibers likely mediate atypical anginal pain and contribute to cardiac ischemia without accompanying pain via relays through the nucleus of the solitary tract and the C1-C2 spinal segments. The psychological state of an individual can modulate cardiac nociception via pathways involving the amygdala. Descending pathways originating from nucleus raphe magnus and the pons also can modulate cardiac nociception. Sensory input from other visceral organs can mimic cardiac pain due to convergence of this input with cardiac input onto spinothalamic tract neurons. Reduction of converging nociceptive input from the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract can diminish cardiac pain. Much work remains to be performed to discern the interactions among complex neural pathways that ultimately produce or do not produce the sensations associated with cardiac pain.

  1. Sinoatrial node dysfunction induces cardiac arrhythmias in diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Speerschneider, Tobias; Winther, Sine V

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to probe cardiac complications, including heart-rate control, in a mouse model of type-2 diabetes. Heart-rate development in diabetic patients is not straight forward: In general, patients with diabetes have faster heart rates compared to non...

  2. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  3. Tolerance induction and transplantation of the mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirsch, D.W.; Kraft, N.; Diener, E.

    1973-01-01

    Long-surviving cardiac allografts can be produced by repopulating irradiated mice with steam cell rich fractions of syngeneic mouse spleen but not bone marrow. Short-term discontinuous HAMTS treatment of irradiated allografted mice can also render mice specifically tolerant. Spleen cells from animals tolerant to cardiac allografts remain reactive to alloantigens in vitro. Lymph node cells from tolerant mice are immunosuppressive and transfer tolerance when injected with whole bone marrow into secondary irradiated, allografted recipients.

  4. Hypertrophy, fibrosis, and sudden cardiac death in response to pathological stimuli in mice with mutations in cardiac troponin T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, AH; Ikeda, K; Oberdorf-Maass, S; Maier, SKG; Leinwand, LA

    2004-01-01

    Background-Transgenic mouse models expressing a missense mutation (R92Q) or a splice donor site mutation (trunc) in the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) model familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) in humans. Although males from these strains share the unusual property of having significantly smaller v

  5. Investigating the Mechanism of Hyperglycemia-Induced Fetal Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Jia, Wei-jing; Wu, Xia; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Mei-yao; Cheng, Xin; Li, Wei-jing; Yang, Xuesong; Liu, Guo-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic mothers enhances the risk of fetal cardiac hypertrophy during gestation. However, the mechanism of high-glucose-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not largely understood. In this study, we first demonstrated that the incidence rate of cardiac hypertrophy dramatically increased in fetuses of diabetic mothers using color ultrasound examination. In addition, human fetal cardiac hypertrophy was successfully mimicked in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mouse model, in which mouse cardiac hypertrophy was diagnosed using type-M ultrasound and a histological assay. PH3 immunofluorescent staining of mouse fetal hearts and in vitro-cultured H9c2 cells indicated that cell proliferation decreased in E18.5, E15.5 and E13.5 mice, and cell apoptosis in H9c2 cells increased in the presence of high glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Next, we found that the individual cardiomyocyte size increased in pre-gestational diabetes mellitus mice and in response to high glucose exposure. Meanwhile, the expression of β-MHC and BMP-10 was up-regulated. Nkx2.5 immunofluorescent staining showed that the expression of Nkx2.5, a crucial cardiac transcription factor, was suppressed in the ventricular septum, left ventricular wall and right ventricular wall of E18.5, E15.5 and E13.5 mouse hearts. However, cardiac hypertrophy did not morphologically occur in E13.5 mouse hearts. In cultured H9c2 cells exposed to high glucose, Nkx2.5 expression decreased, as detected by both immunostaining and western blotting, and the expression of KCNE1 and Cx43 was also restricted. Taken together, alterations in cell size rather than cell proliferation or apoptosis are responsible for hyperglycemia-induced fetal cardiac hypertrophy. The aberrant expression of Nkx2.5 and its regulatory target genes in the presence of high glucose could be a principal component of pathogenesis in the development of fetal cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26418041

  6. Cardiac pathology in spinal muscular atrophy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarde, C A; Blank, A C; Stam, M; Wadman, R I; van den Berg, L H; van der Pol, W L

    2017-04-11

    Hereditary proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease of childhood caused by homozygous loss of function of the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. The presence of a second, nearly identical SMN gene (SMN2) in the human genome ensures production of residual levels of the ubiquitously expressed SMN protein. Alpha-motor neurons in the ventral horns of the spinal cord are most vulnerable to reduced SMN concentrations but the development or function of other tissues may also be affected, and cardiovascular abnormalities have frequently been reported both in patients and SMA mouse models. We systematically reviewed reported cardiac pathology in relation to SMN deficiency. To investigate the relevance of the possible association in more detail, we used clinical classification systems to characterize structural cardiac defects and arrhythmias. Seventy-two studies with a total of 264 SMA patients with reported cardiac pathology were identified, along with 14 publications on SMA mouse models with abnormalities of the heart. Structural cardiac pathology, mainly septal defects and abnormalities of the cardiac outflow tract, was reported predominantly in the most severely affected patients (i.e. SMA type 1). Cardiac rhythm disorders were most frequently reported in patients with milder SMA types (e.g. SMA type 3). All included studies lacked control groups and a standardized approach for cardiac evaluation. The convergence to specific abnormalities of cardiac structure and function may indicate vulnerability of specific cell types or developmental processes relevant for cardiogenesis. Future studies would benefit from a controlled and standardized approach for cardiac evaluation in patients with SMA.

  7. Reducing RBM20 activity improves diastolic dysfunction and cardiac atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Florian; Dieterich, Christoph; Radke, Michael H; Granzier, Henk; Gotthardt, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Impaired diastolic filling is a main contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a syndrome with increasing prevalence and no treatment. Both collagen and the giant sarcomeric protein titin determine diastolic function. Since titin's elastic properties can be adjusted physiologically, we evaluated titin-based stiffness as a therapeutic target. We adjusted RBM20-dependent cardiac isoform expression in the titin N2B knockout mouse with increased ventricular stiffness. A ~50 % reduction of RBM20 activity does not only maintain cardiac filling in diastole but also ameliorates cardiac atrophy and thus improves cardiac function in the N2B-deficient heart. Reduced RBM20 activity partially normalized gene expression related to muscle development and fatty acid metabolism. The adaptation of cardiac growth was related to hypertrophy signaling via four-and-a-half lim-domain proteins (FHLs) that translate mechanical input into hypertrophy signals. We provide a novel link between cardiac isoform expression and trophic signaling via FHLs and suggest cardiac splicing as a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction. Increasing the length of titin isoforms improves ventricular filling in heart disease. FHL proteins are regulated via RBM20 and adapt cardiac growth. RBM20 is a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction.

  8. Cardiac-Specific EPI64C Blunts Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuehai; Fang, Jing; Gong, Jun; Guo, Jun-Hong; Zhao, Guang-Nian; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Liu, Hong-Yun; Wei, Xiang; Li, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    The calcium-responsive molecule, calcineurin, has been well characterized to play a causal role in pathological cardiac hypertrophy over the past decade. However, the intrinsic negative regulation of calcineurin signaling during the progression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remains enigmatic. Herein, we explored the role of EPI64C, a dual inhibitor of both Ras and calcineurin signaling during T-cell activation, in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We generated a cardiac-specific Epi64c conditional knockout mouse strain and showed that loss of Epi64c remarkably exacerbates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In contrast, EPI64C gain-of-function in cardiomyocyte-specific Epi64c transgenic mice exerts potent protective effects against cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, the cardioprotective effects of EPI64C are largely attributed to the disrupted calcineurin signaling but are independent of its Ras suppressive capability. Molecular studies have indicated that the 406 to 446 C-terminal amino acids in EPI64C directly bind to the 287 to 337 amino acids in the catalytic domain of calcineurin, which is responsible for the EPI64C-mediated suppressive effects. We further extrapolated our studies to cynomolgus monkeys and showed that gene therapy based on lentivirus-mediated EPI64C overexpression in the monkey hearts blunted pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Our study thus identified EPI64C as a novel negative regulator in cardiac hypertrophy by targeting calcineurin signaling and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating cardiac hypertrophy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  10. Up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin in cardiomyocytes from non-hypertrophic and non-failing transgenic mouse hearts expressing N-terminal truncated cardiac troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a restrictive N-terminal truncation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI-ND is up-regulated in the heart in adaptation to hemodynamic stresses. Over-expression of cTnI-ND in the hearts of transgenic mice revealed functional benefits such as increased relaxation and myocardial compliance. In the present study, we investigated the subsequent effect on myocardial remodeling. The alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA isoform is normally expressed in differentiating cardiomyocytes and is a marker for myocardial hypertrophy in adult hearts. Our results show that in cTnI-ND transgenic mice of between 2 and 3 months of age (young adults, a significant level of α-SMA is expressed in the heart as compared with wild-type animals. Although blood vessel density was increased in the cTnI-ND heart, the mass of smooth muscle tissue did not correlate with the increased level of α-SMA. Instead, immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting of protein extracts from isolated cardiomyocytes identified cardiomyocytes as the source of increased α-SMA in cTnI-ND hearts. We further found that while a portion of the up-regulated α-SMA protein was incorporated into the sarcomeric thin filaments, the majority of SMA protein was found outside of myofibrils. This distribution pattern suggests dual functions for the up-regulated α-SMA as both a contractile component to affect contractility and as possible effector of early remodeling in non-hypertrophic, non-failing cTnI-ND hearts.

  11. Myocyte necrosis underlies progressive myocardial dystrophy in mouse dsg2-related arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilichou, K.; Remme, C.A.; Basso, C.; Campian, M.E.; Rizzo, S.; Barnett, P.; Scicluna, B.P.; Bauce, B.; van den Hoff, M.J.B.; de Bakker, J.M.T.; Tan, H.L.; Valente, M.; Nava, A.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Moorman, A.F.M.; Thiene, G.; Bezzina, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the cardiac desmosomal protein desmoglein-2 (DSG2) are associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We studied the explanted heart of a proband carrying the DSG2-N266S mutation as well as transgenic mice (Tg-NS) with cardiac overexpression of the mouse equival

  12. Male sex aggravates the phenotype in mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, AH; Maier, SKG

    2005-01-01

    The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice

  13. Male sex aggravates the phenotype in mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, AH; Maier, SKG

    2005-01-01

    The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice

  14. 3D engineered cardiac tissue models of human heart disease: learning more from our mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphe, J Carter; de Lange, Willem J

    2013-02-01

    Mouse engineered cardiac tissue constructs (mECTs) are a new tool available to study human forms of genetic heart disease within the laboratory. The cultured strips of cardiac cells generate physiologic calcium transients and twitch force, and respond to electrical pacing and adrenergic stimulation. The mECT can be made using cells from existing mouse models of cardiac disease, providing a robust readout of contractile performance and allowing a rapid assessment of genotype-phenotype correlations and responses to therapies. mECT represents an efficient and economical extension to the existing tools for studying cardiac physiology. Human ECTs generated from iPSCMs represent the next logical step for this technology and offer significant promise of an integrated, fully human, cardiac tissue model.

  15. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E', an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E'/A' at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy.

  16. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  17. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  18. Cardiac event monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ECG) - ambulatory; Continuous electrocardiograms (EKGs); Holter monitors; Transtelephonic event monitors ... attached. You can carry or wear a cardiac event monitor up to 30 days. You carry the ...

  19. Cardiac stem cell niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Leri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1α and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed.

  20. Mechanotransduction in cardiac hypertrophy and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert C; Zanella, Fabian; Omens, Jeffrey H; Sheikh, Farah

    2015-04-10

    Cardiac muscle cells have an intrinsic ability to sense and respond to mechanical load through a process known as mechanotransduction. In the heart, this process involves the conversion of mechanical stimuli into biochemical events that induce changes in myocardial structure and function. Mechanotransduction and its downstream effects function initially as adaptive responses that serve as compensatory mechanisms during adaptation to the initial load. However, under prolonged and abnormal loading conditions, the remodeling processes can become maladaptive, leading to altered physiological function and the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction are far from being fully elucidated, human and mouse genetic studies have highlighted various cytoskeletal and sarcolemmal structures in cardiac myocytes as the likely candidates for load transducers, based on their link to signaling molecules and architectural components important in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent developments that have uncovered specific protein complexes linked to mechanotransduction and mechanotransmission within the sarcomere, the intercalated disc, and at the sarcolemma. The protein structures acting as mechanotransducers are the first step in the process that drives physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, as well as the transition to heart failure, and may provide better insights into mechanisms driving mechanotransduction-based diseases. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. 术前输注供者CD80low/CD86low树突状细胞延长小鼠同种异体移植心脏存活%Donor dendritic cells treated with B7- 1, B7- 2 antisense oligonucleotide prolonged mouse cardiac allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓燕; 陈宗佑; 钱诗光; 李树浓

    2000-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of donor bone marrow derived dentritic cell (DC) treated with B7 - 1, B7 - 2 antisense oligonucleotide on mouse heart allografe survival time and its mechanism. METHODS: There were 7 groups of C57BL/10J (B10) mouse bone marrow DCs which were treated by 400 nM antisense oligonucleotide target to B7 -1, B7 -2 mRNA (AS B7- 1/2), B7- 1 mismatch oligo control ,B7- 2 mismatch control(mASB7- 1/2), lipofeetamine only and non-treatment, respectively. Each group of DC were named as ASB7- 1 DC, ASB7- 2 DC, mASB7 - 1 DC, mAS B7 - 2DC, and Lipo DC, respectively. RESULTS: Flow cytometer results shown that AS B7- 1/2 can inhibit B7- 1 (CD80)and B7- 2 (CD86) molecule express on DC surface, while control groups have no effects. To observe their tolerogenicity in mouse cardiac allograft model, B10→C3H heterotopic heart transplantation were performed. Recepients were received 2 x 106 of DC injection 7 days before transplantation. Results showed that both AS B7 - 1 DC and AS B7 - 2 DC can prolong mouse cardiac allograft survival time to (18.6 + 0.89) days and (23.67 + 10.73) days, respectively, compared with IL - 4 DC [ (6.22 + 0.97) days ( P < 0.01 ) ]. Two mismatch control groups can slightly prolong while oligo DC has no effect. For understanding its mechanism, each group of DC was used as stimulator to stimulated C3H spleen T cell. Results suggested that AS B7 - 1DC and AS B7 - 2 DC had less allo - stimulate function, including MLR and generation CTL and IL - 2 production than IL - 4 DC but control groups have no effect. CONCLUSION: Donor bone marrow derived DC treated with AS B7 - 1 oligo and AS B7 - 2 oligo expressed lower level of CD80 and CD86, respectively. These cells can induce allogeneic T cells anergy in vitro and markedly prolong mouse heart allograft survival time in vivo.%目的:应用B7-1和B7-2反义寡核苷酸(AS B7-1/AS B7-2 oligo)抑制CD80(B7-1)、CD86(B7-2)在供体小鼠骨髓树突状细胞(DC)上的表达,观察这类DC

  2. Localized and efficient cardiac CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2017-03-01

    The superiority of iterative reconstruction techniques over classic analytical ones is well documented in a variety of CT imaging applications where radiation dose and sampling time are limiting factors. However, by definition, the iterative nature of advanced reconstruction techniques is accompanied by a substantial increase in data processing time. This problem is further exacerbated in temporal and spectral CT reconstruction problems where the gap between the amount of data acquired and the amount of data to be reconstructed is exaggerated within the framework of compressive sensing. Two keys to overcoming this barrier include (1) advancements in parallel-computing technology and (2) advancements in data-efficient reconstruction. In this work, we propose a novel, two-stage strategy for 4D cardiac CT reconstruction which leverages these two keys by (1) exploiting GPU computing hardware and by (2) reconstructing temporal contrast on a limited spatial domain. Following a review of the proposed algorithm, we demonstrate its application in retrospectively gated cardiac CT reconstruction using the 4D MOBY mouse phantom. Quantitatively, reconstructing the temporal contrast on a limited domain reduces the overall reconstruction error by 20% and the reconstruction error within the dynamic portion of the phantom by 15% (root-mean-square error metric). A complementary in vivo mouse experiment demonstrates a suitable reconstruction fidelity to allow the measurement of cardiac functional metrics while reducing computation time by 75% relative to direct reconstruction of ten phases of the cardiac cycle. We believe that the proposed algorithm will serve as the basis for novel, data-efficient, multi-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques.

  3. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed.

  4. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  5. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  6. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  7. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

  8. Cardiac hypertrophy induced by active Raf depends on Yorkie-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph P; Wu, Huihui; Wolf, Matthew J

    2015-02-03

    Organ hypertrophy can result from enlargement of individual cells or from cell proliferation or both. Activating mutations in the serine-threonine kinase Raf cause cardiac hypertrophy and contribute to Noonan syndrome in humans. Cardiac-specific expression of activated Raf also causes hypertrophy in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo pathway that regulates organ size, is required for Raf-induced cardiac hypertrophy in flies. Although aberrant activation of Yki orthologs stimulates cardiac hyperplasia in mice, cardiac-specific expression of an activated mutant form of Yki in fruit flies caused cardiac hypertrophy without hyperplasia. Knockdown of Yki caused cardiac dilation without loss of cardiomyocytes and prevented Raf-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In flies, Yki-induced cardiac hypertrophy required the TEA domain-containing transcription factor Scalloped, and, in mammalian cells, expression of mouse Raf(L613V), an activated form of Raf with a Noonan syndrome mutation, increased Yki-induced Scalloped activity. Furthermore, overexpression of Tgi (a Tondu domain-containing Scalloped-binding corepressor) in the fly heart abrogated Yki- or Raf-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, crosstalk between Raf and Yki occurs in the heart and can influence Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. In vivo mouse myocardial (31)P MRS using three-dimensional image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (3D ISIS): technical considerations and biochemical validations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakermans, A.J.; Abdurrachim, D.; Nierop, B.J. van; Koeman, A.; Kroon, I. van der; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C.A.; Strijkers, G.J.; Houten, S.M.; Zuurbier, C.J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    (31)P MRS provides a unique non-invasive window into myocardial energy homeostasis. Mouse models of cardiac disease are widely used in preclinical studies, but the application of (31)P MRS in the in vivo mouse heart has been limited. The small-sized, fast-beating mouse heart imposes challenges

  10. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Rekha; Herrmann, Joerg

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001-0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  11. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mankad MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series. They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1 thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2 cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3 primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  12. Cardiac Tamponade Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarajah, Vignendra; Spodick, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a life-threatening clinical syndrome that requires timely diagnosis. Herein, we present an instructive case of a patient who had cardiac tamponade. The condition went undiagnosed and resulted in the patient's death because almost all of the pathognomonic clinical findings of tamponade were unrecognized or not manifest. To better prepare health care professionals for similar challenges, we discuss the symptoms and clinical signs typical of cardiac tamponade, review the medical literature, and highlight current investigative methods that enable quick, efficient diagnosis and treatment. PMID:17948086

  13. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  14. Impact of hybrid iterative reconstruction on Agatston coronary artery calcium scores in comparison to filtered back projection in native cardiac CT; Einfluss der hybriden iterativen Rekonstruktion bei der nativen CT des Herzens auf die Agatston-Kalziumscores der Koronararterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obmann, V.C.; Heverhagen, J.T. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). University Inst. for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Klink, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Stork, A.; Begemann, P.G.C. [Roentgeninstitut Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-05-15

    To investigate whether the effects of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) on coronary artery calcium (CAC) measurements using the Agatston score lead to changes in assignment of patients to cardiovascular risk groups compared to filtered back projection (FBP). 68 patients (mean age 61.5 years; 48 male; 20 female) underwent prospectively ECG-gated, non-enhanced, cardiac 256-MSCT for coronary calcium scoring. Scanning parameters were as follows: Tube voltage, 120 kV; Mean tube current time-product 63.67 mAs (50 - 150 mAs); collimation, 2 x 128 x 0.625 mm. Images were reconstructed with FBP and with HIR at all levels (L1 to L7). Two independent readers measured Agatston scores of all reconstructions and assigned patients to cardiovascular risk groups. Scores of HIR and FBP reconstructions were correlated (Spearman). Interobserver agreement and variability was assessed with k-statistics and Bland-Altmann-Plots. Agatston scores of HIR reconstructions were closely correlated with FBP reconstructions (L1, R = 0.9996; L2, R = 0.9995; L3, R = 0.9991; L4, R = 0.986; L5, R = 0.9986; L6, R = 0.9987; and L7, R = 0.9986). In comparison to FBP, HIR led to reduced Agatston scores between 97% (L1) and 87.4% (L7) of the FBP values. Using HIR iterations L1-L3, all patients were assigned to identical risk groups as after FPB reconstruction. In 5.4% of patients the risk group after HIR with the maximum iteration level was different from the group after FBP reconstruction. There was an excellent correlation of Agatston scores after HIR and FBP with identical risk group assignment at levels 1 - 3 for all patients. Hence it appears that the application of HIR in routine calcium scoring does not entail any disadvantages. Thus, future studies are needed to demonstrate whether HIR is a reliable method for reducing radiation dose in coronary calcium scoring.

  15. Doses of Coronary Study in 64 Channel Multi-Detector Computed Tomography : Reduced Radiation Dose According to Varity of Examnination Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Chan [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To compare radiation dose for coronary CT angiography (CTA) obtained with 6 examination protocols such as a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan, a prospectively ECG gated sequential scan, low kVp technique, and cardiac dose modulation technique. Coronary CTA was performed by using 6 current clinical protocols to evaluate effective dose and organ dose in primary beam area with anthropomorphic female phantom and glass dosimetric system in 64 channel multi-detector CT. After acquiring topograms of frontal and lateral projection with 80 kVp and 10 mA, main coronary scan was done with 0.35 sec tube rotation time, 40 mm collimation (0.625 mm x 64 ea), small scan field of view (32 cm diameter), 105 mm scan length. Heart beat rate of phantom was maintained 60 bpm in ECG gating. In constant mAs technique 120 kVp, 600 mA was used, and 100 kVp for low kVp technique. In a retrospectively ECG gated helical CT technique 0.22 pitch was used, peak mA (600 mA) was adopted in range of 40-80% of R-R interval and 120 mA (80% reduction) in others with cardiac dose modulation. And 210 mAs was used without cardiac dose modulation. In a prospectively ECG gated sequential CT technique data were acquired at 75% R-R interval (middle diastolic phase in cardiac cycle), and 120 msec additional padding of the tube-on time was used. For effective dose calculation region specific conversion factor of dose length product in thorax was used, which was recommended by EUR 16262. The mean effective dose for conventional coronary CTA without cardiac dose modulation in a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan was 17.8 mSv, and mean organ dose of heart was 103.8 mGy. With low kVp and cardiac dose modulation the mean effective dose showed 54.5% reduction, and heart dose showed 52.3% reduction, compared with that of conventional coronary CTA. And at the sequential scan(SnapShot pulse mode) under prospective ECG gating the mean effective dose was 4.9 mSv, this represents an 72.5% reduction compared with

  16. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  17. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  18. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;

    2012-01-01

    to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements......%. Patients were equally distributed to the SRP and the ERP. No inequality was found in attendance and adherence among referred patients. Conclusions: It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social......Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...

  19. Transvenous Temporary Cardiac Pacing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmanouil Poulidakis; Antonis S Manolis

    2014-01-01

      Transvenous temporary cardiac pacing is a rather old but still contemporary life-saving technique, with a unique value in the treatment of critically ill patients suffering from rhythm disturbances...

  20. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  1. Multidetector-row computed tomography for prosthetic heart valve dysfunction : is concomitant non-invasive coronary angiography possible before redo-surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Wilco; Suchá, Dominika; Laufer, Ward; Habets, Jesse; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Symersky, Petr; Chamuleau, Steven; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Retrospective ECG-gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) is increasingly used for the assessment of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction, but is also hampered by PHV-related artefacts/cardiac arrhythmias. Furthermore, it is performed without nitroglycerine or heart rate

  2. Cardiac imaging in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  3. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targe...

  4. Port Access Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, Mario; Minzioni, Gaetano; Spreafico, Patrizio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Pasquino, Stefano; Ceriana, Piero; Locatelli, Alessandro

    2000-10-01

    The port-access technique for cardiac surgery was recently developed at Stanford University in California as a less invasive method to perform some cardiac operations. The port-access system has been described in detail elsewhere. It is based on femoral arterial and venous access for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and on the adoption of a specially designed triple-lumen catheter described originally by Peters, and subsequently modified and developed in the definitive configuration called the endoaortic clamp.

  5. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  6. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery, i...... on the coronary vessels, with cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial exudate. In the lighter cases, PCIS may be treated with NSAID and, in the more severe cases, with systemic glucocorticoid which has a prompt effect....

  7. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  8. Cardiac applications of optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Christina M; Klimas, Aleksandra; Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    In complex multicellular systems, such as the brain or the heart, the ability to selectively perturb and observe the response of individual components at the cellular level and with millisecond resolution in time, is essential for mechanistic understanding of function. Optogenetics uses genetic encoding of light sensitivity (by the expression of microbial opsins) to provide such capabilities for manipulation, recording, and control by light with cell specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. As an optical approach, it is inherently scalable for remote and parallel interrogation of biological function at the tissue level; with implantable miniaturized devices, the technique is uniquely suitable for in vivo tracking of function, as illustrated by numerous applications in the brain. Its expansion into the cardiac area has been slow. Here, using examples from published research and original data, we focus on optogenetics applications to cardiac electrophysiology, specifically dealing with the ability to manipulate membrane voltage by light with implications for cardiac pacing, cardioversion, cell communication, and arrhythmia research, in general. We discuss gene and cell delivery methods of inscribing light sensitivity in cardiac tissue, functionality of the light-sensitive ion channels within different types of cardiac cells, utility in probing electrical coupling between different cell types, approaches and design solutions to all-optical electrophysiology by the combination of optogenetic sensors and actuators, and specific challenges in moving towards in vivo cardiac optogenetics.

  9. Intravenous Cardiac Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Ameliorate Cardiac Dysfunction in Doxorubicin Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Vandergriff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efficacy of cardiac stem cells (CSCs for treatment of cardiomyopathies, there are many limitations to stem cell therapies. CSC-derived exosomes (CSC-XOs have been shown to be responsible for a large portion of the regenerative effects of CSCs. Using a mouse model of doxorubicin induced dilated cardiomyopathy, we study the effects of systemic delivery of human CSC-XOs in mice. Mice receiving CSC-XOs showed improved heart function via echocardiography, as well as decreased apoptosis and fibrosis. In spite of using immunocompetent mice and human CSC-XOs, mice showed no adverse immune reaction. The use of CSC-XOs holds promise for overcoming the limitations of stem cells and improving cardiac therapies.

  10. [Psychosomatic aspects of cardiac arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, Martin; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Emotional stress facilitates the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias including sudden cardiac death. The prevalence of anxiety and depression is increased in cardiac patients as compared to the normal population. The risk of cardiovascular mortality is enhanced in patients suffering from depression. Comorbid anxiety disorders worsen the course of cardiac arrhythmias. Disturbance of neurocardiac regulation with predominance of the sympathetic tone is hypothesized to be causative for this. The emotional reaction to cardiac arrhythmias is differing to a large extent between individuals. Emotional stress may result from coping with treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias may influence each other in the sense of a vicious circle. Somatoform cardiac arrhythmias are predominantly of psychogenic origin. Instrumental measures and frequent contacts between physicians and patients may facilitate disease chronification. The present review is dealing with the multifaceted relationships between cardiac arrhythmias and emotional stress. The underlying mechanisms and corresponding treatment modalities are discussed.

  11. Cardiovascular Development and the Colonizing Cardiac Neural Crest Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Snider

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that transgenic manipulation of mammalian neural crest-related gene expression and microsurgical removal of premigratory chicken and Xenopus embryonic cardiac neural crest progenitors results in a wide spectrum of both structural and functional congenital heart defects, the actual functional mechanism of the cardiac neural crest cells within the heart is poorly understood. Neural crest cell migration and appropriate colonization of the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract septum is thought to be highly dependent on genes that regulate cell-autonomous polarized movement (i.e., gap junctions, cadherins, and noncanonical Wnt1 pathway regulators. Once the migratory cardiac neural crest subpopulation finally reaches the heart, they have traditionally been thought to participate in septation of the common outflow tract into separate aortic and pulmonary arteries. However, several studies have suggested these colonizing neural crest cells may also play additional unexpected roles during cardiovascular development and may even contribute to a crest-derived stem cell population. Studies in both mice and chick suggest they can also enter the heart from the venous inflow as well as the usual arterial outflow region, and may contribute to the adult semilunar and atrioventricular valves as well as part of the cardiac conduction system. Furthermore, although they are not usually thought to give rise to the cardiomyocyte lineage, neural crest cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio can contribute to the myocardium and may have different functions in a species-dependent context. Intriguingly, both ablation of chick and Xenopus premigratory neural crest cells, and a transgenic deletion of mouse neural crest cell migration or disruption of the normal mammalian neural crest gene expression profiles, disrupts ventral myocardial function and/or cardiomyocyte proliferation. Combined, this suggests that either the cardiac neural crest

  12. Ultrasonographic and histological evaluation of the effects of long-term carotid catheterization on cardiac function in NMRI mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne C; Thomsen, Morten B; Ihms, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    weights were compared between groups. No effects on echocardiography parameters, histology, body weights or cardiac weights could be found between groups. In the present study, implantation of a carotid catheter with catheter tip placement in the proximal brachiocephalic trunk had minimal influence...... to the small body size of the mouse, a catheter tends to occupy a great part of even the larger vessel lumens, and this may increase vascular resistance with potential pathophysiological impacts on the heart. The present study compared cardiac function of catheterized mice, with catheter tip placement...... on cardiac and aortic physiology and did not induce significant cardiac changes....

  13. Comparative stereology of mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, E H; Sommer, J R; Waugh, R A

    1981-01-01

    The left and right atria of the mouse were compared to each other and to the mouse left ventricle using stereologic techniques. The volume fraction (Vv) and surface area per unit cell volume (Sv) of the interior junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (IJSR), total JSR and extended JSR were greater in the left atrium than in right. The Vv and Sv of the free SR, transverse tubules, and mitochondria were similar in the two atria. It is suggested that the differences in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum between the atria can be accounted for by a difference in distribution of two types of cells whose anatomy is analogous to working and conducting fibers in the ventricle. The Sv and Vv of the transverse tubules, mitochondria, and all the components of the sarcoplasmic reticulum except for the free SR were greater in the left ventricle than in either atrium. The greater calcium content and sensitivity to extracellular calcium of the atria may explain the greater volume of free SR in the atria as compared to the left ventricle. The Sv of the plasmalemma of the atria and of the Sv of the plasmalemma of the transverse tubules of the left ventricles supports the suggestion of others that there is a constant ratio of surface area to cell volume in cardiac cells.

  14. Targeting post-infarct inflammation by PET imaging: comparison of {sup 68}Ga-citrate and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE with {sup 18}F-FDG in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Division of Molecular and Translational Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover (Germany); Bankstahl, Jens P.; Walte, Almut; Wittneben, Alexander; Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Wang, Yong; Korf-Klingebiel, Mortimer; Wollert, Kai C. [Hannover Medical School, Division of Molecular and Translational Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-12

    Imaging of inflammation early after myocardial infarction (MI) is a promising approach to the guidance of novel molecular interventions that support endogenous healing processes. {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been used, but may be complicated by physiological myocyte uptake. We evaluated the potential of two alternative imaging targets: lactoferrin binding by {sup 68}Ga-citrate and somatostatin receptor binding by {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE. C57Bl/6 mice underwent permanent coronary artery ligation. Serial PET imaging was performed 3 - 7 days after MI using {sup 68}Ga-citrate, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE, or {sup 18}F-FDG with ketamine/xylazine suppression of myocyte glucose uptake. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by {sup 13}N-ammonia PET and cardiac geometry by contrast-enhanced ECG-gated CT. Mice exhibited a perfusion defect of 30 - 40 % (of the total left ventricle) with apical anterolateral wall akinesia and thinning on day 7 after MI. {sup 18}F-FDG with ketamine/xylazine suppression demonstrated distinct uptake in the infarct region, as well as in the border zone and remote myocardium. The myocardial standardized uptake value in MI mice was significantly higher than in healthy mice under ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1). {sup 68}Ga images exhibited high blood pool activity with no specific myocardial uptake up to 90 min after injection (tissue-to-blood contrast 0.9). {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE was rapidly cleared from the blood, but myocardial SUV was very low (0.10 ± 0.03). Neither {sup 68}Ga nor {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE is a useful alternative to {sup 18}F-FDG for PET imaging of myocardial inflammation after MI in mice. Among the three tested approaches, {sup 18}F-FDG with ketamine/xylazine suppression of cardiomyocyte uptake remains the most practical imaging marker of post-infarct inflammation. (orig.)

  15. 4-D Micro-CT of the Mouse Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian T. Badea

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Demonstrate noninvasive imaging methods for in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function in mice using a micro-CT system that provides high photon fluence rate and integrated motion control. Materials and Methods: Simultaneous cardiac- and respiratory-gated micro-CT was performed in C57BL/6 mice during constant intravenous infusion of a conventional iodinated contrast agent (Isovue-370, and after a single intravenous injection of a blood pool contrast agent (Fenestra VC. Multiple phases of the cardiac cycle were reconstructed with contrast to noise and spatial resolution sufficient for quantitative assessment of cardiac function. Results: Contrast enhancement with Isovue-370 increased over time with a maximum of ~500 HU (aorta and 900 HU (kidney cortex. Fenestra VC provided more constant enhancement over 3 hr, with maximum enhancement of ~620 HU (aorta and ~90 HU (kidney cortex. The maximum enhancement difference between blood and myocardium in the heart was ~250 HU for Isovue-370 and ~500 HU for Fenestra VC. In mice with Fenestra VC, volumetric measurements of the left ventricle were performed and cardiac function was estimated by ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Conclusion: Image quality with Fenestra VC was sufficient for morphological and functional studies required for a standardized method of cardiac phenotyping of the mouse.

  16. Isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Elisabeth; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Lange, Stephan

    2013-09-06

    Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions.

  17. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure wo...

  18. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors in the heart: a potential locus for cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Eric Q; Barnett, Adam S; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Hennessey, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    The four fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs; FGF11-FGF14) are intracellular proteins that bind and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although FHFs have been well studied in neurons and implicated in neurologic disease, their role in cardiomyocytes was unclear until recently. This review discusses the expression profile and function of FHFs in mouse and rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Recent data show that FGF13 is the predominant FHF in the murine heart, directly binds the cardiac VGSC α subunit, and is essential for normal cardiac conduction. FHF loss-of-function mutations may be unrecognized causes of cardiac arrhythmias, such as long QT and Brugada syndromes.

  20. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... for the situation at hand. Due to challenging circumstances, the cost assessment turned out to be ex-post and top-down. RESULTS: Cost per treatment sequence is estimated to be approximately euro 976, whereas the incremental cost (compared with usual care) is approximately euro 682. The cost estimate is uncertain...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  1. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  2. Toothache of cardiac origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, M; Okeson, J P

    1999-01-01

    Pain referred to the orofacial structures can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. In some instances, a patient may complain of tooth pain that is completely unrelated to any dental source. This poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem for the dentist. Cardiac pain most commonly radiates to the left arm, shoulder, neck, and face. In rare instances, angina pectoris may present as dental pain. When this occurs, an improper diagnosis frequently leads to unnecessary dental treatment or, more significantly, a delay of proper treatment. This delay may result in the patient experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. It is the dentist's responsibility to establish a proper diagnosis so that the treatment will be directed toward the source of pain and not to the site of pain. This article reviews the literature concerning referred pain of cardiac origin and presents a case report of toothache of cardiac origin.

  3. Identification of genes regulated during mechanical load-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, S. E.; Dyck, J. R.; Michael, L. H.; Olson, E. N.; Abdellatif, M.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with both adaptive and adverse changes in gene expression. To identify genes regulated by pressure overload, we performed suppressive subtractive hybridization between cDNA from the hearts of aortic-banded (7-day) and sham-operated mice. In parallel, we performed a subtraction between an adult and a neonatal heart, for the purpose of comparing different forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Sequencing more than 100 clones led to the identification of an array of functionally known (70%) and unknown genes (30%) that are upregulated during cardiac growth. At least nine of those genes were preferentially expressed in both the neonatal and pressure over-load hearts alike. Using Northern blot analysis to investigate whether some of the identified genes were upregulated in the load-independent calcineurin-induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, revealed its incomplete similarity with the former models of cardiac growth. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Identification of genes regulated during mechanical load-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, S. E.; Dyck, J. R.; Michael, L. H.; Olson, E. N.; Abdellatif, M.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with both adaptive and adverse changes in gene expression. To identify genes regulated by pressure overload, we performed suppressive subtractive hybridization between cDNA from the hearts of aortic-banded (7-day) and sham-operated mice. In parallel, we performed a subtraction between an adult and a neonatal heart, for the purpose of comparing different forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Sequencing more than 100 clones led to the identification of an array of functionally known (70%) and unknown genes (30%) that are upregulated during cardiac growth. At least nine of those genes were preferentially expressed in both the neonatal and pressure over-load hearts alike. Using Northern blot analysis to investigate whether some of the identified genes were upregulated in the load-independent calcineurin-induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, revealed its incomplete similarity with the former models of cardiac growth. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. The cardiac anxiety questionnaire: cross-validation among cardiac inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Deelen, F.M. van; Balkom, A.J. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  6. THE CARDIAC ANXIETY QUESTIONNAIRE : CROSS-VALIDATION AMONG CARDIAC INPATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M. H. C. T.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; van Deelen, F. M.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  7. Cardiac Niche Influences the Direct Reprogramming of Canine Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocyte-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Palazzolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by mutation of dystrophin gene and primarily affect skeletal and cardiac muscles. Cardiac involvement in dystrophic GRMD dogs has been demonstrated by electrocardiographic studies with the onset of a progressive cardiomyopathy similar to the cardiac disease in DMD patients. In this respect, GRMD is a useful model to explore cardiac and skeletal muscle pathogenesis and for developing new therapeutic protocols. Here we describe a protocol to convert GRMD canine fibroblasts isolated from heart and skin into induced cardiac-like myocytes (ciCLMs. We used a mix of transcription factors (GATA4, HAND2, TBX5, and MEF2C, known to be able to differentiate mouse and human somatic cells into ciCLMs. Exogenous gene expression was obtained using four lentiviral vectors carrying transcription factor genes and different resistance genes. Our data demonstrate a direct switch from fibroblast into ciCLMs with no activation of early cardiac genes. ciCLMs were unable to contract spontaneously, suggesting, differently from mouse and human cells, an incomplete differentiation process. However, when transplanted in neonatal hearts of SCID/Beige mice, ciCLMs participate in cardiac myogenesis.

  8. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  9. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  10. Phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy is attenuated by a histone acetylase inhibitor anacardic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Li, Shuo; Sun, Huichao

    2017-03-28

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a complex process involving highly coordinated but tight regulation of multiple elements, such as in epigenetics, which make an important contribution to myocardium remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy. Epigenetic regulations, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, however, the exact mechanism is still largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential attenuating effects of Chinese herbal extract anacardic acid on phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. The mouse cardiac hypertrophy model was established and the hearts were collected from C57BL/6 mice for further analyses. The data showed that anacardic acid modulated the cardiac genes expression and attenuated the phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the suppression of histone acetylases activity and downstream cardiac genes. In addition, anacardic acid abrogated histone and MEF2A acetylation and DNA-binding activity by blocking p300-HAT and PCAF-HAT activities. In addition, anacardic acid normalized the cardiac hypertrophy-related genes expressions (ANP, BNP, cTnT, cTnI, β-MHC, and Cx43) induced by phenylephrine at the level of transcription and translation. In addition, anacardic acid did not affect the blood routine index, hepatic function, renal function, and myocardial enzymes. Therefore, anacardic acid may prove to be a candidate drug to cure hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  11. Non cardiopatic and cardiopatic beta thalassaemic patients: quantitative and qualitative cardiac iron deposition evaluation with MRI; Pazienti {beta} talassemici non cardiopatici e cardiopatici: valutazione quantitativa e qualitativa del deposito di ferro cardiaco con RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarini, Luca; Marini, Stefania; Scardapane, Arnaldo [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). DIMIMP-Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini; Pietrapertosa, Anna [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). MIDIM-Cattedra di Ematologia II; Ettore, Giovanni Carlo [Foggia Univ., Foggia (Italy). Cattedra di Radiologia

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: Cardiomyopathy is one of the major complications of {beta} thalassaemia major as a result of transfusion iron overload. The aim of our study is to evaluate with MR if there is any difference of iron deposition signal intensity (SI) or distribution between non-cardiopatic and cardiopatic thalassaemic patients in order to establish if there is a relationship between cardiopathy and iron deposition. Materials and methods: We studied 20 patients affected by {beta} thalassaemia major, of whom 10 cardiopatic and 10 non-cardiopatic, and 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Serum ferritin and left ventricular ejection fraction were calculated in thalassaemic patients. All patients were examinated using a 1.5 MR unit with ECG-gated GE cine-MR T2*-weighted, SE T1-weighted and GE T2*-weighted sequences. In all cases, using an adequate ROI, the myocardial and skeletal muscle signal intensity (SI), the myocardial/skeletal muscle signal intensity radio (SIR) and the SI average of the myocardium and skeletal muscle were calculated for every study group. The qualitative evaluation of iron deposition distribution was independently performed by three radiologists who analysed the extension, the site and the morphology of iron deposition on the MR images and reported their observations on the basis of a four-level rating scale: 0 (absent), 1 (limited), 2 (partial), 3 (widespread deposition). The results of quantitative and qualitative evaluation were analysed with statistical tests. Results: Cardiac iron deposition was found in 8/10 non-cardiopatic thalassaemic patients and in all cardiopatic thalassaemic patients. We noticed a significant SI difference (p>0.05) between the healthy volunteer control group and the thalassaemic patients with iron deposition, but no significant SI difference in iron deposition between non-cardiopatic thalassaemic patients in the areas evaluated. The qualitative evaluation revealed a different distribution of iron deposition between the two

  12. Perioperative management of cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, N A; Malik, A A; Ihsan, K M; Aftab, S M E; Khan, W S

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing cardiac disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst patients undergoing non cardiac surgery. Patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or with risk factors for it, have as much as a 3.9% risk of suffering a major perioperative cardiac event (Lee et al 1999, Devereaux 2005). Furthermore, the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is increased 10 to 50 fold in patients with previous coronary events (Jassal 2008).

  13. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  14. Data analysis in cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Pedrón-Torecilla, Jorge; Hernández, Ismael; Liberos, Alejandro; Climent, Andreu M; Guillem, María S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an increasingly present in developed countries and represent a major health and economic burden. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is closely linked to the electrical function of the heart. Consequently, the analysis of the electrical signal generated by the heart tissue, either recorded invasively or noninvasively, provides valuable information for the study of cardiac arrhythmias. In this chapter, novel cardiac signal analysis techniques that allow the study and diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias are described, with emphasis on cardiac mapping which allows for spatiotemporal analysis of cardiac signals.Cardiac mapping can serve as a diagnostic tool by recording cardiac signals either in close contact to the heart tissue or noninvasively from the body surface, and allows the identification of cardiac sites responsible of the development or maintenance of arrhythmias. Cardiac mapping can also be used for research in cardiac arrhythmias in order to understand their mechanisms. For this purpose, both synthetic signals generated by computer simulations and animal experimental models allow for more controlled physiological conditions and complete access to the organ.

  15. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...

  16. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Andrea C; Kopf, Phillip G; Campen, Matthew J; Huwe, Janice K; Walker, Mary K

    2008-02-01

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure would disrupt cardiac ECM expression and be associated with changes in cardiac morphology in adulthood. In one study, time-pregnant C57BL/6 mice were dosed with corn oil or 1.5, 3.0, or 6.0 microg TCDD/kg on gestation day (GD) 14.5 and sacrificed on GD 17.5, when changes in fetal cardiac mRNA expression were analyzed using quantitative PCR. TCDD induced mRNA expression of genes associated with ECM remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase 9 and 13, preproendothelin-1 [preproET-1]), cardiac hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic peptide, beta-myosin heavy chain, osteopontin), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation (cytochrome P4501A1, AHR repressor). Further, all TCDD-induced changes required the AHR since gene expression was not altered in AHR knockout fetuses. In a second study, time-pregnant mice were treated with corn oil or 6.0 microg TCDD/kg on GD 14.5, and male offspring were assessed for changes in cardiac gene expression and cardiac and renal morphology at 3 months. All TCDD-induced changes in cardiac gene expression observed fetally, except for preproET-1, remained induced in the hearts of adult male offspring. Adult male offspring of TCDD-exposed dams also displayed cardiac hypertrophy, decreased plasma volume, and mild hydronephrosis. These results demonstrate that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures alter cardiac gene expression and cardiac and renal morphology in adulthood, which may increase the susceptibility to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  17. Cardiac troponins and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michael J; Jarolim, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Measurement of circulating cardiac troponins I and T has become integral to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. This article discusses the structure and function of the troponin complex and the release of cardiac troponin molecules from the injured cardiomyocyte into the circulation. An overview of current cardiac troponin assays and their classification according to sensitivity is presented. The diagnostic criteria, role, and usefulness of cardiac troponin for myocardial infarction are discussed. In addition, several examples are given of the usefulness of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays for short-term and long-term prediction of adverse events.

  18. A novel physiological role for cardiac myoglobin in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B.; Esfeld, Sonja; Coman, Cristina; Ahrends, Robert; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Flögel, Ulrich; Rassaf, Tienush; Totzeck, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Continuous contractile activity of the heart is essential and the required energy is mostly provided by fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Myocardial lipid accumulation can lead to pathological responses, however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The role of myoglobin in dioxygen binding in cardiomyocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle has widely been appreciated. Our recent work established myoglobin as a protector of cardiac function in hypoxia and disease states. We here unravel a novel role of cardiac myoglobin in governing FA metabolism to ensure the physiological energy production through β-oxidation, preventing myocardial lipid accumulation and preserving cardiac functions. In vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy unveils a 3-fold higher deposition of lipids in mouse hearts lacking myoglobin, which was associated with depressed cardiac function compared to wild-type hearts as assessed by echocardiography. Mass spectrometry reveals a marked increase in tissue triglycerides with preferential incorporation of palmitic and oleic acids. Phospholipid levels as well as the metabolome, transcriptome and proteome related to FA metabolism tend to be unaffected by myoglobin ablation. Our results reveal a physiological role of myoglobin in FA metabolism with the lipid accumulation-suppressing effects of myoglobin preventing cardiac lipotoxicity. PMID:28230173

  19. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Reem; Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases

  20. The cardiac malpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Joseph K

    2011-11-01

    Dextrocardia was known in the 17th century and was 1 of the first congenital malformations of the heart to be recognized. Fifty years elapsed before Matthew Baillie published his account of complete transposition in a human of the thoracic and abdominal viscera to the opposite side from what is natural. In 1858, Thomas Peacock stated that "the heart may be congenitally misplaced in various ways, occupying either an unusual position within the thorax, or being situated external to that cavity." In 1915, Maude Abbott described ectopia cordis, and Richard Paltauf's remarkable illustrations distinguished the various types of dextrocardia. In 1928, the first useful classification of the cardiac malpositions was proposed, and in 1966, Elliott et al's radiologic classification set the stage for clinical recognition. The first section of this review deals with the 3 basic cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral asymmetry. The second section deals with cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral left-sidedness or right-sidedness. Previous publications on cardiac malpositions are replete with an arcane vocabulary that confounds rather than clarifies. Even if the terms themselves are understood, inherent complexity weighs against clarity. This review was designed as a guided tour of an unfamiliar subject.

  1. Sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Lachica, E

    1992-01-01

    The study deals with the comparison of morphological, histochemical and biochemical methods applied to the detection of myocardial infarction in 150 medico-legal autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Pathology in Copenhagen. The study also included an NBT (formazan) test of cardiac cro...

  2. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | Common Questions | Related Pages What ... cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring CRP with a ...

  3. Cardiac Catheterization (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once a day. Avoid baths, hot tubs, and swimming for 1 week after the catheterization. Don't use any creams, lotions, or ointments on the site. The doctor will tell you when it's safe to go back to your normal activities after a cardiac catheterization. ...

  4. "Young at heart": Regenerative potential linked to immature cardiac phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Renata S M; Skroblin, Philipp; Munster, Alex B; Tomlins, Hannah; Langley, Sarah R; Zampetaki, Anna; Yin, Xiaoke; Wardle, Fiona C; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The adult human myocardium is incapable of regeneration; yet, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can regenerate damaged myocardium. Similar to the zebrafish heart, hearts of neonatal, but not adult mice are capable of myocardial regeneration. We performed a proteomics analysis of adult zebrafish hearts and compared their protein expression profile to hearts from neonatal and adult mice. Using difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), there was little overlap between the proteome from adult mouse (>8weeks old) and adult zebrafish (18months old) hearts. Similarly, there was a significant degree of mismatch between the protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse hearts. Enrichment analysis of the selected proteins revealed over-expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins in the cardiac proteome of the adult zebrafish heart similar to neonatal and 4days old mice, whereas in hearts of adult mice there was a mitochondria-related predominance in protein expression. Importantly, we noted pronounced differences in the myofilament composition: the adult zebrafish heart lacks many of the myofilament proteins of differentiated adult cardiomyocytes such as the ventricular isoforms of myosin light chains and nebulette. Instead, troponin I and myozenin 1 were expressed as skeletal isoforms rather than cardiac isoforms. The relative immaturity of the adult zebrafish heart was further supported by cardiac microRNA data. Our assessment of zebrafish and mammalian hearts challenges the assertions on the translational potential of cardiac regeneration in the zebrafish model. The immature myofilament composition of the fish heart may explain why adult mouse and human cardiomyocytes lack this endogenous repair mechanism.

  5. Shensongyangxin protects against pressure overload‑induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di-Fei; Wu, Qing-Qing; Ni, Jian; Deng, Wei; Wei, Cong; Jia, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Heng; Zhou, Meng-Qiao; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Shensongyangxin (SSYX) is a medicinal herb, which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Various pharmacological activities of SSYX have been identified. However, the role of SSYX in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be fully elucidated. In present study, aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. SSYX (520 mg/kg) was administered by daily gavage between 1 and 8 weeks following surgery. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was then evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart tissue samples. In addition, in vitro experiments were performed to confirm the in vivo results. The data of the present study demonstrated that SSYX prevented the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by AB, as assessed by measurements of heart weight and gross heart size, hematoxylin and eosin staining, cross‑sectional cardiomyocyte area and the mRNA expression levels of hypertrophic markers. SSYX also inhibited collagen deposition and suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, collagen Ⅰα and collagen Ⅲα, which was mediated by the inhibition of the TGFβ/small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling pathway. The inhibitory action of SSYX on cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by the inhibition of Akt signaling. In vitro investigations in the rat H9c2 cardiac cells also demonstrated that SSYX attenuated angiotensin II‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These findings suggested that SSYX attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the pressure overloaded mouse heart. Therefore, the cardioprotective effect of SSYX is associated with inhibition of the Akt and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways.

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation in the Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzek-Kohler, C M; Love, V; Hendrickson, R; Branford, M; Gates, A; Telvick, C

    1994-10-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation has been effective in the management and recovery of the post-myocardial infarction population for almost 40 years. During that time, the fundamental components of rehabilitation have changed to reflect a growing complexity and number of cardiac patients. Great Lakes Naval Hospital has instituted a structured outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program. It is based on the needs of a large cardiac population with modifiable risk factors identified through quality improvement studies. Future implications and research in the area of cardiac rehabilitation include measurements of self-efficacy, long-term risk factor modification, cost effectiveness, gender-related differences, or morbidity and mortality.

  7. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm

    2014-01-01

    disorders, arrhythmias, and device implantation). In the DM cohort, SIR for any cardiac disease was 3.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.01-3.86]; for a cardiac disease belonging to the selected subgroups 6.91 (95% CI: 5.93-8.01) and for other cardiac disease 2.59 (95% CI: 2.03-3.25). For a cardiac disease......AIMS: To quantify the association between myotonic dystrophy (DM) and cardiac disease in a nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified a nationwide cohort of 1146 DM patients (period 1977-2011) using the National Patient Registry (NPR) and a subcohort of 485 patients who had undergone...... genetic testing for DM1. Information on incident cardiac diseases was obtained from the NPR. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cardiac disease compared with the background population, overall and according to selected diagnostic subgroups (cardiomyopathy, heart failure, conduction...

  8. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-01

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac

  9. Cardiac-specific knockout of ETA receptor mitigates low ambient temperature-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmei Zhang; Linlin Li; Yinan Hua; Jennifer M. Nunn; Feng Dong; Masashi Yanagisawa; Jun Ren

    2012-01-01

    Cold exposure is associated with oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction.The endothelin (ET) system,which plays a key role in myocardial homeostasis,may participate in cold exposure-induced cardiovascular dysfunction.This study was designed to examine the role of ET-1 in cold stress-induced cardiac geometric and contractile responses.Wild-type (WT) and ETA receptor knockout (ETAKO) mice were assigned to normal or cold exposure (4℃) environment for 2 and 5 weeks prior to evaluation of cardiac geometry,contractile,and intracellular Ca2+ properties.Levels of the temperature sensor transient receptor potential vanlllold (TRPV1),mitochondrlal proteins for biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylatlon,Including UCP2,HSP90,and PGC1α were evaluated.Cold stress triggered cardiac hypertrophy,depressed myocardial contractile capacity,including fractional shortening,peak shortening,and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening,reduced intracellular Ca2+ release,prolonged intracellular Ca2+ decay and relengthening duration,generation of ROS and superoxide,as well as apoptosls,the effects of which were blunted by ETAKO.Western blotting revealed downregulated TRPV1 and PGC1α as well as upregulated UCP2 and activation of GSK3β,GATA4,and CREB in cold-stressed WT mouse hearts,which were obliterated by ETAKO.Levels of HSP90,an essential regulator for thermotolerance,were unchanged.The TRPV1 agonist SA13353 attenuated whereas TRPV1 antagonist capsazepino mimicked cold stress- or ET-1-induced cardiac anomalies.The GSK3β Inhibitor SB216763 ablated cold stress-induced cardiac contractile (but not remodeling) changes and ET-1-induced TRPV1 downregulation.These data suggest that ETAKO protects against cold exposure-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction mediated through TRPV1 and mitochondrlal function.

  10. Cardiac MRI: evaluation of phonocardiogram-gated cine imaging for the assessment of global und regional left ventricular function in clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Orzada, Stephan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Communication Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Zenge, Michael; Mueller, Edgar [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Eberle, Holger; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To validate a phonocardiogram (PCG)-gated cine imaging approach for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. In this prospective study, cine MR imaging of the LV was performed twice in 79 patients by using retrospectively PCG- and retrospectively ECG-gated cine SSFP sequences at 1.5 T. End-diastolic volumes (EDV), end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volumes (SV), ejection fraction (EF), muscle mass (MM), as well as regional wall motion were assessed. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with valvular defects and for patients with dysrhythmia. PCG-gated imaging was feasible in 75 (95%) patients, ECG-gating in all patients. Excellent correlations were observed for all volumetric parameters (r > 0.98 for all variables analysed). No significant differences were observed for EDV (-0.24 {+-} 3.14 mL, P = 0.5133), ESV (-0.04 {+-} 2.36 mL, P = 0.8951), SV (-0.20 {+-} 3.41 mL, P = 0.6083), EF (-0.16 {+-} 1.98%, P = 0.4910), or MM (0.31 {+-} 4.2 g, P = 0.7067) for the entire study cohort, nor for either of the subgroups. PCG- and ECG-gated cine imaging revealed similar results for regional wall motion analyses (115 vs. 119 segments with wall motion abnormalities, P = 0.3652). The present study demonstrates that PCG-gated cine imaging enables accurate assessment of global and regional LV function in the vast majority of patients in clinical routine. (orig.)

  11. Optical mapping system for visualizing arrhythmias in isolated mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robyn; Nygren, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Optical mapping has become an important technique in the study of cardiac electrophysiology, especially in terms of investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. The increasing availability of transgenic mice as models for cardiovascular disease is driving the need for instrumentation suitable for the study of electrical activity in the mouse heart. In this paper we evaluate our optical mapping system's ability to clearly record induced arrhythmic activity in an isolated mouse atrial preparation. Preliminary results indicate that the signal quality is high enough that individual optically recorded action potentials can be discerned in many pixels, even without post-processing for noise removal. The optical mapping video is clear enough for general observations regarding the patterns of electrical propagation during arrhythmic behaviour. The induced arrhythmias appear to have a regular pattern of activity, and are likely best classified as atrial tachycardias.

  12. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  13. Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Adam; Liu, Xingbo; Sim, Don; Benner, Chance M; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Qian, Yanrong; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kim, Jason K; Kopchick, John J

    2016-05-01

    GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1.

  14. Creatine uptake in mouse hearts with genetically altered creatine levels

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Creatine plays an important role in energy metabolism in the heart. Cardiomyocytes accumulate creatine via a specific creatine transporter (CrT), the capacity of which is reduced in the failing heart, resulting in lower myocardial creatine concentration. Therefore, to gain insight into how the CrT is regulated, we studied two mouse models of severely altered myocardial creatine levels. Cardiac creatine uptake levels were measured in isolated hearts from creatine-free guanidinoacetate-N-methyl...

  15. The Knockout Mouse Project

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Christopher P.; Battey, James F.; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F.; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T.; Grieder, Franziska B.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and e...

  16. Cancer causes cardiac atrophy and autophagy in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosper, Pippa F; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-03-01

    Approximately one-third of cancer deaths are caused by cachexia, a severe form of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue wasting that affects men more than women. The heart also undergoes atrophy in cancer patients, but the mechanisms and the basis for apparent sex differences are unclear. In a mouse colon-adenocarcinoma model, cancer causes a loss of cardiac mass due to a decrease in cardiac myocyte size that is associated with reduced levels of all sarcomeric proteins. Unlike skeletal muscle cachexia, atrophic hearts do not upregulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system or its activity but increase autophagy. Thus, cancer causes cardiac atrophy by a mechanism distinct from that in skeletal muscle. Male tumor-bearing mice have a more severe phenotype than females, including greater cardiac mass loss and mortality, a more robust pro-inflammatory response to the tumor, and greater cardiac autophagy. In females, estrogen protects against cancer-induced cardiac atrophy and body weight loss by signaling through its receptor. Sex differences in cardiac atrophy need to be considered during the treatment of patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy to prevent exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction. ©2010 AACR.

  17. Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipsy María Gutiérrez Báez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the twentieth century, dying suddenly due to heart-related problems has become the main health issue in all countries where infectious diseases are not prevalent. Sudden death from cardiac causes is an important global health problem. Major databases were searched for the leading causes of sudden cardiac death. It has been demonstrated that there is a group of hereditary diseases with structural alterations or without apparent organic cause that explains many cases of sudden death in young people, whether related or not to physical exertion. Certain population groups are at higher risk for this disease. They are relatively easy to identify and can be the target of primary prevention measures.

  18. Cardiac nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

  19. Cardiac arrest in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tress Erika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.

  20. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotts, Robert J; Garan, Hasan

    2014-08-01

    As more women with repaired congenital heart disease survive to their reproductive years and many other women are delaying pregnancy until later in life, a rising concern is the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Naturally occurring cardiovascular changes during pregnancy increase the likelihood that a recurrence of a previously experienced cardiac arrhythmia or a de novo arrhythmia will occur. Arrhythmias should be thoroughly investigated to determine if there is a reversible etiology, and risks/benefits of treatment options should be fully explored. We discuss the approach to working up and treating various arrhythmias during pregnancy with attention to fetal and maternal risks as well as treatment of fetal arrhythmias. Acute management in stable patients includes close monitoring and intravenous pharmacologic therapy, while DC cardioversion should be used to terminate arrhythmias in hemodynamically unstable patients. Long-term management may require continued oral antiarrhythmic therapy, with particular attention to fetal safety, to prevent complications associated with arrhythmias.

  1. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: Benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Teodora Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs. As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine and the desired species (e.g., human. For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  2. Kaempferol Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy via Regulation of ASK1/MAPK Signaling Pathway and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Cao, Jianlei; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Yanggan

    2017-02-20

    Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mice hearts were collected for pathological observation and molecular mechanism investigation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with or without phenylephrine for in vitro study. Kaempferol significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aorta banding as evidenced by decreased cardiomyocyte areas and interstitial fibrosis, accompanied with improved cardiac functions and decreased apoptosis. The ASK1/MAPK signaling pathways (JNK1/2 and p38) were markedly activated in the aorta banding mouse heart but inhibited by kaempferol treatment. In in vitro experiments, kaempferol also inhibited the activity of ASK1/JNK1/2/p38 signaling pathway and the enlargement of H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our study revealed that kaempferol could protect the mouse heart and H9c2 cells from pathological oxidative stress. Our investigation indicated that treatment with kaempferol protects against cardiac hypertrophy, and its cardioprotection may be partially explained by the inhibition of the ASK1/MAPK signaling pathway and the regulation of oxidative stress.

  3. Replacing the computer mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Dernoncourt, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In a few months the computer mouse will be half-a-century-old. It is known to have many drawbacks, the main ones being: loss of productivity due to constant switching between keyboard and mouse, and health issues such as RSI. Like the keyboard, it is an unnatural human-computer interface. However the vast majority of computer users still use computer mice nowadays. In this article, we explore computer mouse alternatives. Our research shows that moving the mouse cursor can be done efficiently ...

  4. The Role of Cardiac Side Population Cells in Cardiac Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellamilli, Amritha; van Berlo, Jop H.

    2016-01-01

    The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. They become activated in response to cardiac injury and transplantation of cSPCs into the injured heart improves cardiac function. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the progenitor cell properties and therapeutic potential of cSPCs. This body of work demonstrates the great promise cSPCs hold as targets for new regenerative strategies. PMID:27679798

  5. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  7. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect.

  8. Cardiac surgery 2015 reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doenst, Torsten; Strüning, Constanze; Moschovas, Alexandros; Gonzalez-Lopez, David; Essa, Yasin; Kirov, Hristo; Diab, Mahmoud; Faerber, Gloria

    2016-10-01

    For the year 2015, almost 19,000 published references can be found in PubMed when entering the search term "cardiac surgery". The last year has been again characterized by lively discussions in the fields where classic cardiac surgery and modern interventional techniques overlap. Lacking evidence in the field of coronary revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery has been added. As in the years before, CABG remains the gold standard for the revascularization of complex stable triple-vessel disease. Plenty of new information has been presented comparing the conventional to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) demonstrating similar short- and mid-term outcomes at high and low risk, but even a survival advantage with transfemoral TAVI at intermediate risk. In addition, there were many relevant and interesting other contributions from the purely operative arena. This review article will summarize the most pertinent publications in the fields of coronary revascularization, surgical treatment of valve disease, heart failure (i.e., transplantation and ventricular assist devices), and aortic surgery. While the article does not have the expectation of being complete and cannot be free of individual interpretation, it provides a condensed summary that is intended to give the reader "solid ground" for up-to-date decision-making in cardiac surgery.

  9. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  10. Cardiac regenerative potential of cardiosphere-derived cells from adult dog hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Michael Taylor; de Andrade, James; Keene, Bruce; Meurs, Kathryn; Tang, Junnan; Wang, Zegen; Caranasos, Thomas G; Piedrahita, Jorge; Li, Tao-Sheng; Cheng, Ke

    2015-08-01

    The regenerative potential of cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) for ischaemic heart disease has been demonstrated in mice, rats, pigs and a recently completed clinical trial. The regenerative potential of CDCs from dog hearts has yet to be tested. Here, we show that canine CDCs can be produced from adult dog hearts. These cells display similar phenotypes in comparison to previously studied CDCs derived from rodents and human beings. Canine CDCs can differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro. In addition, conditioned media from canine CDCs promote angiogenesis but inhibit cardiomyocyte death. In a doxorubicin-induced mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), intravenous infusion of canine CDCs improves cardiac function and decreases cardiac fibrosis. Histology revealed that injected canine CDCs engraft in the mouse heart and increase capillary density. Out study demonstrates the regenerative potential of canine CDCs in a mouse model of DCM.

  11. ECG-Gated Three-dimensional Intravascular Ultrasound : Feasibility and Reproducibility of the Automated Analysis of Coronary Lumen and Atherosclerotic Plaque Dimensions in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. von Birgelen (Clemens); E.A. de Vrey (Evelyn); G.S. Mintz (Gary); A. Nicosia; N. Bruining (Nico); W. Li (Wenguang); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); C.J. Slager (Cornelis)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBackground Automated systems for the quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) sets of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images have been developed to reduce the time required to perform volumetric analyses; however, 3D image reconstruction by these nongated systems is frequently

  12. Non-enhanced, ECG-gated MR angiography of the pedal vasculature: comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Tilman; Takes, Martin; Aschwanden, Markus; Klarhoefer, Markus; Haas, Tanja; Jacob, Augustinus L; Liu, David; Gutzeit, Andreas; Kos, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare a high resolution, non-contrast-enhanced MRA (NATIVE SPACE, NE-MRA) of the pedal vasculature with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The prospective study consists of 20 PAOD patients. All patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting and received MR angiographies the following day. With CE-MRA, 75.7 % of vessel segments showed good, 16.4 % suboptimal and 7.9 % not usable image quality. With NE-MRA, 64.6 % showed good, 18.6 % suboptimal and 16.8 % not usable image quality. CE-MRA showed a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 90 %/95 % regarding significant stenosis (greater than 50 %), and specificity and positive predictive value were 88 %/77 %. Accordingly, sensitivity and negative predictive value for the NE-MRA were 96 %/97 % and specificity and positive predictive value were 80 %/69 % for stenoses greater than 50 %. The applied NE-MRA technique achieves high diagnostic accuracy even in very small distal arteries of the foot. However, the rate of non-diagnostic vessel segments is considerably higher for NE-MRA than for CE-MRA. NE-MRA is a valuable alternative to CE-MRA in selected patients. • Comparison of non-enhanced MRA with contrast-enhanced MRA and DSA as gold standard. • High resolution MRA at 3 T for the depiction of small pedal vessels. • Evaluation of high resolution non-enhanced MRA in PAOD patients.

  13. Measurement of left ventricular chamber and myocardial volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Application of a newly developed edge-detection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Hirase, Yoshinori; Sagoh, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hideaki [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software has been reported to demonstrate inaccurate edge detection in the left ventricular chamber in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. In this study we developed a method to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV) and left myocardial volume (LMV) from gated SPECT data using a newly developed edge-detection algorithm, and we compared it with the QGS method of calculating LVV and LMV in a phantom study. Our method gave more accurate measurements LVV and LMV whereas the QGS method underestimated LMV. Compared with QGS LVV and LMV, our method yielded better results in the phantom study. (author)

  14. Iterative model reconstruction: Improved image quality of low-tube-voltage prospective ECG-gated coronary CT angiography images at 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556 (Japan); Weissman, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.Weissman@medstar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Vembar, Mani, E-mail: mani.vembar@philips.com [CT Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, c595 Miner Road, Cleveland, OH 44143 (United States); Weigold, Wm. Guy, E-mail: Guy.Weigold@MedStar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a new model-based type of iterative reconstruction (M-IR) technique, the iterative model reconstruction, on image quality of prospectively gated coronary CT angiography (CTA) acquired at low-tube-voltage. Methods: Thirty patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age 52.2 ± 13.2 years) underwent coronary CTA at 100-kVp on a 256-slice CT. Paired image sets were created using 3 types of reconstruction, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP), a hybrid type of iterative reconstruction (H-IR), and M-IR. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The visual image quality, i.e. graininess, beam-hardening, vessel sharpness, and overall image quality, was scored on a 5-point scale. Lastly, coronary artery segments were evaluated using a 4-point scale to investigate the assessability of each segment. Results: There was no significant difference in coronary arterial CT attenuation among the 3 reconstruction methods. The mean image noise of FBP, H-IR, and M-IR images was 29.3 ± 9.6, 19.3 ± 6.9, and 12.9 ± 3.3 HU, respectively, there were significant differences for all comparison combinations among the 3 methods (p < 0.01). The CNR of M-IR was significantly better than of FBP and H-IR images (13.5 ± 5.0 [FBP], 20.9 ± 8.9 [H-IR] and 39.3 ± 13.9 [M-IR]; p < 0.01). The visual scores were significantly higher for M-IR than the other images (p < 0.01), and 95.3% of the coronary segments imaged with M-IR were of assessable quality compared with 76.7% of FBP- and 86.9% of H-IR images. Conclusions: M-IR can provide significantly improved qualitative and quantitative image quality in prospectively gated coronary CTA using a low-tube-voltage.

  15. Cardiac assessment prior to non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, J F; Hillis, G S; Lee, V W; Halliwell, R; Vicaretti, M; Moncrieff, C; Chow, C K

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery are older and have more comorbidities yet preoperative cardiac assessment appears haphazard and unsystematic. We hypothesised that patients at high cardiac risk were not receiving adequate cardiac assessment, and patients with low-cardiac risk were being over-investigated. To compare in a representative sample of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery the use of cardiac investigations in patients at high and low preoperative cardiac risk. We examined cardiac assessment patterns prior to elective non-cardiac surgery in a representative sample of patients. Cardiac risk was calculated using the Revised Cardiac Risk Index. Of 671 patients, 589 (88%) were low risk and 82 (12%) were high risk. We found that nearly 14% of low-risk and 45% of high-risk patients had investigations for coronary ischaemia prior to surgery. Vascular surgery had the highest rate of investigation (38%) and thoracic patients the lowest rate (14%). Whilst 78% of high-risk patients had coronary disease, only 46% were on beta-blockers, 49% on aspirin and 77% on statins. For current smokers (17.3% of cohort, n = 98), 60% were advised to quit pre-op. Practice patterns varied across surgical sub-types with low-risk patients tending to be over-investigated and high-risk patients under-investigated. A more systemised approach to this large group of patients could improve clinical outcomes, and more judicious use of investigations could lower healthcare costs and increase efficiency in managing this cohort. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  17. The MOUSE Squad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  18. Case Report: Penetrating Cardiac Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Grbolar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Penetrating cardiac injurys caused by gunshots and penetrating tools have high mortality rates. The way of injury, how the cardiac area is effected and the presence of cardiac tamponadecauses mortality in different rates. However the better treatment quality of hospitals, increasingoperative techniques, and internel care unit quality has not been change during the years. Searching the literature, we want to present a 42 years old male patient whowas injured by knife and had a 1 cm skin wound on chest with cardiac tamponade. After sternotomy a 7 cm laseration was observed in heart. Cardioraphy was performed.

  19. Cardiac surgery for Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkebuchava, T; von Segesser, L K; Niederhäuser, U; Bauersfeld, U; Turina, M

    1997-01-01

    Two patients (one girl, one boy) with Kartagener syndrome (situs inversus, bronchiectasis, sinusitis), despite pulmonary problems and associated congenital cardiac anomalies, were operated on at the ages of 4 years and 7 years, respectively. They had had previous palliative treatment at the age of 3 months and 1.3 years, respectively. Both postoperative periods after total correction were without significant complications. Long-term follow-up was available for 9 and 19 years, respectively, with no manifestations of heart insufficiency. Both patients are physically active, and neither requires cardiac medication. Patients with Kartagener syndrome and associated congenital cardiac anomalies can successfully undergo multiple cardiac operations with good long-term outcome.

  20. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  1. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S. K.; Tibbits, Glen F.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  2. Salubrinal Alleviates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Shilpa; Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar; Cho, Chunghee; Kim, Do Han

    2017-01-01

    Pathological hypertrophy of the heart is closely associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), leading to maladaptations such as myocardial fibrosis, induction of apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunctions. Salubrinal is a known selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex involving dephosphorylation of phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit (p-eIF2)-α, the key signaling process in the ERS pathway. In this study, the effects of salubrinal were examined on cardiac hypertrophy using the mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and cell model of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Treatment of TAC-induced mice with salubrinal (0.5 mg·kg−1·day−1) alleviated cardiac hypertrophy and tissue fibrosis. Salubrinal also alleviated hypertrophic growth in endothelin 1 (ET1)-treated NRVMs. Therefore, the present results suggest that salubrinal may be a potentially efficacious drug for treating pathological cardiac remodeling. PMID:28152298

  3. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-04-07

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.

  4. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  5. Role of endothelial AADC in cardiac synthesis of serotonin and nitrates accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rouzaud-Laborde

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT regulates different cardiac functions by acting directly on cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Today, it is widely accepted that activated platelets represent a major source of 5-HT. In contrast, a supposed production of 5-HT in the heart is still controversial. To address this issue, we investigated the expression and localization of 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC in the heart. We also evaluated their involvement in cardiac production of 5-HT. TPH1 was weakly expressed in mouse and rat heart and appeared restricted to mast cells. Degranulation of mast cells by compound 48/80 did not modify 5-HT cardiac content in mice. Western blots and immunolabelling experiments showed an abundant expression of AADC in the mouse and rat heart and its co-localization with endothelial cells. Incubation of cardiac homogenate with the AADC substrate (5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan 5-HTP or intraperitoneal injection of 5-HTP in mice significantly increased cardiac 5-HT. These effects were prevented by the AADC inhibitor benserazide. Finally, 5-HTP administration in mice increased phosphorylation of aortic nitric oxide synthase 3 at Ser (1177 as well as accumulation of nitrates in cardiac tissue. This suggests that the increase in 5-HT production by AADC leads to activation of endothelial and cardiac nitric oxide pathway. These data show that endothelial AADC plays an important role in cardiac synthesis of 5-HT and possibly in 5-HT-dependent regulation of nitric oxide generation.

  6. Porous nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds supporting cardiovascular progenitor cells for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihai; Tian, Shuo; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Xin; Lei, Ienglam; Wang, Zhong; Ma, Peter X

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible necrosis of heart with approximately 1.5 million cases every year in the United States. Tissue engineering offers a promising strategy for cardiac repair after MI. However, the optimal cell source for heart tissue regeneration and the ideal scaffolds to support cell survival, differentiation, and integration, remain to be developed. To address these issues, we developed the technology to induce cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) towards desired cardiomyocytes as well as smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. We fabricated extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds with porous structure of high interconnection for cardiac tissue formation. The CPCs were seeded into the scaffolds to engineer cardiac constructs in vitro. Fluorescence staining and RT-PCR assay showed that the scaffolds facilitated cell attachment, extension, and differentiation. Subcutaneous implantation of the cell/scaffold constructs in a nude mouse model showed that the scaffolds favorably supported survival of the grafted cells and their commitment to the three desired lineages in vivo. Thus, our study suggested that the porous nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds support cardiac tissue formation from CPCs. The integration of CPCs with the nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds represents a promising tissue engineering strategy for cardiac repair. Myocardial infarction is the irreversible necrosis of heart with approximately 1.5 million cases every year in the United States. Tissue engineering offers a promising strategy for cardiac repair after MI. However, the optimal cell source for heart tissue regeneration and the ideal scaffolds to support cell survival, differentiation, and integration, remain to be developed. To address these issues, we developed porous nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds that mimic natural extracellular matrix to support cardiac tissue formation from CPCs. The

  7. Forward Programming of Cardiac Stem Cells by Homogeneous Transduction with MYOCD plus TBX5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belian

    Full Text Available Adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs express many endogenous cardiogenic transcription factors including members of the Gata, Hand, Mef2, and T-box family. Unlike its DNA-binding targets, Myocardin (Myocd-a co-activator not only for serum response factor, but also for Gata4 and Tbx5-is not expressed in CSCs. We hypothesised that its absence was a limiting factor for reprogramming. Here, we sought to investigate the susceptibility of adult mouse Sca1+ side population CSCs to reprogramming by supplementing the triad of GATA4, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GMT, and more specifically by testing the effect of the missing co-activator, Myocd. Exogenous factors were expressed via doxycycline-inducible lentiviral vectors in various combinations. High throughput quantitative RT-PCR was used to test expression of 29 cardiac lineage markers two weeks post-induction. GMT induced more than half the analysed cardiac transcripts. However, no protein was detected for the induced sarcomeric genes Actc1, Myh6, and Myl2. Adding MYOCD to GMT affected only slightly the breadth and level of gene induction, but, importantly, triggered expression of all three proteins examined (α-cardiac actin, atrial natriuretic peptide, sarcomeric myosin heavy chains. MYOCD + TBX was the most effective pairwise combination in this system. In clonal derivatives homogenously expressing MYOCD + TBX at high levels, 93% of cardiac transcripts were up-regulated and all five proteins tested were visualized.(1 GMT induced cardiac genes in CSCs, but not cardiac proteins under the conditions used. (2 Complementing GMT with MYOCD induced cardiac protein expression, indicating a more complete cardiac differentiation program. (3 Homogeneous transduction with MYOCD + TBX5 facilitated the identification of differentiating cells and the validation of this combinatorial reprogramming strategy. Together, these results highlight the pivotal importance of MYOCD in driving CSCs toward a cardiac muscle fate.

  8. Functional and morphological cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of mice using a cryogenic quadrature radiofrequency coil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette Wagenhaus

    Full Text Available Cardiac morphology and function assessment by magnetic resonance imaging is of increasing interest for a variety of mouse models in pre-clinical cardiac research, such as myocardial infarction models or myocardial injury/remodeling in genetically or pharmacologically induced hypertension. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR constraints, however, limit image quality and blood myocardium delineation, which crucially depend on high spatial resolution. Significant gains in SNR with a cryogenically cooled RF probe have been shown for mouse brain MRI, yet the potential of applying cryogenic RF coils for cardiac MR (CMR in mice is, as of yet, untapped. This study examines the feasibility and potential benefits of CMR in mice employing a 400 MHz cryogenic RF surface coil, compared with a conventional mouse heart coil array operating at room temperature. The cryogenic RF coil affords SNR gains of 3.0 to 5.0 versus the conventional approach and hence enables an enhanced spatial resolution. This markedly improved image quality--by better deliniation of myocardial borders and enhanced depiction of papillary muscles and trabeculae--and facilitated a more accurate cardiac chamber quantification, due to reduced intraobserver variability. In summary the use of a cryogenically cooled RF probe represents a valuable means of enhancing the capabilities of CMR of mice.

  9. Pneumothorax in cardiac pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for pneumothorax treated with a chest tube after cardiac pacing device implantation in a population-based cohort.METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide cohort study was performed based on data on 28 860 patients from the Danish Pacemaker Register, which included all Danish...... patients who received their first pacemaker (PM) or cardiac resynchronization device from 1997 to 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and pneumothorax treated with a chest tube. The median...... age was 77 years (25th and 75th percentile: 69-84) and 55% were male (n = 15 785). A total of 190 patients (0.66%) were treated for pneumothorax, which was more often in women [aOR 1.9 (1.4-2.6)], and in patients with age >80 years [aOR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], a prior history of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  10. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance.

  11. [Cardiac myxoma with cerebral metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, A; Peruzzi, P; Baudrillard, J C; Pluot, M; Rousseaux, P

    1987-01-01

    A 56 year old woman developed multiple metastases in the cerebrum and cerebellum, four years after cardiac intervention on a left atrial myxoma. The absence of stroke is noteworthy. Multiple high density lesions with contrast enhancement were seen by CT scan, suggesting metastatic neoplasms. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of metastases of cardiac myxoma. Only four cases were recorded in the literature.

  12. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  14. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  15. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). STUDY POPULATION: Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutane...

  16. Mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac performance depends on a fine balance between the work the heart has to perform to satisfy the needs of the body and the energy that it is able to produce. Thus, energy production by oxidative metabolism, the main energy source of the cardiac muscle, has to be strictly regulated to adapt to cardiac work. Mitochondrial biogenesis is the mechanism responsible for mitochondrial component synthesis and assembly. This process controls mitochondrial content and thus correlates with energy production that, in turn, sustains cardiac contractility. Mitochondrial biogenesis should be finely controlled to match cardiac growth and cardiac work. When the heart is subjected to an increase in work in response to physiological and pathological challenges, it adapts by increasing its mass and expressing a new genetic program. In response to physiological stimuli such as endurance training, mitochondrial biogenesis seems to follow a program involving increased cardiac mass. But in the context of pathological hypertrophy, the modifications of this mechanism remain unclear. What appears clear is that mitochondrial biogenesis is altered in heart failure, and the imbalance between cardiac work demand and energy production represents a major factor in the development of heart failure.

  17. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter