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Sample records for easyq hpv assay

  1. Comparison of the performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and HPV DNA chip for testing squamous cell lesions of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Choi, Yeonim; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Geehyuk; Park, Sangjung; Choi, Eunhee; Jin, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Bo-Young; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the clinical performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ assay and compare it with HPV DNA genotyping for the detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer in a Korean population. In 188 total thin prep samples, the remaining fluid after cytology slide preparation was tested with Goodgene HPV DNA chips and the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay. The sensitivity and specificity of each test were calculated with HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as the disease endpoint. Out of the 188 samples, 139 (74%) were positive for DNA of 14 HPV types, while 57 (30%) cases were positive for E6/E7 mRNA. The DNA test was positive in cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, and atypical squamous cell. The mRNA test yielded results of 75%, 74%, 60%, 56%, and 29% positivity in abnormal cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, respectively. In normal cytology cases, the positivity rates were 9% and 53% for the mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. For detection of HSIL and SCC, the sensitivity of the mRNA test was 74.36% and that of the DNA test was 100%, while the specificities of the tests were 85% and 40.83%, respectively. These findings suggest that the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay can overcome the shortcoming of low specificity of DNA assays for clinical detection of high-grade cervical lesions and malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospective evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of dried blood spots from finger prick samples for determination of HIV-1 load with the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 version 2.0 assay in Malawi.

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    Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol A; Chaillet, Pascale; Aleixo, Lucia; Pannus, Pieter; Panunzi, Isabella; Triviño, Laura; Ellman, Tom; Likaka, Andrew; Mwenda, Reuben

    2014-05-01

    HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is not widely available in resource-limited settings. The use of finger prick dried blood spot (FP-DBS) samples could remove barriers related to sample collection and transport. Measurement of VL using DBS from EDTA venous blood (VB-DBS) in place of plasma has previously been validated using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay, but information on the accuracy of FP-DBS samples for measuring VL is limited. This prospective study, conducted at Thyolo District Hospital in southern Malawi, compared VL levels measured on FP-DBS samples and plasma using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay. Comparability was assessed by means of agreement and correlation (131 patients with VLs of ≥100 copies/ml), sensitivity, and specificity (612 patients on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). Samples of EDTA venous blood and FP-DBS from 1,009 HIV-infected individuals were collected and prepared in the laboratory. Bland-Altman analysis found good agreement between plasma and FP-DBS VL levels, with a mean difference of -0.35 log10, and 95% limits of agreement from -1.26 to 0.55 log10. FP-DBS had a sensitivity of 88.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1 to 94.4%) and a specificity of 97.8% (95% CI, 96.1 to 98.9%) using a 1,000-copies/ml cut point and a sensitivity of 83.0% (95% CI, 73.4 to 90.1%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99.3 to 100%) using a 5,000-copies/ml cut point. This study shows that FP-DBS is an acceptable alternative to plasma for measuring VL using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0. We are conducting a second study to assess the proficiency of health workers at preparing FP-DBS in primary health care clinics.

  3. Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿

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    Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...

  4. Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.

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    Salimović-Bešić, Irma; Tomić-Čiča, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and Validation of a HPV-32 Specific PCR Assay

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    Leigh Janet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus-32 (HPV-32 has traditionally been associated with focal-epithelial-hyperplasia (FEH. It is also present in 58% of oral warts of HIV-positive individuals whose prevalence is increasing. Current methods for the detection of HPV-32 are labor-intensive and insensitive so the goal of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and easy to use specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Materials and methods An HPV-32 L1 specific PCR assay was developed and optimized. The sensitivity and specificity was compared to previous assays utilized for detection (PGMY and MY09/11 PCR with dot blot hybridization using cloned HPV-32 L1, the closely related HPV-42 L1 as well as clinical samples (oral swabs and fluids from 89 HIV-positive subjects. Results The HPV-32 specific PCR assay showed improved sensitivity to 5 copies of HPV-32 as compared to the PGMY PCR, MY09/11 PCR and dot blot which had a limit of detection of approximately 3,000 copies. Using the HPV-32 dot blot hybridization assay as the gold standard, the HPV-32 specific PCR assay has a sensitivity of 95.8% and 88.9% by sample and subject, respectively, and specificity was 87.8% and 58.8% by sample and subject, respectively. The low sensitivity is due to the HPV-32 specific PCR assays ability to detect more HPV-32 positive samples and may be the new gold standard. Conclusion Due to the ease, sensitivity, and specificity the HPV-32 specific PCR assay is superior to previous assays and is ideal for detection of HPV-32 in large cohorts. This assay provides an excellent tool to study the natural history of HPV-32 infection and the development of oral warts.

  6. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C

    2015-01-01

    that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most......Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test...

  7. Comparisons of VLP-Based ELISA, Neutralization Assays with Native HPV, and Neutralization Assays with PsV in Detecting HPV Antibody Responses in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Brendle, Sarah; Milici, Janice; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Christensen, Neil; Meyers, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers are important public health problems in HIV-infected people. Assays based on HPV virus-like particles (VLP) and pseudoviruses (PsV) are commonly used to examine HPV antibody responses in HIV-infected people, but neutralization assays with native HPV have not been utilized and a comparison of these three assays is lacking. We evaluated the agreement of assays using VLP, native HPV and PsV in detecting HPV16 and 18 antibodies in HIV-infected women. The VLP-based ELISA (VLP-ELISA) was used to detect antibody responses to HPV16 and 18 and cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) VLP antigens. Neutralization assays with native HPV (NA-HPV) and with PsV (NA-PsV) were conducted to examine HPV16 or 18 neutralizing antibodies. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreements of seropositivity between the assays. The seroprevalence detected by the VLP-ELISA, NA-HPV and NA-PsV in 94 HIV-infected women was 35%, 51% and 27% for HPV16 and 14%, 44% and 21% for HPV18. Cross-reactivity between HPV16 and HPV18 was 0.35, 0.04 and 0.33 (kappa coefficients) for the VLP-ELISA, NA-HPV and NA-PsV. The agreements of seropositivity between the three assays were low. Six women who were HPV16 DNA positive were seropositive by the NA-HPV but only two were HPV16 seropositive by the VLP-ELISA or NA-PsV. One HPV18 DNA positive woman was seropositive by all three assays. Repeated tests indicated excellent reproducibility of the NA-HPV. HPV serology results vary across different assays. The NA-HPV appears to be a sensitive and reliable approach in detecting natural HPV antibodies in HIV-infected women. The NA-HPV can be applied in both HPV natural history studies and vaccine studies in HIV-infected people.

  8. Immunogenicity of HPV prophylactic vaccines: Serology assays and their use in HPV vaccine evaluation and development.

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    Pinto, Ligia A; Dillner, Joakim; Beddows, Simon; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-17

    When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection. Thus, immunogenicity assessments in vaccine trials have focused on measurements of antibody responses to the vaccine. Non-inferiority of antibody responses after two doses of HPV vaccines separated by 6 months has been demonstrated and this evidence supported the recent WHO recommendations for two-dose vaccination schedules in both boys and girls 9-14 years of age. There is also some evidence suggesting that one dose of HPV vaccines may provide protection similar to the currently recommended two-dose regimens but robust data on efficacy and immunogenicity of one-dose vaccine schedules are lacking. In addition, immunogenicity has been assessed and reported using different methods, precluding direct comparison of results between different studies and vaccines. New head-to-head vaccine trials evaluating one-dose immunogenicity and efficacy have been initiated and an increase in the number of trials relying on immunobridging is anticipated. Therefore, standardized measurement and reporting of immunogenicity for the up to nine HPV types targeted by the current vaccines is now critical. Building on previous HPV serology assay standardization and harmonization efforts initiated by the WHO HPV LabNet in 2006, new secondary standards, critical reference reagents and testing guidelines will be generated as part of a new partnership to facilitate harmonization of the immunogenicity testing in new HPV vaccine trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different...... methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...

  10. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

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    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively.

  11. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays for Detection of HPV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. Comparison of human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in urine and cervical swab samples using the HPV GenoArray Diagnostic assay.

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    Nilyanimit, Pornjarim; Chansaenroj, Jira; Karalak, Anant; Laowahutanont, Piyawat; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Urine-based HPV testing offers a simple and non-invasive method because of its increasing acceptance. A total of 164 pairs of cervical swab and urine samples from Thai women who underwent cervical cancer screening were used for HPV testing with HPV GenoArray Diagnostic Kits. The overall concordance percentage for HPV detection in the cervical swab and urine samples was 65.2%. The HPV genotypes most commonly detected were HPV16 and HPV18. An analysis of the urine samples and a second analysis of the cervical swab samples showed that the differences in the overall HPV detection rate between women with normal and abnormal cytology were not significant (p > 0.05). Urine samples processed with the GenoArray assay is an alternative for women who decline to undergo Pap smear even though it is not ideal as the first-line screening option.

  13. Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of the HPV-Risk Assay Using the VALGENT-3 Panel.

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    Polman, N J; Oštrbenk, A; Xu, L; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M; Heideman, D A M; Arbyn, M

    2017-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is increasingly being incorporated into cervical cancer screening. The Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) is a framework designed to evaluate the clinical performance of various HPV tests relative to that of the validated and accepted comparator test in a formalized and uniform manner. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay with samples from the VALGENT-3 panel and to compare its performance to that of the clinically validated Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2). The VALGENT-3 panel comprises 1,300 consecutive samples from women participating in routine cervical cancer screening and is enriched with 300 samples from women with abnormal cytology. DNA was extracted from original ThinPrep PreservCyt medium aliquots, and HPV testing was performed using the HPV-Risk assay by investigators blind to the clinical data. HPV prevalence was analyzed, and the clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) and CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) relative to the performance of HC2 was assessed. The sensitivity of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of CIN3+ was similar to that of HC2 (relative sensitivity, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.05; P = 1.000), but the specificity of the HPV-Risk assay was significantly higher than that of HC2 (relative specificity, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04; P performance of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of CIN3+ and CIN2+ was noninferior to that of HC2, with all P values being ≤0.006. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay demonstrated noninferiority to the clinically validated HC2 by the use of samples from the VALGENT-3 panel for test validation and comparison. Copyright © 2017 Polman et al.

  14. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of clinical performances among Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper and Hybrid Capture 2 assays for detection of high-risk types of human papillomavirus.

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    Yu, Shinae; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2015-09-01

    The cervical cancer screening guidelines suggest that early detection of HPV16 and HPV18 is helpful for identifying women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade two or higher. We comparatively evaluated three HPV DNA assays, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). A total of 861 cervical swab samples from women over 30 years of age were classified into two groups, that is, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and non-HSIL, according to cervical cytology results and analyzed by three assays. The results of direct sequencing or Linear array HPV genotyping test were considered true when the three assays presented discrepancies. The concordance rates between Roche Cobas HPV versus RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper versus HC2, and Roche Cobas versus HC2 were 94.5%, 94.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. For detection of HPV16 and HPV18, Roche Cobas HPV showed the concordance rates of 98.3% (κ = 0.73) and 99.4% (κ = 0.40) with the confirmation tests, respectively; and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper showed the concordance rates of 99.5% (κ = 0.92) and 100.0% (κ = 1.00), respectively. In conclusion, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and HC2 showed high agreement rates. Roche Cobas HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper are particularly useful, since both provide HPV specific genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of related viruses. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. There are ... cancer. There are two categories of sexually-transmitted HPV. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High- ...

  17. Performance of a Cartridge-Based Assay for Detection of Clinically Significant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Lessons from VALGENT (Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Daan; Cuzick, Jack; Cadman, Louise; Moore, Catherine; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Padalko, Elisaveta; Quint, Wim; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Validation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) studies offer an opportunity to clinically validate HPV assays for use in primary screening for cervical cancer and also provide a framework for the comparison of analytical and type-specific performance. Through VALGENT, we assessed the performance of the cartridge-based Xpert HPV assay (Xpert HPV), which detects 14 high-risk (HR) types and resolves HPV16 and HPV18/45. Samples from women attending the United Kingdom cervical screening program enriched with cytologically abnormal samples were collated. All had been previously tested by a clinically validated standard comparator test (SCT), the GP5+/6+ enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HPV for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) and CIN3+ relative to those of the SCT were assessed as were the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities according to international criteria for test validation. Type concordance for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the Xpert HPV and the SCT was also analyzed. The Xpert HPV detected 94% of CIN2+ and 98% of CIN3+ lesions among all screened women and 90% of CIN2+ and 96% of CIN3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. The specificity for CIN1 or less (≤CIN1) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 85%) in all women and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 91%) in women 30 years and older. Inter- and intralaboratory agreements for the Xpert HPV were 98% and 97%, respectively. The kappa agreements for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the clinically validated reference test (GP5+/6+ LMNX) and the Xpert HPV were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. The clinical performance and reproducibility of the Xpert HPV are comparable to those of well-established HPV assays and fulfill the criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening. PMID:27385707

  18. Description of a novel multiplex avidity assay for evaluating HPV antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Allison M; Unger, Elizabeth R; Panicker, Gitika

    2017-08-01

    Limited data exists regarding antibody avidity for human papillomavirus (HPV). We describe development of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent avidity ELISA for four HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) by adding a dissociating step to our established multiplex HPV VLP ELISA. Initial experiments exploring ammonium thiocyanate, sodium thiocyanate and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) as dissociating agents identified GuHCl as most promising. Dissociation conditions with GuHCl were varied (concentration, incubation time, temperature) to select conditions with minimal impact on VLP integrity as measured with monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes. Avidity index (AI) was calculated based on a standard curve as ratio of bound IgG in GuHCl treated versus untreated sample. To evaluate our assay we determined AI in sera with known HPV titers. We selected 32 residual anonymized sera from individuals with a wide range of titers for HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. AIs were similar across multiple dilutions of serum within the assay's dynamic range and were reproducible with two plate lots. This assay will aid in understanding HPV antibody avidity and maturation in response to natural infection and varying vaccine schedules. This is the first report of a VLP-based multiplexed avidity ELISA that evaluates assay parameters for all nine HPV vaccine types. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

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    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of different assays to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16- and 18-specific antibodies after HPV infection and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M.; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed

  1. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

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    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C; Igidbashian, S; Tricca, A; Casadio, C; Carinelli, S; Boveri, S; Ejegod, D; Bonde, J; Sandri, M T

    2015-07-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro neutralization assay that recapitulates the in vitro process of infection provides a sensitive measure of HPV L2 infection-inhibiting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Kines, Rhonda C; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2012-07-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This "L2-based" in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

  4. Performance of a Cartridge-Based Assay for Detection of Clinically Significant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Lessons from VALGENT (Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, Kate; Geraets, Daan; Cuzick, Jack; Cadman, Louise; Moore, Catherine; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Padalko, Elisaveta; Quint, Wim; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The Validation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) studies offer an opportunity to clinically validate HPV assays for use in primary screening for cervical cancer and also provide a framework for the comparison of analytical and type-specific performance. Through VALGENT, we assessed the performance of the cartridge-based Xpert HPV assay (Xpert HPV), which detects 14 high-risk (HR) types and resolves HPV16 and HPV18/45. Samples from women attending the United Kingdom cervical screening program enriched with cytologically abnormal samples were collated. All had been previously tested by a clinically validated standard comparator test (SCT), the GP5+/6+ enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HPV for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) and CIN3+ relative to those of the SCT were assessed as were the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities according to international criteria for test validation. Type concordance for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the Xpert HPV and the SCT was also analyzed. The Xpert HPV detected 94% of CIN2+ and 98% of CIN3+ lesions among all screened women and 90% of CIN2+ and 96% of CIN3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. The specificity for CIN1 or less (≤CIN1) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 85%) in all women and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 91%) in women 30 years and older. Inter- and intralaboratory agreements for the Xpert HPV were 98% and 97%, respectively. The kappa agreements for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the clinically validated reference test (GP5+/6+ LMNX) and the Xpert HPV were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. The clinical performance and reproducibility of the Xpert HPV are comparable to those of well-established HPV assays and fulfill the criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Performance of the Xpert HPV assay in women attending for cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Cuzick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the Xpert HPV Assay in women attending screening in general practice by comparing Xpert with two established HPV tests, cytology and histology. Methods: A prospective study in women aged 20–60 years attending screening in Bristol, Edinburgh and London using residual Preservcyt cytology samples. Sample order was randomised between Roche cobas4800 and Cepheid Xpert assays with Qiagen hc2 third. Results: 3408 cases were included in the primary analysis. Positivity for Xpert was 19.6%, cobas 19.2% and hc2 19.9% with high concordance (kappa=86.8% vs cobas, 81.55 vs hc2. Xpert, cobas and hc2 showed similar sensitivity (98.7%, 97.5%, 98.7% for CIN2+. All pairwise comparisons had high concordance (Kappa ≥0.78 with any abnormal cytology. Xpert and hc2 were positive for all cases of ≥moderate dyskaryosis (N=63, cobas was negative in two. Histology was available for 172 participants. 79 reported CIN2+, 47 CIN3+. All CIN3+ was positive on Xpert and hc2 and one case negative for cobas. One case of CIN2 was negative for all assays. Conclusions: The performance of Xpert HPV Assay in a general screening population is comparable to established HPV tests. It offers simplicity of testing, flexibility with non-batching of individual samples and rapid turnaround time. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Xpert, Cervical screening, HPV testing

  6. Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Performance of Cepheid Xpert and Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) HPV Assays in South African HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulawa, Zizipho Z A; Wilkin, Timothy; Goeieman, Bridgette J; Jong, Eefje; Michelow, Pamela; Swarts, Avril; Smith, Jennifer S; Kegorilwe, Patricia; Firnhaber, Cynthia S; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated anal high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence in HIV-infected women using the Cepheid Xpert HPV assay and compares its performance with that of Hybrid Capture-2 (hc2). A total of 199 HIV-infected women were recruited from Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg. Stored ThinPrep anal swabs that had previously been tested using hc2 were tested for HPV using Xpert. The HR-HPV prevalence by Xpert was 40.8% and similar to hc2 (41.8%) with overall agreement of 86.7%; Cohen's kappa 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.82). High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) was associated with increasing number of multiple HPV infection (P HPV16 (OR: 14.0, 95% CI: 3.9-48.0, P HPV39/68/56/66 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.4-12, P = .01) and HPV51/59 (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.6, P = .04) were independently associated with anal HSIL. Xpert HPV typing is a promising anal screening test in HIV-infected women that performs similarly to hc2.

  7. Comparison of Seegene Anyplex II HPV28 with the PGMY-CHUV Assay for Human Papillomavirus Genotyping.

    OpenAIRE

    Estrade, C.; Sahli, R

    2014-01-01

    The Anyplex II HPV28 (H28; Seegene) is a new semiquantitative real-time multiplex PCR assay for screening and genotyping 28 human papillomaviruses (HPV) in only 2 reaction wells. H28 was compared to the PGMY-CHUV assay (PG) with 309 archival DNA samples from cervical smears collected over 8 years in our laboratory. H28 and PG were fully concordant at the genotypic level on 228 (73.8%) out of 309 samples: 27 HPV negative and 201 HPV positive. The 201 fully concordant positive samples correspon...

  8. Clinical validation of a novel real-time human papillomavirus assay for simultaneous detection of 14 high-risk HPV type and genotyping HPV type 16 and 18 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lie-Jun; Xie, Long-Xu; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Lu, Min; Lin, Min; Zheng, Xiang-Bin; Huang, Yue; Yang, Li-Ye

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we describe the laboratory workflow and the clinical validation of a novel multiplex real-time PCR-based HPV assay in China. The cross-sectional validation analysis showed that this assay worked well for detection of 14 HR-HPV types and identification of HPV 16 and 18 in a single sensitive assay that is suitable for both clinical usage and high-throughput cervical screening purposes. We predict that this accurate, high-throughput and low-cost HPV assay can greatly reduce the heavy economic burden of HPV detection in China.

  9. Comparison of Seegene Anyplex II HPV28 with the PGMY-CHUV assay for human papillomavirus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, C; Sahli, R

    2014-02-01

    The Anyplex II HPV28 (H28; Seegene) is a new semiquantitative real-time multiplex PCR assay for screening and genotyping 28 human papillomaviruses (HPV) in only 2 reaction wells. H28 was compared to the PGMY-CHUV assay (PG) with 309 archival DNA samples from cervical smears collected over 8 years in our laboratory. H28 and PG were fully concordant at the genotypic level on 228 (73.8%) out of 309 samples: 27 HPV negative and 201 HPV positive. The 201 fully concordant positive samples corresponded to single infections (n = 145) and to multiple infections (2 genotypes, n = 38; 3 to 5 genotypes, n = 18). The remaining 81 samples (26.2%) were either partially concordant (n = 64, 20.7%) or fully discordant (n = 17, 5.5%). While genotype-specific agreement was nearly perfect (κ = 0.877), HPV51 was significantly less well detected by H28 and the converse was observed for HPV40, -42, -54, and -68. Sequencing of PG amplicons confirmed HPV51 discordants and suggested the involvement of a possibly local HPV51 subtype. Mismatches in the PGMY09 primers to HPV68a explained most of the HPV68 discordants, confirming the specificity of H28 toward HPV68. With PG as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of H28 were 93.4% and 99.0%, respectively. Considering H28 as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of PG were 83.8% and 99.6%, respectively. H28 is a very sensitive and specific HPV genotyping assay suitable for research and clinical use as an adjunct to a clinically validated test. H28 semiquantitative readout ought to be evaluated for primary cervical cancer screening.

  10. Diagnostic Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HPV DNA Assays for the Detection and Screening of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infection among Woman with Cervical Lesions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Geehyuk; Kim, Sunghyun; Han, Lin; Yubo, Ren; Li, Yingxue; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of cervical uterine cancer. Although HPV infections of the cervix do not always progress to cancer, 90% of cervical cancer cases have been found to be associated with high risk HPV (HR- HPV) infection. HPV DNA testing is widely used, along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, to screen for cervical abnormalities. However, there are no data on the prevalence of genotype-specific HPV infections assessed by measuring HPV E6/E7 mRNA in women representative of the Chinese population across a broad age range. In the present study, we compared the results with the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HR-HPV genotypes (Alpha-9: HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58; Alpha-7: HPV 18, 39, 45, 51, 59, and 68; and Alpha-5, 6: HPV 53, 56, 66, and 69), and the REBA HPV-ID assay, which detects 32 HPV genotypes based on the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of oncogenic HPV infection according to cytological diagnosis. We also investigated the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection with a total of 324 liquid-based cytology samples collected in western Shandong province, East China. The overall HPV prevalences determined by HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA assays in this study were 79.9% (259/324) and 55.6% (180/324), respectively. Although the positivity of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was significantly lower than HPV DNA positivity, the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay showed greater specificity than the HPV DNA assay (88.6% vs. 48.1%) in normal cytology samples. The prevalence of Alpha-9 (HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) HPV infection among these women accounted for up to 80.3% and 76.1% of the high-grade lesions detected in the HPV mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. The HR-HPV genotype distribution, based on HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression by age group in patients with cytologically confirmed lesions, was highest in women aged 40 to 49 years

  11. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Roche Cobas HPV, and Hybrid Capture 2 assays to direct sequencing and genotyping of HPV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-07-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the criteria that concordant results among the three assays were regarded as true-positive or -negative and that the results of genotyping and sequencing were considered true findings when the HPV assays presented discrepant results. The overall concordance rate among the results for the three assays was 82.6%, and RealTime HR and Cobas HPV assays agreed with HC2 in 86.1% and 89.9% of cases, respectively. The two real-time PCR assays agreed with each other for 89.6% of the samples, and the concordance rate between them was equal to or greater than 98.0% for detecting HPV type 16 or 18. HC2 demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.6% with a specificity of 89.1% for detecting HR HPVs, while RealTime HR presented a sensitivity of 78.3% with a specificity of 99.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of Cobas HPV for detecting HR HPVs were 91.7% and 97.0%. The new real-time PCR assays exhibited lower sensitivities for detecting HR HPVs than that of HC2. Nevertheless, the newly introduced assays have an advantage of simultaneously identifying HPV types 16 and 18 from clinical samples.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arising From the Oropharynx: Detection of HPV DNA and p16 Immunohistochemistry as Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicators—A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussu, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.bussu.md@gmail.com [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Sali, Michela [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Gallus, Roberto [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Zannoni, Gian Franco [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Autorino, Rosa; Dinapoli, Nicola [Institute of Radiotherapy, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Santangelo, Rosaria [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Vellone, Valerio Gaetano [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Graziani, Cristina [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Miccichè, Francesco [Institute of Radiotherapy, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Almadori, Giovanni; Galli, Jacopo [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Delogu, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Rindi, Guido [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is associated with oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and is likely the cause of the reported increase in disease incidence. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection and the reliability of different diagnostic tools using primary tumor samples from a cohort of 50 patients. Methods and Materials: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples were collected from all 50 consecutive primary oropharyngeal SCC patients who were enrolled in the study; fresh tumor samples were available in 22 cases. NucliSENS EasyQ HPVv1 was used for RNA, and Digene Hybrid Capture-2(HC2) was used for DNA detection. p16 Expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in FPPE specimens. Results: Based on the DNA detection assay on FFPE samples, the frequency of high-risk HPV infection was 32%. The agreement rate between HPV RNA and HPV DNA detection in fresh samples was 100%. The agreement rate between p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the detection of HPV DNA in the FFPE samples was fair but not excellent (κ = 0.618). HPV DNA detection was highly significant, as measured by disease-specific survival and determined using a Wilcoxon test (P=.001). p16 IHC also exhibited a prognostic value but with a lower statistical significance (P=.0475). The detection of HPV DNA, but not p16 IHC, was also significantly correlated with locoregional control (P=.0461). Conclusion: Diagnostic methods based on the detection of HPV nucleic acids appear to be more reliable and objective because they do not require reading by a trained histopathologist. Furthermore, the detection of HPV DNA exhibits an improved correlation with survival, and therefore appears definitely more reliable than p16 IHC for routine use in clinical practice.

  13. The reliability of high-risk human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV assay in women with ASC-US cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Reid, Jennifer; Dockter, Janel; Getman, Damon

    2015-08-01

    The Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 Genotype assay (AHPV GT) for HPV16 and for HPV18 and/or HPV45 (HPV18/45) genotypes are approved for cervical cancer screening by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There are limited data on the reliability of these tests for detection of hrHPV, HPV16, and HPV18/45. To assess the reliability of AHPV and AHPV GT on paired specimens from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) cytology. In a population of women with ASC-US cytology (n=988), cervical specimens were collected at a routine screening baseline visit and at the colposcopy visit that occurred a median of 29 days later. Specimens were tested by AHPV and if positive, by AHPV GT. There was no significant difference in the percent AHPV positive between the colposcopy and baseline specimens (41.9% vs. 43.0%, respectively, p=0.3). The percent agreement, percent positive agreement, and the kappa value were 88.6%, 76.3%, and 0.766, respectively. There were no significant differences between AHPV testing of the colposcopy and baseline specimen in the sensitivity (95.2% vs. 92.9%, respectively, p=1) and specificity (60.5% vs. 59.2%, respectively, p=0.3) for CIN3+. Comparing the hierarchical AHPV and AHPV GT results on the two specimens, the percent exact agreement was 86.2%, the percent positive agreement was 68.4%, and the kappa value was 0.746. AHPV and AHPV GT demonstrated good reliability for hrHPV detection and risk stratification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The BD Onclarity HPV assay on SurePath collected samples meets the International Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte; Bottari, Fabio; Pedersen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a validation of the BD Onclarity HPV (Onclarity) assay using the international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening of women 30 years and above using Danish SurePath screening samples. The clinical specificity (0.90, 95% CI: 0.......93). The inter laboratory agreement was 97% with lower confidence bound of 95% (kappa value: 0.92). The BD Onclarity HPV assay fulfills all the international guidelines for a new HPV test to be used in primarily screening. This is the first clinical validation of a new HPV assay using SurePath screening samples...... and thus the Onclarity HPV assay is the first HPV assay to hold an international validation for both SurePath and ThinPrep....

  15. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Roche Cobas HPV, and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays to Direct Sequencing and Genotyping of HPV DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the...

  16. A new multiparameter assay to assess HPV 16/18, viral load and physical status together with gain of telomerase genes in HPV-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theelen, Wendy; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2010-02-15

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cancer of the uterine cervix and a subgroup of head and neck cancers. Viral load has been associated with persistence of infection, whereas integration of HPV into the host cell genome is associated with transition to invasive disease. Viral integration is frequently correlated with loss of viral E2 and gain of the telomerase-related genes TERC and TERT. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous analysis of viral load, integration and copy number gain of TERC and TERT in HPV16/18-associated lesions. The performance of the assay was tested for HPV vs. human gene copy number ratios ranging from 0.1 to 100 and for percentages of integration ranging from 0 to 100%. The model systems used include plasmid mixtures and the HPV-positive cell lines SiHa, HeLa and CaSki described to contain a range of 2-600 viral copies per cell. In samples with low-viral load, viral integration can be reliably determined when more than 30% of the virus is integrated. Gain of the telomerase-related genes in the cell lines as determined by our MLPA assay was in accordance with data reported in the literature. Our study demonstrates that within a single MLPA-reaction viral type, load, integration and gain of TERC and TERT can be reliably determined, which will improve risk assessment for patients suspected for HPV infection.

  17. Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18. PMID:19654936

  18. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Unselected SurePath Samples Using the APTIMA HPV mRNA Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte M

    2013-01-01

    The APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 human papillomavirus genotypes. Horizon was a population-based split-sample study among well-screened women, with an aim to compare APTIMA, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) using SurePath samples. APTIMA...... agreement between APTIMA and HC2. This is the first APTIMA study using SurePath samples on the PANTHER platform. The trends in positivity rates on SurePath samples for APTIMA, HC2, and LBC were consistent with studies based on PreservCyt samples, and the agreement between the two HPV assays was substantial....... The high proportions of women testing positive suggest that in countries with a high HPV prevalence, caution will be needed if HPV tests, including mRNA-based tests, are to replace LBC....

  19. A single serum dilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determining anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibody titres in humans immunised with prophylactic HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Yim, Ga Won; Kim, Young Tae; Chang, Don Yong; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2012-07-01

    Two types of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are currently available. However, there is no simple monitoring system for assessing acquired immunity that can cope simultaneously with large numbers of serum samples. Approximately 30% of women with normal cytology are known to be seropositive for HPV types 16 and 18 because of the high prevalence of these HPV types. Therefore, to be useful the monitoring system has to discriminate clearly between vaccine recipients and other serology groups. However, there has never been any focus on developing a method to satisfy this condition. In this study, we developed a high-throughput single-serum-dilution enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) system for determining anti-HPV antibody titres following vaccination. We optimised the conditions for each ELISA step to increase its accuracy and precision and to avoid the high background of non-specific reactions that is a major problem for serology assays. The new ELISA system has superior linearity, accuracy and reproducibility. Moreover, it clearly discriminated between antibody levels in vaccine recipients and those in other serology groups such as individuals with normal cervical cytology and those with cervical cancer. Therefore, this single-serum-dilution ELISA should be very useful for assessing the acquired immunity of HPV vaccine recipients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based HPV Genotyping Assay Validated in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Oropharyngeal and Cervical Cancer Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulos, Nicholas P; Schumaker, Lisa M; Mathias, Trevor J; White, Ruth; Troyer, Jennifer; Wells, David; Cullen, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Available clinical human papilloma virus (HPV) diagnostics for head and neck cancer have limited sensitivity and/or fail to define the HPV genotype. Common HPV genotyping assays are costly and labor intensive. We sought to develop a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based HPV genotyping assay that was sensitive enough to work on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. We developed an ion torrent NGS HPV genotyping assay using barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum general primers 5(+)/6(+) (BSGP)5(+)/6(+). To validate genotype specificity and use in archived clinical FFPE tumor samples, we compared NGS HPV genotyping at 2 sequencing centers with typing by Roche Linear Array assay in 42 oropharyngeal and cervical cancer specimens representing 10 HPV genotypes, as well as HPV-negative cases. To demonstrate the detection of a broad range of HPV genotypes, we genotyped a cohort of 266 cervical cancers. A comparison of NGS genotyping of FFPE cancer specimens with genotyping by Linear Array showed concordant results in 34/37 samples (92%) at sequencing site 1 and 39/42 samples (93%) at sequencing site 2. Concordance between sites was 92%. Designed for use with 10 ng genomic DNA, the assay detected HPV using as little as 1.25 ng FFPE-derived genomic DNA. In 266 cervical cancer specimens, the NGS assay identified 20 different HPV genotypes, including all 13 carcinogenic genotypes. This novel NGS assay provides a sensitive and specific high-throughput method to detect and genotype HPV in a range of clinical specimens derived from FFPE with low per-sample cost.

  1. Performance of a methylation specific real-time PCR assay as a triage test for HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Martina; Wunsch, Kristina; Hoyer, Heike; Scheungraber, Cornelia; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Hansel, Alfred; Dürst, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    HPV DNA testing as a primary screening marker is being implemented in several countries. Due to the high HPV prevalence in the screening population, effective triage strategies for HPV-positive cases are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a methylation-specific real-time PCR  assay (GynTect®) comprising six marker regions as a triage test. An analytical sensitivity of 0.1 ng genomic DNA corresponding to 15 SiHa cells was achieved. Absolute specificity was observed in the presence of 20 ng unmethylated genomic DNA. In a clinical setting, cervical scrapes of 306 women showing abnormal colposcopy were tested for cytology, HPV positivity, and the GynTect markers ASTN1, DLX1, ITGA4, RXFP3, SOX17, and ZNF671. Of all women, histopathological data were available. The overall sensitivity for GynTect to detect CIN3+ was 67.7% (95% CI 57.3%-77.1%) whereas sensitivity was significantly higher for women of age ≥ 30 years (p = 0.04). All cancer cases (n = 5) were detected by GynTect. The overall false positive rate (= 1-specificity) for women with no CIN was 17.4% (95% CI 12.5-23.1%), with a higher proportion among HPV-positive women (24.0%, 95% CI 16.0-33.6%). In a triage screening setting, where all women underwent HPV testing and the HPV positives in addition GynTect testing, the overall sensitivity would slightly decline but specificity would reach the maximum value of 88.7% (95% CI 83.7-92.6%). The GynTect® assay is a robust easy to use assay with high analytical sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the performance of the assay based on cervical scrapes provides further evidence for the usefulness of methylation markers to detect HPV-positive women with clinically relevant disease.

  2. Clinical validation of the HPV-risk assay, a novel real-time PCR assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA by targeting the E7 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, A T; Berkhof, J; van der Salm, M L; van Splunter, A P; Geelen, T H; van Kemenade, F J; Bleeker, M G B; Heideman, D A M

    2014-03-01

    The HPV-Risk assay is a novel real-time PCR assay targeting the E7 region of 15 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types (i.e., HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -67, and -68), and provides additional genotype information for HPV16 and HPV18. This study evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens and its utility with self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens. The clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) with cervical scraping specimens was evaluated by a noninferiority analysis, relative to high-risk HPV GP5+/6+ PCR, following international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening. The HPV-Risk assay showed clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 99.3%; 67/69 samples) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 94.3% (95% CI, 92.5 to 95.7%; 777/824 samples). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were noninferior to those of GP5+/6+ PCR (noninferiority score test, P=0.006 and 0.0003, respectively). Intralaboratory reproducibility over time (99.5% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 544/547 samples, kappa=0.99) and interlaboratory agreement (99.2% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 527/531 samples, kappa=0.98) for the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens were high. The agreement of the HPV-Risk assay results for self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens and clinician-obtained cervical scraping specimens was also high, i.e., 95.9% (95% CI, 85.1 to 99.0%; 47/49 samples, kappa=0.90) for self-collected lavage samples and 91.6% (95% CI, 84.6 to 95.6%; 98/107 samples, kappa=0.82) for self-collected brush samples. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay meets the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of the international guidelines for HPV test requirements and can be considered clinically validated for cervical screening purposes. The

  3. Performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical cytological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cui; Zhi, Yanfang; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiaomei; Li, Ya; Rong, Shouhua; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Xiaofu

    2015-11-01

    HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA have suggested that they had close relationship with cervical neoplastic progression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and E6/E7 mRNA test for detecting high-grade cervical lesions (CIN2+). A total of 81 women with liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples, histological results, and positive HPV-DNA test for HPV type 16 only were included in this study. HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA levels were measured using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and Quantivirus®HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA), respectively, in the same residue of LBC samples. The current date showed a positive correlation between the HPV-16 L1 methylation and the E6/E7 mRNA levels. The L1 methylation and mRNA levels both increased with disease severity. The mRNA test method showed higher sensitivity and NPV (98.0 and 91.7% vs. 89.8 and 80.8%), while lower specificity and PPV (34.4 and 69.6% vs. 65.6 and 80.0%), than the L1 methylation assay for detecting histology-confirmed CIN2+. When using the detection method of mRNA test combined with L1 methylation assay, we obtained a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 71.9%. These findings suggest that assessment of HPV-16 L1 methylation testing combined with E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a promising method for the triage of women with HPV type 16 only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  5. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  6. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

  7. Evaluation of the Xpert® HPV assay in the detection of Human Papillomavirus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oropharyngeal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rollo, Francesca; Pichi, Barbara; Spriano, Giuseppe; Pellini, Raul; Covello, Renato; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Fabbri, Giulia; Scalfari, Manuela; Gheit, Tarik; Benevolo, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The increasing incidence of HPV-related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) and the improved survival of HPV-positive OPSCC highlight the need for effective tools in evaluating HPV status on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancers. To date, there is no agreement regarding the most appropriate method for HPV testing on FFPE materials. We aimed to investigate the performance of the Xpert® HPV assay (Cepheid) on crude lysates from OPSCC FFPE tissues. Crude lysates were obtained by proteinase K digestion of FFPE tissues that had already been analyzed by the INNO-LiPA HPV assay and p16(ink4a) immunostaining. 159 FFPE OPSCCs were evaluated. All the samples provided valid results with the Xpert, whereas three samples (1.8%) were invalid using the INNO-LiPA. Among the remaining 156 cases, 65 (41.7%) were concordantly positive and 87 (55.8%) concordantly negative (raw agreement 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99; Cohen K 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). Type-specific data for the cases that were positive by both methods were completely concordant. Three samples were HPV16-positive with Xpert but negative with INNO-LiPA, while one OPSCC tested negative with Xpert and positive with INNO-LiPA. A very good agreement was observed between the Xpert and the p16 results, which was slightly higher than that for INNO-LiPA (Cohen K 0.87vs. 0.85). The Xpert HPV assay appears to be a very good method for HPV detection and genotyping on FFPE OPSCCs, and requires no prior purification of nucleic acids. This assay showed a very good agreement with INNO-LiPA and p16 findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the Roche Cobas® 4800 HPV assay to Roche Amplicor for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Cornall, A M; Machalek, D A; Garland, S M; Bateson, D; Garefalakis, M; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-08-01

    Roche Amplicor HPV (AMP) had previously been used for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in epidemiological and clinical studies. As this assay is no longer available, we compared its performance using PreservCyt samples from women aged of 18-24 years attending for routine cervical cytology screening to Roche Cobas® 4800 (Cobas) to determine if subsequent studies could continue using the Cobas assay. Overall 507 samples were tested on Cobas and compared to previous AMP results, with discrepant samples tested on Roche Linear Array. Overall, agreement between the Cobas and AMP for the presence of HR HPV types was very high (κ = 0.81) (95 % CI: 0.76 - 0.87) with percentage agreement of 91.57 %. Cobas is comparable to AMP for the detection of HR-HPV types in a community recruited cohort of healthy women.

  9. Clinical and analytical performance of the BD Onclarity™ HPV assay for detection of CIN2+ lesions on SurePath samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Junge, Jette; Franzmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    using adjudicated histological outcomes from Danish women referred for colposcopy. METHODS: 276 women from Copenhagen, Denmark were referred for colposcopy with abnormal cytology and/or a positive HPV test. Two samples for HPV analysis were taken in BD SurePath™ and in the BD cervical brush diluent (CBD......%, 17%, and 22%, for HC2, Onclarity and LA, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, the Onclarity HPV assay performed well on SurePath LBC and CBD media, with clinical sensitivity and specificity matching those of HC2 and LA....

  10. Comparison of Clinical Performance of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Test with That of Hybrid Capture 2 Assay in a Screening Setting▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, F. M.; Burroni, E.; Bisanzi, S.; Puliti, D; Confortini, M.; Giorgi Rossi, P; Sani, C; Scalisi, A.; Chini, F.

    2011-01-01

    Randomized trials have produced sound evidence about the efficacy of screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. We evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the Abbott RealTime High Risk (HR) HPV test compared with that of the HR hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay as assessed by a noninferiority score test. A random sample of 998 cervical specimens (914 specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia less severe than grad...

  11. Evaluation of the NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 assay in comparison with the Roche Amplicor v1.5 and the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 Test v2.0 in quantification of C-clade HIV-1 in plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Muenchhoff

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genetic diversity poses a challenge to reliable viral load monitoring. Discrepancies between different testing platforms have been observed, especially for non-clade-B virus. Therefore we compare, in antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve South African subjects predominantly infected with HIV-1 clade-C, three commercially available assays: the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test version 2.0 by Roche (CAP/CTM v2.0, the BioMérieux NucliSens Version 2.0 Easy Q/Easy Mag (NucliSens v2.0 and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test Version 1.5 (Amplicor v1.5. Strong linear correlation was observed and Bland-Altman analyses showed overall good agreement between the assays with mean viral load differences of 0.078 log cp/ml (NucliSens v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5, 0.260 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5 and 0.164 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - NucliSens v2.0, indicating lower mean viral load results for the Amplicor v1.5 and higher mean readings for the CAP/CTM v2.0. Consistent with observations following previous comparisons of CAP/CTM v2.0 versus Amplicor v1.5, the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay detected low-level viremia (median 65 cp/ml in more than one-third of those in whom viremia had been undetectable (<20 cp/ml in assays using the NucliSens platform. These levels of viremia are of uncertain clinical significance but may be of importance in early detection of ART resistance in those on treatment. Overall the three assays showed good comparability of results but with consistent, albeit relatively small, discrepancies for HIV-1 clade-C samples, especially in the low-viremic range that should be taken into account when interpreting viral load data.

  12. Clinical Validation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Assay According to the Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus DNA Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, A. T.; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M.; Berkhof, J; van Kemenade, F. J.; van der Salm, M. L.; Bogaarts, M.; Snijders, P J F; Heideman, D. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study showed that the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay fulfilled cross-sectional clinical equivalence and reproducibility criteria of international consensus guidelines, which indicates that this assay can be considered clinically validated for cervical cancer screening purposes.

  13. Development and Characterization of an HPV Type-16 Specific Modified DNA Aptamer for the Improvement of Potency Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trausch, Jeremiah J; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-21

    Measuring vaccine potency is critical for vaccine release and is often accomplished using antibody-based ELISAs. Antibodies can be associated with significant drawbacks that are often overlooked including lot-to-lot variability, problems with cell-line maintenance, limited stability, high cost, and long discovery lead times. Here, we address many of these issues through the development of an aptamer, known as a slow off-rate modified DNA aptamer (SOMAmer), which targets a vaccine antigen in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil. The aptamer, termed HPV-07, was selected to bind the Type 16 virus-like-particle (VLP) formed by the self-assembling capsid protein L1. It is capable of binding with high sensitivity (EC50 of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/mL depending on assay format) while strongly discriminating against other VLP types. The aptamer competes for binding with the neutralizing antibody H16.V5, indicating at least partial recognition of a neutralizing and clinically relevant epitope. This makes it a useful reagent for measuring both potency and stability. When used in an ELISA format, the aptamer displays both high precision (intermediate precision of 6.3%) and a large linear range spanning from 25% to 200% of a typical formulation. To further exploit the advantages of aptamers, a simplified mix and read assay was also developed. This assay format offers significant time and resource reductions compared to a traditional ELISA. These results show aptamers are suitable reagents for biological potency assays, and we expect that their implementation could improve upon current assay formats.

  14. Comparing the Cervista HPV HR test and Hybrid Capture 2 assay in a Dutch screening population: improved specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test by changing the cut-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniek Boers

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of the widely-used Cervista HPV HR test was compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test in a Dutch population-based cervical cancer screening program. In 900 scrapings of women with normal cytomorphology, specificity was 90% (95%CI: 87.84-91.87 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 96% (95%CI: 94.76-97.37 for the HC2 test with 93% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.5, p<0.001. The sensitivity for CIN2+ using 65 scrapings of women with histological-confirmed CIN2+ was 91% (95%CI: 80.97-96.51 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 92% (95%CI: 82.94-97.43 for the HC2 test with 95% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.7, p<0.001. Fifty-seven of 60 HC2 negative/Cervista positive cases tested HPV-negative with PCR-based HPV assays; of these cases 56% were defined as Cervista triple-positive with FOZ values in all 3 mixes higher than the second cut-off of 1.93 (as set by manufacturer. By setting this cut-off at 5.0, specificity improved significantly without affecting sensitivity. External validation of this new cut-off at 5.0 in triple-positive scrapings of women selected from the SHENCCASTII database revealed that 22/24 histological normal cases now tested HPV-negative in the Cervista HPV HR test, while CIN2+ lesions remained HPV-positive. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the Cervista HPV HR test (n = 510 showed a concordance of 92% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.83 and κ = 0.84, p<0.001 and inter-laboratory agreement of the Cervista HPV HR test was 90% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.80 and κ = 0.85, p<0.001. In conclusion, the specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test could be improved significantly by increasing the second cut-off from 1.93 to 5.0, without affecting the sensitivity of the test in a population-based screening setting.

  15. Comparison of analytical and clinical performance of CLART HPV2 genotyping assay to Linear Array and Hybrid Capture 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    for high-grade CIN. RESULTS: The κ-coefficient for agreement in detection of genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, and 51 was ≥0.90 (overall agreement: 98-99%, positive agreement: 84-95%). The values were slightly lower, but still in the "substantial" range for genotypes 39, 45, 52, 56, 58, 59, and several low-risk...... genotypes. The relative sensitivity of CLART for ≥ CIN2 and ≥ CIN3 was not significantly lower than that of LA and HC2, although CLART showed a higher specificity than HC2. CONCLUSIONS: In Danish women with abnormal SurePath cytology, CLART and LA were highly comparable for detection of most high-risk......BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping has an increasingly important role in cervical cancer screening and vaccination monitoring, however, without an internationally agreed standard reference assay. The test results from the most widely used genotyping assays are read manually and hence...

  16. Analytical performance of newly developed multiplex human papillomavirus genotyping assay using Luminex xMAP™ technology (Mebgen™ HPV Kit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Satoru; Kato, Kana; Abe, Yukiko; Hara, Hirotaka; Kubota, Hiroshi; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Kawahara, Ei; Inoue, Masaki

    2014-08-01

    Regional differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and the presence of mixed HPV infections may affect adversely the efficacy of the HPV vaccine. Therefore, a simple and high-throughput HPV genotyping system is required. Recently, a novel HPV genotyping kit (the Mebgen™ HPV kit) was developed. This kit uses multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP™ technology to detect 13 types of high-risk HPVs and an internal control in a 96-well format. In the present study, the analytical performance of the kit was examined using HPV plasmid DNA. All 13 types of HPVs were detected with a minimum detection sensitivity of 250 copies/test, and highly specific signals were observed. HPV 16 plasmid was detected in samples containing mixtures with other HPV-type plasmids in ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:1000. No cross reactivity was observed with DNA from 27 types of other infectious microbes. A clinical evaluation was carried out using cervical samples from 356 patients with persistent abnormal smears diagnosed at mass public health screenings for cervical cancer. The samples were preserved in Tacas™ medium until analysis. HPV was detected in 162 (45.5%) samples including 110 (67.9%) with single infections and 52 (32.1%) with multiple infections. The type distribution of the 13 high-risk HPVs was as follows: 28.4% HPV 16, 11.7% HPV 18, 6.8% HPV 31, 3.1% HPV 33, 3.7% HPV 35, 9.3% HPV 39, 1.9% HPV 45, 8.6% HPV 51, 37.0% HPV 52, 9.3% HPV 56, 16.7% HPV 58, 3.7% HPV 59, and 1.9% HPV 68. To evaluate sample stability over time, changes in the detection of HPV DNA derived from HeLa and SiHa cells were measured in 3 types of liquid-based cytology media. HPV DNA was detected in Tacas and Thinprep™ samples after storage at 4°C or 30°C for 4 weeks and within 1 week of collection in Surepath™ samples. These results suggest that this newly developed HPV genotyping kit is suitable for use in both clinical applications and large-scale epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2014 The

  17. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preisler

    Full Text Available New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2 and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23-29 years and 10% in women aged 60-65 years. HC2 assay was positive in 20% of samples, and cytology was abnormal (≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for 7% samples. When only samples without recent abnormalities were taken into account, 24% tested positive on cobas, 19% on HC2, and 5% had abnormal cytology. The proportion of positive cobas samples was higher than in the ATHENA trial. The age-standardized cobas positivity vs. cytology abnormality was 3.9 in our study and 1.7 in ATHENA. If in Copenhagen the presently used cytology would be replaced by cobas in women above age 30 years, an extra 11% of women would based on historical data be expected to have a positive cobas test without an underlying cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or worse. Countries with a high prevalence of HPV infections should therefore proceed to primary HPV-based cervical screening with caution.

  19. Comparison of the Roche Cobas(®) 4800 HPV assay to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array and Roche Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Samuel; Garland, Suzanne M; Tan, Jeffery H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    The recently FDA (U.S. food and drug administration) approved Roche Cobas(®) 4800 (Cobas) human papillomavirus (HPV) has limited performance data compared to current HPV detection methods for test of cure in women undergoing treatment for high grade lesions. Evaluation of Cobas HPV assay using historical samples from women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. A selection of 407 samples was tested on the Cobas assay and compared to previous results from Hybrid Capture 2, HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array. Overall, a correlation between high-risk HPV positivity and high grade histological diagnosis was 90.6% by the Cobas, 86.1% by Hybrid Capture 2, 92.9% by HPV Amplicor and 91.8% by Roche Linear Array. The Cobas HPV assay is comparative to both the HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array assays and better than Hybrid capture 2 assay in the detection of High-Risk HPV in women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of preanalytical processing of ThinPrep specimens on detection of high-risk human papillomavirus by the Aptima HPV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik; Schroeder, Elizabeth R; Ross, Kevin C; Yauck, Connie; Bieganski, Theresa; Amrhein, Robert D; Napierala, Maureen; Harkins, April L

    2014-05-01

    Two important preanalytical protocols performed on liquid-based cytological specimens, namely, automated cytology processing and glacial acetic acid (GAA) treatment, may occur prior to the arrival of specimens in a molecular diagnostics laboratory. Ninety-two ThinPrep vials previously positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) via the Cervista HPV HR test were preselected and alternated with 92 previously negative ThinPrep vials. The specimen set was processed in a consecutive fashion by an automated cytology processor without fastidious decontamination precautions. Carryover potential was subsequently assessed by performance of the Aptima HPV assay on aliquots from reprocessed ThinPrep vials. All previously negative ThinPrep vials yielded a negative result following routine automated cytology processing, despite close proximity to known-positive ThinPrep vials. In separate experiments, aliquots from 236 ThinPrep vials were forwarded for tandem analysis with and without GAA treatment. Data from GAA- and mock-treated specimens generated by Aptima HPV were compared to correlate data generated by Cervista. A 99.2% concordance of Aptima HPV results from GAA-treated and mock-treated specimens was noted. This result differed from the concordance result derived from Cervista (91.5%; P<0.0002). Of the initially positive Cervista results, 21.9% reverted to negative following GAA treatment; the correlate value was 2.7% for Aptima HPV (P=0.01). While deleterious effects of GAA treatment on genomic DNA were noted with Cervista (P=0.0015), GAA treatment had no significant effects on Aptima HPV specimen signal/cutoff ratios or amplification of internal control RNA (P≥0.07). The validity of an Aptima HPV result is independent of GAA treatment and routine automated cytology processing.

  1. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performances of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Hybrid Capture 2, and DNA Chip assays in gynecology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman; Kang, Youjin; Kim, Dong Geun; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    The detection of high-risk (HR) HPV in cervical cancer screening is important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of 3 HR HPV assays in Gynecology patients. A total of 991 specimens were included in this study: 787 specimens for use with a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 204 specimens for a HPV DNA microarray (DNA Chip). All specimens were tested using an Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Real-time HR), PGMY PCR, and sequence analysis. Clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal cytology (severe than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) were 81.8% for Real-time HR, 77.3% for HC2, and 66.7% for DNA Chip, and clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+) were 91.7% for HC2, 87.5% for Real-time HR, and 73.3% for DNA Chip. As compared to results of the sequence analysis, HC2, Real-time HR, and DNA Chip showed concordance rates of 94.3% (115/122), 90.0% (117/130), and 61.5% (16/26), respectively. The HC2 assay and Real-time HR assay showed comparable results to each other in both clinical and analytical performances, while the DNA Chip assay showed poor clinical and analytical performances. The Real-time HR assay can be a good alternative option for HR HPV testing with advantages of allowing full automation and simultaneous genotyping of HR types 16 and 18. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of several high-risk HPV inhibitors and drug targets with a novel high-throughput screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Männik, Andres; Mumm, Karl; Tämm, Kaido; Tamm, Tarmo; Ustav, Mart

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic viruses that cause numerous different cancers as well as benign lesions in the epithelia. To date, there is no effective cure for an ongoing HPV infection. Here, we describe the generation process of a platform for the development of anti-HPV drugs. This system consists of engineered full-length HPV genomes that express reporter genes for evaluation of the viral copy number in all three HPV replication stages. We demonstrate the usefulness of this system by conducting high-throughput screens to identify novel high-risk HPV-specific inhibitors. At least five of the inhibitors block the function of Tdp1 and PARP1, which have been identified as essential cellular proteins for HPV replication and promising candidates for the development of antivirals against HPV and possibly against HPV-related cancers. PMID:28182794

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Untermann, Anette

    2013-01-01

    New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim...... of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory...... in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23...

  4. Head-to-Head Comparison of the RNA-Based Aptima Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay and the DNA-Based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV Test in a Routine Screening Population of Women Aged 30 to 60 Years in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftner, Thomas; Becker, Sven; Neis, Klaus-Joachim; Castanon, Alejandra; Iftner, Angelika; Holz, Barbara; Staebler, Annette; Henes, Melanie; Rall, Katharina; Haedicke, Juliane; von Weyhern, Claus Hann; Clad, Andreas; Brucker, Sara; Sasieni, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Testing for E6/E7 mRNA in cells infected with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) might improve the specificity of HPV testing for the identification of cervical precancerous lesions. Here we compared the RNA-based Aptima HPV (AHPV) assay (Hologic) and the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV test (Qiagen) to liquid-based cytology (LBC) for women undergoing routine cervical screening. A total of 10,040 women, 30 to 60 years of age, were invited to participate in the study, 9,451 of whom were included in the analysis. Specimens were tested centrally by LBC, the AHPV test, and the HC2 test, and women who tested positive on any test were referred for colposcopy. Genotyping was performed on all HR-HPV-positive samples. Test characteristics were calculated based on histological review. As a result, we identified 90 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+), including 43 women with CIN3+. Sensitivity differences between the AHPV test and the HC2 test in detecting CIN2+ (P = 0.180) or CIN3+ (P = 0.0625) lesions were statistically nonsignificant. Of three CIN3 cases that were missed with the AHPV test, two cases presented lesion-free cones and one had a non-HR HPV67 infection. The specificity (detection of high-grade precancerous lesions and may be used in primary cervical cancer screening for women ≥30 years of age. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  6. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  7. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies:

    OpenAIRE

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  8. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  9. Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    Full Text Available Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse, but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74. Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02, and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

  10. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV — including ... have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. Depending on your test results, your doctor may ...

  11. Comparison of In-House Multiplex Real Time PCR, Diagcor GenoFlow HPV Array Test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assays with LCD- Array Kit for Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Liquid Based Cytology Specimens and Genital Lesions in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Amir; Rahnamaye-Farzami, Marjan; Mirab-Samiee, Siamak; Mahdavi, Saeed; Babaei, Monireh

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is a major etiologic agent for some human common cancers. Cervical precancer and cancer is the most prevalent dysplasia by HPV genotypes. Various rapid and sensitive methods have been developed into readily HPV genotyping. In the present study, we compared the performance of Real Time PCR, GenoFlow HPV Array, and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assays with LCD- Array. From 108 cervical samples, HPV was detected in 33 women (30.55%). Among detected HPV genotypes, HPV 6 and 11 were dominant genotypes. Comparing these methods revealed that for Real Time PCR, Genoflow, and INNO-LiPA in comparison with LCD Array, sensitivity and specificity were 94.2%, 93%; 76.7%, 93%; 64%, 96.5%, respectively. Overall, accuracy and precision of these methods were more than 80% and 90%, respectively. It seems that these methods are reliable and suitable for detection and genotyping of HPVs in cervical disorders and other dysplasia associated with human papillomaviruses.

  12. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Against HPV en español Vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) What Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . HPV is the virus that causes genital warts . Besides genital warts, an ...

  13. Use of hTERT and HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR TaqMan Assays in Combination for Diagnosing High-Grade Cervical Lesions and Malignant Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hye-Young; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Geehyuk; Kim, Yeun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    ...) Papanicolaou samples. Results: The positivity for the HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay was 94.4%, 95.2%, 82.4%, 46.5%, 25.0%, and 1.1% in squamous cell carcinomas, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  14. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  15. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Growth Problems Cervical Cap HPV Vaccine Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  16. Identification of HPV variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, John; Bible, Jon; Mant, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of anogenital carcinomas are caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and among Western nations HPV-16 is usually the most predominant cancer-associated type. As a DNA virus, HPV type 16 has a relatively stable genome that is believed to have co-evolved with its host over the millennia. Nevertheless, among the "wild" populations of HPV-16 that are circulating, a large number of variants have been identified, and these may have considerably different pathogenic potentials. In this chapter, methods for screening and characterizing HPV-16 sequence variants are described. In particular, we describe methods for the identification of variation within the HPV-16 E5 open reading frame and for the detection of the nt 131 A-->G mutation of the E6 ORF, using restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. In addition, we describe approaches for DNA sequencing and analysis. Such methods are likely to be of particular interest to those involved in epidemiological investigations of virus transmission and pathogenicity studies.

  17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  18. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 4). Revised Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines Require Reeducation of Women and Physicians. ACOG [On-line news ... PressAnnouncements/ucm187003.htm. Issued October 16, 2009. Accessd March 23, 2009. National Cancer Institute. Fact Sheet. HPV ...

  19. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Cornall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun, with Linear Array HPV (Roche. Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Results: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 − 1.00 for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 – 0.98 for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497, HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039 and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047. EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002 and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035 than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively, but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = −0.01. Conclusions: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Genotyping, Linear Array, Anyplex II, EuroArray, Cervix

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (VIS) ... Why get vaccinated? HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with many ...

  2. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  3. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses that can cause several cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Learn more about how HPV is transmitted, the different types of HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV treatment.

  4. HPV seminal shedding among men seeking fertility evaluation in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot-Rousseau, Marie-Noelle; Diafouka, François; Yayo, Eric; Kouadio, Luc-Philippe; Monnet, Dagui; Segondy, Michel

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the semen shedding of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African men. To detect and identify HPV types in semen samples from men seeking fertility evaluation in Abidjan, Ivory Cost. Sixty-three semen samples were tested by PCR using consensus primers and HPV types were determined by PCR product sequencing or by line probe assay (LiPA) when sequencing was inconclusive. A total of 19 HPV isolates belonging to 11 HPV types were identified in semen samples from 18 (28.6%) men. Ten (55.5%) of the HPV-positive men shed oncogenic HPV types. An association of borderline significance (P=0.06) was observed between HPV semen shedding and a lower sperm count. HPV shedding in semen is common in African men. The relationship between HPV semen shedding and sperm quality merits to be further investigated.

  5. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45 DNA loads and HPV-16 integration in persistent and transient infections in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenczy Alex

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper. Methods A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit. Results HPV loads were consistently higher among women Conclusions The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.

  7. HPV 6/11, 16, 18 seroprevalence in men in two US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eileen F; Nielson, Carrie M; Hagensee, Michael E; Papenfuss, Mary R; Harris, Robin B; Herrel, Nicholas; Gourlie, Jennifer; Abrahamsen, Martha; Markowitz, Lauri E; Giuliano, Anna R

    2009-11-01

    A vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, HPV 11, HPV 16, or HPV 18 and associated diseases is licensed for females, and it may be licensed for men in the future. There are limited data on HPV 6/11, 16, and/or 18 seroprevalence in men. A total of 490 men aged 18 to 40 years were enrolled in a study of HPV in men in Tucson, AZ, and Tampa, FL. Enrolled men completed a self-administered questionnaire, and HPV serology was performed using HPV 6/11, 16, and 18 VLP assays. Overall, seroprevalence to HPV 16 was 12.1%, HPV 6/11 was 9.7%, and to HPV 18 was 5.4%. Seroprevalence to HPV 6/11, 16, and/or 18 was 21% and was highest among 35 to 40 year olds (48%); prevalence in this age group was significantly higher compared to the 18 to 24 year olds (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7, 12.8). Independent predictors of seropositivity to HPV 6/11, 16, and/or 18 were older age, greater number of female sex partners in the past 3 months, and current smoking. HPV vaccine-type seroprevalence was highest in 35 to 40 year old men. These data on the epidemiology of HPV seroprevalence in men are useful for discussions regarding recommendations for HPV vaccine if licensed for use in men.

  8. Analytical performance of cervista HPV 16/18 in SurePath pap specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Khanna, Abha; Feng, Jie; Patel, Shobha; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yun; Huo, Lei; Staerkel, Gregg

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of Cervista HPV 16/18 in SurePath specimens, we compared the analytical sensitivity of Cervista HPV 16/18 with that of a previously validated PCR-based, commercially available HPV genotyping assay, EasyChip HPV Blot, in residual specimens collected after routine Pap tests at our cancer center. We retrospectively selected 79 consecutive Cervista HPV HR (high risk)-positive SurePath residual Pap specimens. The cytology results for these specimens comprised 42 negative, 22 ASC-US/ASC-H, 10 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV 16/18 genotypes of the 79 specimens were analyzed by Cervista HPV 16/18 assay and EasyChip genotyping assay and compared with the patient's follow-up results. Of the 79 cases, 33 (42%) were positive for HPV16/18 by Cervista HPV 16/18 and 37 (47%) were positive by EasyChip. The overall agreement between the 2 assays, at 85% (67/79), was good (kappa = 0.698, 95% CI: 0.541-0.855). In the 65 patients with follow-up results, the sensitivity for predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) was 77% for Cervista HPV 16/18 assay and 69% for EasyChip. The predictive values for CIN2+ in cases stratified by Pap results were highly consistent between the Cervista HPV16/18 and EasyChip assays; there was one false negative HPV16 result, in a specimen identified as NILM by EasyChip. Our findings support use of the Cervista HPV 16/18 assay for HPV16/18 genotyping in SurePath Pap specimens. However, further studies of larger cohorts with clinical follow-up data are required to verify the efficacy of Cervista HPV16/18 assay in SurePath Pap specimens. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix® and Gardasil® human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin; Sehr, Peter; Bonde, Jesper; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross-reactive antibody responses against HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 were evaluated for up to 12 months using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were compared among vaccine groups and genders at 7 and 12 months.: Both vaccines induced anti-HPV-31, -33, and -45 neutralizing antibodies in participants who were seronegative and HPV-DNA negative for those types at study entry. Geometric mean antibody titers were comparable between vaccine groups. Interestingly, anti-HPV-31 and -33 antibody titers were higher among women compared with men at 7 and 12 months.: In conclusion, both licensed HPV-vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against frequent oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults, and women had greater serological responses against HPV-31 and -33 compared with men.

  10. HPV-FASTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Robles, Claudia; Díaz, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related screening technologies and HPV vaccination offer enormous potential for cancer prevention, notably prevention of cervical cancer. The effectiveness of these approaches is, however, suboptimal owing to limited implementation of screening programmes and restricted...... indications for HPV vaccination. Trials of HPV vaccination in women aged up to 55 years have shown almost 90% protection from cervical precancer caused by HPV16/18 among HPV16/18-DNA-negative women. We propose extending routine vaccination programmes to women of up to 30 years of age (and to the 45-50-year...... age groups in some settings), paired with at least one HPV-screening test at age 30 years or older. Expanding the indications for HPV vaccination and much greater use of HPV testing in screening programmes has the potential to accelerate the decline in cervical cancer incidence. Such a combined...

  11. Seroprevalence of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among men in the multinational HPV Infection in Men study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Rollison, Dana E.; Ingles, Donna J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Michel, Angelika; Sudenga, Staci L.; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R.; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Data on cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence are primarily derived from skin cancer case–control studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a glutathione S-transferase L1-based multiplex serology assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence, and logistic regression to examine factors associated with seropositivity. Overall, 65.4 % of men were seropositive to ≥1 of the 14 cutaneous HPV types, and 39.0 % were positive for ≥1 β-HPV types. Seroprevalence was 8.9, 30.9, 28.6 and 9.4 % for α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV 1 and ν-HPV 41, respectively. In multivariate analyses, seropositivity for any cutaneous HPV type was associated with higher education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.75; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.83], and seropositivity of any β-HPV type was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.12–2.63, for men aged 31–44 years vs men aged 18–30 years). Other factors associated with various type-specific cutaneous HPV seropositivity included country, circumcision and lifetime number of male sexual partners. These data indicate that exposure to cutaneous HPV is common. Future studies are needed to assess the role of cutaneous HPV in diseases. PMID:27902363

  12. Seroprevalence of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among men in the multinational HPV Infection in Men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Waterboer, Tim; Rollison, Dana E; Ingles, Donna J; Torres, B Nelson; Michel, Angelika; Sudenga, Staci L; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Wang, Wei; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Data on cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence are primarily derived from skin cancer case-control studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a glutathione S-transferase L1-based multiplex serology assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence, and logistic regression to examine factors associated with seropositivity. Overall, 65.4 % of men were seropositive to ≥1 of the 14 cutaneous HPV types, and 39.0 % were positive for ≥1 β-HPV types. Seroprevalence was 8.9, 30.9, 28.6 and 9.4 % for α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV 1 and ν-HPV 41, respectively. In multivariate analyses, seropositivity for any cutaneous HPV type was associated with higher education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.75; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.83], and seropositivity of any β-HPV type was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.12-2.63, for men aged 31-44 years vs men aged 18-30 years). Other factors associated with various type-specific cutaneous HPV seropositivity included country, circumcision and lifetime number of male sexual partners. These data indicate that exposure to cutaneous HPV is common. Future studies are needed to assess the role of cutaneous HPV in diseases.

  13. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of high-risk HPV DNA in a referral population setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturoli, Simona; Leo, Elisa; Nocera, Martina; Barbieri, Daniela; Cricca, Monica; Costa, Silvano; Santini, Donatella; Zerbini, Marialuisa

    2012-02-01

    The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (ART) is an automated multiplex real-time PCR test for detection of DNA from 14 high risk (HR) HPV types in cervical specimens and simultaneous distinction of HPV16 and HPV18 from other HR-HPV. To evaluate the performance of the ART assay in specimens referred for HPV testing to our laboratory (referral population) by comparison with historical data from HC2 and INNO-LiPA as well as histological status, if available. 412 cervical specimens were collected from women between 18 and 70 years of age: 301 previously tested by HC2 without clinical data and 111 previously tested by HC2 and INNO-LiPA with histological diagnosis of CIN3+. Our study demonstrated good overall agreement between ART, HC2 and INNO-LiPA. In the group of the CIN3+ specimens HR-HPV was detected by ART in 93.07% (95% CI: 88.12-98.02), while HR-HPV detection rates with HC2 and INNO-LiPA were 91.09% (95% CI: 85.53-96.65) and 95.05% (95% CI: 90.82-99.28), respectively. The typing capability of ART for HPV16, HPV18 and a pool of twelve other HR-HPV types was investigated by comparison with INNO-LiPA demonstrating high overall assay concordance (89.81%; k 0.87). The Abbott RealTime assay showed similar clinical performance for detection of CIN3+ compared with HC2. The high level of automation and ability to identify HPV16, HPV18 and other HR-HPV make this assay a very attractive option for HR-HPV testing, potentially improving patient management by risk stratification of cytological abnormal populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluación de las técnicas de detección del VPH en los programas de cribado para cáncer de cuello uterino Assessment of hpv detection assays for use in cervical cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Paz Cañadas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La identificación de la infección por tipos de alto riesgo del virus del papiloma humano (VPH es una herramienta útil para el cribado de cáncer del cuello uterino. Las distintas técnicas aplicadas para su detección deben contrastarse y validarse para su empleo en la tamización poblacional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evalúan tres técnicas para la detección del VPH en 166 muestras cervicales procedentes de mujeres atendidas en una clínica de dermatología en Oviedo (España: a PCR-EIA mediante consensos MY09/MY011; b PCR con line blot hybridization (PCR-LBH con consensos PGMY; y c hybrid capture 2. RESULTADOS: El ADN-VPH se reconoció en 29.5%, 25.3% y 24.7%, de acuerdo con el ensayo. La concordancia global entre PCR-EIA, PCR-LBH y HC2 fue de 73.5% con los valores de kappa superiores a 0.56 entre los ensayos (pOBJECTIVE: Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus types (HPV infection is an important tool in the screening of cervical cancer and triage of cytological abnormalities. The different techniques for detection of this cancer need to be contrasted and validated for use in population screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cervical cell samples were collected from 166 women attending a dermatology clinic in Oviedo (Spain. We evaluated the performance of three different assays for VPH detection. The methods utilized were 1 In-house PCR-EIA using L1 consensus primers MY09/MY11, 2 A PCR-reverse line blot hybridization (PCR-LBH that uses L1 consensus PGMY primers. 3 Hybrid Capture 2. All assays were performed blinded. The kappa statistic was used to test for global agreement between assay pairs. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 24,7%, 25,3% and 29,5% of the women, respective to the assay. The overall agreement between the in-house PCR, PCR-LBH and HC2 was (73.5% with all kappa values between assay pairs exceeding 0.56 (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The three HPV assays were equally accurate in estimating high-risk HPV prevalence and HPV

  15. The clinical implementation of primary HPV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Igidbashian, Sarah; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Vici, Patrizia; Landoni, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate, from a gynecology perspective, the transition from cytology-based HPV screening to primary HPV screening. Studies examining switching from cytology-based screening to primary HPV-DNA testing with triaging of patients with positive test results were retrieved and reviewed, with a particular focus on screening in an Italian setting. The increased complexity of patient-management decisions when implementing HPV-based screening was a critical issue discussed in the literature. The change in strategy represents a paradigm shift in moving from a medical perspective of identifying the disease in individual patients, to a public-healthcare perspective of excluding HPV from the healthy population and identifying a small sub-group of individuals at increased risk of HPV. With knowledge about HPV screening evolving rapidly, new programs and related algorithms need to be sufficiently flexible to be adjusted according to ongoing research and the validation of new assays. The establishment of a national working group (including epidemiologists, gynecologists, pathologists, and healthcare providers) will be necessary to properly implement and govern this important technical and cultural transition. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  17. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511

  18. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

    OpenAIRE

    Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

  19. Evolution and taxonomic classification of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16-related variant genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigui Chen

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 species group (alpha-9 of the Alphapapillomavirus genus contains HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67. These HPVs account for 75% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Viral variants of these HPVs differ in evolutionary history and pathogenicity. Moreover, a comprehensive nomenclature system for HPV variants is lacking, limiting comparisons between studies.DNA from cervical samples previously characterized for HPV type were obtained from multiple geographic regions to screen for novel variants. The complete 8 kb genomes of 120 variants representing the major and minor lineages of the HPV16-related alpha-9 HPV types were sequenced to capture maximum viral heterogeneity. Viral evolution was characterized by constructing phylogenic trees based on complete genomes using multiple algorithms. Maximal and viral region specific divergence was calculated by global and pairwise alignments. Variant lineages were classified and named using an alphanumeric system; the prototype genome was assigned to the A lineage for all types.The range of genome-genome sequence heterogeneity varied from 0.6% for HPV35 to 2.2% for HPV52 and included 1.4% for HPV31, 1.1% for HPV33, 1.7% for HPV58 and 1.1% for HPV67. Nucleotide differences of approximately 1.0% - 10.0% and 0.5%-1.0% of the complete genomes were used to define variant lineages and sublineages, respectively. Each gene/region differs in sequence diversity, from most variable to least variable: noncoding region 1 (NCR1 /noncoding region 2 (NCR2 >upstream regulatory region (URR> E6/E7 > E2/L2 > E1/L1.These data define maximum viral genomic heterogeneity of HPV16-related alpha-9 HPV variants. The proposed nomenclature system facilitates the comparison of variants across epidemiological studies. Sequence diversity and phylogenies of this clinically important group of HPVs provides the basis for further studies of discrete viral evolution, epidemiology, pathogenesis and

  20. Multiple HPV genotype infection impact on invasive cervical cancer presentation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Dias Genta, Maria Luiza; Martins, Toni Ricardo; Mendoza Lopez, Rossana V; Sadalla, José Carlos; de Carvalho, João Paulo Mancusi; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Levi, José Eduardo; Carvalho, Jesus Paula

    2017-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm affecting Brazilian women. Little is known about the impact of specific HPV genotypes in the prognosis of ICC. We hypothesized that HPV genotype would impact ICC clinical presentation and survival. Women diagnosed with ICC at the Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP) between May 2008 and June 2012 were included in the study and were followed until December 2015. HPV genotype was detected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples using Onclarity™ system (BD Viper™ LT automated system). 292 patients aged 50±14 years were analyzed. HPVDNA was detected in 84% of patients. The HPV genotypes studied were: HPV16 (64%), HPV18 (10%), HPV33-58 (7%), HPV45 (5%), HPV31 (4%) and other high-risk HPV genotypes (11%). HPV genotypes showed different distributions regarding histological type and clinical stage. Patients were followed for 35±21 months. The overall survival at 5 years after diagnosis of cervical cancer was 54%. Age, clinical staging, histological type and multiple HPV genotypes infection detected in the same tumor specimen were associated with poorer overall survival on multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (pgenotype affected survival. Multiple HPV genotype infection was associated with poorer ICC survival in our study, compared with single genotype infection. HPV genotyping from FFPE tumor tissue using an automated assay such as the Onclarity BD™ assay provides a simpler alternative for routine clinical use. This is the largest study employing an automated HPV genotyping assay using FFPE of ICC. Multiple HPV genotype infection adversely influenced survival.

  1. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  2. Secular trends of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia 1950-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gloria Ines; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Tous, Sara; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia

    2016-02-01

    Aim To estimate relative contribution and time trends of HPV types in cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia over a 50 years' period. Paraffin blocks of 736 cervical cancer histological confirmed cases were retrieved from the pathology laboratory at Hospital Universitario del Valle (Cali, Colombia) and HPV genotyped using SPF10-PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 (version 1) assay. Marginal effect of age and year of diagnosis in secular trends of HPV type prevalence among HPV+ cases were assessed by robust Poisson regression analysis. 64.7% (95%CI: 59.9-69.2) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were attributed to HPV 16 and 18, 78.2% (95%CI: 74-82) to HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 and 84.8% (95%CI: 81-88.1) to HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 while ninety-three percent of adenocarcinomas (ADCs) were attributed to HPV 16, 18 and 45 only. The prevalence of specific HPV types did not change over the 50-year period. A significant downward trend of prevalence ratios of HPV16 (​P=0.017) and α7 but HPV 18 (i.e., HPV 39, 45, 68, 70, ​P=0.024) with increasing age at diagnosis was observed. In contrast, the prevalence ratio to other HPV genotypes of α9 but HPV 16 genotypes (i.e., HPV 31, 33, 35, 52, 58, 67, ​P=0.002) increased with increasing age at diagnosis. No changes were observed in the relative contribution of HPV types in cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia during the 50 years. In this population, an HPV vaccine including the HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 genotypes may have the potential to prevent ∼85% and 93% of SCC and ADC cases respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical performance of a human papillomavirus messenger RNA test (Aptima HPV Assay) on residual material from archived 3-year-old PreservCyt samples with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Marianne; Ornskov, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is widely used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result but the efficiency of testing women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is less clear, mainly because of lack of specificity. New HPV tests are emerging, which detect E6/E7mes......messenger RNA (mRNA), and preliminary data suggest that they might have a higher specificity. However, mRNA is less stable than DNA, thus posing a challenge to the preservation abilities of the cell-collecting medium.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is widely used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result but the efficiency of testing women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is less clear, mainly because of lack of specificity. New HPV tests are emerging, which detect E6/E7...

  4. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Linked with HPV Each Year? Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated ... file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: March 6, 2017 Page last updated: March 6, 2017 ...

  5. Are women with lupus at higher risk of HPV infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumb, E M; Pinto, A C; Jesus, G R; Araujo, M; Jascone, L; Gayer, C R; Ribeiro, F M; Albuquerque, E M N; Macedo, J M B

    2010-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent of cervical cancer, the second most prevalent neoplasia among women. Although it has been proven that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have higher frequency of cervical dysplasia, few studies have focused on HPV prevalence among them. This study aimed to investigate HPV prevalence among SLE patients and to evaluate associated risk factors, including the use of immunosuppressors (IM). Total DNA extracted from cervical samples of 173 SLE patients and 217 women (control group) submitted to routine cervical cytopathology was used as template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by type-specific PCR, PCR-RFLP and/or DNA sequencing. Statistical methods included univariate analysis and logistic regression. Despite presenting significantly fewer HPV risk factors, SLE patients were found to have a threefold increase in HPV infection, mostly genotypes 53, 58, 45, 66, 6, 84, 83, 61, as compared with controls, who presented types 6, 18 and 61 more frequently. The higher rate of HPV infection was associated with immunosuppressive therapy. This study provides evidence that SLE patients have a high prevalence of HPV infection, which is even higher with the use of IM, a condition that might necessitate a more frequent cervical cancer screening program for these women.

  6. A novel trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine with anti-HPV 16 and 18 neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those induced by the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine in rhesus macaque model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is a key factor in the development of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines to immunize against HPV are an effective approach to reducing HPV related disease burden. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and dosage effect of a trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine (3vHPV produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli, with Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV, Merck & Co. as a positive control. Sera collected from rhesus macaques vaccinated with three dosage formulations of 3vHPV (termed low-, mid-, and high-dosage formulations, respectively, and the 4vHPV vaccine were analyzed by both Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay (PBNA and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Strong immune responses against HPV 16/18/58 were successfully elicited, and dosage-dependence was observed, with likely occurrence of immune interference between different L1-VLP antigens. HPV 16/18 specific neutralizing antibody (nAb and total immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody responses in rhesus macaques receiving 3vHPV at the three dosages tested were generally non-inferior to those observed in rhesus macaques receiving 4vHPV throughout the study period. Particularly, HPV 18 nAb titers induced by the mid-dosage formulation that contained the same amounts of HPV 16/18 L1-VLPs as Gardasil 4vHPV were between 7.3 to 12.7-fold higher compared to the positive control arm from weeks 24–64. The durability of antibody responses specific to HPV 16/18 elicited by 3vHPV vaccines was also shown to be non-inferior to that associated with Gardasil 4vHPV. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV 16/18/58, GMTs, Trivalent, Immunogenicity

  7. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities.

  8. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV with Genomica HPV Clinical Array for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Catia; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Piselli, Pierluca; Cimaglia, Claudia; Lapa, Daniele; Del Nonno, Franca; Baiocchini, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide and HPV DNA testing is recommended in primary cervical cancer screening. Several molecular tests for detection/typing of HPV DNA with different sensitivity and specificity are commercially available. The present study compared the performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay and the Genomica HPV Clinical Array CLART2 in 78 specimens (63 cervical smears and 15 rectal/urethral swabs).The typing results of the Genomica assay were in absolute agreement with each of the four possible result categories of the Abbott assay (HPV16, HPV18, Other HR HPV, not detected) in 87.2% (68/78) of the samples, with a Cohen' kappa agreement coefficient for every HR type of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.39-0.85), higher in cervical swabs (k = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99) than in rectal/urethral swabs (k = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.00-0.82). There was an excellent agreement of the Genomica results with those of Abbott in cervical samples harbored HPV single infection (100% agreement). Nonetheless, both methods may lose sensitivity for detecting HPV types in multiple infections, giving discordant results (10/78). This underlines the importance of establishing the analytical sensitivity in HPV type detection in single and multiple HPV infections. In rectal/urethral swabs, 5 of 15 (33%) discordant cases were observed, most of which became compatible when the Genomica assay was performed starting from nucleic acid extracted with the Abbott m2000sp system. These results suggest that nucleic extraction based on the magnetic beads technique is suitable for HPV DNA detection in urethral/rectal swabs. © 2013 The Authors APMIS © 2013 APMIS.

  9. Valutazione del ruolo dell’HPV-DNA test nei programmi di prevenzione del cancro cervicale

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    Agostina Ventura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN worldwide. Consequently, it would be useful to evaluate HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. Recently several molecular biological tests able to detect different HPV types and to divide into high and lowrisk group have been developed. In this study we examined HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a group of 446 women and evaluated the role of HPV-DNA testing in cervical screening programs. HPV detection and genotyping were done using a polymerase chain reaction based assay (HPV Typing test. One hundred and fiftythree of those women had HPV infection (34.5% of the patients; 23 (15% had low cancerrisk HPV DNA (LR; 116 (75.8% had hight-risk HPV types (HR and 14 (9% from both groups. 130 women (85% in this HPV-infected group had at least one high risk HPV type, and were therefore considered to be at high risk for cancer. PCR results were not completely comparable with cytological diagnosis. We conclude that a combination of HPV DNA and cytologic testing has almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined test is slightly lower than the specificity of the Pap-test alone but this decrease could potentially be offset by a greater protection from neoplastic progression and cost savings available by extended screening intervals.

  10. Cytohistological discrepancies of cervico-vaginal smears and HPV status.

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    Alanbay, İbrahim; Öztürk, Mustafa; Fıratlıgil, Fahri Burçin; Karaşahin, Kazım Emre; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Bodur, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between abnormal cervical cytology or high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) status (cytolo-gy negative/HPV positive) and subsequent histological findings are a common occurrence. After using co-testing, the dis-crepancies between the HR-HPV status and cervical cytology have become an issue. In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristics of women with a discrepancy between histology and cytology/HR-HPV status, in terms of diagnosis, review and identification. A total of 52 women, patients of the University Hospital between 2013-2015, with cytohistologi-cal or HR-HPV status discrepancy were recruited for the study and retrospectively analyzed. The cytological samples were liquid-based Pap smears, classified according to the 2001 Bethesda system. The HR-HPV status was identified using the Hybrid Capture 2 HR-HPV DNA assay. The histological samples were obtained by cervical biopsy as well as large loop exci-sion of the transformation zone (LLETZ). A cytohistological discrepancy was demonstrated in patients with (-)cytology/HR-HPV(+), ASCUS, LSIL, ASC-H, HSIL, AGC-NOS: 17.3%, 23.07%, 26.9%, 9.5%, 17.3% and 5.7%, respectively. When the degree of atypia in cytology increases, the concurrency of cervical cytology with biopsy also increases. A positive HR-HPV co-test result (19/24, 79.1%) was observed in nearly all CIN2 ≥ (+) cases. Our study emphasizes the significance of HR-HPV testing to determine CIN2 ≥ (+) cases, even in the presence of a normal cytological result. In case of cytohistological or HR-HPV discrepancies, a careful review of the HR-HPV status and the degree of cytological atypia should be performed before further intervention.

  11. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

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    Nathalie Dauphin Mckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  12. Outcomes of HPV-related nasal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Chowdhury, Naweed; Alvi, Sameer; Kimura, Kyle; Tawfik, Ossama; Manna, Pradip; Beahm, David; Robinson, Ann; Kerley, Spencer; Hoover, Larry

    2017-07-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been shown to play an integral role in the development and prognosis of various head and neck cancers. Generational changes in sexual behavior may have led to an increased incidence of positivity in recent years. HPV positivity in both benign and malignant lesions of the sinonasal cavities has been shown in previous studies (estimates range from 20%-30% for malignancy). We intend to investigate if HPV positivity affected survival outcomes in our patient cohort. Twenty-six patients diagnosed pathologically for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with available archived biopsy specimens were retrospectively analyzed to obtain HPV status using a real-time, multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that detects and quantifies 15 known high-risk HPV types. Demographic information was collected, and survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimation. Sixteen of 26 (62%) SCC tumors in the patient cohort were positive for HPV DNA. HPV types 16 and 18 were the most common (n = 8 and 2, respectively), although a wide range of HPV types across the 15 tested were positive. Survival analyses showed a statistically significant survival advantage (median survival of 12 vs. 54 months) when accounting for HPV positivity using log-rank testing (P HPV positivity appears to be present in a significant proportion of squamous cell carcinoma cases of the nasal cavity. In our limited patient population there does appear to be a survival advantage to HPV positivity. Further prospective, multi-institutional trials with standardized treatment protocols are needed to elucidate the true impact of HPV positivity in this subset of head and neck cancers. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1600-1603, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Looking beyond human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype 16 and 18: Defining HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancers in Australia prior to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Phillips, Samuel; Pyman, Jan; Cornall, Alyssa M; Lambie, Neil; Anderson, Lyndal; Cummings, Margaret; Payton, Diane; Scurry, James P; Newman, Marsali; Sharma, Raghwa; Saville, Marion; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-10-15

    Australia has implemented a high-coverage HPV vaccination program but has not, to date, established the distribution of HPV types that occur in cervical cancers in Australia. This information is important for determining the potential for cervical cancer prevention with both current and broader spectrum HPV vaccines. We analysed 847 cervical cancers diagnosed 2005 to 2015 in tertiary centres in the three most populous Australian states with resolution of specimens containing multiple HPV types using laser-capture microdissection. Archived FFPE tissue was reviewed by specialist pathologists, sandwich sectioned, and initially whole-tissue sections genotyped for HPV. Samples were first genotyped using SPF10-LiPA25 (version 1). Negative samples were screened with DNA ELISA kit HPV SPF10, followed by genotyping with SPF+ LiPA if ELISA positive. If still negative, samples were tested on a qPCR assay targeting the E6 region of HPV16, 18, 45 and 33. Of the 847 cancers (65.1% squamous, 28.7% adenocarcinoma, 4.3% adenosquamous, 2.0% other), 92.9% had HPV detected. Of the HPV-positive cancers, 607 of 787 (77.1%) contained HPV16 or 18, 125 of 787 (15.9%) contained HPV31/33/45/52 or 58, and 55 (7.0%) another HPV type. There was a strong correlation between HPV type and age, with younger women most likely to have HPV16/18 detected and least likely HPV negative. Our findings indicate that cervical cancers diagnosed in Australia more frequently contain HPV16/18 than in international series. This could be due to cervical screening in Australia increasing the proportion of adenocarcinomas, in which types 18 and 16 more strongly predominate, due to prevention of squamous cancers. © 2017 UICC.

  14. p16 and p53 in HPV-positive versus HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma: do pathways differ?

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    Singh, Vineeta; Husain, Nuzhat; Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Mohammad Yahia; Sonkar, Abhinav A; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-10-01

    p16 overexpression and wild-type p53 expression are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. Role of HPV-related carcinogenesis in the etiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still vague in Indian population. We aimed to explore the expression pattern of p16 and p53 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC to elicit differences, if any. Further their effect on survival of patients was studied. Thirty-one consecutive HPV-positive as well as 31 age and sex-matched HPV-negative OSCC cases from a case series of 369 histologically diagnosed cases of OSCC were included in this study. HPV was detected by two methods, viz. real-time PCR and conventional PCR in biopsy samples. p16 and p53 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and p16 mRNA expression was quantified with real-time PCR using SYBR Green assay. p16 was expressed in six (19.4%) HPV-positive and in four (12.9%) HPV-negative cases. Overall mutant-type p53 expression in 62 OSCC cases was 54.8%. Out of ten p16-positive cases, eight expressed mutant-type p53 and only two cases expressed wild-type p53. Risk factors including oral tobacco consumption and alcohol were present in all these ten p16-positive cases. Survival of patients was not affected by HPV, p16 and p53 status. Presence of mutant-type p53 and exposure to tobacco-related risk factors in both HPV-positive and negative cases suggest existence of p53-related carcinogenesis in HPV-positive cases in Indian population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Generating HPV specific T helper cells for the treatment of HPV induced malignancies using TCR gene transfer

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    Heemskerk Mirjam HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is associated with cancer of the cervix, vagina, penis, vulva, anus and some cases of head and neck carcinomas. The HPV derived oncoproteins E6 and E7 are constitutively expressed in tumor cells and therefore potential targets for T cell mediated adoptive immunotherapy. Effective immunotherapy is dependent on the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, low precursor frequencies of HPV16 specific T cells in patients and healthy donors hampers routine isolation of these cells for adoptive transfer purposes. An alternative to generate HPV specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is TCR gene transfer. Methods HPV specific CD4+ T cells were generated using either a MHC class I or MHC class II restricted TCR (from clones A9 and 24.101 respectively directed against HPV16 antigens. Functional analysis was performed by interferon-γ secretion, proliferation and cytokine production assays. Results Introduction of HPV16 specific TCRs into blood derived CD4+ recipient T cells resulted in recognition of the relevant HPV16 epitope as determined by IFN-γ secretion. Importantly, we also show recognition of the endogenously processed and HLA-DP1 presented HPV16E6 epitope by 24.101 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells and recognition of the HLA-A2 presented HPV16E7 epitope by A9 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that TCR transfer is feasible as an alternative strategy to generate human HPV16 specific CD4+ T helper cells for the treatment of patients suffering from cervical cancer and other HPV16 induced malignancies.

  16. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for detecting and identifying human papillomaviruses in archival tissue specimens of head and neck cancers:

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    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Gale, Nina; Zidar, Nina; Maver Vodičar, Polona; Hošnjak, Lea; Odar, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Abbott RealTime is a novel real-time PCR assay designed for concurrent individual genotyping of HPV16 and HPV18 and pooled detection of 12 HPV genotypes: HPV31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 in cervical swab specimens. In this study, the performance of RealTime for detecting HPV in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of head and neck cancers was compared to the Innogenetics INNO-LiPA assay, which allows identification of 28 HPVs, including all...

  18. A novel trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine with anti-HPV 16 and 18 neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those induced by the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine in rhesus macaque model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Wang, Yajun; Chen, Na; Jiang, Dunquan; Qiu, Yefeng; Wang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Chen, Jianping; Zhang, Haijiang; Liu, Yongjiang

    2017-06-01

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key factor in the development of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines to immunize against HPV are an effective approach to reducing HPV related disease burden. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and dosage effect of a trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine (3vHPV) produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli), with Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV, Merck & Co.) as a positive control. Sera collected from rhesus macaques vaccinated with three dosage formulations of 3vHPV (termed low-, mid-, and high-dosage formulations, respectively), and the 4vHPV vaccine were analyzed by both Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay (PBNA) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Strong immune responses against HPV 16/18/58 were successfully elicited, and dosage-dependence was observed, with likely occurrence of immune interference between different L1-VLP antigens. HPV 16/18 specific neutralizing antibody (nAb) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in rhesus macaques receiving 3vHPV at the three dosages tested were generally non-inferior to those observed in rhesus macaques receiving 4vHPV throughout the study period. Particularly, HPV 18 nAb titers induced by the mid-dosage formulation that contained the same amounts of HPV 16/18 L1-VLPs as Gardasil 4vHPV were between 7.3 to 12.7-fold higher compared to the positive control arm from weeks 24-64. The durability of antibody responses specific to HPV 16/18 elicited by 3vHPV vaccines was also shown to be non-inferior to that associated with Gardasil 4vHPV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV)

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    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17–36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous

  20. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target

  1. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection in Urine and Cervical Samples Using High-Risk HPV DNA Testing in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surapan Khunamornpong; Jongkolnee Settakorn; Kornkanok Sukpan; Suree Lekawanvijit; Narisara Katruang; Sumalee Siriaunkgul

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in urine samples compared to that of cervical sample testing in Northern Thailand. Methods. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected during the follow-up of women with a previous positive HPV test. HPV testing was performed using the Cobas 4800 HPV Test. Linear Array assay was used for genotyping in selected cases. Results. Paired urine and cervical samples were obtained from 168 women. Of 123 p...

  2. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Nathalie Dauphin; Kobetz, Erin N.; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella; Potter, JoNell E.; Morishita, Atsushi; Lucci, Joseph A.; Guettouche, Toumy; Hnatyszyn, James H.; Koru-Sengul, Tulay

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women might have a different human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention. Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/CIS of the cervix in Miami, FL, USA. Methods: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the University of Miami-Jackson Memorial Hospital colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN 3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples. Results: Eight high-risk HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45%) followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%). No samples contained HPV-18. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55%) contain non-16 and -18 high-risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention. PMID:25161956

  3. Polymerase Chain Reaction Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV Genotyping in Invasive Cervical Cancers With Prior Negative HC2 Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiang; Zheng, Baowen; Yin, Fufen; Zeng, Zhengyu; Li, Zaibo; Griffith, Christopher C; Luo, Bing; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xianrong; Zhao, Chengquan

    2017-05-01

    Recently, three large Chinese cohort studies showed that 7.5% to 15.5% of patients with cervical carcinoma had negative high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test results on prior cytology specimens. These studies raise the question as to whether these negative hrHPV results represent truly hrHPV-negative carcinomas or false-negative hrHPV test results due to limitations in the testing of cytology specimens. This is increasingly an important question with increasing push to use hrHPV testing alone to screen for cervical cancer. We investigated the hrHPV status on the surgical specimens from these same patients with cervical carcinoma using three polymerase chain reaction methods and a linear assay genotyping method. A variety of HPV genotypes were detected in 28 (45.9%) of 61 cases, all belonging to carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic categories. HPV 16 was the most common genotype detected in positive cases (66.7%). HPV was detected in 25 (50%) of 50 squamous cell carcinomas and two (66.7%) of three adenosquamous carcinomas and only one (12.5%) of eight endocervical adenocarcinomas. Our findings demonstrate that negative hrHPV testing on cervicovaginal cytology specimens in women later diagnosed with cervical carcinoma can be explained by the occurrence of truly HPV-negative carcinomas in more than half of patients. These results should be considered in the development of future cervical cancer screening guidelines.

  4. Clinical validation of Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection according to the guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, A T; Sahli, R; Berkhof, J; Snijders, P J F; van der Salm, M L; Agard, D; Bleeker, M C G; Heideman, D A M

    2016-03-01

    Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) is a multiplex real-time PCR using tagging oligonucleotide cleavage and extension (TOCE) technology for simultaneous detection and genotyping of 14 high-risk (HR) HPV types, including HPV16 and HPV18. To evaluate whether the clinical performance and reproducibility of Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection meet the international consensus guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening [1]. The clinical performance of Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was determined relative to that of the reference assay, i.e., HR HPV GP5+/6+-PCR-EIA, by analysis of a total of 879 cervical liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens from a screening population, of which 60 were from women with CIN2+. The intra-laboratory reproducibility and inter-laboratory agreement were determined on 509 LBC samples, of which 172 were positive by the reference assay. Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection showed a clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 98.3% (59/60; 95% CI: 89.1-99.8) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 93.6% (764/816; 95% CI: 89.8-96.1). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were non-inferior to those of HR HPV GP5+/6+-PCR-EIA (non-inferiority score test: P=0.005 and P=0.023, respectively). Both intra-laboratory reproducibility (96.8%; 95% CI: 95.3-98.1; kappa value of 0.93) and inter-laboratory agreement (96.0%; 95% CI: 94.3-97.4; kappa value of 0.91) were high. Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection performs clinically non-inferior to HR HPV GP5+/6+-PCR-EIA. Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection complies with international consensus validation metrics for HPV DNA tests for cervical cancer screening [1]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV tests in a population of women referred for colposcopy following detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance by Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n=988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P=1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P≤0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Analytic and clinical performance of cobas HPV testing in anal specimens from HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E

    2014-08-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (P(trend) < 0.001), HPV18 (P(trend) = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (P(trend) < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Sensitive HPV detection in oropharyngeal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the aetiological agents of certain benign and malignant tumours of skin and mucosae; the most important of which is cervical cancer. Also, the incidence of ano-genital warts, HPV-anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancers are rising. To help ascertain a useful PCR detection protocol for oropharyngeal cancers, we directly compared three commonly used primer sets in detection of HPV from different clinical samples. Methods We compared PGMY09/11, MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers sets in PCRs of 34 clinically diagnosed samples of genital warts, cervical brushings (with associated histological diagnosis and vulval biopsies. All negative samples were subsequently tested using the previously reported PGMY/GP PCR method and amplicons directly sequenced for confirmation and typing. An optimised PCR protocol was then compared to a line blot assay for detection of HPV in 15 oropharyngeal cancer samples. Results PGMY09/11 primers detected HPV presence in more cervical brushing (100% and genital wart (92.9% samples compared to MY09/11 (90% and 64.3% and GP5+/6+ (80% and 64.3% primer sets, respectively. From vulval biopsies, HPV detection rates were: MY09/11 (63.6%, GP5+/6+ (54.5% and PGMY09/11 (54.5%. PGMY/GP nested PCR demonstrated that HPV was present, and direct sequencing confirmed genotypes. This nested PCR protocol showed detection of HPV in 10/15 (66.7% of oropharyngeal cancer samples. Conclusions PGMY09/11 primers are the preferred primer set among these three for primary PCR screening with different clinical samples. MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ may be used (particularly for cervical samples but demonstrate lower detection rates. A nested PCR approach (i.e. a PGMY-GP system may be required to confirm negativity or to detect low levels of HPV, undetectable using current primary PCR methods, as demonstrated using oropharyngeal cancer samples.

  8. Bivalent Vaccine Effectiveness Against Type-Specific HPV Positivity: Evidence for Cross-Protection Against Oncogenic Types Among Dutch STI Clinic Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; King, Audrey J; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2018-01-04

    Observational postmarketing studies are important to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). We estimated VE from the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV positivity of vaccine and nonvaccine types in a high-risk population. We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional survey in Dutch sexually transmitted infection clinics. Vaginal swabs were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay (SPF10-LiPA25) able to detect the 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59. We compared hrHPV positivity between self-reported vaccinated (≥1 dose) and unvaccinated women, and estimated VE by a logistic mixed model. We included 1087 women of which 53% were hrHPV positive and 60% reported to be vaccinated. The adjusted pooled VE against HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (81.7%-94.4%). Moreover, we calculated significant VE against nonvaccine types HPV-45 (91%), HPV-35 (57%), HPV-31 (50%), and HPV-52 (37%). Among women who were offered vaccination 5/6 years ago, we estimated similar VE against HPV-16/18 (92%) and all hrHPV types (35%) compared to women who were offered vaccination vaccine against HPV-16/18 and cross-protection against HPV-45/35/31/52. Protection against HPV-16/18 was sustained up to 6 years postvaccination.

  9. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  10. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Torres, B Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27-45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All participants developed detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16- and HPV-18-specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  11. Anal, penile, and oral high-risk HPV infections and HPV seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M van Rijn

    Full Text Available The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity, as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011. Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58 were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by persistent infection and genital warts ( 22 ). Analyses of data from women participating in a clinical ... is to contact the insurance plan or the clinic. Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The ...

  13. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  14. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  16. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet J; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dunne, Eileen F; Murphy, Neil J; Tiesinga, James; Koller, Kathy R; Swango-Wilson, Amy; Philemonof, Dino; Lounmala, Xay; Markowitz, Lauri E; Steinau, Martin; Hennessy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women. Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections) and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics) testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9%) contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2%) cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29%) contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2%) of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women.

  17. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet J.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Murphy, Neil J.; Tiesinga, James; Koller, Kathy R.; Swango-Wilson, Amy; Philemonof, Dino; Lounmala, Xay; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Steinau, Martin; Hennessy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women. Methods Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections) and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics) testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Results Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9%) contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2%) cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29%) contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Conclusions Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2%) of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women. PMID:23984281

  18. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J. Kelly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN women. Methods. Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Results. Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9% contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2% cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29% contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Conclusions. Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2% of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women.

  19. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-05-05

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized "homemade" particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  20. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164. The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  1. Detection of HPV and the role of p16INK4A overexpression as a surrogate marker for the presence of functional HPV oncoprotein E7 in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardon Filip

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the well-recognized etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, a potential role of HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis has been suggested. For that reason, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of HPV DNA in colorectal carcinomas (CRC and to study overexpression of p16INK4A as a marker for the presence of an active HPV oncoprotein E7. These findings were correlated with clinical and pathological prognostic factors of CRC. Methods The presence of HPV was assessed using a multiplex PCR system of 10 non-biotinylated primers. The amplified fragments of HPV positive samples were further analyzed by a highly sensitive, broad spectrum SPF10 PCR and subsequently genotyped using reverse hybridization in a line probe assay. P16INK4A protein expression was investigated in a subset of 90 (30 HPV positive and 60 HPV negative CRC samples by immunohistochemistry. Results HPV DNA was found in 14.2% of the CRC samples with HPV16 as the most prevalent type. No significant differences in clinical and pathological variables were found between HPV positive and negative CRCs, except for age. HPV positive patients were significantly younger (p = 0.05. There was no significant correlation between the presence of HPV and overexpression of p16INK4A (p = 0.325. Conclusions In conclusion, the presence of oncogenic HPV DNA in a small cohort of CRC samples may suggest that HPV may be involved in the carcinogenesis of some CRC. However, contrary to what has been observed in head and neck squamous cell cancer and cancer of the uterine cervix, p16INK4A does not seem to be a surrogate marker for an active HPV infection in CRC. Therefore, further functional analyses are necessary to elucidate the role of HPV in CRC.

  2. HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a population-based split-sample study of well-screened women using CLART HPV2 human papillomavirus genotype microarray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jesper; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Preisler, Sarah; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten

    2014-07-26

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generating a synergy between the two main modes of cervical cancer prevention. The Genomica CLART HPV2 assay is a semi-automated PCR-based microarray assay detecting 35 high-risk and low-risk HPV genotypes. However, few reports have described this assay in cervical screening. An aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in Copenhagen, Denmark, an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for organized screening. Material from 5,068 SurePath samples of women participating in routine screening and clinical follow-up of cervical abnormalities was tested using liquid based cytology, CLART HPV2 and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). At least one of the 35 defined genotypes was detected by CLART in 1,896 (37%) samples. The most frequent high-risk genotypes were HPV 16 (7%), HPV 52 (5%), and HPV 31 (4%). The most frequent low-risk genotypes were HPV 53 (5%), HPV 61 (4%), and HPV 66 (3%). Among 4,793 women targeted by the screening program (23-65 years), 1,166 (24%) tested positive for one or more of the 13 high-risk genotypes. This proportion decreased from 40% at age 23-29 years to 10% at age 60-65 years. On HC2, 1,035 (20%) samples were positive for any high-risk and thus CLART showed a higher analytical sensitivity for 13 high-risk HPV genotypes than HC2, and this was found in all age-groups and in women normal cytology. CLART performed well with a positive reproducibility for high-risk genotypes of 86%, and a negative reproducibility of 97%. This report furthermore updates the genotype distribution in Denmark prior to the inclusion of the HPV-vaccinated cohorts into the screening program, and as such represents a valuable baseline for future vaccine impact assessment.

  3. Epidemiology of subtypes of HPV type 16 and 18 in Abuja metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioinformatics methods were adopted from gene bank to create molecular genetic information of other related high risk HPV types compared with types 16 & 18 specifically assayed for using the relevant primers and probes. The forward primer was AJ HPV For 5 1 TTT GTT ACCCT GTTG GTA GAT ATA CTA C 31 and the ...

  4. HPV genotyping and site of viral integration in cervical cancers in Indian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Poulami; Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Deodhar, Kedar; Mulherkar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    .... Pretreatment biopsies (n = 270) from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR...

  5. Using a new HPV detection system in epidemiological research: change of views on cervical dyskaryosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N.; Burger, M. P.; Kleter, B.; Quint, W. G.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Adriaanse, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) rises with increasing histological severity of neoplasia, more cigarettes smoked per day and higher lifetime number of sexual partners in women with cervical dyskaryosis. Recently, the highly sensitive SPF10 primers and Inno-LiPA (line probe assay) HPV

  6. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

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    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, X; Giuliano, A R; Goldstone, S; Guevara, A; Mogensen, O; Palefsky, J M; Group, T; Shields, C; Liu, K; Maansson, R; Luxembourg, A; Kaplan, S S

    2015-11-27

    This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of a prophylactic 9-valent HPV (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) VLP (9vHPV) vaccine in young men 16-26 years of age in comparison to young women 16-26 years of age (the population that was used to establish 9vHPV vaccine efficacy). Safety and immunogenicity data from this study will be used to bridge 9vHPV vaccine efficacy findings in 16-26 year old women to 16-26 year old men. This study enrolled 1106 heterosexual men (HM) and 1101 women who had not yet received HPV vaccination. In addition, 313 men having sex with men (MSM) were enrolled and were evaluated separately for immunogenicity because previous results showed that antibody responses to quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) VLP (qHPV) vaccine were lower in MSM than in HM. All subjects were administered a 3-dose regimen (Day 1, Month 2, Month 6) of 9vHPV vaccine. Serum samples were collected for anti-HPV assays. Safety information was collected for ∼ 12 months. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 for HM were non-inferior to those of women at Month 7. For all vaccine HPV types, Month 7 GMTs were numerically lower in MSM than in HM. Over 99.5% of subjects were seropositive at Month 7 for each vaccine HPV type. Administration of 9vHPV vaccine to both 16-26 year old men and women was generally well tolerated. These results support bridging the efficacy findings with 9vHPV vaccine in young women 16-26 years of age to men 16-26 years of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in saliva of women with HPV genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Currò, Monica; Facciolà, Alessio; Riso, Romana; Mondello, Placido; Laganà, Pasqualina; Di Pietro, Angela; Picerno, Isa; Spataro, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are DNA viruses associated with benign and malignant lesions of skin and mucous membranes. The HPVs has been implicated as the cause of virtually all cervical cancers worldwide but studies showed that these viruses can cause numerous cancers in several tissues including Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). At least 90 % of HPV-positive OSCCs are associated with high-risk (or oncogenic) HPV-16 and oral infection confers an approximate 50-fold increase in risk for HPV-positive OSCC. HPV-positive OSCCs are associated with sexual behaviors in contrast to HPV-negative OSCCs that are associated with chronic tobacco and alcohol use. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HPV-DNA in saliva samples collected from women in which it has been previously established the HPV infection of the cervix with relative genotyping and, then, to study the possible correlation. Saliva samples were collected from 100 women with HPV cervical lesions, aged between 22 and 52 years old, and 25 healthy women with normal cytology (control group), aged between 20 and 49 years old. PCR assay was used to detect HPV DNA. The prevalence of oral HPV infection in saliva samples was 24 % in women with HPV cervical lesions while in the control group was 8 %. It has been demonstrated a strong association between high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and oral infection due to HPV16 and 18, that are the most frequently detected HPV genotypes. This study shows that patients with genital HPV infection are at risk for oral infection and, consequently, for the development of OSCC.

  9. Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

    2012-07-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Smokeless tobacco increases aneuploidy in oral HPV16 E6/E7-transformed keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merne, Marina; Rautava, Jaana; Ruutu, Merja; Syrjänen, Stina

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this work was to study synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and tobacco in vitro, both known to be independent risk factors for oral cancer. HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral keratinocytes and oral HPV-negative fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from the Scandinavian (STE1) and US-type (STE2) snuff. Cell cycle profiles were determined with flow cytometry, and HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in HPV-positive cells was assayed using RT-qPCR. The exposure of HPV-positive keratinocytes with STE2 increased the number of aneuploid cells from 27% to 80% of which 44% were in S-phase, while none of the diploid cells were in S-phase. The changes after STE1 exposure were less than seen after STE2: from 27% to 31% of which 34% were in S-phase. STE had no effect on HPV16 E6/E7 expression in HPV-positive keratinocytes. In oral spontaneously transformed, HPV-negative keratinocytes, the number of aneuploid cells at G2-M stage increased after STE1 and STE2 exposure from 3% to 9% and 7%, respectively. In HPV-negative oral fibroblasts, the number of cells at G2-M phase increased from 11% to 21% after STE1 and 29% after STE2 exposure. The effect of STE varied in the cell lines studied. STE2 increased significantly the proportion of aneuploid cells in HPV-positive oral keratinocytes, but not HPV16 E6/E7 expression. This indicates that tobacco products may enhance the effects of HPV 16 and the risk of DNA aneuploidy increasing risk to malignant transformation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

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    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; D.W. Provance Jr

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment o...

  12. Study-based evaluation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test in comparison to the HC2 HR HPV test in women aged ≥30 years using residual LBC ThinPrep specimens

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    Thomas Iftner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV testing is already part of cervical cancer screening programs in a number of countries. New tests need to be validated not only in clinical studies but also in routine screening settings with regard to their clinical performance. Methods The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Test (RT hrHPV test was evaluated in a random sample of 1,456 patients from a German routine screening population of 13,372 women ≥30 years of age screened primarily by liquid-based cytology (LBC that was complemented by 48 CIN3+ cases. Clinical sensitivities, relative specificities and positive predictive values (PPV for both HPV tests were determined based on histologically confirmed high-grade cervical disease (CIN3+ as clinical outcome. Results HR HPV prevalence in residual LBC samples was found to be 5.4 % by the RT hrHPV test and 5.6 % by the HR HC2 test, respectively. The Kappa-value for overall agreement between the RT hrHPV test and the HC2 assay for detection of HR HPV was 0.87. Relative sensitivities for detection of CIN3+ in patients with abnormal cytology was 93.8 % for the RT hrHPV assay and 97.9 % for HC2 (p-value = 0.5. Relative specificities and PPVs were comparable for both tests. The highest PPV was calculated for the specific detection of HPV16 by the RT hrHPV test (84.2 %. The RT hrHPV test showed a reduced sensitivity for detection of HVP31-positive CIN3 + . Conclusion The RT hrHPV assay is as sensitive and specific in detecting severe cervical lesions in women with abnormal cytology as the HC2 HR HPV test.

  13. HPV genotyping and site of viral integration in cervical cancers in Indian women.

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    Das, Poulami; Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Deodhar, Kedar; Mulherkar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection plays a major role in cervical cancer. This study was undertaken to identify HPV types in a cohort of Indian women with locally advanced cervical cancer as well as to determine the physical state and/or site of viral integration in the host genome. Pretreatment biopsies (n = 270) from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR. Overall HPV positivity was observed to be 95%, with HPV16 being most common (63%) followed by infection with HPV18. Integration status of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in a subset of samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (n = 86) and with an adequate follow-up. The data was correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Integration of the viral genome was observed in 79% of the cases and a preference for integration into the chromosomal loci 1p, 3q, 6q, 11q, 13q and 20q was seen. Clinical data revealed that the physical state of the virus (integrated or episomal) could be an important prognostic marker for cervical cancer.

  14. HPV genotyping and site of viral integration in cervical cancers in Indian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Das

    Full Text Available Persistent HPV infection plays a major role in cervical cancer. This study was undertaken to identify HPV types in a cohort of Indian women with locally advanced cervical cancer as well as to determine the physical state and/or site of viral integration in the host genome. Pretreatment biopsies (n = 270 from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR. Overall HPV positivity was observed to be 95%, with HPV16 being most common (63% followed by infection with HPV18. Integration status of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT assay in a subset of samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (n = 86 and with an adequate follow-up. The data was correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Integration of the viral genome was observed in 79% of the cases and a preference for integration into the chromosomal loci 1p, 3q, 6q, 11q, 13q and 20q was seen. Clinical data revealed that the physical state of the virus (integrated or episomal could be an important prognostic marker for cervical cancer.

  15. Genital HPV in Children and Adolescents: Does Sexual Activity Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Karakitsos, Petros; Kottaridi, Christine; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Chrousos, George P; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection among prepubertal children, sexually active and not sexually active adolescents, and assess potential risk factors for transmission. Prospective study. Outpatient adolescent health clinic. Ninety-five girls aged 2-21 years; 38 sexually active adolescents (group A), 28 not sexually active adolescents (group B), and 29 prepubertal children (group C). Participants' vaginal or cervical specimens were tested for HPV with the CLART HPV 2 assay (Clinical Array Technology, Genomica, Madrid, Spain) and for cytological abnormalities with liquid-based cytology. Differences in prevalence of low- and high-risk HPV infections among the 3 groups. Genital HPV was detected in 37.9% (36/95) of all participants; 47.4% (18/38) of group A, 28.6% (8/28) of group B, and 34.5% (10/29)of group C (P = .27). Multiple HPV infection was detected in 26.3% (10/38), 10.7% (3/28), and 13.8% (4/29) of groups A, B, and C, respectively (P = .21). High-risk genotypes were detected in 47.4% (18/38), 28.6% (8/28), and 24.1% (7/29) of groups A, B, and C, respectively (P = .10). Main high-risk genotypes were HPV 16 (27%, 10/37), HPV 31 (21.6%, 8/37 ), HPV 35 (13.5%, 5/37), HPV 53 (13.5%, 5/37), and low-risk HPV 6 (18.9%, 7/37). Sexual activity was associated with increased risk for genital high-risk HPV infection (odds ratio = 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-9.78); specifically with HPV 33 and HPV 51. Forty percent of sexually active adolescents with normal cervical cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types. Family history of skin HPV was positively associated with genital HPV in the sexually active group (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.46). Timeline and target population for HPV vaccination might need to be reappraised, in view of significant nonsexual transmission of genital HPV so early in childhood. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology

  16. Spectrum of HPV types before and after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Ylva; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Forslund, Ola

    2017-10-31

    To monitor residual disease after treatment of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cytology together with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are commonly performed. To analyse the spectrum of HPV types before and after treatment. This register-based study included 446 women treated for CIN2 or 3, where cytology samples had been HPV-tested before and after treatment by the use of the MGP-PCR Luminex HPV L1-DNA-assay identifying 39 HPV types, including 12 high risk (HR) HPV types. Before and after treatment, 706 and 248 HPV isolates were detected of 36 and 34 different HPV types, respectively. Among all the HR HPV isolates, type-specific persistency was observed among 14% (76/542) after treatment, compared to 34% (31/92) of low-risk (LR) HPV isolates (pHPV isolates, 8.3% (6/72) persisted. Totally, 99% (440/446) and 40% (179/446) of the women were HPV-positive before and after treatment, respectively. At least one of the 12 HR HPV types was present in 91% (404/446) and 24% (109/446) of the women before and after treatment, respectively (pHPV types were present both before and after treatment among 23% (102/446) of the women, and 16% (71/446) manifested at least one persistent HR HPV type. The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of HR HPV testing for detection of residual high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was based on the first cytology after treatment, and was 91.7% (95% CI: 61.5%-99.8%), 84.1% (95% CI: 80.0%-87.7%) and 99.7% (95% CI: 98.2%-100.0%), respectively. About one out six treated women (16%) manifested at least one persistent HR HPV type, that was associated with recurrent or residual HSIL disease (odds ratio 58.1, 95% CI 7.4-457) (p=0.0001). Testing for HR HPV demonstrated high sensitivity (92%) for residual HSIL. The higher persistency rate of LR HPV types suggests that they are more likely to be outside the treated area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

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    Raúl Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6% allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact.

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus 16, 18, and 45 in women with ASC-US cytology and the risk of cervical precancer: results from the CLEAR HPV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Phillip E; Cuzick, Jack; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Reid, Jennifer L; Dockter, Janel; Giachetti, Cristina; Getman, Damon

    2015-02-01

    The Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 Genotype (GT) assay (AHPV-GT) is a qualitative E6/ E7 oncogene messenger RNA test that detects HPV 16 and a pool of HPV 18 and 45. The CLEAR (Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA) study was the pivotal, prospective, multicenter US clinical study to validate the Aptima HPV (AHPV) assays. In this analysis, we evaluated the clinical performance of AHPV and AHPV-GT assays for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2 +) and grade 3 (CIN3) or adenocarcinoma in situ in 912 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou result. The AHPV-GT assay was performed on high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positives as determined by the AHPV assay. Overall, the percent positive for hrHPV was 38.8% (354/912), of which 34.2% (121/354) were GT positive. Among hrHPV-positive women, the risks of CIN2 + were 37.0% for HPV 16 positives, 15.9% for HPV 18/45 positives, 14.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 2.2% for AHPV negatives. The risks of CIN3 + were 20.5% for HPV 16 positives, 9.1% for HPV 18/45 positives, 4.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 0.7% for HPV negatives. We demonstrated that AHPV-GT is a reliable and effective test for cervical cancer risk stratification in women with an ASC-US cytology diagnosis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  19. Definition of linear antigenic regions of the HPV16 L1 capsid protein using synthetic virion-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Sun, X Y; Davies, H; Crawford, L; Park, D; Frazer, I H

    1992-08-01

    Mice of three haplotypes (H-2d, H-2b, and H-2d/b) were immunized with synthetic HPV16 virus-like particles (VLPs), produced using a vaccinia virus doubly recombinant for the L1 and L2 proteins of HPV16. The resultant anti-VLP antisera recognized HPV16 capsids by ELISA assay and baculovirus recombinant HPV16 L1 and L2 protein on immunoblot. Overlapping peptides corresponding to the HPV16 L1 amino acid sequence were used to define the immunoreactive regions of the L1 protein. The majority of the L1 peptides were reactive with IgG from the mice immunized with the synthetic HPV16 capsids. A computer algorithm predicted seven B epitopes in HPV16 L1, five of which lay within peptides strongly reactive with the murine antisera. The murine anti-VLP antisera failed to react with the two peptides recognized by anti-HPV16L1 monoclonal antibodies raised by others against recombinant L1 fusion protein. We conclude that the immunoreactive epitopes of HPV16 defined using virus-like particles differ significantly from those defined using recombinant HPV16 L1 fusion proteins, which implies that such fusion proteins may not be the antigens to look for HPV16L1 specific immune responses in HPV-infected patients.

  20. Possible contributing role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a cofactor in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromseree, Sirinart; Pientong, Chamsai; Swangphon, Piyawut; Chaiwongkot, Arkom; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Tungsiriwattana, Thumwadee; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Vendrig, Tineke; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2015-12-01

    Persistent infection with EBV has been linked to the development of malignancies including HPV-associated cervical carcinoma. However, the role of EBV in HPV-associated cervical cancer is still poorly understood. To determine the possible contributing role of EBV in HPV-associated cervical carcinogenesis according to HPV genotypes, HPV genome status and EBV localization. Cervical tissues, including 82 with no squamous intraepithelial lesions (noSILs), 85 low-grade SILs (LSILs), 85 high grade SILs (HSILs) and 40 squamous cell carcinoma samples (SCC) were investigated using PCR and dot blot hybridization for EBV detection and PCR and reverse line blot hybridization for HPV genotyping. The amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts assay and in situ hybridization were used to determine HPV physical status and EBV EBER localization, respectively. EBV was detected increasingly from noSIL (13.4%), LSIL (29.4%) to HSIL (49.4%) samples. The prevalence of HPV-EBV co-infection was significantly higher in any grade of lesion than in noSIL samples (pEBV co-infection was more common in cases with episomal forms of high-risk (HR) HPV whereas HPV alone was more common in cases with integrated HR-HPV. In addition, EBER staining demonstrated that EBV was mainly present in infiltrating lymphocytes. Infiltrating EBV-infected lymphocytes may play a role in cancer progression of cervical lesion containing episomal HR-HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a novel microplate colorimetric hybridization genotyping assay for human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Regina Bones; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Verza, Mirela; Rosso, Franciele; Medeiros, Rúbia Marília de; Perizzolo, Paulo Fernando; Cortez-Herrera, Elizabeth; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been associated with cervical cancer. Developing assays for the identification of these viral types is of great importance for monitoring patients and controlling strategies. The development of the MCHA (microplate colorimetric hybridization assay), a PCR-based method for identifying six of the most common HR-HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 39 and 45) is described. The MCHA combines the amplification with the GP5+/GP6+ consensus primers followed by PCR reverse hybridization with specific probes and detection through a colorimetric assay. The performance of the MCHA was evaluated using 108 DNA samples typed previously by the PapilloCheck(®). The agreement between both methods was 69.4% for HPV 16; 79.1% for HPV 45; 82.4% for HPV 18; 93.6% for HPV 31; 87.9% for HPV 33, and 17.6% for HPV 39. The assay had higher sensitivity than the Papillocheck(®), particularly for identifying HPV 16 and 18. The MCHA seemed to be sensitive and specific for the identification of the most prevalent HPV types in invasive cervical cancer, HPV 16, 18, 45, 33 and 31. It requires low-cost reagents and common laboratory apparatus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status of non-tobacco related squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, JS; Ma, X-J; Bui, S; Luo, Y; Li, R; Koch, WM; Westra, WH

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important cause of some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), but its role in cancer of the lateral tongue is debatable. Suspicion of HPV causation is heightened when these lateral tongue carcinomas arise in patients that are young and/or have never smoked. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of transcriptionally active high risk HPV in these tumors, with a particular emphasis on non-smoking patients who are often presumed to have HPV-positive tumors. Methods We evaluated 78 HNSCCs of the lateral tongue for the presence of HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry and an RNA in situ hybridization assay targeting HPV E6/E7 mRNA. The study population was enriched for patients without traditional risk factors such as smoking and drinking. Results P16 overexpression was detected in 9 (11.5%) of 78 cases, but HPV E6/E7 mRNA transcripts were detected in only 1 (1.3%) case (positive predictive value of p16 staining for the presence of transcriptionally active HPV = 0.12). HPV mRNA transcripts were not detected in any patient under 40 (n = 11), or in patients who had never smoked (n=44), had quit smoking (n=15), and/or were only light consumers of alcohol (n = 57). Conclusions HPV is not detected in the vast majority of lateral tongue carcinomas. In light of the observation that HPV plays little if any role in the development of these cancers, routine HPV testing is unwarranted , even for patients without traditional risk factors. P16 staining is not a reliable marker for the presence of transcriptionally active HPV at this particular anatomic site. PMID:24485566

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Nasal and Antrochoanal Polyps and Association with Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knör, Mareike; Tziridis, Konstantin; Agaimy, Abbas; Zenk, Johannes; Wendler, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyposis remains unclear, in spite of several investigative approaches. Antrochoanal polyps, a subgroup of sinonasal polyposis along with allergic- and chronic-inflammatory nasal polyps, mostly originate from the maxillary sinus and develop as a unilateral, pedunculated mass towards the nasopharynx. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is discussed as a possible causative and influencing factor in development and progression of sinonasal polyposis. This study aims to elucidate HPV frequency in nasal polyps and antrochoanal polyps. Genomic DNA from 257 tissue specimens (166 nasal polyps, 39 antrochoanal polyps and 52 nasal turbinates) was subjected to three different established HPV- polymerase chain reaction assays, testing for 37 low- and high-risk HPV. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for HPV16 were carried out, as well as immunohistochemistry and western blots of p16, a biomarker for HPV induced cancer. HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps. Immunohistochemically, HPV positive tissues stained positive for HPV16 antigens and p16 in epithelial cell layers. No significant p16 overexpression was traceable in antrochoanal polyps, nasal polyps and nasal turbinates by western blot. There was no correlation of HPV-status with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption or allergic background. The present study shows a significant frequency of high-risk type HPV16 in antrochoanal polyps. Absence of oncogenic transformation or correlation of the HPV-status with clinical data suggests a latent superinfection, possibly because of anatomical proximity to the oropharynx.

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Prevalence in Nasal and Antrochoanal Polyps and Association with Clinical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Knör

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyposis remains unclear, in spite of several investigative approaches. Antrochoanal polyps, a subgroup of sinonasal polyposis along with allergic- and chronic-inflammatory nasal polyps, mostly originate from the maxillary sinus and develop as a unilateral, pedunculated mass towards the nasopharynx. The human papillomavirus (HPV is discussed as a possible causative and influencing factor in development and progression of sinonasal polyposis. This study aims to elucidate HPV frequency in nasal polyps and antrochoanal polyps.Genomic DNA from 257 tissue specimens (166 nasal polyps, 39 antrochoanal polyps and 52 nasal turbinates was subjected to three different established HPV- polymerase chain reaction assays, testing for 37 low- and high-risk HPV. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for HPV16 were carried out, as well as immunohistochemistry and western blots of p16, a biomarker for HPV induced cancer.HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps. Immunohistochemically, HPV positive tissues stained positive for HPV16 antigens and p16 in epithelial cell layers. No significant p16 overexpression was traceable in antrochoanal polyps, nasal polyps and nasal turbinates by western blot. There was no correlation of HPV-status with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption or allergic background.The present study shows a significant frequency of high-risk type HPV16 in antrochoanal polyps. Absence of oncogenic transformation or correlation of the HPV-status with clinical data suggests a latent superinfection, possibly because of anatomical proximity to the oropharynx.

  6. Genotyping for Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18/52/58 Has a Higher Performance than HPV16/18 Genotyping in Triaging Women with Positive High-risk HPV Test in Northern Thailand.

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    Surapan Khunamornpong

    Full Text Available Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV test has gained increasing acceptance as an alternative method to cytology in cervical cancer screening. Compared to cytology, HPV test has a higher sensitivity for the detection of histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+, but this could lead to a large colposcopy burden. Genotyping for HPV16/18 has been recommended in triaging HPV-positive women. This study was aimed to evaluate the screening performance of HPV testing and the role of genotyping triage in Northern Thailand.A population-based cervical screening program was performed in Chiang Mai (Northern Thailand using cytology (conventional Pap test and HPV test (Hybrid Capture 2. Women who had abnormal cytology or were HPV-positive were referred for colposcopy. Cervical samples from these women were genotyped using the Linear Array assay.Of 5,456 women, 2.0% had abnormal Pap test results and 6.5% tested positive with Hybrid Capture 2. Of 5,433 women eligible for analysis, 355 with any positive test had histologic confirmation and 57 of these had histologic HSIL+. The sensitivity for histologic HSIL+ detection was 64.9% for Pap test and 100% for Hybrid Capture 2, but the ratio of colposcopy per detection of each HSIL+ was more than two-fold higher with Hybrid Capture 2 than Pap test (5.9 versus 2.8. Genotyping results were available in 316 samples. HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58 were the three most common genotypes among women with histologic HSIL+. Performance of genotyping triage using HPV16/18/52/58 was superior to that of HPV16/18, with a higher sensitivity (85.7% versus 28.6% and negative predictive value (94.2% versus 83.9%.In Northern Thailand, HPV testing with genotyping triage shows better screening performance than cervical cytology alone. In this region, the addition of genotyping for HPV52/58 to HPV16/18 is deemed necessary in triaging women with positive HPV test.

  7. HPV Infections in Adolescents

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    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  8. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding. The father of the baby received the HPV vaccine around the time that I got pregnant. Is there a risk to the baby? No. There is no evidence that vaccines given to men will affect the sperm. In general, exposures that fathers have are unlikely ...

  9. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. High prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18 in cervical cancers of Curaçao: implications for choice of prophylactic HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Desiree J; Lissenberg-Witte, Birgit I; de Koning, Maurits N C; Pinedo, Herbert M; Kenter, Gemma G; Meijer, Chris J L M; Quint, Wim G

    2017-10-11

    Curaçao is a Dutch-Caribbean Island located in a high-risk area for cervical cancer.Prior to introduction of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, knowledge of the prevalence of high-risk HPV vaccine genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) in cervical (pre)cancer is required. To investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, 2 and 3 in Curaçao. Paraffin-embedded blocks of 104 cervical cancers (89 squamous, 15 adenocarcinoma), 41 CIN3, 39 CIN2 and 40 CIN1 lesions were analysed for the presence of HPV. Sections were stained by H&E for histopathological evaluation, and DNA was extracted using proteinase K. HPV genotypes were detected using Short PCR Fragment (SPF10) PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay and a Line Probe Assay (LiPA25) . HPV was found in 92 (88.5%) ICC; 87 (94.6%) had a single HPV infection and 86 (93.5%) were high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-type positive.The three most common HPV types in ICC were 16 (38.5%), 18 (13.5%) and 45 (6.7%), covering 58.7%.HrHPV vaccine genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 45, 52 and 58 were responsible for 73.1% of ICC. For precancerous lesions, the HPV attribution was 85.4% for CIN3, 66.7% for CIN2% and 42.5% for CIN1. Our study, the largest in the Caribbean region in (pre)cancer, shows that the prevalence of HPV-type 16 and 18 in cervical cancer is lower compared with the world population but no differences in prevalence of these two HPV types are seen in precancerous lesions.When considering HPV vaccination in Curaçao, the relatively high contribution of non-HPV 16/18 genotypes in ICC should be taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Association of serum cytokines with oral HPV clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O; Bream, Jay H; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Coles, Christian L; Weber, Kathleen M; Burk, Robert D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Reddy, Susheel; Margolick, Joseph B; Strickler, Howard D; Wentz, Alicia; Jacobson, Lisa; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2016-07-01

    Initial studies suggest higher serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines may be associated with decreased cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) clearance. However, the relationship of cytokines with oral HPV clearance has not been explored. From 2010 to 2014, oral rinse and serum samples were collected semi-annually from 1601 adults. Oral rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR. Based on oral HPV results, 931 serum samples were selected for cytokine evaluation to include a roughly equal number of prevalent (n=307), incident (n=313), and no oral HPV infections (n=311). Electrochemiluminescence multiplex assays were used to determine the concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. The relationship between serum cytokine concentrations (categorized into quartiles) and oral HPV clearance was evaluated with Wei-Lin-Weissfeld regression models, adjusting for HPV infection type (prevalent vs. incident), age, HIV status, and CD4 T cell count. Higher TNF-α concentration was associated with decreased clearance in men (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.79) and women (aHR=0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55-1.04), with stronger associations in men than women (p-interaction=0.049). Higher IL-2 concentration was associated with reduced clearance in men (aHR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50-0.95), but not women (p-interaction=0.058). Results were similar within CD4 T cell strata (CD4⩾500 or CD4HPV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  13. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  14. Low prevalence of HPV detection and genotyping in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer using single-step PCR followed by reverse line blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Borena, Wegene; Schäfer, Georg; Manzl, Claudia; Culig, Zoran; List, Sebastian; Neururer, Sabrina; Von Laer, Dorothee; Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes; Brunner, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To clarify the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, HPV-DNA was scrutinized in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bladder cancer tissue using single-step PCR (HPV L1) for HPV detection, followed by reverse line blot (RLB) for genotyping. A total of 186 patients who underwent transurethral resection of the bladder due to primary, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer from 2006 to 2009 were reviewed. A positive control group of 22 cervical tissues with cervical carcinoma was included. Histology confirmed urothelial carcinoma in all patients: primary CIS, pTa, pT1 and pTa + pT1 in 14 (7.5 %), 134 (72 %), 36 (19.4 %) and two (1.1 %) patients, respectively. A total of 119 (63.9 %) of them were classified as low-risk, while 67 (36.1 %) were high-risk cancers. Tumor recurrence and progression (≥pT2) were seen in 79 and 11 patients (mean follow-up 45 months). The presence of HPV-DNA by single-step PCR was detected in four (2.2 %) patients. HPV 16 and HPV 6 were positive in two (1.1 %) and one (0.6 %) patient, respectively In one case, no HPV genotype listed on the RLB assay could be identified. In the control group, the HPV infection rate was 100 %: HPV 16 in 12 (54.6 %) patients, HPV 16/18 in four (18.3 %) patients, HPV 18 in two (9.1 %) patients, HPV 16/45 in one patient (4.5 %), HPV 18/33 in one (4.5 %) patient, HPV 16/33 in one (4.5 %) patient and HPV 33 in one (4.5 %) patient. Our study demonstrates low prevalence of HPV infection in FFPE bladder cancer tissue, arguing against the etiological role of HPV in non-muscle urothelial carcinogenesis.

  15. Sustained efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Paulo S; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; De Carvalho, Newton S; Teixeira, Julio C; de Borba, Paola C; Sanchez, Nervo; Zahaf, Toufik; Catteau, Gregory; Geeraerts, Brecht; Descamps, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    HPV-023 (NCT00518336; ClinicalTrial.gov) is a long-term follow-up of an initial double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study (HPV-001, NCT00689741) evaluating the efficacy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 infection and associated cyto-histopathological abnormalities, persistence of immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Among the women, aged 15–25 years, enrolled in HPV-001 and who participated in the follow-up study HPV-007 (NCT00120848), a subset of 437 women from five Brazilian centers participated in this 36-month long-term follow-up (HPV-023) for a total of 113 months (9.4 years). During HPV-023, anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured annually by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). Cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA every 6 months, and cyto-pathological examinations were performed annually. During HPV-023, no new HPV-16/18-associated infections and cyto-histopathological abnormalities occurred in the vaccine group. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 incident infection was 100% (95%CI: 66.1, 100). Over the 113 months (9.4 years), VE was 95.6% (86.2, 99.1; 3/50 cases in vaccine and placebo groups, respectively) against incident infection, 100% (84·1, 100; 0/21) against 6-month persistent infection (PI); 100% (61·4, 100; 0/10) against 12-month PI; 97·1% (82.5, 99.9; 1/30) against ≥ ASC-US; 95·0% (68.0, 99.9; 1/18) against ≥ LSIL; 100% (45.2, 100; 0/8) against CIN1+; and 100% (–128.1, 100; 0/3) against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18. All vaccinees remained seropositive to HPV-16/18, with antibody titers remaining several folds above natural infection levels, as measured by ELISA and PBNA. There were no safety concerns. To date, these data represent the longest follow-up reported for a licensed HPV vaccine. PMID:25424918

  16. Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Chung, Michael H.; Baussano, Iacopo; Mugo, Nelly R.; Tenet, Vanessa; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rana, Farzana S.; Sakr, Samah R.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Franceschi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies of 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cyto...

  17. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) ... media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  18. Human papillomavirus type 29 (HPV-29), an HPV type cross-hybridizing with HPV-2 and with HPV-3-related types.

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, M; Croissant, O; Orth, G

    1989-01-01

    The cloning and partial characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 29 is presented. By hybridization analyses, this virus appears to be related to HPV types associated with common warts and HPV types associated with flat warts.

  19. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  20. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... any health problems. What is genital HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common ...

  2. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of serum antibodies to HPV serotypes 6, 11, 16, 18 to risks of subsequent genital HPV infections in men: the HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Viscidi, Raphael; Rollison, Dana E.; Torres, B. Nelson; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally induced serum antibodies against HPV may affect risks of subsequent incident genital infections by HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. In this study, we examined the hypothesis by following 4,123 healthy men every six months(median follow-up time 4.1 years). HPV antibodies were measured at baseline using a virus-like particle-based ELISA assay. Genital HPV genotypes were detected using Roche Linear Array. Incidence proportions and six-month persistence proportions were calculated at six-month intervals. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to assess genotype-specific cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence was 8.1%, 13.9%, 12.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. Significantly higher rates of incident infections were observed for HPV 16 among baseline seropositive men (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01–1.86), with similar but non-significant HRs for six-month persistent infections. Risk of persistent HPV 18 infection was significantly lower among seropositive men in the unadjusted model (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06–0.91), but not in the adjusted model (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.03–1.37). Incident and six-month persistent infections for HPV 6 and 11 did not differ by baseline serostatus. Baseline serostatus among men was not associated with a reduction in subsequent incident genital HPV 6, 11, and 16 infections. However, protection against persistent HPV 18 infections was observed in unadjusted models. Our research suggests a need of further studies to examine the potentially protective effects of naturally induced HPV18 antibodies in men. PMID:27535333

  4. Impact of Serum Antibodies to HPV Serotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 to Risks of Subsequent Genital HPV Infections in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Sudenga, Staci L; Viscidi, Raphael; Rollison, Dana E; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Naturally induced serum antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) may affect risks of subsequent incident genital infections by HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. In this study, we examined the hypothesis by following 4,123 healthy men every 6 months (median follow-up time, 4.1 years). HPV antibodies were measured at baseline using a virus-like particle-based ELISA assay. Genital HPV genotypes were detected using Roche Linear Array. Incidence proportions and 6-month persistence proportions were calculated at 6-month intervals. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to assess genotype-specific cumulative incidence and HRs, respectively. HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence was 8.1%, 13.9%, 12.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. Significantly higher rates of incident infections were observed for HPV 16 among baseline-seropositive men [adjusted HR, 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.86], with similar but nonsignificant HRs for 6-month persistent infections. Risk of persistent HPV 18 infection was significantly lower among seropositive men in the unadjusted model (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.91), but not in the adjusted model (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03-1.37). Incident and 6-month persistent infections for HPV 6 and 11 did not differ by baseline serostatus. Baseline serostatus among men was not associated with a reduction in subsequent incident genital HPV 6, 11, and 16 infections. However, protection against persistent HPV18 infections was observed in unadjusted models. Our research suggests a need of further studies to examine the potentially protective effects of naturally induced HPV18 antibodies in men. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6066-75. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. HPV 16 Is Related to the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Loffredo D’Ottaviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the acquisition, persistence, and clearance of HPV infection in women with CIN 2 followed up for 12 months. Methods. Thirty-seven women with CIN 2 biopsy, who have proven referral to cervical smear showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and tested for HPV, were followed up for one year with cervical smear, colposcopy, and HPV test every three months. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and genotyping by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Results. CIN 2 regression rate was 49% (18/37, persistence as CIN 1 or CIN 2 was 22% (8/37, and progression to CIN 3 was 29% (11/37. Multiple HPV types were observed at admission in 41% (15/37 of cases. HPV 16 was detected at admission in 58% (11/19 of the cases that persisted/progressed and in 39% (7/18 of the cases that regressed. HPV 16 was considered possibly causal in 67% (10/15 of the cases that persisted or progressed and in 10% (1/10 of the cases that regressed (P=0.01. Conclusion. Multiple HPV infections were frequently detected among women with CIN 2 at admission and during the followup. The CIN 2 associated with HPV 16 was more likely to persist or to progress to CIN 3.

  6. Characteristics of HPV infection over time in European women who are HIV-1 positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I; Cubie, H A; Mesher, D; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in women infected with HIV-1, and to determine the relevance of HR-HPV positivity and persistence/loss to the development of high-grade cervical disease. A total of 518 European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care consented to 6-monthly follow-up visits over 3 years, with surveillance of cytology, colposcopy and histopathology, where relevant, and longer follow-up, where possible. European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care. 518 European women infected with HIV attending for gynaecological care in 6 hospital-based European centres - Dublin, Edinburgh, London, Milan, Paris, and Warsaw. Cervical screening was achieved by liquid-based cytology (LBC) of brush samples in PreservCyt® medium. The HPV testing of residual samples was performed by Hybrid-Capture II, with genotyping of positives using the HPV Line Blot Assay. Histology results were accessed where available. Description of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in HIV-1 infected women. The estimated prevalence at baseline of any HR-HPV type was 49.5% (46.3-52.8%): 10.2% for HPV 16 and 4.3% for HPV 18. The prevalence increased with increasing immunosuppression. Multiple infections were detected in 26.8%. HR-HPV genotypes were detected in 34.9% of cases with normal cytology, in 77.2% of cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) and in 90.8% of cases with high-grade SIL (HSIL). The prevalence of HPV 16 in HSIL was 38.5%, with the three most common types thereafter having prevalence rates of 19.2% (HPV 58), 19.2% (HPV 53) and 16.6% (HPV 52). The overall persistence of any high-risk type was 55.8%. We found that 6 months persistence of HPV 16 occurred in 24 women. Seven cases of high-grade cervical disease developed, and all

  7. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopalco PL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pier Luigi Lopalco Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers. Efficacy and/or immunogenicity of 9vHPV has been assessed in eight clinical studies. The 9vHPV vaccine induced a very robust immune response against all vaccine types, with seroconversion rates close to 100%. The safety profile of 9vHPV is comparable to that of qHPV. Local reactions, especially swelling, have been more frequently reported after 9vHPV than qHPV, and this slightly increases when the 9vHPV is coadministered with other vaccines. The additional coverage offered by the 9vHPV may prevent a significant proportion of HPV-related cancers (variable between 8% and 18% depending on the local distribution of high-risk HPV types in the population. It is impossible, at present, to anticipate the actual impact of the wide use of the 9vHPV in comparison with the bHPV or the qHPV, since it depends on many variables including duration of protection, potential cross-protection toward nonvaccine types, and herd immunity effect. Keywords: human papillomavirus vaccine, immunogenicity, vaccine safety, cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, genital warts

  8. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers. Efficacy and/or immunogenicity of 9vHPV has been assessed in eight clinical studies. The 9vHPV vaccine induced a very robust immune response against all vaccine types, with seroconversion rates close to 100%. The safety profile of 9vHPV is comparable to that of qHPV. Local reactions, especially swelling, have been more frequently reported after 9vHPV than qHPV, and this slightly increases when the 9vHPV is coadministered with other vaccines. The additional coverage offered by the 9vHPV may prevent a significant proportion of HPV-related cancers (variable between 8% and 18%) depending on the local distribution of high-risk HPV types in the population. It is impossible, at present, to anticipate the actual impact of the wide use of the 9vHPV in comparison with the bHPV or the qHPV, since it depends on many variables including duration of protection, potential cross-protection toward nonvaccine types, and herd immunity effect.

  9. Principles and analytical performance of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shihai; Tang, Ning; Mak, Wai-Bing; Erickson, Brian; Salituro, John; Li, Yuhong; Krumpe, Evelyn; Schneider, George; Yu, Hong; Robinson, John; Abravaya, Klara

    2009-07-01

    Abbott RealTime High Risk (HR) HPV is a new automated, qualitative real-time PCR test for detection of DNA from 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) in cervical specimens. The test can also differentiate between HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types in a single reaction. This article describes the principles of assay design and the analytical performance of Abbott RealTime HR HPV. The analytical performance characteristics of Abbott RealTime HR HPV were evaluated in terms of its sensitivity for each of the 14 high-risk types included in the test, specificity (cross-reactivity), potential for interference by substances that may be present in cervical specimens, and reproducibility. Abbott RealTime HR HPV provided sensitive detection of the 14 high-risk HPV types included in the test. It was also highly specific to the HPV types targeted by the test and did not show cross-reactivity with 15 low-risk HPV types tested, or non-specific reactivity with other common microorganisms that may be present in the female anogenital tract. Test results were not impacted by potential interfering substances evaluated in the study. The test generated highly reproducible results in an in-house study and in studies carried out at 13 external evaluation sites. Abbott RealTime HR HPV demonstrated a robust analytical performance with reproducible and reliable results.

  10. HPV Types and Variants Among Cervical Cancer Tumors in Three Regions of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrennHrubec, Keris; Mrad, Karima; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Bottalico, Danielle M.; Ostolaza, Janae; Smith, Benjamin; Tchaikovska, Tatyana; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Tunisian women, and the incidence rates vary by region. Three Tunisian registries report age-standardized rates of 6.3/105 in the central region, 5.4/105 in the north, and 2.7/105 in the south. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and their variants differ in carcinogenic potential and geographic distribution. The HPV type and variant distribution could be a factor in the differing rates between regions of Tunisia. Tumor tissue was collected from 142 Tunisian cervical cancer patients. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the patients were abstracted from cancer registry and hospital records. HPV type and variant analyses were performed using PCR-based Luminex and dot-blot hybridization assays. Eighty-three percent of tumors were infected with at least one HPV type. European variants of HPV16/18 were the most prevalent in tumors from all three regions, with all HPV18 infections and 64% of HPV16 infections being of European lineage. A higher frequency of HPV16 was present in Northern Tunisia (80%) than in Central (68%) or Southern Tunisia (50%) (P = 0.02). HPV18/45 was significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (50%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (11%) (P = 0.004). Frequent infection with European HPV variants most likely reflects the history of European migration to Tunisia. In addition to the importance of understanding the variants of HPV in Tunisia, behavioral and cultural attitudes towards screening and age-specific infection rates should be investigated to aid the development of future vaccination and HPV screening programs and policies. PMID:21328380

  11. Evolution and taxonomic classification of alphapapillomavirus 7 complete genomes: HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68 and HPV70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigui Chen

    Full Text Available The species Alphapapillomavirus 7 (alpha-7 contains human papillomavirus genotypes that account for 15% of invasive cervical cancers and are disproportionately associated with adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Complete genome analyses enable identification and nomenclature of variant lineages and sublineages.The URR/E6 region was sequenced to screen for novel variants of HPV18, 39, 45, 59, 68, 70, 85 and 97 from 1147 cervical samples obtained from multiple geographic regions that had previously been shown to contain an alpha-7 HPV isolate. To study viral heterogeneity, the complete 8 kb genome of 128 isolates, including 109 sequenced for this analysis, were annotated and analyzed. Viral evolution was characterized by constructing phylogenic trees using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. Global and pairwise alignments were used to calculate total and ORF/region nucleotide differences; lineages and sublineages were assigned using an alphanumeric system. The prototype genome was assigned to the A lineage or A1 sublineage.The genomic diversity of alpha-7 HPV types ranged from 1.1% to 6.7% nucleotide sequence differences; the extent of genome-genome pairwise intratype heterogeneity was 1.1% for HPV39, 1.3% for HPV59, 1.5% for HPV45, 1.6% for HPV70, 2.1% for HPV18, and 6.7% for HPV68. ME180 (previously a subtype of HPV68 was designated as the representative genome for HPV68 sublineage C1. Each ORF/region differed in sequence diversity, from most variable to least variable: noncoding region 1 (NCR1 / noncoding region 2 (NCR2 > upstream regulatory region (URR > E6 / E7 > E2 / L2 > E1 / L1.These data provide estimates of the maximum viral genomic heterogeneity of alpha-7 HPV type variants. The proposed taxonomic system facilitates the comparison of variants across epidemiological and molecular studies. Sequence diversity, geographic distribution and phylogenetic topology of this clinically important group of HPVs suggest an independent evolutionary

  12. HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a population-based split-sample study of well-screened women using CLART HPV2 human papillomavirus genotype microarray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are becoming increasingly attractive for use in mass screening, as they offer a possibility to integrate HPV screening with HPV vaccine monitoring, thereby generating a synergy between the two main modes of cervical cancer prevention......, Denmark, an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for organized screening. METHODS: Material from 5,068 SurePath samples of women participating in routine screening and clinical follow-up of cervical abnormalities was tested using liquid based...

  13. Oral inverted ductal papilloma: not related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Canto, Alan Motta; Mistro, Florence Zumbaio; Kignel, Sergio; Martins, Fabiana; Palmieri, Michelle; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

    2017-03-15

    Oral inverted ductal papilloma (OIDP) is a rare, nonrecurrent,benign lesion of salivary glands. The etiologyis still poorly understood; the correlation with humanpapilloma virus (HPV) is controversial. Herein wepresent a 74-year-old man with a tumor in lower lip.Incisional biopsy was performed and the histologicaldiagnosis was OIDP. Inno-LiPA assay, based onpolymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridizationwas used to assess for HPV with no detection of viralDNA. Surgical excision was performed without anyrecurrences after two years of follow-up.

  14. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J.; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that Cervarix® elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix®-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. Methods A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. Results In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. Conclusions The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in

  15. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2012-12-17

    We previously demonstrated that Cervarix(®) elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix(®)-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in protection against infection. Copyright

  16. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sonja; Bettstetter, Marcus; Becher, Andrea; Lessel, Marlene; Bank, Cyril; Krams, Matthias; Becker, Ingrid; Hartmann, Arndt; Jagla, Wolfgang; Gaumann, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23-29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as 'low-risk' or 'probably high-risk' are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required.

  17. Automated extraction and quantitation of oncogenic HPV genotypes from cervical samples by a real-time PCR-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, Francesco; Cocuzza, Clementina E

    2008-03-01

    Accurate laboratory assays for the diagnosis of persistent oncogenic HPV infection are being recognized increasingly as essential for clinical management of women with cervical precancerous lesions. HPV viral load has been suggested to be a surrogate marker of persistent infection. Four independent real-time quantitative TaqMan PCR assays were developed for: HPV-16, -31, -18 and/or -45 and -33 and/or -52, -58, -67. The assays had a wide dynamic range of detection and a high degree of accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. In order to minimize material and hands-on time, automated nucleic acid extraction was performed using a 96-well plate format integrated into a robotic liquid handler workstation. The performance of the TaqMan assays for HPV identification was assessed by comparing results with those obtained by means of PCR using consensus primers (GP5+/GP6+) and sequencing (296 samples) and INNO-LiPA analysis (31 samples). Good agreement was found generally between results obtained by real-time PCR assays and GP(+)-PCR system (kappa statistic=0.91). In conclusion, this study describes four newly developed real-time PCR assays that provide a reliable and high-throughput method for detection of not only HPV DNA but also HPV activity of the most common oncogenic HPV types in cervical specimens.

  18. Product news Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product news. Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV Infection and Disease in Males. Anna R Giuliano, Joel M Palefsky, Stephen Goldstone, Edson D Moreira, Mary E Penny, Carlos Aranda, Eftyhia Vardas, Harald Moi, Heiko Jessen, Richard Hillman, Yen-Hwa Chang, Daron Ferris, Danielle Rouleau, Janine ...

  19. In situ hybridization signal patterns in recurrent laryngeal squamous papillomas indicate that HPV integration occurs at an early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Erin Grace; Evans, Mark Francis; Adamson, Christine Stewart-Crawford; Peng, Zhihua; Rajendran, Vanitha; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2012-03-01

    Laryngeal papillomas are benign tumors that frequently recur and can compromise airways. We investigated HPV genotype, physical status, and protein expression in juveniles versus adults. Thirty-five laryngeal papilloma specimens were obtained from ten juveniles (1-16 years) and eleven adults (24-67 years). In cases of recurrent papillomatosis (7 juveniles, 7 adults), the first and last papillomas were assayed. HPV type was determined by GP5+/6+ PCR and dot blot hybridization. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on 34 specimens; the data were recorded in terms of diffuse (episomal HPV) and punctate (integrated HPV) signal patterns. Immunohistochemistry for the HPV L1 capsid protein, a marker of HPV productive status, was performed on 32 samples. All samples tested HPV positive: HPV 11 in 2/10 (20.0%) juveniles and 5/11 (45.5%) adults; HPV 6 in 7/10 (70%) juveniles and 5/11 (45.5%) adults; and HPV 6/11 double infection was noted in one juvenile and one adult. ISH signals (punctate ± diffuse) were detected among 7/10 (70.0%) juveniles and 7/11 (63.6%) adults. L1 staining was detected in 1/9 (11.1%) juveniles and 6/10 (60.0%) adults (P = 0.06). These data support the idea that integration of low-risk HPV types into the cell genome is an early and common event in the etiology of juvenile and adult recurrent laryngeal papillomas. Productive HPV infections may be more common in adults; accordingly, constant laryngeal re-infection by HPV shed from a productive lesion may contribute to adult recurrent lesions, whereas the mechanism of papilloma recurrence in juveniles may be more attributable to HPV integration.

  20. Selenium Attenuates HPV-18 Associated Apoptosis in Embryo-Derived Trophoblastic Cells but Not Inner Cell Mass In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Tolen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Human papillomaviruses (HPV are associated with cell cycle arrest. This study focused on antioxidant selenomethionine (SeMet inhibition of HPV-mediated necrosis. The objectives were to determine HPV-18 effects on embryonic cells and to evaluate SeMet in blocking HPV-18 effects. Methods. Fertilized mouse embryos were cultured for 5 days to implanted trophoblasts and exposed to either control medium (group 1, HPV-18 (group 2, combined HPV-18 and 0.5 µM SeMet (group 3, or combined HPV-18 and 5.0 µM SeMet (group 4. After 48 hrs, trophoblast integrity and, apoptosis/necrosis were assessed using morphometric and dual-stain fluorescence assays, respectively. Results. HPV-18 exposed trophoblasts nuclei (253.8 ± 28.5 sq·µ were 29% smaller than controls (355.6 ± 35.9 sq·µ. Supplementation with 0.5 and 5.0 µM SeMet prevented nuclear shrinkage after HPV-18 exposure. HPV-18 infected trophoblasts remained larger with SeMet supplementation. HPV-18 decreased cell viability by 44% but SeMet supplementation sustained cell viability. Apoptosis was lower when SeMet was present. HPV-18 decreased inner cell mass (ICM viability by over 60%. Conclusions. HPV-18 decreased nuclear size and trophoblast viability but these effects were attenuated by the antioxidant SeMet. SeMet blocked HPV-18 associated apoptosis process in trophoblasts but not ICM cells suggesting involvement of different oxidative stress pathways.

  1. Prognostic impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping and HPV-16 subtyping in vaginal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gabriella Lillsunde; Helenius, Gisela; Andersson, Sören; Sorbe, Bengt; Karlsson, Mats G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the human papilloma virus (HPV) distribution in vaginal cancer and to evaluate HPV-genotype as well as HPV16-variant impact on prognosis. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with primary vaginal carcinoma (1975-2002) were included in the study. Detection of twelve high-risk HPV (hr HPV) and two low-risk HPV (lr HPV) was performed with realtime-PCR. Samples positive for HPV-16 were analyzed for variants in the E6-gene with PCR and pyrosequencing. 53.6% (37/69) of the tumors were found to be HPV-positive, mostly for HPV-16 (N=26). Other HPV-types were HPV-18 (N=2), HPV-31 (N=2), HPV-33 (N=2), HPV-45 (N=1), HPV-52 (N=2), HPV-56 (N=1) and HPV-58 (N=1). Only European subtypes of HPV-16 were represented and the two most common HPV-16-variants were E-p (N=13) and E-G350 (N=11). Patients with HPV-positive tumors (N=37) had a significantly (log-rank test=3.341; p=0.0008) superior 5-year overall survival rate as well as cancer-specific survival rate and progression-free survival rate (p=0.0002; p=0.0004), compared with patients with HPV-negative tumors (N=32). Interestingly, patients with HPV-16-positive tumors had a superior overall survival compared with patients with tumors containing other HPV-genotypes. In a Cox proportional multivariate analysis age, tumor size, and HPV-status were independent and significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival rate. HPV-status is of prognostic importance in vaginal carcinoma and varies with viral genotype. In this era of HPV-vaccination, genotypes other than those included in the vaccination program could still lead to vaginal carcinoma with unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Expression of gamma interferon during HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Ferreyra, María Del Carmen; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Martínez-Madrigal, Migdania; Martínez-Pérez, Sergio; Domínguez-García, María Victoria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to mesure the expression of gamma interferon in HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Samples from 100 patients diagnosed by colposcopy with or without squamous intraepithelial lesions were used in the present study. Each patient was found to be infected by HPV and C.trachomatis. Relative gamma interferon mRNA expression was assessed using a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (RT-PCR). The relative units of expression of gamma interferon mRNA were 13, 1.8 and 0.3, for HPV and C.trachomatis co-infection, or HPV or C.trachomatis infection, respectively. HPV and C.trachomatis could overstimulate the expression of gamma interferon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. High-risk HPV is not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Hogdall, Estrid; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suspected to play a role in the carcinogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, results from previous studies are conflicting. In most of these studies, the number of tissue samples was small. The current study was therefore...... undertaken to examine the prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA in EOC in a large series of patients. METHOD: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded tumor tissue samples from 198 cases consecutively included in the Danish Pelvic Mass Study were analyzed. The material included 163 serous adenocarcinomas, 15 endometrioid...... adenocarcinomas, 11 mucinous adenocarcinomas and nine clear-cell carcinomas. Genotyping for high-risk HPV DNA was performed by real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an in-house TaqMan singleplex assay targeting the E6/E7 region of the HPV 16 and 18 genomes. Additionally, 20 random samples without HPV 16...

  4. Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer with ThinPrep Pap test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Kim, Geehyuk; Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Choi, Yeonim; Choi, Eunhee; Park, Sunyoung; Jin, Hyunwoo; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has shown that oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, which is currently used in the screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer, can be detected not only in high-grade cervical lesions, but also in low-grade cervical lesions and normal tissues. For this reason, HPV tests targeting the E6 and E7 mRNA of five oncogenic HPV strains (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45), which are known to be responsible for the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, have been commercialized using a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay. Previous data has shown that the real-time NASBA assay has higher clinical specificity than HPV DNA testing (97.1% vs. 53.7%). However, the sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was lower than that of HPV DNA testing (41.1% vs. 100%). Despite the fact that there are more than 16 oncogenic HPV genotypes known to cause cervical cancer (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 69), the commercialized real-time NASBA kit was designed to detect only five genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). Therefore, in the present study, CervicGen HPV RT-qDX (Optipharm), a commercial diagnostic kit targeting a HPV E6/E7 mRNA based on RT-qPCR assay was evaluated with RNA extracted from ThinPrep Pap samples, and the results were compared to real-time NASBA data. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-qPCR assay were 91% and 98.6%, respectively, for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2(+) high-grade cervical lesions. Therefore, the CervicGen HPV RT-qDX assay showed a significantly higher sensitivity (91.1%) compared to the real-time NASBA assay (41.1%). In normal cytohistology cases, the specificity was 98.6% and 53.7% for HPV mRNA RT-qPCR and HPV DNA testing, respectively. These results demonstrate that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR better reflects clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, it is suggested that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR overcomes the shortcomings of lower specificity seen in the DNA

  5. Sustained Antibody Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in Adolescent Fijian Girls, and Subsequent Responses to a Single Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Russell, Fiona M; Reyburn, Rita; Fong, James; Tuivaga, Evelyn; Ratu, Tupou; Nguyen, Cattram D; Devi, Rachel; Kama, Mike; Matanitobua, Silivia; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Sinha, Rohit; Frazer, Ian; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Kado, Joseph; Rafai, Eric; Mulholland, Edward K; Licciardi, Paul V

    2017-04-01

    The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.

  6. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  7. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, Nicole M; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-01-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient.

  8. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Reusser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient.

  9. Characterization of two novel cutaneous human papillomaviruses, HPV93 and HPV96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Hazard, Kristina; Eliasson, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Two novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV93 and HPV96, with genomes of 7450 and 7438 bp, respectively, are described. The L1 open reading frame of HPV93 showed highest identity to HPV24 (79%) and that of HPV96 had highest identity to HPV92 (71%). Real-time PCR for HPV92, 93 and 96 on stripped ...... per 45 cells to one copy per 10,000 cells. The E7 proteins of HPV92, 93 and 96 were found to bind the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). These results suggest a possible role for these HPV types in skin carcinogenesis that deserves further study....

  10. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. High-risk HPV types in Tunisia. A pilot study reveals an unexpectedly high prevalence of types 58 and 82 and lack of HPV 18 among female prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Federico; Houissa-Kchouk, Fatma; Khelifa, Ridha; Marcante, Maria Luisa

    2006-07-01

    "High-risk" HPVs (HR-HPV) have sharply different prevalences and there is evidence to suggest this may vary according to regions. Accurate description of HR-HPV circulation is a key feature for the rational design of prevention and screening campaigns. To gain insight into HR-HPV circulation in Tunisia, a pilot study was carried out on 64 healthy prostitutes working in the Tunis area. HPV detection and typing were carried out by MY09/MY11 PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A selected set of samples was also assayed by Gp5+/Gp6+ PCR and typed by direct sequencing. Out of 64 women, 28 were HPV positive. HPV-16 and HPV-58, both members of the genus Alpha-Papillomavirus, species 9, accounted for 10 and 7 cases with a prevalence rate of 38% and 27%, respectively. HPV-82, a member of species 5, ranked third with four cases (approximately 15%). Types 31, 33, 35; all members of species 9 were each detected once (approximately 4%) while neither HPV-18 nor related members of species 7 were detected. Type 72 and 83, both members of species 3, were the only low-risk types, each detected only once (4% each). Two samples could not be typed. The prevalence of HPV types appeared sharply different from that of neighboring areas. Should the existence of epidemiological pockets be confirmed by larger, more detailed studies, screening and vaccine campaigns will have to be designed carefully taking into account the actual epidemiological context of the target population. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. In situ hybridization detection methods for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA in identifying transcriptionally active HPV infection of oropharyngeal carcinoma: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara C; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Gualeni, Ambra V; Plebani, Maddalena; Alfieri, Salvatore; Verderio, Paolo; Locati, Laura; Perrone, Federica; Quattrone, Pasquale; Carbone, Antonino; Pilotti, Silvana; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2017-10-06

    The aim of this study is comparing two in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, i.e. the RNAscope® 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope® 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope® 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope® 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the final goal to apply it to daily laboratory practice. The study was based on HPV status and on generated data, interpreted by a scoring algorithm. The results highlighted that the compared RNAscope HPV tests had a good level of interchangeability and enabled to identify OSCC that are truly driven by high risk-HPV infection. This was also supported by the comparison of the RNAscope HPV test with HPV E6/E7 mRNA real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in a fraction of cases where material for HPV E6/E7 mRNA real time RT-PCR was available. Furthermore, the algorithm that associates p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the identification of HPV mRNA by RNAscope was more effective than the one that associated p16 IHC with the identification of HPV DNA by ISH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Clinical Validation of Anyplex II HPV HR Detection Test for Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunkyung; Lee, Byungdoo; Lee, Kap No; Kim, Yonggoo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    The Anyplex II HPV HR detection kit (Seegene Inc, Seoul, Korea) is a new, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect individual 14 high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in a single tube. To evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV HR kit in predicting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse in cervical cancer screening. We analyzed 1137 cervical samples in Huro Path medium (CelltraZone, Seoul, Korea) from Korean women. The clinical performance of the HPV HR kit was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Valencia, California) using the noninferiority score test in a routine cervical cancer screening setting. The intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreements of HPV HR were also evaluated. Overall agreement between the 2 assays was 92.4% (1051 of 1137) with a κ value of 0.787. Clinical sensitivity of HPV HR for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.2-99.7) and 92.5% (95% CI, 84.3-100.0), respectively. The respective values for Hybrid Capture 2 were 93.1% (95% CI, 87.2-98.9) and 87.5% (95% CI, 77.3-99.7). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of HPV HR were not inferior to those of Hybrid Capture 2 (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively). The HPV HR showed good intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility at 98.0% (κ = 0.953) and 97.4% (κ = 0.940), respectively. The HPV HR demonstrates comparable performance to the Hybrid Capture 2 test and can be useful for HPV-based cervical cancer screening testing.

  14. AAV-2 Rep78 and HPV-16 E1 interact in vitro, modulating their ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; Raney, Kevin D; Liu, Yong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2008-01-15

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic single-stranded human parvovirus which usually requires the presence of a "helper" virus for strong DNA replication. In addition to adeno- and herpes viruses, human papillomavirus (HPV) can serve as an AAV helper. We recently published that HPV type 16 (HPV-16) E1 protein contributes significantly as an individual helper gene for AAV-2 DNA replication and transcription. As Rep78 and E1 are the corresponding DNA helicase/replication proteins of AAV and HPV, respectively, and Rep78 and E1 have a degree of homology, we assayed whether these two proteins interact physically. The full length proteins were purified from bacteria as GST-E1 and MBP-Rep78 and used in five assays to observe Rep78-E1 interactions. All five assays (pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemical cross-linking, and ATPase activity) provided evidence consistent with Rep78-E1 interaction. Most intriguing, an overall decrease in ATPase activity was observed when both proteins were present together. These data strongly suggest that E1 and Rep78 interact and that this interaction modulates at least some of their individual biochemical functions. This study adds to our understanding of AAV-HPV interaction biology, E1's modulation of Rep78 biochemistry, Rep78's modulation of E1 biochemistry and provides initial clues which may lead to the underlying mechanism of HPV E1 helper function for AAV DNA replication.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for detecting and identifying human papillomaviruses in archival tissue specimens of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Bostjan J; Maver, Polona J; Hosnjak, Lea; Zidar, Nina; Odar, Katarina; Gale, Nina; Poljak, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The Abbott RealTime is a novel real-time PCR assay designed for concurrent individual genotyping of HPV16 and HPV18 and pooled detection of 12 HPV genotypes: HPV31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 in cervical swab specimens. In this study, the performance of RealTime for detecting HPV in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of head and neck cancers was compared to the Innogenetics INNO-LiPA assay, which allows identification of 28 HPVs, including all 14 covered by RealTime. A total of 60 FFPE tissue specimens obtained from the same number of patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the oral cavity or oropharynx were included in the study. Following DNA extraction using a Qiagen DNA Mini Kit, RealTime and INNO-LiPA were performed on all samples, as instructed by the manufacturers. A 136-bp fragment of human beta-globin serving as an internal control in RealTime was successfully amplified from all 60 tissue samples included in the study. RealTime and INNO-LiPA showed 100% agreement and detected HPV DNA in 5/60 (8.3%) of the cancer samples, which all contained genotype HPV16. RealTime assay is a reliable, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tool for the detection and partial genotyping of targeted HPV genotypes in FFPE tissue specimens of oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  16. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  17. Coexistence of K-ras mutations and HPV infection in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezol Ayda

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of the ras genes or association with human papillomavirus infection have been extensively studied in colorectal cancer. However, the correlation between K-ras mutations and HPV in colorectal cancer has not been investigated yet. In this study we aimed to investigate the presence of K-ras mutations and their correlation with HPV infection in colon cancer. Methods K-ras mutations were analyzed by a mutagenic PCR assay and digestion with specific restriction enzymes to distinguish the wild-type and mutant codons. HPV infection was analyzed by PCR amplification and hybridization with specific probes by Southern blotting. Stattistical analyses were performed by the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests Results HPV gene fragments were detected in 43 tumors and 17 normal tissue samples. HPV 18 was the prevalent type in the tumor tissue. A mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras gene was present in 31 patients. 56% of the HPV-positive tumors also harbored a K-ras mutation. Codon 13 mutations were not observed. These data indicate that infection with high risk HPV types and mutational activation of the K-ras gene are frequent events in colorectal carcinogenesis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mutational activation of the K-ras gene is a common event in colon carcinogenesis and that HPV infection may represent an important factor in the development of the premalignant lesions leading to the neoplastic phenotype.

  18. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.

  19. Oncogenic HPV among HIV infected female population in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Sharmila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of both cervical cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are very high in India. Natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection is known to be altered in HIV positive women and there is an increased possibility of persistence of HPV infections in this population. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of oncogenic HPV among HIV positive and negative female population in West Bengal, India. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 93 known HIV positive females attending a pre-ART registration clinic and 1106 HIV negative females attending a Reproductive and Child Health Care Clinic were subjected to study. Cervical cell samples collected from the study population were tested for the presence of HPV 16, 18 using specific primers. Roche PCR assay was used to detect other specific HPV genotypes in the cervical cells specimens of HIV positive cases only. Results Prevalence of HPV 16, 18 among HIV positive females (32.2%; n = 30 was higher than HIV negative females (9.1%; n = 101. About 53% (23/43 of cases with oncogenic HPV were infected with genotypes other than 16, 18 either as single/multiple infections. HPV 18 and HPV 16 were the predominant genotypes among HIV positive and HIV negative subjects respectively. Oncogenic HPV was not found to be associated with age and duration of sexual exposure. But the presence of HIV was found to a statistically significant predictor oncogenic HPV. Conclusion The currently available HPV vaccines offer protection only against HPV 16 and 18 and some cross- protection to few associated genotypes. These vaccines are therefore less likely to offer protection against cervical cancer in HIV positive women a high percentage of who were infected with non-16 and non-18 oncogenic HPV genotypes. Additionally, there is a lack of sufficient evidence of immunogenicity in HIV infected individuals. Therefore

  20. The SUMO conjugating enzyme UBC9 as a biomarker for cervical HPV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoscio, Domenico; Casadio, Chiara; Fumagalli, Marzia; Sideri, Mario; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect stratified epithelium and are the causative agents of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. A critical aspect that still persists in the HPV field is the selection of very sensitive and specific HPV diagnostic assays. Here, we provide evidence that the crucial small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 is strongly upregulated in cervical lesions. Ubc9 detection could thus be used in diagnosing and/or monitoring the progression of an HPV oncogenic infection.

  1. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lopalco PL

    2016-01-01

    Pier Luigi Lopalco Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015,...

  2. HPV detection in oral carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Aurora Karla de Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors set out in this study to verify the presence of low- and high-risk DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer by means of the hybrid capture Digene® test (São Paulo-SP, Brazil in smears from exfoliative cytology and also to compare the findings with those of conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin-eosin (HE/Papanicolaou. Forty individuals gave their written informed consent to participate in the study and also had their clinical data analyzed. The 40 exfoliative cytology examinations performed to date produced the following results: 29 (72.5% negative for low- and high-risk HPV-DNA; nine (22.5% positive for low- and high-risk HPV-DNA; one (2.5% positive for low-risk HPV-DNA; and one (2.5% positive for high-risk HPV-DNA. There was agreement among the findings for the presence of DNA-HPV for both exfoliative cytology (smear to hybrid capture Digene® test and the cytological smear readings made by conventional light microscopy. It was therefore concluded that the HPV virus may be a cocarcinogen of the mouth cancer as it is in the cervix cancer.

  3. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Catherine; Plummer, Martyn; Vignat, Jerome; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancer and is responsible for a substantial fraction of other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal cancers. Understanding the HPV?attributable cancer burden can boost programs of HPV vaccination and HPV?based cervical screening. Attributable fractions (AFs) and the relative contributions of different HPV types were derived from published studies reporting on the prevalence of transforming HPV infection in cancer tissue. Maps of age?standardized incidenc...

  4. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and 4vHPV vaccine administered according to two- or three-dose schedules in girls aged 9-14 years: Results to month 36 from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Struyf, Frank

    2018-01-02

    This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of two doses (2D) of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (2D of AS04-HPV-16/18) vs. two or three doses of the 4vHPV vaccine [2D or 3D of 4vHPV] in 1075 healthy girls aged 9-14 years. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 at months (M) 0, 6 (N = 359), 2D of 4vHPV at M0, 6 (N = 358) or 3D of 4vHPV at M0, 2, 6 (N = 358). 351, 339 and 346 girls, respectively, returned for the concluding visit at M36. Superiority was demonstrated at M7 and M12; comparison of the immune response to both vaccine antigens was made between 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 and 2D or 3D of 4vHPV at subsequent time points in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I; N = 958 at M36) and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC: N = 1036 at M36). HPV-16/18-specific T-cell- and B-cell-mediated immune responses and safety were also investigated. At M36, anti-HPV-16/18 ELISA responses in the 2D AS04-HPV-16/18 group remained superior to those of the 2D and 3D 4vHPV groups. In the M36 TVC, geometric mean titers were 2.78-fold (HPV-16) and 6.84-fold (HPV-18) higher for 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 2D of 4vHPV and 2.3-fold (HPV-16) and 4.14-fold (HPV-18) higher vs. 3D of 4vHPV. Results were confirmed by vaccine pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay. Numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells and B cells appeared similar across groups. Safety was in line with the known safety profiles of both vaccines. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2D of the AS04-HPV-16/18 compared with 2D or 3D of the 4vHPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years. NCT0146235. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Presence of high risk HPV DNA but indolent transcription of E6/E7 oncogenes in invasive ductal carcinoma of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depu; Fu, Ling; Shah, Walayat; Zhang, Jingwen; Yan, Yan; Ge, Xinhong; He, Jianjun; Wang, Yili; Li, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The causative role of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in breast cancer development is controversial, though a number of reports have identified HR-HPV DNA in breast cancer specimens. Nevertheless, most studies to date have focused primarily on viral DNA rather than the viral transcription. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HR-HPV in breast cancer tissues at HPV DNA level and HPV oncogenes mRNA level by in situ hybridization (ISH). One hundred and forty six (146) cases of breast invasive ductal carcinoma(IDC) and 83 cases of benign breast lesions were included in the study. Type specific oligonucleotide probes were used for the DNA detection of HPV 16,18 and 58 by ISH. HR-HPV oncogenes mRNA was assayed by novel RNAscope HR-HPV HR7 assay ISH. p16 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HR-HPV 16,18 and 58 DNA were detected in 52 out of 146 (35.6%) IDC and in 3 out of 83 (3.6%) benign breast lesions by ISH. The HR-HPV mRNAs was detected only in a few specimens with strong HPV DNA positivity(4/25) in a few scattered cancer cells with very weak punctate nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining. p16 over-expression did not correlate with the HPV DNA positive breast cancer samples(17/52 HPVDNA+ vs 28/94 HPV DNA-, p=0.731). HR-HPVs certainly exist in breast cancer tissue with less active transcription, which implies that the causal role of HPV in breast cancer development need further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping for cervical cancer screening of women aged 25 years and older: a subanalysis of the ATHENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Wright, Teresa L; Behrens, Catherine M

    2011-09-01

    The ATHENA study was designed to assess the performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping compared with liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening in a large US population aged 21 years and older. We did a subanalysis of this population to compare the screening performance of the cobas HPV test versus liquid-based cytology in women aged 25 years and older, and assess management strategies for HPV-positive women. Women aged 25 years or older who were attending routine cervical screening were enrolled from 61 clinical centres in 23 US states. Cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing with two first-generation assays (Amplicor HPV test and Linear Array HPV genotyping test) and the second-generation cobas HPV test (with individual HPV16 and HPV18 detection). Colposcopy and diagnostic biopsies were done on women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse cytology, those who tested positive with either first-generation HPV test, and a random sample of women who tested negative for HPV and cytology. All women not selected for colposcopy received their results and exited the study. Participants and colposcopists were masked to cytology and HPV test results until the colposcopy visit was completed. The primary endpoint for this substudy was histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00709891; the study is in the follow-up phase, which is due to be completed in December, 2012. From May 27, 2008, to Aug 27, 2009, 47,208 women were enrolled, of whom 41,955 met our eligibility criteria. Valid cobas HPV and liquid-based cytology test results were available for 40,901 women (97%), who were included in this analysis. Of these, 4275 women (10%) tested cobas HPV positive and 2617 (6%) had abnormal cytology. 431 women were diagnosed with CIN2 or worse and 274

  7. Self-collected vaginal sampling for the detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) using careHPV among Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Djigma, Florencia; Hayfron-Benjamin, Anna; Abdul, Latif; Simpore, Jacques; Mayaud, Philippe

    2017-09-26

    Detection of genital HPV DNA is recommended as an important strategy for modern cervical cancer screening. Challenges include access to services, the reliance on cervical samples taken by clinicians, and patient's preference regarding provider gender. The objective of this research was to determine the acceptability, feasibility and performance of alternative self-collected vaginal samples for HPV detection among Ghanaian women. A comparative frequency-matched study was conducted in a systematic (1:5) sample of women attending HIV and outpatient clinics in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Participants were instructed on self-collection (SC) of vaginal samples using the careHPV brush and a clinician-collected (CC) cervical sample was obtained using a similar brush. Paired specimens were tested for HPV DNA (14 high-risk types) by careHPV assay (Qiagen) and by HPV genotyping (Anyplex II, Seegene). Overall, 194 women of mean age 44.1 years (SD ± 11.3) were enrolled and 191 paired SC and CC results were analysed. The overall HPV detection concordance was 94.2% (95%CI: 89.9-97.1), Kappa value of 0.88 (p < 0.0001), showing excellent agreement. This agreement was similar between HIV positive (93.8%) and negative (94.7%) women. Sensitivity and specificity of SC compared to CC were 92.6% (95%CI: 85.3-97.0) and 95.9% (95%CI: 89.8-98.8) respectively. The highest sensitivity was among HIV positive women (95.7%, 95%CI: 88.0-99.1) and highest specificity among HIV negative women (98.6%, 95%CI: 92.4-100). Overall, 76.3% women found SC very easy/easy to obtain, 57.7% preferred SC to CC and 61.9% felt SC would increase their likelihood to access cervical cancer screening. The feasibility, acceptability and performance of SC using careHPV support the use of this alternative form of HPV screening among Ghanaian women. This could be a potential new affordable strategy to improve uptake of the national cervical cancer screening program.

  8. Knowledge towards HPV infection and HPV vaccines among Syrian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Mohammed A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination. To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few--less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine. Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.

  9. Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Girlando, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Trevisan, Morena; Burroni, Elena; Grasso, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) specific genotypes differs by age and areas. Knowledge of these differences will help predicting how prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening program could best be integrated. To investigate variations in the HPV distribution between areas and ages in Italy and the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence. 37,367 women aged 25-60 years who attended cervical screening in eight different areas in Northern and Central Italy were tested for HPV infection with the high-risk hybrid capture (hr-HC2) assay. hr-HC2 positive samples were genotyped by an intensive integrated strategy. hr-HPV types were detected in 79.1% of HC2 positive women. HPV16 was the most frequent type, followed by HPV31, HPV18 and HPV56. A statistically significant variability in HPV type distribution between centres (overall χ84df(2)=195.86pHPV type distribution was observed in the age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-60 years. Considering cross-protection, overall 57.6% (95%CI 56.0-59.3) of all infections by hr-HPV types was preventable by vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and 49% (95%CI 46.9-51.1) with the quadrivalent vaccine. The variability between centres was statistically significant with both bivalent (χ7df(2)=43.8, pvaccine (χ7df(2)=32.9, pHPV genotype distribution according to centres but not to age. Results suggest that the higher proportion of HPV16/18 related high grade CIN in younger women could be the result of faster progression and not of earlier infection by these types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Production of functional, stable, unmutated recombinant human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein: implications for HPV-tumor diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiano, Elena; Demurtas, Olivia Costantina; Massa, Silvia; Di Bonito, Paola; Consalvi, Valerio; Chiaraluce, Roberta; Zanotto, Carlo; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Radaelli, Antonia; Venuti, Aldo; Franconi, Rosella

    2016-07-28

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) types 16 and 18 are the main etiological agents of cervical cancer, with more than 550,000 new cases each year worldwide. HPVs are also associated with other ano-genital and head-and-neck tumors. The HR-HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are responsible for onset and maintenance of the cell transformation state, and they represent appropriate targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The unmutated E6 gene from HPV16 and HPV18 and from low-risk HPV11 was cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector for expression of the Histidine-tagged E6 protein (His6-E6), according to a novel procedure. The structural properties were determined using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. His6-E6 oncoprotein immunogenicity was assessed in a mouse model, and its functionality was determined using in vitro GST pull-down and protein degradation assays. The His6-tagged E6 proteins from HPV16, HPV18, and HPV11 E6 genes, without any further modification in the amino-acid sequence, were produced in bacteria as soluble and stable molecules. Structural analyses of HPV16 His6-E6 suggests that it maintains correct folding and conformational properties. C57BL/6 mice immunized with HPV16 His6-E6 developed significant humoral immune responses. The E6 proteins from HPV16, HPV18, and HPV11 were purified according to a new procedure, and investigated for protein-protein interactions. HR-HPV His6-E6 bound p53, the PDZ1 motif from MAGI-1 proteins, the human discs large tumor suppressor, and the human ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein, thus suggesting that it is biologically active. The purified HR-HPV E6 proteins also targeted the MAGI-3 and p53 proteins for degradation. This new procedure generates a stable, unmutated HPV16 E6 protein, which maintains the E6 properties in in vitro binding assays. This will be useful for basic studies, and for development of diagnostic kits and immunotherapies in preclinical mouse models of HPV

  11. Cervical cancer screening in a low-resource setting: a pilot study on an HPV-based screen-and-treat approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunckler, Margot; Schumacher, Fanny; Kenfack, Bruno; Catarino, Rosa; Viviano, Manuela; Tincho, Eveline; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Temogne, Liliane; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily because of limited access to effective screening and preventive treatment. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a human papillomavirus (HPV)-based CC screen-and-treat approach in a low-resource context. We recruited 1012 women aged 30-49 years through a CC screening campaign conducted in the District Hospital of Dschang, Cameroon. Participants performed HPV self-sampling, which was tested for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA using the point-of-care Xpert HPV assay. All HPV-positive women were invited for visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI) to exclude CC or enable triage. A cervical sample for histological analysis was also collected. Women positive for HPV 16/18/45 and for other HR-HPV with pathological VIA/VILI were selected to undergo treatment with thermocoagulation. The HPV prevalence in the study population was 18.5% (n = 187); of these cases, 20 (10.6%), 42 (22.3%) and 140 (74.9%) were positive for HPV16, HPV18/45 and other HR-HPV types, respectively. Overall, 107/185 (57.8%) VIA/VILI examinations were classified as pathological and 78 (42.2%) as normal. Women positive for HPV16/18/45 were 4.2 times more likely to harbor cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) than those with other HPV types. The specificity of HPV 16/18/45 genotypes for detection of high-grade lesions among HR-HPV positive women was higher than that of VIA/VILI in all age groups. The sensitivity and specificity of VIA/VILI in detecting CIN2+ among HPV positive women were 80% and 44%, respectively. Overall, 110/121 screen-positive women (90.9%) were eligible for, and were treated with, thermocoagulation. An HPV-based screen-and-treat approach is feasible in a low-resource context and may contribute to improving the effectiveness of CC prevention programs. Immediate thermocoagulation treatment for women who are HPV16- and/or HPV18

  12. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA assays and one mRNA assay in women with abnormal cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Ejegod, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics of four human papillomavirus (HPV) assays: hybrid capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA in Danish women with abnormal cytology. METHODS: SurePath samples from 367 consecutive women from Copenhagen, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined...... between 22% and 35%. Similar results were seen for ≥CIN2. CONCLUSIONS: Small differences in clinical characteristics were found for the four HPV assays in Danish women with abnormal cytology aged ≥30 years. At younger ages, APTIMA was somewhat less sensitive for high-grade CIN than the three HPV DNA...

  13. Serum antibody response to Human papillomavirus (HPV infections detected by a novel ELISA technique based on denatured recombinant HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Luciano

    2006-11-01

    is not genotype-specific, as it detects antibodies also in women infected by other genital HPVs. The assay is easy to perform and has low cost, making it suitable for monitoring the natural history of HPV infections as well as for detecting pre-existing HPV antibodies in women who receive VLP-based HPV vaccination.

  14. HPV Status and Its Correlation with BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and Survivin Expression in Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent evidence, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV in breast carcinogenesis is controversial. The correlations of HPV infection with the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-associated proteins have not been well elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPVs (HR-HPVs infection and BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin expression in breast cancer patients and to investigate the relationship of HPV with these cancer-related proteins, in an attempt to clarify the potential mechanism of HPV in breast cancer pathogenesis. HPV presence in 81 fresh breast cancer tissues was determined by hybrid capture 2 (HC2 assay, and expression of BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry. Here we showed that fourteen (17.3% patients were HR-HPV positive. HPV infection demonstrated no significant correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. HPV-positive tumors showed significantly higher BCL2 and lower p53 expression than HPV-negative tumors. Expression of p21, Rb, and survivin was not associated with HPV status. Our results suggest a possible role of HR-HPV in breast cancer carcinogenesis, in which BCL2 and p53 may be involved.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of cyclosporin A and gamma-interferon on normal and HPV-transformed keratinocytes by cell counting, MTT assay and tritiated thymidine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, A V; Lizard, G; Chardonnet, Y; Schmitt, D

    1997-02-01

    We compared three techniques, the MTT tetrazolium assay, cell counting, and tritiated thymidine ([3H]TdR) incorporation assay to measure the antiproliferative effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on normal human skin keratinocyte cultures (NHK) used at the second passage and human papilomavirus type 16- and 18-transformed cell lines (EK16 and EK18) exposed continuously to the drugs for 3 days. The three techniques showed that under CsA (0.5 and 8 micrograms/ml) and IFN-gamma (5 and 160 U/ml) treatments the cells remained viable and that the growth of keratinocytes was inhibited. For IFN-gamma, the MTT colorimetric assay consistently underestimated its growth inhibitory activity as compared to cell counting or [3H]TdR incorporation, whatever the cells used. For high doses of CsA, MTT and cell counting gave similar percentages, of inhibitory activity whatever the cells; MTT underestimated this activity as compared to [3H]TdR incorporation only in NHK and EK18 cells, whereas similar results were obtained with EK16 cells. In conclusion, this investigations shows that MTT sensitivity differed with the drug and also according to the keratinocyte cultures. The MTT test is clearly not appropriate for study of IFN-gamma treatment whatever the keratinocytes used. Such discrepancies indicate that the MTT test should be done with care on cultures to measure the effects of drugs on cell growth; the growth inhibition should be carefully considered and it would be best if two different methods were used.

  16. A comparison of methylation levels in HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes reveals similar associations with cervical precancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljević, Nataša; Scibior-Bentkowska, Dorota; Brentnall, Adam; Cuzick, Jack; Lorincz, Attila

    2014-03-01

    High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is common and only a small minority of infections become persistent and lead to cervical cancers. Women positive for HR-HPV usually require a second test to avoid unnecessary colposcopies and over treatment. Elevated DNA methylation of HR-HPV L1 and L2 genes in high grade disease has emerged as a promising molecular triage tool. Our aim was to accurately measure methylation levels at selected CpG positions in the HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes. We focused on the L2, L1, URR and E6 regions because these were previously shown to be interesting areas for study. Pyrosequencing was used to measure methylation in 208 HPV18, 207 HPV31, and 126 HPV33 positive women selected from a London colposcopy referral population. After adjustment for multiple testing, at FDR 5%, elevated methylation was significantly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) in all investigated CpGs in HPV18 L2 and L1. Two of 6 L2 and 12 of 15 L1 sites in HPV31 and 6 of 8 L2 and 3 of 13 L1 sites in HPV33 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2+. Methylation of CpG sites in the URR and E6 region of the HPV types was low and most differences were not significant. Elevated methylation of CpG sites in the L1 and L2 regions of HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 is associated with CIN2+ and a panel test may be useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Approaching a decade since HPV vaccine licensure: Racial and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Tobo, Betelihem B; Rojek, Rebecca P; Mohammed, Kahee A; Geneus, Christian J; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2017-08-30

      Purpose: Gaps remain in the public's knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV). We assessed racial/ethnic and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among US adults. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 3 (September - December 2013) and Cycle 4 (August - November 2014) were analyzed for 6,862 respondents aged 18 years and older. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate racial/ethnic and gender disparities in HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination awareness. Sixty-six percent of respondents had heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine (57% of men vs. 75% of women). In multivariable analyses, compared with men, women were 225% (95% CI: 2.60 - 4.07) more likely to have heard of HPV, and 281% (95% CI: 3.06 - 4.74) more likely to have heard of the HPV vaccine. Non-Hispanic Blacks were 33% (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 44% (95% CI: 0.39 - 0.81) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. Hispanics were 27% (95% CI: 0.52 - 1.02) and 53% (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.64) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. There was evidence of disparities in HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men compared with women and non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To foster improvements in HPV vaccine uptake and reduce disparities in HPV associated cancers, future interventions must target men and minority populations, for whom knowledge gaps exist.

  18. PreTect HPV-Proofer: real-time detection and typing of E6/E7 mRNA from carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Tor; Kraus, Irene; Skomedal, Hanne; Nordstrøm, Trine; Karlsen, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA expression may provide an accurate and informative diagnostic approach for detection of oncogene activity related to the development of severe dysplasia or cervical carcinoma. A multiplex nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, utilizing molecular beacon probes for real-time detection was developed for the identification of E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45. The assay is called PreTect HPV-Proofer and this report describes the development and the analytical performance of the assay. The reproducibility of PreTect HPV-Proofer with regard to a positive result was found to be between 96 and 100%, depending on HPV type. The melting temperature for the different molecular beacons was in the range of 48-55 degrees C, indicating conformational stability, i.e. the molecular beacons will not get activated by the 41 degrees C annealing temperature, but will be activated by the annealing to the target itself. The limit of detection for HPV 16 was ten SiHa or CaSki cells and for HPV 18 one HeLa cell. No cross reactivity was observed with E6/E7 mRNA from the other tested HPV types. mRNA from cervical cells was also successfully amplified after more than one year of storage. In conclusion, the PreTect HPV-Proofer assay, individually identifying E6/E7 mRNA expression from five carcinogenic HPV types, is a reproducible assay that may serve as a valuable tool in monitoring HPV infections producing proteins with a transforming potential.

  19. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by the hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Maria Odete O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN worldwide. Consequently, it would be useful to evaluate HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. Recently developed, the second-generation Hybrid Capture (HCA II test is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, liquid hybridization assay designed to detect 18 HPV types, divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 1055 women for HPV infection with the HCA II test. Five hundred and ten (48.3% of these women had HPV infection; 60 (11.8% had low cancer-risk HPV DNA; 269 (52.7% had high-risk HPV types and 181 (35.5% had both groups. Hence, 450 women (88.2% in this HPV-infected group had at least one high risk HPV type, and were therefore considered to be at high risk for cancer. Among the group with Papanicolaou (Pap test results, the overall prevalence of HPV DNA was 58.4%. Significant differences in HPV infection of the cervix were detected between Pap I (normal smears and Pap IV (carcinomas (p<0.0001. Values of HPV viral load obtained for Pap I and SILs were significantly different, with an upward trend (p<0.0001, suggesting a positive correlation between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of the high costs of the HCA II test, its use for routine cervical mass screening cannot be recommended in poor countries. Nevertheless, it is a useful tool when combined with cytology, diagnosing high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues. Use of this technique could help reduce the risk of cancer.

  20. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status associated with prognosis of cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harima, Yoko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Our study explored whether the HPV status of tumors is associated with the outcome of radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 84 patients with cervical cancer (6 stage I, 10 stage II, 49 stage III, and 19 stage IV) who underwent definitive radiotherapy between January 1995 and June 2000 were included in this study. Tumor samples were obtained from all patients by punch biopsy prior to radiotherapy. The presence of HPV and its type were analyzed by PCR-based assay using the consensus primers for E6 and L1 regions. Actuarial methods were used to calculate overall survival, and disease-free survival. A total of 42 patients (50%) had cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors were found in 76.2% (64 cases) of the patients. HPV-negative patients survived significantly shorter compared to the HPV-positive patients in the overall survival (p=0.007) and the disease-free survival (p=0.005). According to multivariate analysis, HPV status is a significant predictor of both overall (p=0.02) and disease-free survival time (p=0.005). These results of this study suggest that HPV-negative patients with cervical carcinoma are have a significantly poorer prognosis after radiotherapy, and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. (author)

  1. Physical status and viral load in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Gie; Lee, Eui Don; Zin, Yong Jae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the frequency of viral integration and viral load in women with positive HPV type 16 infection, and showing normal findings, CIN, and cervical cancer. Total 75 (normal, 15; CIN I, 20; CIN III, 20; cervical cancer, 20) cervical swab specimens were used. HPV detection, typing, and viral load was determined by PCR method. Seventy of 75 (93.3%) of cervical swab specimens showed same results with hybrid capture assay and PCR method for detecting HPV DNA. HPV type 16 DNA was identified more frequently with progression from normal to cervical cancer (normal, 13 %; CIN I, 15%; CIN III, 40 %; cervical cancer, 55 %). The frequency of HPV type 16 DNA integration also increased with grade of the lesion (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 33 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 91 %) suggesting most of HPV type 16 present as integration forms in the cells. In addition, high-level of HPV 16 viral load also was found more frequently in CIN III and cervical cancer (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 0 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 100 %). These results suggest that viral integration and high-level of viral load may play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Generation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against baculo-expressed HPV 16 VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, P; Sridevi, V N; Rajan, S; Praveen, A; Srikanth, A; Abhinay, G; Siva Kumar, V; Verma, R R; Rajendra, L

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the well-known second most cause of cervical cancer in women worldwide. According to the WHO survey, 70% of the total cervical cancers are associated with types HPV 16 and 18. Presently used prophylactic vaccine for HPV contains mainly capsid protein of L1 virus like particles (VLPs). Correct folding of VLPs and display of neutralizing epitopes are the major constraint for VLP-based vaccines. Further, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) play a vital role in developing therapeutics and diagnostics. mAbs are also useful for the demonstration of VLP conformation, virus typing and product process assessment as well. In the present study, we have explored the usefulness of mAbs generated against sf-9 expressed HPV 16 VLPs demonstrated as type-specific and conformational dependent against HPV 16 VLPs by ELISA. High affinity and high pseudovirion neutralization titer of mAbs indicated their potential for the development of prophylactic vaccines for HPV. Also, the type-specific and conformational reactivity of the mAbs to HPV 16 VLPs in sf-9 cells by immunofluorescence assay proved their diagnostic potential.

  3. HPV infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV infection among this group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001. Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001. The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%, HPV16 (7.2%, HPV11 (6.4%, HPV18 (4.7%, HPV58 (4.7%, and HPV52 (4.2%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18.

  4. Enhancement of humoral and cell mediated immune response to HPV16 L1-derived peptides subsequent to vaccination with prophylactic bivalent HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccine in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomine, Masato; Matsueda, Satoko; Kawano, Kouichiro; Sasada, Tetsuro; Fukui, Akimasa; Yamashita, Takuto; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Tasaki, Kazuto; Matsukuma, Ken; Itoh, Kyogo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Kimio

    2017-04-01

    Currently prophylactic HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are employed with great success for the prevention of HPV infection. However, limited information is available regarding the immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 L1 subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination, primarily due to the lack of widely used assays for immune monitoring. The aim of the present study was to identify HPV16 L1-derived B and T cell epitopes for monitoring the immune responses after HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination in healthy females. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgE, IgA and IgM reactive to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were measured by multiplex bead suspension assay. Following detailed B cell epitope mapping, T cell responses specific to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were evaluated by an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. The levels of IgG, IgM and IgA reactive to 20-mer peptides (PTPSGSMVTSDAQIFNKPYW) at positions 293-312 and 300-319 of HPV16 L1 were significantly increased in the plasma after 2, 7, and 12 months after first vaccination. Detailed epitope mapping identified the amino acid sequence (TSDAQIFNKP) at position 301-310 of HPV16 L1 as an immunogenic B cell epitope. In addition, T cell responses to an HLA-A2- and HLA-A24-restricted epitope (QIFNKPYWL) at position 305-313 of HPV16 L1 were increased following immunization, suggesting that the HPV16/18 L1-VLP vaccination as able to induce specific immune responses in T and B cells simultaneously. The identified B and T cell epitopes may be useful as a biomarker for monitoring the immune responses subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination. Thus, the present study may provide novel information to improve the understanding of the immune responses to HPV16 L1.

  5. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  6. Recombined DNA vaccines encoding calreticulin linked to HPV6bE7 enhance immune response and inhibit angiogenic activity in B16 melanoma mouse model expressing HPV 6bE7 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Jia; Cheng, Hao; Zhu, Ke-Jian; Xu, Yan; Chen, Min-Li; Zhang, Xing; Song, Tao; Ye, Jun; Wang, Qi; Chen, Da-Fang

    2006-07-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) has been reported to have an effect of upregulating MHC class I presentation as well as inhibiting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Combination of dual mechanisms of enhanced immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6bE7 antigen and antiangiogenesis may be introduced in the strategy of vaccines against condyloma acuminatum (CA) resulting from HPV infection. Therefore, we constructed DNA vaccines by employing different lengths of CRT chimerically linked to a model antigen HPV6bE7 and investigated the immunological and antiangiogenic effects of these vaccines in a B16 melanoma model that express HPV6bE7 antigen. Our results showed that vaccination with CRT180/HPV6bE7 or CRT120/HPV6bE7 enhanced the presence of CD8(+) T cells and TCRgammadelta T cells in vivo, increased the specific lysis activity against E7-expressing cells and secretion levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma by activating T cells in vitro significantly. Moreover, recombined CRT180 or CRT120 with HPV6bE7 vaccines could elicit a more efficient E7-specific immune response than HPV6bE7 alone. The similarity of immunological enhancement of CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT120/HPV6bE7 implies that the immunologically active region mainly exist in fragment 1-120 aa. Furthermore, CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 displayed remarkable superiority over CRT120/HPV6bE7 in vivo angiogenesis assay, suggesting that the antiangiogenic activity of CRT resides in a domain between aa 120 and 180. Vaccination with CRT180/HPV6bE7 generated the best protective effect of delaying tumor formation and reduction of tumor size in tumor growth inhibition experiment among all DNA constructs. Therefore, CRT180/HPV6bE7 vaccine may enhance the immunological response to HPV6bE7 and inhibit angiogenesis. This construct may be useful in preventing HPV-associated dermatosis and may be developed as a promising strategy to control CA.

  7. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the ... GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide this video in ...

  8. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  10. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV......-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Methods: Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening...... were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300–2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Conclusion: Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV...

  11. RNA (E6 and E7) assays versus DNA (E6 and E7) assays for risk evaluation for women infected with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Paola; Siddu, Alessia; D'Onghia, Sara; Marchetti, Simona; Santangelo, Rosaria; Vellone, Valerio G; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Fadda, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    In the majority of cases, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) infections regress spontaneously, with only a small percentage progressing to high-grade lesions. Current screening methods are based on DNA detection. An alternative would be to monitor expression of the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes continuously expressed by malignant phenotypes. In the work reported in this paper, we compared the two methods for a group of women with high-risk HPV infections. Cervical specimens from 400 women, previously found to be HPV DNA positive, were analyzed for HPV DNA by a liquid hybridization assay and typed by multiplex PCR (for types 16, 18, 31, and 33). Identification of HR HPV E6 and E7 RNA transcripts was performed using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. Results were compared with concurrent cytological data. HR HPVs were found in 61.2% of patients. The most common genotype was HPV type 16 (HPV-16) (47.1%), followed by HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-33. Nine percent of cases involved other genotypes. Among 223 HPV DNA-positive samples, only 118 were positive in the RNA test. Among HPV DNA-positive patients with normal cytology, we detected E6 and E7 RNA transcripts in two cases (18.2%). The rate of detection increased gradually with the grade of the observed lesions, rising from 20% for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to 48.1% for women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 86.3% for those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. These results suggest that testing for HPV E6 and E7 transcripts could be a useful tool for screening and patient management, providing more accurate predictions of risk than those obtained by DNA testing.

  12. [Effects of folate deficiency with HPV16 infection on cervix cancerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuesong; Ding, Ling; Chen, Fang; Wu, Tingting; Wang, Jintao

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between folate in serum, red blood cell (RBC), cervix cancerization, as well as the interaction between folate deficiency and HPV16 infection in cervix cancerization. 254 samples were selected from the patients who were newly pathologically diagnosed of having cervix inflammation (CI), low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I), high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PCR and microbiological assay were adopted to detect HPV infection and folate concentration. Rates of HPV16 infection increased with the severity of cervix cancerization (tend: χ² = 34.96, P cancerization. Both serum and RBC folate deficiency could increase the risk of cervix cancerization, and folate deficiency might have a synergic action with HPV16 in this procession.

  13. HPV vaccination: the promise & problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2009-09-01

    Four-fifths of the cervical cancer burden in the world is experienced in developing countries. HPV genotypes 16 and 18 account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers and currently available vaccines targeting these two types confer a high degree of protection against HPV 16/18 infection and related cervical precancerous lesions. However, widespread implementation of HPV vaccination programs are challenged by the unaffordable high costs of the vaccines and the lack of effective vaccine delivery platforms for sexually naïve girls. Other unresolved issues include long-term protection, cross-protection against HPV types not included in the vaccine and whether booster doses will be needed. Sensitivities associated with a vaccine preventing a sexually transmitted infection in girls, lack of awareness, public demand and political will, lack of coordination between cancer control, sexual and reproductive health and vaccine delivery services are additional challenges. Reduced costs, simple vaccine regimes and strengthening vaccine delivery platforms for adolescents should eventually facilitate HPV vaccine introduction in developing countries.

  14. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R.; Singh, Shipra

    2018-01-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified…

  15. The prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection in the oligospermic and azoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Sherko; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Keyvani, Hossein; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Vahabpour Roudsari, Rouhollah; Khazeni, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases that affects men like women and infected cutaneous and mucosal squamous epithelium. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in the semen of oligospermic, azoospermic and normal patients. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 90 individuals were enrolled in this cross sectional comparative study. The participants were classified into three groups (oligospermia, azoosprmia and normal). This classification was based on a new WHO reference values for human semen characteristics published on 2010. After extraction of DNA from specimens L1 gene of HPV was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR) and the PCR products of positive specimens were genotyped using INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Among 50 confirmed oligospermic male, 15 were HPV DNA positive (30%). In azoospemic group we had 8 HPV DNA positive (40%) and in normal group just 3 of 20(15%) samples were positive. Statistical assessment was done with SPSS v.15. Chi-square test showed no significant relationship between 3 groups results. Based on independent samples t-test, we found statistical significant relationship for sperm count (psperm motility (slow) (pHPV genotypes were detected among positive samples. HPV genotypes 16, 45 in the high risk group and 6,11,42 in the low risk group were more frequent than the others. The current study shows that HPV infection can affect on sperm count and motility and decrease count of sperm cell and decrease motility capability of these cells.

  16. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  17. Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Chung, Michael H; Baussano, Iacopo; Mugo, Nelly R; Tenet, Vanessa; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rana, Farzana S; Sakr, Samah R; Meijer, Chris J L M; Snijders, Peter J F; Franceschi, Silvia

    2013-09-15

    HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  18. Human Papillomavirus DNA methylation as a biomarker for cervical precancer: Consistency across 12 genotypes and potential impact on management of HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan A; Gradíssimo, Ana; Schiffman, Mark; Lam, Jessica; Sollecito, Christopher C; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy E; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D

    2018-02-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation testing is a promising triage option for women testing HPV-positive during cervical cancer screening. However, the extent to which methylation indicates precancer for all 12 carcinogenic HPV types has not been evaluated. In this nested case-control study, we tested up to 30 cases of precancer (CIN3/AIS) and 30 normal controls for each carcinogenic type (single infections with 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59). Next-generation bisulfite sequencing was performed on CpG sites within the L1 and L2 genes. We calculated differences in methylation, odds ratios, and areas under the curve (AUC). Using a fixed sensitivity of 80%, we evaluated the specificity and the risk of CIN3/AIS for best performing CpG sites, and compared the performance of an explorative multi-type methylation assay with current triage strategies. Methylation was positively associated with CIN3/AIS across all 12 types. AUCs for the top sites ranged from 0.71 (HPV51 and HPV56) to 0.86 (HPV18). A combined 12-type methylation assay had the highest Youden's index (0.46), compared with cytology (0.31) and a 5-type methylation assay including only previously described types (0.26).  The 12-type methylation assay had higher sensitivity (80% vs. 76.6%) and lower test positivity compared to cytology (38.5% vs. 48.7%). The risk of CIN3/AIS was highest for methylation positives and lowest for cytology- or HPV16/18-positives. HPV DNA methylation is a general phenomenon marking the transition from HPV infection to precancer for all 12 carcinogenic types. Development of a combined multi-type methylation assay may serve as a triage test for HPV-positive women. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive...... on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women....

  20. [Evaluation of variable methods for HPV testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiao-ying; Bian, Mei-lu; Ma, Li; Cong, Xiao; Chen, Ying; Liu, Jun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate clinical efficacy of different HPV methods in screening of cervical cancers. Between August 2011 and November 2011, 424 women in the China-Japan Friendship Hospital were enrolled in this study. All participants were undergone liquid-based cytology test (LCT), Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and real-time (RT) PCR high risk HPV DNA test for HPV16 and HPV18 genotyping. Those results were classified into two group: 424 women at HC-II group with LCT and HC-II test and 421 women at PCR group with LCT and PCR test. All women with atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or above in cytological result with high risk HPV positive at two group underwent cervical biopsy by colposcopy.In the mean time, women with negative in cytological results and with HPV 16 and(or) HPV 18 positive also underwent histo-pathological examination by and colposcopy. The results in two groups were discussed:LCT+HC-II group (424 patients) and LCT+PCR12+2 group (421 patients). (1) There was no significant difference in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or above disease between LCT+HC-II group and LCT+PCR12+2 group (χ(2) = 3.35, P > 0.05).Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detection of CINII or above using HC-II and PCR12+2 were 77.8%, 79.4%, 20.4%, 98.1% and 96.3%, 78.2%, 23.2%, 99.7%, respectively. (2) In LCT+PCR12+2 group, it was found 34 women with HPV16 positive, 5 women with HPV 18 positive including 1 women combined with HPV 16 positive, 74 women with other high risk HPV positive and 309 women with HPV negative. Compared to the infection of other high-risk HPV types, HPV 16 and HPV 18 infection leads to a higher chance of cervical lesions with CIN II or above [51.3% (20/39) and 8.1% (6/74) ]. (3) A significant difference of causing cervical cancer and CINII or above was found among women who were infected with HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 infection, with other high-risk HPV types and negative in high-risk HPV

  1. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  2. Novel nomograms for survival and progression in HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David H; Carlander, Amanda-Louise Fenger

    2016-01-01

    recorded. The 5-year OS, TTP, and SAP for the HPV+/p16+ subgroup were 77%, 82%, and 33, vs. 30%, 66%, and 6% for the HPV-/p16- group (P HPV+/p16+ subgroup vs. 8.5 months in the HPV-/p16- subgroup (P HPV...... Cox regression model was used to construct predictive, internally validated nomograms. CONCLUSION: The HPV+/p16+ subgroup had improved OS, TTP, and SAP compared with other combinations of HPV and p16 after adjusting for covariates. Nomograms were constructed for 1-, 5- and 10-year survival probability......BACKGROUND: No study has combined tumour and clinical covariates for survival to construct an individual risk-profile for overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and survival after progression (SAP) in patients with HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Based...

  3. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

    2011-11-02

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future.

  4. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Katie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. Methods 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. Results There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0% patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7% patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0% patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31. Conclusions Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future.

  5. Comparison of INNO-LiPA genotyping extra and hybrid capture 2 assays for detection of carcinogenic human papillomavirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Militello, Valentina; Pagni, Silvana; Palù, Giorgio

    2012-11-01

    Accurate HPV detection and genotyping tests are useful for management of women with HPV infection and for monitoring HPV vaccine efficacy. To evaluate the performance of the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay (SPF10-LiPA) for the detection of carcinogenic HPV types in women referred for opportunistic cervical cancer screening by comparison with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. Cross-sectional analysis from baseline data of HC2 and SPF10-LiPA testing in cervical specimens collected from 1580 consecutive women and correlation with cervical cytology and histology data, when available. The two assays showed a good agreement for detection of carcinogenic HPV types and reported the same prevalence of carcinogenic HPV infections in different age groups. Stratification of study subjects by cervical cytology interpretation and histology results demonstrated that the two tests gave very similar results in the different cytology interpretation groups and in CIN2 and CIN3 samples, while in carcinogenic HPV-positive results than the HC2 test. A comparative analysis of the two assay for individual HPV types showed that HC2 identified as positive between 73% and 100% of specimens with carcinogenic HPV types detected by SPF10-LiPA and, in particular, approximately 90% and 80% of HPV16- and HPV18-positive samples, respectively. A good agreement was observed between HC2 and SPF10-LiPA for carcinogenic HPV type detection, that supports further evaluation of the clinical performance of the new version of SPF10-LiPA in cervical cancer screening protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterization of enhancer agonist human cytotoxic T-cell epitopes of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwong Y; Fantini, Massimo; Fernando, Romaine I; Palena, Claudia; David, Justin M; Hodge, James W; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Jones, Frank R; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-05-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the etiology of cervical carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and several other cancer types. Vaccines directed against HPV virus-like particles and coat proteins have been extremely successful in the prevention of cervical cancer through the activation of host HPV-specific antibody responses; however, HPV-associated cancers remain a major public health problem. The development of a therapeutic vaccine will require the generation of T-cell responses directed against early HPV proteins (E6/E7) expressed in HPV-infected tumor cells. Clinical studies using various vaccine platforms have demonstrated that both HPV-specific human T cells can be generated and patient benefit can be achieved. However, no HPV therapeutic vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to date. One method of enhancing the potential efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine is the generation of agonist epitopes. We report the first description of enhancer cytotoxic T lymphocyte agonist epitopes for HPV E6 and E7. While the in silico algorithm revealed six epitopes with potentially improved binding to human leukocyte antigen-A2 allele (HLA-A2)-Class I, 5/6 demonstrated enhanced binding to HLA-Class I in cell-based assays and only 3/6 had a greater ability to activate HPV-specific T cells which could lyse tumor cells expressing native HPV, compared to their native epitope counterparts. These agonist epitopes have potential for use in a range of HPV therapeutic vaccine platforms and for use in HPV-specific adoptive T- or natural killer-cell platforms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Brushing of oral mucosa for diagnosis of HPV infection in patients with potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Colella, Giuseppe; Capra, Giuseppina; Di Liberto, Chiara; Caleca, Maria Pia; Matranga, Domenica; D'Angelo, Matteo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Adequate brushing of oral mucosa is important for accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in potentially malignant (oral leukoplakia [OL], oral lichen planus [OLP]) and malignant (oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC]) lesions. Since various factors may limit the adequacy of oral brushing and, consequently, the accuracy of HPV detection, modified sampling procedures should be evaluated for their effect on HPV frequency and/or types detected. To compare the HPV frequency in samples obtained by brushing the lesion site with the frequency in samples obtained by brushing an apparently normal adjacent site. The correlation between HPV frequency and keratinization of the site affected by the lesion, as well as sociodemographic variables (age, sex, smoking and drinking habits), was also examined. HPV DNA was detected in brushing samples from 50 patients with OL, 49 with OLP, and 17 with OSCC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed by MY09/MY11 and GP05+/GP06+ primers; the HPV type was identified by DNA sequencing and a reverse hybridization (line probe) assay. Data were analyzed by the Z test, the Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test, odds ratio (OR), and a logistic regression model. HPV DNA was detected in 22% of samples from lesion sites and in 16% of samples from adjacent sites (p = 0.22) in patients with OL, in 24.5% and 22.4% of samples from lesion and adjacent sites, respectively, in patients with OLP (p = 0.40), and in 35.3% and 41.2% of samples from lesion and adjacent sites, respectively, in patients with OSCC (p = 0.36). Lesions adjacent to HPV-positive normal sites had an increased rate of HPV detection (OR = 30; 95% CI 9.57, 94.1). HPV-18 was the most frequent genotype, followed by HPV-6, -16, -33, and -53. HPV prevalence was reduced in lesions at keratinized sites (14.5%) compared with non-keratinized sites (34.4%; p = 0.007; OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.13, 0.81). In patients with OL, OLP, or OSCC, a high prevalence of HPV infection was

  8. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Sonja; Bettstetter, Marcus; BECHER, ANDREA; LESSEL, MARLENE; BANK, CYRIL; Krams, Matthias; Becker, Ingrid; Hartmann, Arndt; Jagla, Wolfgang; Gaumann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical ca...

  9. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-27

    Jan 27, 2012 ... HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet (P<0.05) and rural residential areas (P<0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights ...

  10. Efficacy, duration of immunity and cross protection after HPV vaccination: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2009-05-29

    The efficacy and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines has proven excellent in several phase 2 and phase 3 trials involving tens of thousand women. A decrease in antibody titres was observed in follow-up studies of vaccinees, with initial sharp decline reaching a plateau in the longer term. Only few subjects lost their antibodies during the 5-6 years after vaccination. However, no breakthrough disease occurred even in those subjects. The administration of a challenge dose of quadrivalent vaccine at month 60 of follow-up resulted in a strong anamnestic response. The mechanism by which vaccination confers protection and the reasons for continuing vaccine efficacy remain to be elucidated. The same applies to the possibility of inducing an anamnestic response following viral challenge via genital mucosa. Data strongly suggest that both vaccines can have a variable level of cross protection against HPV types genetically and antigenically-closely related to vaccine types. Demonstration of cross protection against combined endpoints (CIN2/3 and AIS) for combined HPV types, and, as a single type, for HPV-31, has been reached for the quadrivalent vaccine, and there is evidence of cross protection against HPV 31 and 45 persistent infections (as single types) for the bivalent vaccine. Assays used for antibody detection were different for the two vaccines, and standardisation of methods for anti-HPV L1 protein detection is presently underway. The possibility to use universally accepted tests for antibody measurement would make comparison between vaccines and among different studies much easier.

  11. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we...... evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...

  12. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus by five assays according to cytologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyeon; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Five assays for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) with different assay principles were evaluated. A total of 230 cervical swab specimens were collected from subjects according to the cytologic results. All specimens were tested by the following assays: hybrid capture 2 (HC2), two real-time PCR assays (Abbott RealTime HR and AdvanSure RealTime), liquid beads microarray (GeneFinder) and peptide nucleic acid-based array (PANArray). The HPV DNA of 99 samples was sequenced to identify genotypes. Concordance rates between the results for the identification of 14 high risk HPV genotypes by any two of the evaluated assays, except for AdvanSure RealTime, ranged from 83.0% to 88.3%, and those for the identification of genotypes 16 and 18, except for HC2, were 93.0% and 96.1%, respectively. The results for the evaluation of high risk HPV genotypes by HC2 agreed with those of the other assays in 76.5-86.5% of cases. Identification of HPV genotype by GeneFinder and PANArray corresponded with that by direct sequencing in 88.9% and 84.8% of sequenced samples. This study demonstrated that HC2 and the two real-time PCR assays could be used for routine HPV screening, and the other genotyping assays can be applied for epidemiologic surveillance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  14. Clinical Performance of APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 mRNA Genotyping Testing for the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3) or Cancer in a Select Group of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Li; You, Ke; Geng, Li; Qiao, Jie

    2016-07-01

    HPV type was evaluated in a select group of Chinese women that were positive with hybrid capture, and correlations were performed between the pathology found, the type of virus and a semiquantitation from the hybrid capture results. Totally 394 referred high-risk-HPV-positive women evaluated by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2) assay were enrolled. Before colposcopy, cervical specimens were collected from all participants and suspended into PreservCytcollection medium (Hologic Inc., Marlborough, MA), and tested with the APTIMA HPV16 18/45 mRNA assay. Colposcopy and diagnostic biopsies were done on all participants. Viral load was assessed by HC2 assay. Totally 55 women were diagnosed as CIN 3 plus cancer (≥CIN3), and the prevalence of HPV16/18/45 was 65.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 52.9-78.0 %) among these ≥CIN3 women. Compared with the group with positive HC2 but negative HPV16/18/45, the odds ratio (OR) to identify ≥CIN3 was 6.3 (95 % CI, 3.2-12.3) for HPV16 and 3.2 (95 % CI, 1.4-7.2) for HPV18/45. When using ≥CIN3 as an endpoint, the sensitivity and specificity was 65.5 % (95 % CI, 52.9-78.0 %) and 72.0 % (95 % CI, 67.2-76.8 %). In the case of HPV16/18/45 negative, no high HPV load had a statistically significant increased risk for the prevalence of ≥CIN3. HPV16, 18 and 45 infection is a major cause for ≥CIN3 in Chinese women. Women with positive HPV16/18/45 should be referred to colposcopy immediately. HPV load was not suitable for the further triaged of the HPV16/18/45 negative cases.

  15. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbergen, Michelle M; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Moukhtari, Nadia; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Brink, Arjen; Sie, Daoud; Ylstra, Bauke; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Snijders, Peter J F; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Leemans, C René

    2014-02-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. These low numbers may be explained in addition by the absence of a 'field cancerization' effect, which is a cause of LRRs and SPTs in patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. We aimed to detect a possible 'field effect' in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. As HPV is involved in the early stage of carcinogenesis in OPSCCs, its presence is considered a reliable marker for the detection of such a field effect. Therefore, the presence of transcriptionally active HPV was analyzed in the mucosa surrounding HPV-positive OPSCCs. We included 20 patients who were surgically treated for an HPV-positive OPSCC in the period 2000-2006. Of each patient, the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor sample and all available resection margins were collected. In total, 97 resection margins were investigated with an average of five resection margins per tumor. All samples were analyzed for the presence of tumor and the presence of transcriptionally active HPV by HPV16-E6-mRNA detection. All tumors were HPV16-E6-mRNA positive. HPV16-E6-mRNA could be detected in the resection margins that contained tumor (n = 6). All tumor-negative resection margins (n = 91) scored negative for HPV16-E6-mRNA. In conclusion, transcriptional active HPV could not be detected in the mucosa surrounding an HPV-positive OPSCC, which suggests the absence of field effect. This observation may explain the lower number of LRRs and SPTs in HPV-positive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martel, Catherine; Plummer, Martyn; Vignat, Jerome; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-08-15

    HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancer and is responsible for a substantial fraction of other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal cancers. Understanding the HPV-attributable cancer burden can boost programs of HPV vaccination and HPV-based cervical screening. Attributable fractions (AFs) and the relative contributions of different HPV types were derived from published studies reporting on the prevalence of transforming HPV infection in cancer tissue. Maps of age-standardized incidence rates of HPV-attributable cancers by country from GLOBOCAN 2012 data are shown separately for the cervix, other anogenital tract and head and neck cancers. The relative contribution of HPV16/18 and HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 was also estimated. 4.5% of all cancers worldwide (630,000 new cancer cases per year) are attributable to HPV: 8.6% in women and 0.8% in men. AF in women ranges from 20% in India and sub-Saharan Africa. Cervix accounts for 83% of HPV-attributable cancer, two-thirds of which occur in less developed countries. Other HPV-attributable anogenital cancer includes 8,500 vulva; 12,000 vagina; 35,000 anus (half occurring in men) and 13,000 penis. In the head and neck, HPV-attributable cancers represent 38,000 cases of which 21,000 are oropharyngeal cancers occurring in more developed countries. The relative contributions of HPV16/18 and HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 are 73% and 90%, respectively. Universal access to vaccination is the key to avoiding most cases of HPV-attributable cancer. The preponderant burden of HPV16/18 and the possibility of cross-protection emphasize the importance of the introduction of more affordable vaccines in less developed countries. © 2017 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO); licensed by UICC.

  17. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-10-13

    Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening. Data on annual biopsies and conisations were retrieved from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register. Incidences of HPV-related cancers in Denmark were extracted from NORDCAN. Number of HPV-caused cancers was calculated from number of HPV-related cancers and the proportion known to be caused by high-risk (HR) HPV. In cross-sectional surveys in Denmark, one fifth of women and almost one third of men were found to be positive for HR HPV. Per year, 548 HPV-caused cancer cases were diagnosed in women and 234 in men, and twice as many cancers in women as in men were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300-2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV-vaccination is considerably higher in women than in men. HPV-vaccination could reduce the burden of screening on women and on health care resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  19. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  20. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  1. Young adults awareness of HPV and vaccine acceptance after introduction of the HPV vaccine in the Dutch national vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Gosens, K.C.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of implementation of the HPV vaccine on HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptance. METHODS: From June until December 2009 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 698 male and female students aged 18-25 years were recruited and interviewed about HPV, cervical carcinoma and HPV

  2. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1 to the cold, icy south (Region 12. A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus Methods The population was a national probability sample of people 17 years of age and over. Consenting women provided self-collected cervicovaginal swabs in universal collection media (UCM. DNA was extracted and typed to 37 HPV genotypes using PGMY consensus PCR and line blot assay. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted OR were calculated. Results Of the 1,883 women participating in the health survey, 1,219 (64.7% provided a cervicovaginal sample and in 1,110 (56.2% of participants and 66.5% of those eligible the samples were adequate for analysis. Refusal rate was 16.9%. HPV prevalence was 29.2% (15.1% high-risk HPV and 14.1% low-risk HPV. Predominant high-risk types were HPV 16, 52, 51, 56 and 58. Predominant low-risk HPVs were HPV 84, CP6108, 62, 53 and 61. High-risk and low-risk HPV rates were inversely correlated between the regions. High-risk HPV prevalence was highest among the youngest women, whereas low-risk HPV increased slightly with age. Conclusion Self-obtained vaginal sampling is adequate for monitoring HPV in the community, for identifying high-risk areas, and for surveying the long term impact of interventions.

  4. Cross-sectional study of HPV-16 infection in a population-based subsample of Hispanic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A P; Unger, E R; Muñoz, C; Panicker, G; Tortolero-Luna, G; Soto-Salgado, M; Otero, Y; Suárez, E; Pérez, C M

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of seropositivity to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 in a subsample of adults who participated in the parent study Epidemiology of Hepatitis C in the adult population of Puerto Rico (PR). Setting The parent study was a population-based household survey aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and other viral infections (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, HIV, and herpes simplex type 2) in PR (n=1654) between 2005 and 2008. Participants A subsample of the last 450 consecutive adults aged 21–64 years, recruited between February 2007 and January 2008, who participated in the parent study and agreed to participate in HPV testing. Primary and secondary outcome measures The samples were tested by ELISA for HPV-16 viral-like particle-specific immunoglobulin G. Information on sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics was collected. Logistic regression modelling was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) to assess factors associated to HPV-16 seropositivity. Results Prevalence of seropositivity to HPV-16 was 11.3%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (15.8%) than men (5.6%; p=0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, ever smokers (POR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.92) and participants with at least five lifetime sexual partners (POR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.81) were more likely to be HPV-16 seropositive. Conclusions HPV-16 seropositivity is similar to that reported in the USA (10.4%) for NHANES 2003–2004 participants, although different assays were used in these studies. While future studies should evaluate HPV seroprevalence using a larger population-based sample, our results highlight the need to further understand the burden of HPV infection and HPV-related malignancies in PR, population with a low vaccine uptake. PMID:24496698

  5. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-11-01

    Laboratories now can choose from >100 human papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and Aptima, frequently do not detect the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant samples (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30 to 65 years of age (n = 2,859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same catchment area (n = 885). HPV testing followed the manufacturers' protocols. Women with abnormal cytology were managed according to the routine recommendations. Cytology-normal/HPV-positive women were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Screening history and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women with discordant samples. Additionally, assay signal strengths were substantially higher in concordant samples. More than 80% of ≥CIN2 results were found for women with concordant samples, and no ≥CIN2 results were found when the infection was detected by only one assay. These patterns were similar in the referral population despite the younger age and higher number of HPV infections. HPV test result discordance identified a cluster of low-risk HPV infections that were hardly ever associated with high-grade CIN and, almost exclusively, represented false-positive screening findings. Copyright © 2016 Rebolj et al.

  6. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min; Zhou, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that infect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia. Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed. A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 were HPV-positive (12.48%). Among 523 confirmed fertile males, only 35 were HPV-positive (6.70%), and two of them had multiple infections. Among 615 infertile males, 107 were HPV-positive (17.4%), and 29 of them had multiple infections. Infertile males had a relatively high HPV infection rate compared with confirmed fertile males. Sperm progressive motility (PR) and the normal morphology rate were significantly decreased in HPV-positive subjects. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infections were more frequently in infertile males. Hence, HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and morphology. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infection seems to be major risk factors.

  7. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Home How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... about 31,500 of these cancers. Number of HPV-Associated Cancer Cases per Year An HPV-associated ...

  8. HPV Infections Decrease in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.

  9. Evidence for vertical transmission of HPV from mothers to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elaine M; Parker, Michael A; Rubenstein, Linda M; Haugen, Thomas H; Hamsikova, Eva; Turek, Lubomir P

    2010-01-01

    Few large studies have evaluated concordance based on a broad spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in oral and genital specimens of mothers and their recently born infants. This information is important in determining whether HPV vaccines administered prior to pregnancy may be useful for preventing vertical transmission. HPV DNA was positive in 30% of mothers and 1.5% of newborns. Maternal/newborn concordance (HPV+/+ or HPV-/-) was 71%. Among HPV DNA+ mothers, only 3% of their infants were DNA+ and only 1 pair had the same HPV type. Among HPV- women, 0.8% of infants were HPV+. HPV DNA detected in hospitalized newborns reflects current infection transmitted to infants during pregnancy or delivery. None of the mother/baby HPV DNA+ concordance pairs detected viral types found in HPV vaccines suggesting that vaccination prior to pregnancy is unlikely to be efficacious in preventing vertical transmission.

  10. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) VIS: Page last reviewed: December 2, 2016 Page ...

  11. Reparative Spheroids in HPV-Associated Chronic Cervicitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gennadiy T. Sukhikh; Tatyana A. Demura; Nafisa M. Fayzullina; Evgeniya A. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    ... chronic cervicitis (HPV-CC). Methods and Results: The cytology and biopsy materials from 223 patients with HPV-CC were subjected to molecular testing for HPV DNA by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Real-Time PCR...

  12. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine

    2018-01-15

    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P vaccine type infections was 90% (95% CI: 73%-96%) for all fully vaccinated women and 100% (95% CI not calculable) in women vaccinated before sexual debut. No statistically significant difference in overall high-risk HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be efficient in reducing vaccine

  13. Efficacy of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test in evaluation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance from an Asian screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Oscar Gee-Wan; Lo, C K; Szeto, Elaine; Cheung, Annie Nga-Yin

    2011-06-01

    Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a new qualitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of 14 high risk HPV (HR-HPV) types and specific identification of HPV16 and HPV18. For each new HPV DNA test, it is important to validate its clinical performance using established tests as benchmarks. Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) is the first USA FDA-approved HR-HPV DNA test. To compare the performance of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test with that of Hybrid Capture 2 in detecting cytology samples with varying prognosis. 250 liquid-based cervical cytology samples diagnosed of Atypical Squamous cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) collected from an Asian Screening Population were independently tested with both Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and HC2. Their utility in predicting disease progression was evaluated in 82 of the samples for which follow up cytology or colposcropic histology data was available. Good to excellent agreement between the two tests was demonstrated (Kappa=0.800, 95% CI: 0.726-0.874). The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the two tests in detecting cases with underlying HSIL/CIN2+ were evaluated (Abbott: 100%, 20.83%, 14.93% and 100% respectively; HC2: 100%, 12.50%, 13.70% and 100% respectively). HPV16/18 genotyping provided by the Abbott test enhanced specific identification of cases with LSIL/CIN1+ (specificity 91.30%, PPV 84.62%) and HSIL/CIN2+ (specificity 86.11%, PPV 23.08%) at follow-up. The Abbott test performed similarly to HC2 and is unlikely to be affected by ethnicity. Abbott combined HPV detection and HPV 16/18 genotyping is found to provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity for triage of ASC-US. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  15. Differences in T-cell infiltrates and survival between HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matlung, Sanne Evelien; van Kempen, Pauline Maria Wilhelmina; Bovenschen, Niels; van Baarle, Debbie; Willems, Stefan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that immune cells as part of tumor's microenvironment could partly explain the better outcome in HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma. We performed a systematic review of the literature focused on differences in immune-infiltrate in HPV+ versus HPV- oropharyngeal

  16. Referral population studies underestimate differences between human papillomavirus assays in primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied how representative cytologically abnormal women ("referral populations") are with respect to uncovering differences between human papillomavirus (HPV) assays in the primary screening where most women are cytologically normal. METHODS: A total of 4997 women were tested...

  17. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women...... the younger age and more HPV infections. HPV test result discordance identified a cluster of low-risk HPV infections that were hardly ever associated with high-grade CIN and, almost exclusively, represented false-positive screening findings....

  18. HPV vaccine: immersed in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Linda K

    2007-11-01

    There has been substantial media coverage of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine since the Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil (Merck & Co., Inc.) on June 8, 2006. The most vocal complaints maintain that its use will promote promiscuity among teenagers, and condemn proposed mandated use for school entry. Some also question evidence for the vaccine's safety. There have been concerns raised by both providers and patients regarding financial barriers to access. Still others argue that additional populations could benefit who have not been included in current recommendations. Clarification of these issues is essential to advance optimal use of this important new vaccine. There is strong evidence to support HPV vaccine as an effective, safe, and efficient public health measure. School mandates are valuable tools to reduce disparities in availability of immunizations. The time has come to consider universal funding as a means to improve access to all recommended vaccines.

  19. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated.

  20. Cross-protective vaccine efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31 is associated with humoral immune responses: results from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Pan, David Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Cortes, Bernal; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiller, John T; Gonzalez, Paula; Penrose, Kerri; Lowy, Douglas R; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the role of antibody responses as potential mechanism for the cross-protective vaccine-efficacies (VE) observed from randomized clinical trials of the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. Results HPV31 cases had lower HPV16 antibody levels than controls (OR 4th quartile compared with 1st quartile = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.36-1.08; p-trend = 0.03). HPV31 cases were also less likely to have detectable HPV31 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity than controls. No statistically significant differences by HPV18 antibody or HPV45 neutralization were observed among HPV45 cases and controls. Protection against HPV58 was not associated with any of the markers, confirming the specificity of our findings. Samples are from three-dose HPV vaccine recipients from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 vaccine trial. Women with a new HPV31, HPV45, or HPV58 infections over four years of follow-up were compared with randomly selected control women--with no new infection with HPV31/45/58--with respect to HPV16 and HPV18 antibody, HPV31, HPV45, and HPV58 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity. High HPV16 levels and avidity, and the ability to neutralize HPV31 were associated with protection against newly detected HPV31 infections, suggesting that the partial VE demonstrated for HPV31 is likely to be mediated at least in part through antibodies induced by HPV16/18 vaccination.

  1. Generation of HIV-1 and Internal Control Transcripts as Standards for an In-House Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR Assay to Determine HIV-1 Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Armas Cayarga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 viral load is useful for monitoring disease progression in HIV-infected individuals. We generated RNA standards of HIV-1 and internal control (IC by in vitro transcription and evaluated its performance in a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assay. HIV-1 and IC standards were obtained at high RNA concentrations, without DNA contamination. When these transcripts were included as standards in a qRT-PCR assay, it was obtained a good accuracy (±0.5 log10 unit of the expected results in the quantification of the HIV-1 RNA international standard and controls. The lower limit detection achieved using these standards was 511.0 IU/mL. A high correlation (=0.925 was obtained between the in-house qRT-PCR assay and the NucliSens easyQ HIV-1 test (bioMerieux for HIV-1 RNA quantitation with clinical samples (=14. HIV-1 and IC RNA transcripts, generated in this study, proved to be useful as standards in an in-house qRT-PCR assay for determination of HIV-1 viral load.

  2. Correlates of HPV Knowledge in the Era of HPV Vaccination: A Study of Unvaccinated Young Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV)—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HPV knowledge now that HPV vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated HPV vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed HPV awareness, HPV knowledg...

  3. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A cross-sectional study to assess HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Poole

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51 in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005, a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.

  5. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...... and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... antibody levels, standardized for total immunoglobulin G, were calculated at each time-point in women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS. All subjects had seroconverted at Month 7 and remained seropositive through Month 36 for both antigens. Geometric mean titers of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies...

  6. Isothermal Method of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Most Common High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Fang, Jiehong; Wang, Ye; He, Haizhen; Dai, Mingyan; Lin, Wei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignant tumor and has a great impact on women's health. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions and the two are possibly two stages of disease progression. With the technological development of molecular biology and epidemiology, detection and treatment of HPV has become an important means to prevent cervical cancer. Here we present a novel, rapid, sensitive and specific isothermal method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is established to detect the two most common high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 DNA. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the RPA assay, incubating clinical specimens of HPV16 and HPV18 using plasmids standard. It operates at constant low temperature without the thermal instrumentation for incubation. The products can be detected via agarose gel electrophoresis assay, reverse dot blot assay, and quantitative real-time assay with SYBR Green I. We assess the diagnostic performance of the RPA assay for detecting of HPV16 and HPV18 in 335 clinical samples from patients suspected of cervical cancer. The results revealed no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes and the RPA assay achieve a sensitivity of 100 copies. Compared with TaqMan qPCR, the RPA technique achieves exponential amplification with no need for pretreatment of sample DNA at 37°C for 20 minutes, which reveals more satisfactory performance. The agreement between the RPA and qPCR assays was 97.6% (κ = 0.89) for HPV16 positivity and 98.5% (κ = 0.81) for HPV18 positivity, indicating very good correlation between both tests. Importantly, the RPA assay was demonstrated to be a useful and powerful method for detection of HPV virus, which therefore may serve as a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of HPV infection in both commercial and clinical applications.

  7. High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golob, Barbara; Poljak, Mario; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

    2014-01-01

    ... papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most common sexually transmitted viruses. More than three quarters of the sexually active human population will acquire an HPV infection during their lifetime, alth...

  8. Electrochemical chip-based genomagnetic assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Martin; Durikova, Helena; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Anton, Milan; Jandakova, Eva; Hrstka, Roman

    2016-09-15

    Cervical cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, predominantly originates from a persistent infection with a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Detection of DNA sequences from these high-risk strains, mostly HPV-16 and HPV-18, represents promising strategy for early screening, which would help to identify women with higher risk of cervical cancer. In developing countries, inadequate screening options lead to disproportionately high mortality rates, making a fast and inexpensive detection schemes highly important. Electrochemical sensors and assays offer an alternative to current methods of detection. We developed an electrochemical-chip based assay, in which target HPV DNA is captured via magnetic bead-modified DNA probes, followed by an antidigoxigenin-peroxidase detection system at screen-printed carbon electrode chips, enabling parallel measurements of eight samples simultaneously. We show sensitive detection in attomoles of HPV DNA, selective discrimination between HPV-16 and HPV-18 and good reproducibility. Most importantly, we show application of the assay into both cancer cell lines and cervical smears from patients. The electrochemical results correlated well with standard methods, making this assay potentially applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Y Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+ or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women.

  10. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  11. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  12. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  13. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and quantification of HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 - a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillsunde Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela

    2017-07-26

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is associated with several anogenital malignancies. Here, we set out to evaluate digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) as a tool for HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 viral load quantification and, in addition, to compare the efficacy of the ddPCR assay for HPV 16 detection with that of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Clinical samples, positive for HPV genotypes 16, 18, 33 and 45 were analyzed for viral load using ddPCR. Sample DNA was cleaved before droplet generation and PCR. Droplets positive for VIC and FAM fluorescence were read in a QX200 Droplet reader™ (BIO-RAD) after which the viral load was calculated using Quantasoft software. We found that DNAs extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples yielded lower amplification signals compared to those obtained from liquid based cytology (LBC) samples, but they were clearly distinguishable from negative background signals. The viral limit of detection was 1.6 copies of HPV 16, 2.8 copies of HPV 18, 4.6 copies of HPV 33 and 1.6 copies of HPV 45. The mean inter-assay coefficients of variability (CV) for the assays ranged from 3.4 to 7.0%, and the mean intra-assay CV from 2.6 to 8.2%. The viral load in the different cohorts of tumor samples ranged from 154 to 340,200 copies for HPV 16, 244 to 31,300 copies for HPV 18 and 738 to 69,100 copies for HPV 33. One sample positive for HPV 45 contained 1331 viral copies. When comparing qPCR data with ddPCR copy number data, the qPCR values were found to be 1 to 31 times higher. Separation of fragments in nanodroplets may facilitate the amplification of fragmented human and viral DNA. The method of digital droplet PCR may, thus, provide a new and promising tool for evaluating the HPV viral load in clinical samples.

  14. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  15. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  16. Genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in Brazilian patients with invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Joao Paulo C B; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Chaves, Cláudia B P; Patury, Patrícia; Franco, Vanessa F; de Morais, Evaneide A; de Carvalho, Neile A; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Vieira, Lina Maria T M; Correa, Flavia Miranda; Martins, Luís Felipe Leite; Negrão, Antonio; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women, and ∼70-80% of these cancers are associated with two human papillomavirus types: HPV16 and HPV18. Several studies have reported that intra-type diversity is associated with the progression of infection to invasive cancer. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in a cohort of 594 Brazilian women with invasive cervical cancer and describe the prevalence of lineages and intra-type diversity prior to the implementation of the public immunization program in Brazil. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using PCR, PGMY/GP primers, and DNA extracted from fresh tumors. The HPV16 (378 women) and HPV18 (80 women) lineages were identified by PCR and sequencing of the LCR and E6 fragments, followed by SNV comparison and phylogenetic analysis. In our cohort, was found a higher frequency of the lineage A (in 217 women), followed by lineage D (in 97 women) and lineages B and C (in 10 women each) for HPV16; and a higher frequency of lineage A (in 56 women) followed by lineage B (in 15 women) in HPV18. The genetic diversity of HPV16 indicated a recent expansion of specific variants or a selective advantage that is associated with invasive cancer; this pattern was not observed for HPV18. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Deconstructing the measure of vaccine efficacy against disease irrespective of HPV in HPV vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Oliver M; Luxembourg, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were licensed by demonstrating prevention of anogenital disease caused by specific HPV types in clinical studies. Measuring the impact of HPV vaccination on the overall burden of anogenital disease (irrespective of HPV) is an important public health question which is ideally addressed in post-licensure epidemiological studies. Attempts were made to use clinical trial data for that purpose. However, the interpretation of vaccine efficacy on the endpoint of disease irrespective of HPV is not widely understood. We used the 9-valent HPV vaccine clinical program as a case study to determine the value of measuring vaccine efficacy in such endpoint. This assessment was rigorously performed by heuristic reasoning and through probability calculations. The measure of vaccine efficacy in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is driven simultaneously in opposite directions by the high estimate of prophylactic efficacy and a numerically negative estimate of risk reduction that is also a reflection of high prophylactic efficacy and no cross-protection. The vaccine efficacy estimate in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is ambiguous and difficult to interpret. Comparing this estimate across different HPV vaccine studies requires an understanding of the contributions of vaccine HPV type efficacy and the incidence of disease not related to vaccine HPV types for each study. Without such understanding, comparing studies and drawing conclusions from such comparison are highly misleading. Approaches are proposed to divide this endpoint in components that are easier to interpret. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Accuracy of self-collected vaginal dry swabs using the Xpert human papillomavirus assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction-based Xpert human papillomavirus (HPV assay is a rapid test that detects high-risk HPV (hrHPV infection. This point-of-care test is usually performed by collecting a cervical specimen in a vial of PreservCyt® transport medium. We compared HPV test positivity and accuracy between self-collected sample with a dry swab (s-DRY versus physician-collected cervical sampling using a broom like brush and immediate immersion in PreservCyt (dr-WET.In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 150 women ≥ 18 years old attending the colposcopy clinic in the University Hospital of Geneva. Each participant first self-collected a vaginal sample using a dry swab and then the physician collected a cervical specimen in PreservCyt. HPV analysis was performed with Xpert. Part of the PreservCyt-collected sample was used for hrHPV detection with the cobas® HPV test. HPV test positivity and performance of the two collection methods was compared.HPV positivity was 49.1% for s-DRY, 41.8% for dr-WET and 46.2% for cobas. Good agreement was found between s-DRY and dr-WET samples (kappa±Standard error (SE = 0.64±0.09,, particularly for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL+ (kappa±SE = 0.80±0.17. Excellent agreement was found between the two samples for HPV16 detection in general (kappa±SE = 0.91±0.09 and among LSIL+ lesions (kappa±SE = 1.00±0.17. Sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 84.2% and 47.1%(s-DRY, 73.1% and 58.7%. (dr-WET and 77.8% and 45.7% (cobas for CIN2+ detection. The median delay between sampling and HPV analysis was 7 days for the Xpert HPV assay and 19 days for cobas. There were 36 (24.0% invalid results among s-DRY samples and 4 (2.7% among dr-WET (p = 0.001. Invalid results happened due to the long interval between collection and analysis.Self-collected vaginal dry swabs are a valid alternative to collecting cervical samples in PreservCyt solution for HPV testing with the Xpert HPV assay.HPV

  19. miRNA Expression Profiles of HPV-Infected Patients with Cervical Cancer in the Uyghur Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongmei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the state of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in patients with cervical cancer in the Uyghur population in China and to identify miRNA as biomarker for cervical cancer and HPV infection. We also performed genotyping to determine the variation in the types of HPV. Using microRNA (miRNA) microarray technology, differential miRNA expression between HPV-infected cervical cancer and uninfected normal cervical tissues was determined; the microarray results were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using 20 samples of both the tissues. The infection rate of HPV in patients with cervical cancer was 96.7% (29 of 30), and the main subtype identified was HPV16 (29 of 29). HPV16 integration assay demonstrated that the majority of infectious cases were of the integrated form (26 of 29). Analysis of 140 miRNAs demonstrated greater than two-fold change in miRNA expression in HPV-infected cervical cancer tissue as compared to that in uninfected cervical tissue. The qRT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of miR-15a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-96, miR-106b-5p, and miR-3653 was higher, while the expression of miR-497-5p was lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The results demonstrate significant changes in miRNA expression in cervical cancer tissues associated with HPV infection as compared to that in normal tissues. These molecular markers may be useful for an early diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer in specific human populations.

  20. miRNA Expression Profiles of HPV-Infected Patients with Cervical Cancer in the Uyghur Population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Gao

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the state of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in patients with cervical cancer in the Uyghur population in China and to identify miRNA as biomarker for cervical cancer and HPV infection. We also performed genotyping to determine the variation in the types of HPV. Using microRNA (miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression between HPV-infected cervical cancer and uninfected normal cervical tissues was determined; the microarray results were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR using 20 samples of both the tissues. The infection rate of HPV in patients with cervical cancer was 96.7% (29 of 30, and the main subtype identified was HPV16 (29 of 29. HPV16 integration assay demonstrated that the majority of infectious cases were of the integrated form (26 of 29. Analysis of 140 miRNAs demonstrated greater than two-fold change in miRNA expression in HPV-infected cervical cancer tissue as compared to that in uninfected cervical tissue. The qRT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of miR-15a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-96, miR-106b-5p, and miR-3653 was higher, while the expression of miR-497-5p was lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The results demonstrate significant changes in miRNA expression in cervical cancer tissues associated with HPV infection as compared to that in normal tissues. These molecular markers may be useful for an early diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer in specific human populations.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Investigation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Initial Report from the Low Risk HPV Types Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Safarnezhad Tameshkel, Fahimeh; Panahi, Mahshid; Bokharaei Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2017-09-27

    Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a major health issue in many parts of the world. Recently, attention has focused on the human papilloma virus (HPV) as a potential causative agent for HNSCC. This study aimed to survey HPV occurrence in HNSCCs as part of a comprehensive molecular epidemiology approach. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients were recruited from hospitals affiliated to the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks were subjected to DNA isolation by QIAamp® DNA FFPE Tissue Kit and nested PCR, HPV-16 specific conventional PCR, and extra INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assays were subsequently performed. PCR products were purified with a High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit and sequenced with an ABI 3730 XL sequencer. CLC Main Workbench 5 and MEGA5 bioinformatics software was used to analyze the raw data and to create the phylogenetic tree. SPSS v.20 was applied for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 156 FFPE blocks were collected from 2011 to 2017. Total mean age (y) of participants was 60.5 ± 12.6; 77.6 % (121/156) being men and 22.4% (35/156) e women. Overall, 5/156 (3.2%) patients (3 females and 2 males) were found to be HPV positive using the three methods. HPV genotyping revealed HPV types 16, 2, 27, and 43 in these malignancies. Tumor location and lymph node involvement indicated significant differences between the sexes. Conclusion: Although high risk HPV genotypes have been associated with HNSCCs, our findings indicate a potential of low risk HPV types to also contribute to such malignancies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... school health clinical trials disclosing to kids estate planning find a doctor find health information helpful articles ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  3. HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, Justin A; Andreasen, Simon; Hang, Jen-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma (HMSC), originally known as HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features, is a peculiar neoplasm that is restricted to the sinonasal tract, exhibits features of both a surface-derived and salivary gland ca...

  4. HPV typing of vulvovaginal condylomata in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter is significant as the incidence of genital cancer in ... Table I. Summary of clinical details (age and site of lesion), HPV typing with NISH and peR confirmation of the presence of the virus. Case No. Age (yrs). Site. NISH HPV type. PCR. 1. < 12'. Vulva. 11 ... 33-positive cervical biopsies (paraffin sections) were used as.

  5. High HPV infection prevalence in men from infertile couples and lack of relationship between seminal HPV infection and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Barbara; Poljak, Mario; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality.

  6. High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Golob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality.

  7. Concordance of HPV load and HPV mRNA for 16 carcinogenic/possibly carcinogenic HPV types in paired smear/tissue cervical cancer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halec, Gordana; Dondog, Bolormaa; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

    2017-11-01

    HPV types with high viral load are associated with cervical abnormalities. However, viral load measurements and concordance of HPV loads and viral mRNA have not been demonstrated for all high-risk/possibly high-risk (HR-/pHR-)HPV types in cervical cancer (CxCa). Especially, the biological role of co-infecting HR-/pHR-HPV types with low viral load has not been thoroughly investigated. Using BSGP5+/6+-PCR/MPG genotyping, we analyzed viral loads for all currently defined 51 mucosal HPV types in 74 cervical smears from patients with CxCa and compared this data with HPV DNA and mRNA status in these patients' corresponding CxCa tissues. All cervical smear/tissue pairs were HPV DNA+. Overall HPV type agreement within pairs was 99% (complete agreement in 50%, partial agreement in 49%, and complete disagreement in 1% of cases). The proportion of multiple HPV types was significantly higher in smears compared to tissues (pHPV infections (>1 copy/cell) were found in 88% of HPV DNA+ smears, and were significantly associated with the presence of respective HPV DNA (kappa=0.685, CI: 0.567-0.803), and HPV mRNA (kappa=0.693, CI: 0.566-0.820) in CxCa tissues. In total, 93% (67/72) of high load HR-/pHR-HPV infections identified in smears were also present in corresponding CxCa tissues, and 93% (62/67) of these were HPV mRNA+. On the other hand, 78% (42/54) of low load HR-/pHR-HPV infections identified in smears were not detectable in tissues, including 11 out of 15 low load HPV16 infections. This data demonstrates that the presence of high HPV loads in CxCa smears predicts biologically active HR-/pHR-HPV types in tumor tissues.

  8. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  9. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zwol, Ulla Bonde; Joergensen, J. S.; Lamont, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been administered globally. Inadvertent administration of HPV vaccine during pregnancy occurs given that the main recipients of the vaccine are fertile young women, who might be unaware of their pregnancy at the time of their vaccination. To investigate...... the subject of HPV vaccine and pregnancy , the databases of PubMed and Embase were searched to find the relevant literature published in English within the last 10 y. Most of the evidence pertaining to fetal adverse events following HPV vaccination relates to spontaneous miscarriage. None of the relevant...... studies found any significantly increased rate of spontaneous abortion in the overall analyses. There was no indication of other HPV vaccine-associated adverse events in pregnancy or immediately post-conception. © 2016 Taylor & Francis....

  10. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hühns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and human papillomavirus (HPV infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9% moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin’s tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin’s tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.

  11. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  12. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and ...

  13. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  14. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  15. Genotyping of high-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV): ion torrent-next generation sequencing vs. linear array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Rebecca G; Ambulos, Nicholas P; Schumaker, Lisa M; Mathias, Trevor J; White, Ruth A; Troyer, Jennifer; Wells, David; Charurat, Manhattan E; Bentzen, Søren M; Cullen, Kevin J

    2017-06-13

    Our next generation sequencing (NGS)-based human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay showed a high degree of concordance with the Roche Linear Array (LA) with as little as 1.25 ng formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded-derived genomic DNA in head and neck and cervical cancer samples. This sensitive genotyping assay uses barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum general primers 5+/6+ (BSGP)5+/6+ applicable to population studies, but it's diagnostic performance has not been tested in cases with multiple concurrent HPV infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), sensitivity and specificity of the NGS assay to detect HPV genotype infections as compared to the LA. DNA was previously extracted from ten anal swab samples from men who have sex with men in Nigeria enrolled on the TRUST/RV368 cohort study. Two-sample tests of proportions were used to examine differences in the diagnostic performance of the NGS assay to detect high vs. low-risk HPV type-specific infections. In total there were 94 type-specific infections detected in 10 samples with a median of 9.5, range (9 to 10) per sample. Using the LA as the gold standard, 84.4% (95% CI: 75.2-91.2) of the same anal type-specific infections detected on the NGS assay had been detected by LA. The PPV and sensitivity differed significantly for high risk (PPV: 90%, 95% CI: 79.5-96.2; sensitivity: 93.1%, 95% CI: 83.3-98.1) as compared to low risk HPV (PPV: 73%, 95% CI: 54.1-87.7; sensitivity: 61.1, 95% CI: 43.5-76.9) (all p  0.05). The NGS assay detected 10 HPV genotypes that were not among the 37 genotypes found on LA (30, 32, 43, 44, 74, 86, 87, 90, 91, 114). The NGS assay accurately detects multiple HPV infections in individual clinical specimens with limited sample volume and has extended coverage compared to LA.

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Male Adolescents 4 Years After HPV-16/18 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tuomas; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Petäjä, Tiina; Eriksson, Tiina; Jokiranta, Sakari; Natunen, Kari; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2017-11-15

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among HPV-16/18-vaccinated and unvaccinated Finnish male adolescents participating in chlamydia screening 4 years after vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in 2007-2009. Previously vaccinated (n = 395) or unvaccinated (n = 149) male adolescents were enrolled in 12 municipalities. First-void urine samples were tested for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68, and prevalence rates for HPV-16/18, and HPV-11/16/18/31/33/45 were reduced profoundly (0% vs 2.1% [P = .02] and 0.8% vs 5.3 [P = .002], respectively). Overall HPV DNA prevalence was also significantly reduced among HPV-16/18-vaccinated (4.1%) compared with unvaccinated subjects (10.1%) (P = .01). In this post hoc study, a highly significant reduction in HPV prevalence 4 years after vaccination suggests that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine has protective efficacy in men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Health technology assessment report: HPV DNA based primary screening for cervical cancer precursors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Biggeri, Annibale; Confortini, Massimo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Accetta, Gabriele; Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Carozzi, Francesca; Gillio Tos, Anna; Arbyn, Marc; Mejier, Chris J L M; Snijders, Peter J F; Cuzick, Jack; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    the integration of registries and thorough monitoring and a progressive homogenization of protocols. In order to grant the safety of transition, it is needed that the HPV-based organised screening activities are strictly monitored and that the National Centre for Screening Monitoring (ONS) ensures coordination. Knowledge about HPV based screening is still rapidly evolving. It is possible that currently on-going researches suggest changes to the optimal protocols in the next few years, particularly as for the management of HPV positive women. In addition, studies on the validation of new assays were recently published and others are expected. It is suggested to exploit the organised screening activity to produce scientific evidence, in order to clarify the still uncertain aspects of optimal protocols. Different protocols in terms of screening intervals, age of application and management of HPV positive women should be studied in the frame of controlled implementation, through multicentre projects coordinated by ONS. Finally, it is suggested the creation of a National working group to promptly update the recommendations for screening and the list of assays to be considered as validated. On the bases of the results obtained in the first vaccinated cohorts reaching the screening age, for the future, it will be crucial to deliver specific recommendations to the population vaccinated against HPV during adolescence.

  18. HPV integration detection in CaSki and SiHa using detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences and restriction-site PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Rachel; Fiander, Alison; Wilkinson, Gavin W G; Hibbitts, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of cervical neoplasia. HPV DNA is integrated into the human genome in the majority of cervical cancers. The nature of integration may differ with integration incorporating a single copy of HPV or occurring in concatenated form. Our understanding of HPV tumorigenesis is largely based on studies using characterised cell lines with defined integration sites; these cell lines provide an invaluable standard for validation of diagnostic assays. Cell lines also further understanding of integration mechanisms in clinical samples. The objective of this study was to explore integration assays and to investigate integration events in cell lines where HPV is integrated in concatenated form. Restriction site PCR and detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences were performed on DNA from SiHa and CaSki. A novel integration site on Xq27.3 and HPV genome rearrangements were detected in CaSki DNA. However, where integration was previously detected by FISH in CaSki, and reported to be integrated in concatenated form, integration was not detected by DIPS or RS-PCR. The data presented illustrate that HPV copy number can hinder integration detection; this needs consideration when interpreting results from tests applied to clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. HPV types and E6/E7 mRNA expression in cervical samples from Turkish women with abnormal cytology in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüney, İpek; Altay, Aylin; Ergünay, Koray; Önder, Sevgen Çelik; Usubütün, Alp; Salman, Mehmet Coşkun; Bozdayi, Gülendam; Karabulut, Erdem; Badur, Osman Selim; Yüce, Kunter; Pinar, Ahmet

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomaviruses have been established as a risk factor for invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression has recently emerged as a promising biomarker to determine the risk for progression to high-grade cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPV mRNA and DNA detection in samples with abnormal cytology. Cervical specimens were obtained at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology via cervical brushes during January-October 2011. Liquid-based cytology slides were evaluated according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Cytology specimens from a total of 81 women with abnormal cytology were included. Real-time PCR and NASBA assays were performed to detect HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA, respectively. HPV DNA was identified in 73 samples (90.1%). HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was observed in 45 samples (55.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed among cytological diagnosis groups. In 25 patients, a biopsy was performed during the follow-up. HPV DNA was detected in all of these patients. HPV E6/E7 expression was present only in CIN I-III diagnosed patients. The E6/E7 mRNA test is a robust indicator of cytological atypia and correlates better with progressive lesions than DNA assays.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Bedia; Rota, Seyyal; Onan, Anil; Bozdayi, Gulendam; Taskiran, Cagatay; Biri, Aydan; Güner, Haldun

    2010-01-01

    this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI), parity and Pap smear results. one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively) applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PCR using the L1 region. Real-time nested amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV and HPV 16 DNA specific probe after HPV DNA extraction by phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 12% and 18% of the colposcopy positive patients respectively. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 5.7% and 3.8% of the colposcopy negative patients, respectively. there was a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients comparing HPV 16 with total HPV positivity (p = 0.021 for type 16 and p = 0.010 for total HPV) but there was not a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients when we compared HPV (excepting type 16) positivity (p = 0.314). In conclusion, HPV detection and typing may be helpful for cervical cancer screening and prevention.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Dinc

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI, parity and Pap smear results. METHODS: one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PCR using the L1 region. Real-time nested amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV and HPV 16 DNA specific probe after HPV DNA extraction by phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol. RESULTS: HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were positive in 12% and 18% of the colposcopy positive patients respectively. HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were positive in 5.7% and 3.8% of the colposcopy negative patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients comparing HPV 16 with total HPV positivity (p = 0.021 for type 16 and p = 0.010 for total HPV but there was not a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients when we compared HPV (excepting type 16 positivity (p = 0.314. In conclusion, HPV detection and typing may be helpful for cervical cancer screening and prevention.

  2. Comparison of HPV genotyping and methylated ZNF582 as triage for women with equivocal liquid-based cytology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yingzi; Cao, Lanqin; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Lin, Shu-Yi; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results remains challenging, even with the addition of the high-risk human papillomavirus test (HPV-HR). Recently, methylated zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) (ZNF582 (m) ) was reported to be highly associated with cervical cancer. In this study, we compared the performance of ZNF582 (m) detection and HPV-HR genotyping in the triage of cervical atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cell - cannot exclude a high-grade lesion (ASC-H). Two hundred and forty-two subjects with equivocal papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) results were recruited in this hospital-based and case-controlled study. The residual cervical cells in liquid-based cytological test (LBC) containers were used for genomic DNA extraction and then for ZNF582 (m) and HPV-HR detection. The level of ZNF582 (m) was quantified by real-time methylation-specific PCR after bisulfite conversion. The HPV-HR test was performed by using a nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) assay that combines degenerate E6/E7 consensus primers and HPV type-specific primers. Significant associations were observed between ZNF582 (m) and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher (CIN3+; odds ratio = 15.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.73 to 31.18). The sensitivity and specificity of ZNF582 (m) for women with CIN3+ were 82.43% and 76.79%, respectively. High sensitivity (99.33%) but low specificity (38.76%) was observed for HPV-HR. When combining both positive results of ZNF582 (m) and HPV-HR, the sensitivity and specificity were 82.43% and 81.55%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ZNF582 (m) or HPV-16/18 were 89.19% and 70.24%, respectively. However, the sensitivity and specificity of ZNF582 (m) combined with HPV-16/18 (both ZNF582 (m) and HPV-16/18 positive results) were 59.46% and 94.64%, respectively. ZNF582 (m) provides a promising triage tool for women with ASC. To effectively manage ASC patients

  3. Awareness of students graduation classes about how HPV infection viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Martina

    2013-01-01

    v anglickém jazyce The thesis is dedicated to the awareness of students about the possibilities of graduation classes have HPV viruses. Introduction is devoted to the description of the theoretical and empirical chapters and a brief explanation of the issue of HPV viruses. In the beginning of the theoretical part presents brief characteristics of HPV viruses along with the history of HPV research, the incidence of disease caused due to HPV infection and disease transmission. In other chapters...

  4. [Human PAPILLOMA Virus (HPV) vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Tamar

    2007-10-01

    A solid tumor related to viral infection is a rare and challenging condition to the medical community raising the possibility to fight and prevent this cancer by vaccine. Cervical cancer, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a major health problem worldwide. The two HPV vaccines approved lately could lead to more than a 70% reduction in cases of cervical cancer and a similar reduction in deaths from the cancer. Pap smear screening significantly (80%) reduced disease incidence and is still useful and needed. In addition to early detection, vaccination will prevent the development of precancerous and cancerous lesion and reduce morbidity, mortality and psychological and social stress as well as stressful and expensive follow-ups in women with suspicious lesions. The vaccinations described will bring to a significant reduction in genital warts incidence, a serious social and psychological burden to the infected population. Practical social and psychological issues are still to be addressed, some of them are: time and frequency of administration, use of vaccination in men, public acceptance and behavior, appropriate populations to be vaccinated, etc. Most unresolved questions will be answered over time. The new vaccines embody a big promise to humanity, although we still have to overcome the financial burden and possible late side effects of the vaccine.

  5. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  6. Human papilloma virus (HPV) molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupis, Christos; Vourlidis, Nikolaos

    2011-11-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is becoming a menace worldwide, especially to the developing world, due to its involvement in a variety of malignancies, with cervical cancer being the most important and prevalent. There are many HPV types; HPV 16/18 are the most carcinogenic but few others are also characterized as high-risk (HR). They can cause a variety of low- or high-grade cellular abnormalities, most frequently detected in a routine Pap test. Most infections clear within 2 years, however, a minority persists and potentially could progress to cervical cancer. Molecular tests detecting HPV DNA, RNA or proteins are now being available either commercially or in-house developed. DNA detection is nowadays an established tool for diagnosis and monitoring of HPV-related disease, however, there is lack of a reference method and standardization with reference materials. The various available test formats create confusion on which molecular test to choose and what are its limitations. Therefore, the need for lab accreditation and participation in proficiency testing has to be stressed. Novel HPV biomarkers (RNA, protein etc.) are now intensively examined for their inclusion as adjunct tools. Recently, developed prophylactic vaccines for HPV 16/18 have already proven safe and efficient and raise high expectations for the complete eradication of these types in the future.

  7. Establishment of a Korea HPV cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Sae-Young; Koo, Yu Jin; Kim, Tae-Jin; Hur, Soo Young; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Shil; Choi, Ho Sun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Ki Tae

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a five-year multicentre prospective cohort study in women who are both human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of cervix. This study aimed to analyze the risk of developing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) from either ASCUS or LSIL in HPV-positive women, so called 'progression' rate, to investigate differences in the progression rates according to HPV type-specific infection, and to evaluate the various factors associated with the persistence or clearance of HPV infection in the Korean population. At present, the study protocol composed of cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing, and questionnaire have been conducted actively since the first participant was enrolled in 2010. This study is the first nationwide Korea HPV cohort study. Our data will provide valuable information about not only the ambiguous cytology results of ASCUS and LSIL but also the effect of the specific HPV type and other various factors on the progression to HSIL. Finally, the results of our study will be helpful and applicable to determine the primary cervical cancer prevention strategies. PMID:23346315

  8. Association of Older Sister's HPV Vaccination Status on HPV Vaccine Receipt by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage rates in adolescents include finding ways to improve discussions between clinicians and parents. One potentially important piece of information for these discussions is the HPV vaccination status of older siblings. A nationally representative online panel was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 9 to 17 years in October 2012. Overall, 768 adolescents (35%) had ≥1 older sister aged 10 to 26 years. Male and female adolescents with an older sister who had received no HPV vaccine doses demonstrated higher rates of having no doses themselves, compared with those who had no older sister or those who had an older sister who had received ≥1 HPV vaccine dose. Discussing the HPV vaccination status of older sisters may be a useful strategy for providers to differentiate HPV vaccine messages to parents of unvaccinated younger siblings. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Views on HPV and HPV Vaccination: The Experience at a Federal Qualified Clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J; Martínez, Tania M; Rodríguez, Verónica; Ríos, Ana M; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand through a quantitative assessment, the views of HPV and HPV vaccination among parents of sons from a FQHC in PR. A self-administered questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 200 parents of sons 9-17 years old. Nearly 30% of the parents reported that their sons had initiated the HPV vaccine regimen. Health care provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccine initiation. Among parents of unvaccinated sons, the main reason for not getting the HPV vaccine was they did not know that boys were allowed to get the vaccine. Future efforts should focus on multilevel interventions aimed to increase knowledge as well as other modified behavioral determinants in parents of young males about HPV and the vaccine. Capacity building efforts should be targeted also to increase health providers' education and communication skills to promote HPV vaccination effectively.

  10. HPV prevalence in vulvar cancer in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, Sophie; Gensthaler, Lisa; Alemany, Laia; Horvat, Reinhard; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Joura, Elmar A

    2017-11-01

    Even if vulvar cancer is not common, over one hundred women are affected in Austria per year. There is strong evidence that basaloid and warty variants are associated with types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study is to analyze the types of HPV in vulvar cancer in Austria. This cross-sectional period-prevalence international collaborative study on archival specimens was performed in cooperation with the Institut Catalan di Oncologia in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 177 consecutive samples of Austrian women were analyzed to detect the presence of various HPV types using the SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 system. Furthermore, the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). A tumor was considered HPV-driven if an overexpression of p16(INK4a) was detected. In all, 41 cases of vulvar cancer tested positive for HPV DNA (23%) and 32 (18%) were p16 positive. Patients with warty and basaloid squamous cell cancer were significantly younger than those with keratinizing squamous cell cancer (63.3 years vs. 71.0 years, p = 0.021). In addition, 77.4% of all cases suffering from warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer tested positive for HPV, compared to 9.5% of the keratinizing squamous cell cancer cases (p HPV strain was type 16, followed by 31 and 33. Infection with HPV type 16 appears to be strongly correlated to the development of warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer. Vaccination against HPV can be expected to prevent this type of vulvar cancer.

  11. The Role of HPV E6 and E7 Oncoproteins in HPV-associated Cervical Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Sup

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading world causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in woman, with more than 98% related to a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection origin. Infection with specific subtypes of HPV has been strongly implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. The identification and functional verification of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis and the development of cervical cancer-specific m...

  12. HPV and p53 in cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngan, H Y; Stanley, M; Liu, S S; Ma, H K

    1994-01-01

    Objective - To determine the prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 E6 by DNA detection and p53 abnormal protein expression in cervical cancers in Hong Kong. Materials and methods - Seventy-three squamous cell cervical cancer biopsy were analysed. Detection of HPV DNA was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting (PCR/SB) technique using primers to the HPV16 and 18 E6 region and consensus primers to the L1 region. Abnormal expression of the p53 protein was detected by immunohist...

  13. Acceptability of HPV Vaccines and Associations with Perceptions Related to HPV and HPV Vaccines Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Jean H.; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H. Y.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.

    2013-01-01

    HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM), a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542). The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price), 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price), 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price) and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price). Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted. PMID:23451188

  14. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    .... By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes...

  15. Performance of a Branch Chain RNA In Situ Hybridization Assay for the Detection of High-risk Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Darcy A; Arora, Kshitij S; Mahadevan, Krishnan K; Hornick, Jason L; Krane, Jeffrey F; Rivera, Miguel N; Ting, David T; Deshpande, Vikram; Faquin, William C

    2015-12-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a major etiologic agent in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), and its recognition has prognostic and predictive implications. The availability of a sensitive and specific test to assess HR-HPV status is limited. We evaluate an RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) method using branch chain technology to detect HR-HPV and compare its results with DNA ISH, p16 immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue sections from 54 patients were stained with a manual RNA ISH assay (ViewRNA), which detects 14 HR-HPV types, an automated DNA ISH assay, and p16 immunohistochemistry. Most cases (83%, n=45) were also tested on an automated platform for 14 HR-HPV types and 1 limited to HPV 16/18. PCR was performed in all cases and was successful in 93% (n=50). The RNA ISH assay produced results in 96% of the cases with strong signals and was easily interpreted. HR-HPV was detected in more cases (63%, n=34) by RNA ISH than by DNA ISH (39%, n=21). Compared with PCR, both ISH platforms were 94% specific. RNA ISH was more sensitive (91%) than DNA ISH (65%), and RNA ISH correlated more strongly with p16 immunostaining. HPV 16 represented 89% of HR-HPV detected. The cocktail HPV 16/18 platform was concordant with the pooled HR-HPV assay in all expected cases. The automated assay demonstrated high concordance (96%) with the manual version, showed decreased background, and should allow for easy implementation into the workflow of the diagnostic pathology laboratory.

  16. Perceptions of HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccination amongst men who have sex with men: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarzynski, Tom; Smith, Helen; Richardson, Daniel; Pollard, Alex; Llewellyn, Carrie

    2017-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of genital warts and anal cancer due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study explores MSMs' perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccination prior to the introduction of this programme. Focus groups and one-to-one interviews with self-identified MSM were conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 in Brighton, UK. Participants were recruited from community-based lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender (LGBT) venues and organizations. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using framework analysis. Thirty-three men took part (median age 25 years, IQR: 21-27), most of whom (n = 25) did not know about HPV, anal cancer (31), or HPV vaccination (26). While genital warts and anal cancer were perceived as severe, men did not perceive themselves at risk of HPV. All MSM would accept the HPV vaccine if offered by a health care professional. The challenges of accessing sexual health services or openly discussing same-sex experiences with health care professionals were perceived as barriers to accessing HPV vaccination. Two participants were concerned that selective HPV vaccination could increase stigma and prejudice against MSM, comparable to the AIDS epidemic. Ten MSM were unsure about the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for sexually active men and were in favour of vaccinating all adolescent boys at school. Most MSM have poor knowledge about HPV and associated anal cancer. Despite the lack of concern about HPV, most MSM expressed willingness to receive HPV vaccination. There is a need for health education about the risks of HPV and HPV-related diseases so that MSM can appraise the benefits of being vaccinated. Concerns about HPV vaccine effectiveness in sexually active men and possible stigmatization need to be addressed to optimize HPV vaccine acceptability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Men who have sex with men (MSM) have poor knowledge about HPV and HPV

  17. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  18. Utility of gene methylation analysis, cytological examination, and HPV-16/18 genotyping in triage of high-risk human papilloma virus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yuan Wu, Na-Yi; Liou, Yu-Ligh; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Cao, Lanqin; Kang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huei-Jen; Li, Yichen; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Honghao; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-22

    In 2015, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening, suggesting triage of women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) by HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology for women positive for non-16/18 hrHPV. The design of the present study was based on this interim guidance and analysis of the methylation status of specific candidate genes, which has been proposed as a tool to reduce unnecessary referral following primary HPV screening for cervical cancer. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 312 hrHPV-positive women. hrHPV genotyping was performed by nested multiplex PCR assay with type-specific primers.Residual cervical cells from liquid-based cytology were used for extraction of genomic DNA for assessment of the methylation status of PAX1, ZNF582, SOX1, and NKX6-1 and HPV genotyping. Combined with HPV-16/18 genotyping, both a dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 and testing for ZNF582 methylation demonstrated 100% association of methylation with pathology results, indicating carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 as a reflex test for identification of CIN3+ lesions were 78.85% and 73.55% (odds ratio = 10.37, 95% confidence interval = 4.76-22.58), respectively. This strategy could reduce the number of patients referred for colposcopic examination by 31.3% compared with cytology, and thus provide a feasible follow-up solution in regions where colposcopy is not readily available. This strategy could also prevent unnecessary anxiety in women with hrHPV infection.

  19. Lack of effects on male fertility from a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L David; Pauley, Cindy J; Michael, Bindhu; Wolf, Jayanthi J

    2010-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in both men and women. A recently developed quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of several HPV-mediated diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of the vaccine on male fertility including reproductive performance, sperm evaluations, and histology of the testes. In addition, anti-HPV antibodies were measured during the study. Group 1 (30 male rats) received the full human dose of vaccine (0.5 mL, ∼200-fold excess based on body weight) by intramuscular injection at 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 3 days prior to cohabitation. Group 2 males received only 1 dose at 3 days prior to cohabitation. Additional groups (20 male rats each) were administered PBS or Merck Aluminum Adjuvant similarly to Group 1. Ten males in the vaccine-treated groups were bled for immunogenicity assays after each dose. Twenty males per group were mated to untreated female rats. Cesarean sections were performed on Gestation Day 15 or 16. Cohabited males were necropsied and sperm count and motility were evaluated. There were no unscheduled deaths during the study and no evidence of toxicity in vaccine-treated male rats. The vaccine induced a specific antibody response to the 4 HPV types after each injection. There were no effects on the cesarean-section parameters of females or reproductive parameters of the cohabited male rats, including histomorphology of testes and epididymis, sperm count, and sperm motility. These results demonstrate that this quadrivalent HPV vaccine had no detectable adverse effects on routine measures of male fertility in rats. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. [Anticipated efficacy of HPV vaccination in prophylaxis against nongenital cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, B; Vojáčková, N; Driák, D; Kmoníčková, E; Vaňousová, D; Maxová, K; Neumannová, H; Sláma, J

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable number of studies on the efficacy HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination against different cancers but relevant information is scattered in diverse journals. This paper is a review summarizing current knowledge of the potential of HPV vaccination against all HPV related cancers. HPV infection is probably the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. At least 13 HPV genotypes are classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic in respect to cervical cancer. Almost 100% of cervical cancers are linked to HPV infection. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the most frequently involved genotypes and account together for approximately 70% of cervical cancer in the world. Persistent high risk HPV infection is responsible for a significant proportion of vulvar, vaginal, anal and penile carcinomas. The virus has also been implicated in oncogenesis of head and neck cancers, including oropharyngeal cancers. HPV infection can play an important role in cancerogenesis of lung, esophagus, breast, and colon and rectum. On the contrary, published results indicate that HPV infection is not associated with prostate oncogenesis. Strong predominance of HPV 16 has been reported for all HPV associated cancer sites. Generally, it is estimated that approximately 5.2% of all cancers are associated with oncogenic HPV infection. Currently, there are two vaccines on the market; quadrivalent Silgard® (Gardasil®) and bivalent CervarixTM. Large trials for both vaccines have shown efficacy against HPV related infection and disease. Efficacy has been very high in HPV naive subjects to vaccine related types. While HPV vaccination is currently approved for the prevention of cervical cancer, it also has the potential in the prevention of all HPV associated malignancies. The Czech republic belongs to countries that cover HPV vaccination of girls at the age of 13- 14 years by general health insurance. Overall impact of this vaccination remains to be evaluated. The new issues of the

  1. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  2. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  3. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  5. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  6. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  8. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  14. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV vaccine in the United States--do we need a broader vaccine policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, N

    2013-11-12

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) of global importance; it is the most prevalent STI in the United States, with strains causally linked to oropharyngeal and other cancers. Efforts to prevent HPV have been made to varying degrees by policies implemented by different state governments; however, HPV and associated oropharyngeal cancer continue to show increasing incidence rates in the US. A narrative review based on search on SciVerse, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases, as well as literature/documents from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, National Conference of State legislatures, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services relevant to HPV and HPV vaccine policy in the US. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy in the US, and an extant recommendation aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers is the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer, although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. And while there is a history of successful vaccine mandate in the US with resulting decrease in occurrence of infectious diseases, implementing HPV vaccine mandate has proved to be very unpopular. With emerging evidence of the efficacy of the use of the HPV vaccine in preventing oral-HPV, more focus should be put on extending HPV vaccine to present oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer. Also, implementing a broader HPV vaccine policy that include mandating HPV vaccines as a school-entry requirement for both sexes may increase vaccine use in the US for the greater good of the public. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus: a technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jane S

    2014-09-01

    Nucleic acid-based high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is essential to contemporary cervical cancer screening. The numbers of commercially available assays approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for HPV nucleic acid detection have increased, each offering various approaches to analysis. An understanding of the methodologies associated with HPV testing is important to the practice of laboratory medicine. An overview of instruments, chemistries, laboratory workflows, and test limitations associated with current US Food and Drug Administration-approved assays is provided. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. High human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence in South African adolescents and young women encourages expanded HPV vaccination campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizipho Z A Mbulawa

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to investigate prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes to inform HPV vaccination strategy in South Africa and to study factors associated with HPV prevalence. Sexually active, HIV-negative women, aged 16-22 years recruited from Soweto (n = 143 and Cape Town (n = 148 were tested for cervical HPV and other genital infections. Overall HPV prevalence was 66.7% (194/291 in young women. Cape Town women were more likely to have multiple HPV infections than the Soweto women (48.0%, 71/148 versus 35.0%, 50/143 respectively, p = 0.033 and probable HR-HPV types (34.5%, 51/148 versus 21.7%, 31/143 respectively, p = 0.022. The most frequently detected HPV types were HPV-16 (11.7%, HPV-58 (10.3%, HPV-51 (8.9%, HPV-66 (8.6%, HPV-18 and HPV-81 (7.6% each. HPV types targeted by the bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-16/18 were detected in 18.6% (54/291 of women, while those in the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18 were detected in 24.7% (72/291 of women; and those in the nonavalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were detected in 38.5% (112/291 of women. In a multivariable analysis, bacterial vaginosis remained significantly associated with HPV infection (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6. Women were more likely to be HPV positive if they had received treatment for STI during the past 6-months (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-12.4 or if they had ever been pregnant (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.5. Compared to women who reported only one sexual partner, those with increased number of lifetime sex partners were more likely to have HPV (4-10 partners: OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-8.0. The high prevalence of HPV types targeted by the nonavalent HPV vaccine encourages the introduction of this vaccine and catch-up HPV vaccination campaigns in South Africa. The high burden of BV and concurrent STIs also highlights the need to improve the prevention and appropriate management of sexually-acquired and other genital tract infections in South African

  18. Molecular characterization, tissue tropism, and genetic variability of the novel Mupapillomavirus type HPV204 and phylogenetically related types HPV1 and HPV63.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Šterbenc

    Full Text Available HPV204 is the only newly identified Mupapillomavirus (Mu-PV type in more than a decade. To comprehensively characterize HPV204, we performed a detailed molecular analysis of the viral genome and evaluated its clinical relevance in comparison to the other Mu-PVs, HPV1 and HPV63. The 7,227-bp long genome of HPV204 exhibits typical genomic organization of Mu-PVs with eight open reading frames (ORFs (E6, E7, E1, E2, E8, E4, L2, and L1. We developed three type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs and used them to test a representative collection (n = 1,006 of various HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, as well as samples of clinically normal cutaneous, mucosal, and mucocutaneous origins. HPV204, HPV1, and HPV63 were detected in 1.1%, 2.7%, and 1.9% of samples tested, respectively, and were present in skin and mucosa, suggesting dual tissue tropism of all Mu-PVs. To evaluate the etiological role of Mu-PVs in the development of HPV-associated neoplasms, Mu-PV viral loads per single cell were estimated. HPV1 and HPV63 were present in high viral copy numbers in 3/43 and 1/43 cutaneous warts, respectively, and were identified as the most likely causative agents of these warts. HPV204 viral load was extremely low in a single HPV204-positive cutaneous wart (7.4 × 10-7 viral copies/cell. Hence, etiological association between HPV204 and the development of cutaneous warts could not be established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the genetic variability of Mu-PVs by sequencing complete LCR genomic regions of HPV204, HPV1, and HPV63. We detected several nucleotide substitutions and deletions within the LCR genomic regions of Mu-PVs and identified two genetic variants of HPV204 and HPV63 and five genetic variants of HPV1.

  19. Enzyme assays

    OpenAIRE

    Bisswanger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The essential requirements for enzyme assays are described and frequently occurring errors and pitfalls as well as their avoidance are discussed. The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes. Standardization of these parameters would be desirable, but the diversity of the features of different enzymes prevents unification of assay conditions. Neverthele...

  20. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  1. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  2. Young Hungarian Students' Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter

    2016-12-29

    (1) Background: Hungarys's estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12-13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated-significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults' HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students' attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  3. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Moukhtari, N.; Bloemena, E.; Brink, A.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and

  4. The impact of HPV vaccination on HPV and cervical cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted virus, of which 150 types have been completely sequenced. Currently, about 14 HPV-types are considered ‘high risk’ for their potential to cause cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. In

  5. Analytical performance evaluation of Anyplex II HPV28 and Euroarray HPV for genotyping of cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Tapp, Jessica; Nguyen, Trung; Fischer, Marc; Arbyn, Marc; Weyers, Steven; Mossong, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Analytically accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods are required to assess the impact of HPV vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene, Korea) and Euroarray HPV (Euroimmun, Germany) genotyping kits, for conducting a future HPV vaccine efficacy monitoring study in Luxembourg. A total number of 150 cervical swabs were collected from women with mean age 31.4 years. Agreements for detecting any HPV between Aptima/Anyplex (88.0%) and Aptima/Euroarray (90.7%) were similar. Agreement of Anyplex/EuroArray with Aptima was higher for Genotypes 16, 18 or 45 than for the other 11 HPVs. The average number of HPV genotypes detected per sample was similar with 2.6 and 2.5, for Anyplex and EuroArray, respectively. In conclusion, Anyplex and Euroarray showed high agreement in general and in particular for detecting genotypes contained in HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertical transmission of HPV in pregnancy. A prospective clinical study of HPV-positive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jach, Robert; Galarowicz, Bartłomiej; Huras, Hubert; Pawlik, Dorota; Basta, Tomasz; Streb, Joanna; Wolski, Hubert; Ludwin, Artur; Ludwin, Inga

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Data reporting vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus are inconsistent and scant. Vertical transmission may occur by hematogenic route (transplacental), or by ascending contamination, or through the birth canal, which may result in the dreaded and rare laryngeal papillomatosis. Infected sperm at fertilization is a potential route of infection, too. The objective of the study was to evaluate the rate of vertical transmission of HPV in HPV-positive pregnant women to their newborn infants, as well as the risk factors of HPV vertical transmission. The clinical material was provided by 136 pregnant women, aged 18-45 years. Out of this group, 30 (22.05%) women with abnormal Pap test and positive DNA HPV test were prospectively observed Neonatal status, i.e. DNA HPV from the nasopharyngeal smear was recorded in all infants during the perinatal period. The conventional Pap test was performed with the cervix brush in all women. The Bethesda 2011 classification system was applied. An average C Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration in the studied pregnant women was 711.6083 (Std Dev--12.93). The most frequent cytological findings in the cervical smears from the examined women were ASCUS, n = 13 (43.3%), then--LSIL, n = 10 (33.3%), HSIL--n = 5 (16.7%) and AGC--n = 2 (6.7%). In the neonates, the presence of LR HPV DNA was detected in 9 cases (30.0%) and HR HPV DNA in 7 cases (23.3%). Fourteen neonates (46.7%) tested HPV DNA negative in the perinatal period. HPV infection (incidental or chronic) is observed in approximately 22% of pregnant women from the Matopolska province. Neonatal HPV infection in HPV-positive women was observed in 53.3% of the subjects. CRP concentration > 10 mg/dl in the serum of pregnant women statistically significantly (p 0.001) reduces the risk of vertical transmission of HPV from the mother to the fetus.

  7. Nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by hydrophobic interactions between its zinc-binding domain and FG nucleoporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onder, Zeynep; Moroianu, Junona, E-mail: moroianu@bc.edu

    2014-01-20

    We have previously discovered and characterized the nuclear import pathways for the E7 oncoproteins of mucosal alpha genus HPVs, type 16 and 11. Here we investigated the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 protein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP-8E7 and mutant plasmids and nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. Furthermore, we discovered that a mostly hydrophobic patch {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} within the zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear import and localization of HPV8 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153. Substitution of the hydrophobic residues within the {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} patch to alanines, and not R66A mutation, disrupt the interactions between the 8E7 zinc-binding domain and Nup62 and Nup153 and consequently inhibit nuclear import of HPV8 E7. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a cNLS within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. • Discovery of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV8 E7. • HPV8 E7 nuclear import is mediated by hydrophobic interactions with FG-Nups, Nup62 and Nup153.

  8. Selective p300 inhibitor C646 inhibited HPV E6-E7 genes, altered glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongpeng; Lai, Yongwei; Hao, Yunpeng; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Xiang; Guo, Chenhong; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan; Luo, Xue-Gang; Huo, Lihong; Ma, Wenjian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2017-10-05

    High risk HPV infection is a causative factor of cervical cancer. The constitutive expression of HPV E6-E7 genes is important for the maintenance of cancer phenotypes. The cellular transcription co-activator p300 plays a crucial role in the regulation of HPV genes thus it was targeted for the inhibition of HPV-associated cervical cancer. In the present study, HPV positive cervical cells were treated with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, to investigate its influence on HPV E6-E7 expression and cancer cell growth. Results of RT-qPCR, Western-blot and promoter activity assays showed that C646 inhibited the transcription of HPV E6-E7, which was accompanied with the accumulation of p53 protein. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was suppressed, glucose metabolism was disrupted and apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway. Generally, the anti-cervical cancer potential of C646 was demonstrated and a novel mechanism was proposed in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cause-specific mortality in HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Cecilie; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David

    2017-01-01

    ; 1.00 year), secondary malignancies (n = 131; 2.37 years), cardiovascular and pulmonary causes (n = 58; 3.48 years), and unspecified causes (n = 102; 3.42 years). HPV/p16 status was the strongest predictor of improved survival across all causes of death. The only cause of death to decrease...... in incidence over the 2 years after treatment was death from OPSCC. HPV/p16 positivity was an independent factor for improved survival across all causes of death in patients with OPSCC. In addition, both HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC patients faced high 5- and 10-year mortality rates. Implementing......Identifying the causes of death in head and neck cancer patients can optimize follow-up and therapeutic strategies, but studies in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients stratified by HPV status are lacking. We report cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of patients...

  10. Clinicopathological implications of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein immunoreactivity in HPV16-positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv(®) HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤ CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥ CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections

  11. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune measure for

  12. Urine testing to monitor the impact of HPV vaccination in Bhutan and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Chantal Umulisa, M; Tshomo, Ugyen; Gheit, Tarik; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Tshokey, Tshokey; Gatera, Maurice; Ngabo, Fidele; Van Damme, Pierre; Snijders, Peter J F; Tommasino, Massimo; Vorsters, Alex; Clifford, Gary M

    2016-08-01

    Bhutan (2010) and Rwanda (2011) were the first countries in Asia and Africa to introduce national, primarily school-based, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. These target 12 year-old girls and initially included catch-up campaigns (13-18 year-olds in Bhutan and ninth school grade in Rwanda). In 2013, to obtain the earliest indicators of vaccine effectiveness, we performed two school-based HPV urine surveys; 973 female students (median age: 19 years, 5th-95th percentile: 18-22) were recruited in Bhutan and 912 (19 years, 17-20) in Rwanda. Participants self-collected a first-void urine sample using a validated protocol. HPV prevalence was obtained using two PCR assays that differ in sensitivity and type spectrum, namely GP5+/GP6+ and E7-MPG. 92% students in Bhutan and 43% in Rwanda reported to have been vaccinated (median vaccination age = 16, 5th-95th: 14-18). HPV positivity in urine was significantly associated with sexual activity measures. In Rwanda, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.51 by GP5+/GP6+, and 0.45, CI: 0.23-0.90 by E7-MPG). For E7-MPG, cross-protection against 10 high-risk types phylogenetically related to HPV16 or 18 was of borderline significance (PR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-1.01). In Bhutan, HPV6/11/16/18 prevalence by GP5+/GP6+ was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated students but CIs were broad. In conclusion, our study supports the feasibility of urine surveys to monitor HPV vaccination and quantifies the effectiveness of the quadrivalent vaccine in women vaccinated after pre-adolescence. Future similar surveys should detect increases in vaccine effectiveness if vaccination of 12 year-olds continues. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Public health value of universal HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audisio, Riccardo A; Icardi, Giancarlo; Isidori, Andrea M; Liverani, Carlo A; Lombardi, Alberto; Mariani, Luciano; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Mitchell, David A; Peracino, Andrea; Pecorelli, Sergio; Rezza, Giovanni; Signorelli, Carlo; Rosati, Giovanni Vitali; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The story of Human Papillomavirus vaccination demands reflection not only for its public health impact on the prophylactic management of HPV disease, but also for its relevant economic and social outcomes. Greater than ever data confirm the efficacy and support the urge for effective vaccination plans for both genders before sexual debut. A review of previous experience in gender-restricted vaccination programs has demonstrated a lower effectiveness. Limiting vaccination to women might increase the psychological burden on women by confirming a perceived inequality between genders; and even if all women were immunized, the HPV chain of transmission would still be maintained through men. The cost-effectiveness of including boys into HPV vaccination programs should be re-assessed in view of the progressive drop of the economic burden of HPV-related diseases in men and women due to universal vaccination. The cost of the remarkable increase in anal and oropharyngeal HPV driven cancers in both sexes has been grossly underestimated or ignored. Steps must be taken by relevant bodies to achieve the target of universal vaccination. The analysis of HPV vaccination's clinical effectiveness vs. economic efficacy are supportive of the economic sustainability of vaccination programs both in women and men. In Europe, these achievements demand urgent attention to the social equity for both genders in healthcare. There is sufficient ethical, scientific, strategic and economic evidence to urge the European Community to develop and implement a coordinated and comprehensive strategy aimed at both genders and geographically balanced, to eradicate cervical cancer and other diseases caused by HPV in Europe. Policymakers must take into consideration effective vaccination programs in the prevention of cancers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36-7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease.

  15. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Awareness of human papillomavirus after introduction of HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Using a large, population-based survey, we assessed the levels and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness among Scandinavian women after introduction of HPV vaccination. In 2011-2012, a random sample of women aged between 18 and 45 years from Denmark, Sweden and Norway received a ques......: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92). HPV awareness in Scandinavia has increased since the introduction of HPV vaccination. However, 24-38% of Scandinavian women still have never heard of HPV. Future information efforts should target groups with low HPV awareness.......Using a large, population-based survey, we assessed the levels and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness among Scandinavian women after introduction of HPV vaccination. In 2011-2012, a random sample of women aged between 18 and 45 years from Denmark, Sweden and Norway received...

  17. Protect Yourself Against HPV | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person to person through direct contact during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Many different types of HPV can cause infections in the throat or genital area in both men and women. In most cases, HPV infections go away on ...

  18. 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165905.html 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts: Study Findings ... rather than three, doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts in preteens ...

  19. HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165705.html HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men Study ... being linked to cervical cancer, the human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cancers in the back of the ...

  20. Scientists find promising predictor of HPV-related oropharynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that antibodies against the human papillomavirus (HPV) may help identify individuals who are at greatly increased risk of HPV-related cancer of the oropharynx, which is a portion of the throat that contains the tonsils.

  1. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  2. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH.

  3. Loss of Cell Differentiation in HPV-Associated Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, D A; Ermilova, V D; Zavalishina, L E; Andreeva, Yu Yu; Matveev, V B; Frank, G A; Volgareva, G M

    2016-05-01

    Medical histories of 101 urothelial bladder cancer patients were compared with the results of morphological analysis and biomolecular detection of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in the tumor specimens. DNA of HPV16 (the major type of virus responsible for appearance of cervical carcinoma) was detected in 38 specimens, while mRNA of E6 and E7 oncogenes and E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 were observed in 13 specimens. HPV-positive bladder cancer was characterized by higher degree of cell anaplasia than HPV-negative cancer; in the primary bladder tumor, HPV was detected more often than in recurrent bladder cancer. These data attest to involvement of HPV16 in the genesis of bladder cancer. No correlations of HPV status of bladder tumor with patient's sex, age, and invasion into the muscle layer were revealed.

  4. Can human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping classify non-16/18 high-risk HPV infection by risk stratification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection with high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the major cause of invasive cervical cancers. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are known to be responsible for two-thirds of all invasive cervical carcinomas, followed by HPV-45, -31, and -33. Current guidelines only differentiate HPV-16/18 (+) by recommending direct colposcopy for treatment. We tried to evaluate whether there are differences in risk among 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes in this study. Methods The pathology archive database records of 1,102 consecutive gynecologic patients, who had results for cervical cytology and histology and for HPV testing, as determined by HPV 9G DNA chip, were reviewed. Results Among the 1,102 patients, 346 were non-16/18 HR-HPV (+) and 231 were HPV-16/18 (+). We calculated the odds ratios for ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN 2) of 14 groups of each HR-HPV genotype compared with a group of HR-HPV (–) patients. Based on the odds ratio of each genotype, we divided patients with non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes (+) into two groups: HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+). The age-adjusted odds ratios for ≥CIN 2 of the HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+) groups compared with a HR-HPV (–) group were 11.9 (95% CI, 7.6 to 18.8; pHPV-16/18 (+) group was 18.1 (95% CI, 11.6 to 28.3; p=0.003). Conclusion The 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes can be further categorized (HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 vs. HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68) by risk stratification. The HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 genotypes might need more aggressive action. Large scale clinical trials or cohort studies are necessary to confirm our suggestion. PMID:27550402

  5. Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Crosignani, P.; Stefani, A; G.M. Fara; Isidori, A. M.; A. Lenzi; Liverani, C.A.; Lombardi, A.; Mennini, F.S.; Palu, G.; Pecorelli, S; Peracino, A.P.; Signorelli, C.; G.V. Zuccotti

    2013-01-01

    Background The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm...

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data an...

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L. A. V.; Wardle, J.; Grant, N.; Waller, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination.Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and...

  8. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  9. HPV Vaccinations in Lublin Region, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Grządziel, Anna

    2017-02-14

    Secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer consisting in cytology screening tests, despite its effectiveness, does not achieve the desired results. For several years, primary prophylaxis has been available in the form of protective vaccinations. At present, two vaccine preparations are available on the market, and studies conducted on these preparations confirm their almost 100% effectiveness in the prevention of types of HPV present in the vaccine. Analysis of the programmes of protective vaccinations against HPV carried out during the period 2008-2013 in the Lublin Region. The material used in the study was data obtained from the relevant organs of the territorial self-government concerning programmes of vaccinations against HPV, demographic data pertaining to girls aged 10-18 living in the Lublin Region, as well as data published by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (NIZP-PZH). The method applied in the study was analysis of records. During the period 2008-2013, in the Lublin Region a total of 5,496 girls were vaccinated within the health programmes. The mean immunization coverage in Lublin is 50%, and in Radzyń Podlaski 59%. The percentage contribution of vaccinations guaranteed free by the local authorities, with relation to the total number of vaccinations performed in the Lublin Region, was from 60 to 77%. The units of territorial self-government allocated the amount of PLN 5,125,359 for the performance of projects associated with execution of free vaccinations. Among the total number of girls vaccinated against HPV, a considerable percentage were those vaccinated within the prophylactic programmes carried out by the units of territorial self-government. The programmes of free protective vaccinations against HPV began in 4 cities in the Lublin Region, and are continued only in two (Lublin and Radzyń Podlaski). Long-term observation of girls subjected to vaccinations from the aspect of maintenance of the immune response

  10. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri G Edwards

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25 acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa. A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  11. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Terri G; Vidmar, Thomas J; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K; Fisher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25) acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E) by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A) cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa). A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  12. HPV - immune response to infection and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV infection in the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. However most of those who develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell mediated immune (CMI response and the lesions regress. Failure to develop effective CMI to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma. The prolonged duration of infection associated with HPV seems to be associated with effective evasion of innate immunity thus delaying the activation of adaptive immunity. Natural infections in animals show that neutralising antibody to the virus coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate high levels of antibody and both serological and B cell memory as evidenced by persistence of antibody and robust recall responses. However there is no immune correlate - no antibody level that correlates with protection. Recent data on how HPV infects basal epithelial cells and how antibody can prevent this provides a mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of HPV VLP vaccines.

  13. HPV disease transmission protection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Christensen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs represent a large collection of viral types associated with significant clinical disease of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium. HPV-associated cancers are found in anogenital and oral mucosa, and at various cutaneous sites. Papillomaviruses are highly species and tissue restricted, and these viruses display both mucosotropic, cutaneotropic or dual tropism for epithelial tissues. A subset of HPV types, predominantly mucosal, are also oncogenic and cancers with these HPV types account for more than 200,000 deaths world-wide. Host control of HPV infections requires both innate and adaptive immunity, but the viruses have developed strategies to escape immune detection. Viral proteins can disrupt both innate pathogen-sensing pathways and T-cell based recognition and subsequent destruction of infected tissues. Current treatments to manage HPV infections include mostly ablative strategies in which recurrences are common and only active disease is treated. Although much is known about the papillomavirus life cycle, viral protein functions, and immune responsiveness, we still lack knowledge in a number of key areas of PV biology including tissue tropism, site-specific cancer progression, codon usage profiles, and what are the best strategies to mount an effective immune response to the carcinogenic stages of PV disease. In this review, disease transmission, protection and control are discussed together with questions related to areas in PV biology that will continue to provide productive opportunities of discovery and to further our understanding of this diverse set of human viral pathogens.

  14. HPV Genotyping of Modified General Primer-Amplicons Is More Analytically Sensitive and Specific by Sequencing than by Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Meisal

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific genotyping of human papillomaviruses (HPVs is important for population-based surveillance of carcinogenic HPV types and for monitoring vaccine effectiveness. Here we compare HPV genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS to an established DNA hybridization method. In DNA isolated from urine, the overall analytical sensitivity of NGS was found to be 22% higher than that of hybridization. NGS was also found to be the most specific method and expanded the detection repertoire beyond the 37 types of the DNA hybridization assay. Furthermore, NGS provided an increased resolution by identifying genetic variants of individual HPV types. The same Modified General Primers (MGP-amplicon was used in both methods. The NGS method is described in detail to facilitate implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory and includes suggestions for new standards for detection and calling of types and variants with improved resolution.

  15. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Waterboer, Tim; Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Ingles, Donna J.; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Nyitray, Alan G.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition. PMID:28239675

  16. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  17. Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  18. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampias, Theodore; Boutati, Eleni; Pectasides, Eirini; Sasaki, Clarence; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin levels and the beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by beta-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of beta-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of beta-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of beta-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous beta-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for beta-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells.

  19. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  20. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Technology for Health (PATH) to evaluate different HPV vaccine delivery strategies. A school-based HPV vaccine delivery strategy was adopted in Ibanda targeting girls enrolled in primary grade five (P5). In Nakasongola, the HPV vaccine was delivered during the routine Child. Days Plus (CDP) program, targeting girls of at.

  1. Oral and genital HPV genotypic concordance between sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder Ribeiro, Camila Maria; Ferrer, Iracema; Santos de Farias, Andreza Barkokebas; Fonseca, Débora Diniz; Morais Silva, Igor Henrique; Monteiro Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Carvalho, Alessandra Tavares; Porter, Stephen Ross; Leao, Jair Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission and genotype concordance among heterosexual couples. Thirty-one married couples were evaluated. All male subjects presented with clinically diagnosed HPV-related malignant or potentially malignant lesions and underwent peniscopy and penile swab. Their female counterparts underwent swabs of the uterine cervix and oral mucosa. HPV-DNA detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. HPV-DNA was detected in the penis, vagina/cervix, and oral cavity of 16 couples (51.61%). Of these, HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 14 couples (87.5%). HPV-DNA was amplified in penile and oral sites of 14 couples. Of these, 13 couples reported fellatio (92.85%), most of them (10 couples, 76.9%) without condom use. HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 7/10 of these couples (70%). The three couples (100%) who reported use of condom during fellatio were HPV-DNA discordant (p = 0.025). Lifetime number of female sexual partners and detection of HPV-DNA in the penile mucosa are surrogate markers of exposure to HPV during marriage. Consistent use of condoms may reduce the risk of HPV transmission. Oral acquisition of HPV from oro-genital contact is influenced by lack of condom use and previous sexual behavior of the male partner. In addition, oral transmission of the virus due to fellatio is as common as genital transmission.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV): making the case for 'Immunisation for All'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, G; Lawler, M; Baker, P; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2017-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to the most common sexually transmitted infections, with repeated and persistent infection with particular types causing disease in both men and women. Infection with low-risk HPV types can lead to genital warts and benign lesions of the oral cavity, while high-risk types can cause various HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of head and neck cancers has been rising in the past number of decades mostly due to oropharyngeal cancer linked to HPV infection. HPV vaccination has been shown to be effective for cervical and other anogenital HPV-related cancers, and there is significant potential for HPV vaccination to prevent oropharyngeal cancers, given that the HPV types implicated in this disease can be protected against by the HPV vaccine. Few countries have implemented a universal HPV vaccination programme for males and females, with many countries arguing that female-only vaccination programmes protect males via herd immunity and that men who have sex with men will be protected via targeted vaccination programmes. We argue these may be limited in their effectiveness. We propose that the most effective, practical, ethical and potentially cost-effective solution is universal HPV vaccination that might lead to control of HPV-related diseases in men and women alike. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. HPV in minority populations : Epidemiology and vaccination acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the social-psychological aspects of HPV vaccination acceptability in two different minority populations. Both populations are at higher risk of developing HPV induced disease (notably cervical, penile, anal, and head and

  4. Potent anti-tumor effect generated by a novel human papillomavirus (HPV antagonist peptide reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-ping Guo

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7 is a viral oncoprotein believed to play a major role in cervical cancer. In this study, an antagonist peptide against HPV16E7 protein was first identified from screening the c7c phage display peptide library. The binding specificity and affinity of the selected peptide to HPV16E7 were tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The antagonist peptide showed obvious anti-tumor efficacy both in cell lines and animal tumor models. Significant cell proliferation inhibition with high specificity was noted when HPV16-positive cells were treated with the peptide. This anti-tumor efficacy was resulted from overriding the activities of HPV16E7 and reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway, as shown by a series of experiments. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the selected peptide induced G1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Competitive ELISA, pull down, and Co-IP experiments indicated that the selected peptide disrupted the interaction between HPV16E7 and pRb proteins both in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assay verified that transcription activities of E2F were suppressed by the peptide through restoration of pRb. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that it reduced cyclins A, D1, and E1 expression, and led to HPV16E7 protein degradation, but pRb protein stabilization. The current study suggests that this specific peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for HPV16-positive cervical cancer.

  5. Knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and HPV Vaccine at Reproductive Age in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozde Onder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine of women in reproductive age. Material and Methods: The study covered 294 women aged between 15 and 49. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5+/-8.9 years. Only 24.5% had heard about HPV infection and 28.2% had heard HPV vaccine. Of the participants, 188 (63.9% got zero point from the knowledge questions. Conclusion: This study indicates that the women who apply primary care units have low knowledge levels; it is apperent that personal and social education is needed. Paying importance to patient education on HPV and cervical cancer in primary care health politics will increase knowledge and awareness for HPV infection and HPV vaccination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 517-524

  6. [Investigation on HPV viral load and high risk HPV types infection among patients with infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-dong; Zhang, Hui-min; Pei, Jing; He, Gui-rong; Sun, Xiao-fang; Li, Bing

    2007-06-01

    High risk human papilomavirus (HPV) infection is often related to cervical cancer. This study investigated the infection of high risk HPV in cervical epithelia among infertile patients. Relative quantification and absolute quantification were applied for determination of "real" HPV viral load in the clinical setting. Adopting multi-channels real time PCR to genotype and quantify eight high risk HPV (HPV16, 18, 45, 31; intermediate risk types: HPV33, 52, 58, 67) DNA in cervical epithelia of the 130 infertile patients and the 150 controls. This study applied housekeeping gene (beta-globin) for the DNA quantification on secretions samples for clinical diagnosis. The infection rate of the infertility group was 25.38 percent (33/130) and that of the control group was 11.33 percent (17/150), the difference was statistically significant. Among the 33 positive cases in the infertility group, 24 cases showed a viral load no less than 106; in 9 of them, the viral load was less than 106. Among the 17 positive cases in the control group, 4 cases had a viral load no less than 106; in 13 of them, the viral load was less than 106. There is a statistically significant difference in viral load between the infertility group and the control group. The HPV infection rate of the infertility group was higher than that of the control group.

  7. Male Undergraduates' HPV Vaccination Behavior: Implications for Achieving HPV-Associated Cancer Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lust, Katherine; Vang, Suzanne; Desai, Jay

    2018-02-22

    Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516. We used Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to guide our study design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HPV vaccine receipt. College-aged males in our sample had a HPV vaccine completion rate of 50.0%. Male students who were younger, had at least one parent who held a graduate degree, had initiated sex, and were enrolled at a private 4-year institution were more likely to have been vaccinated. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination in college-aged men are low. Efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination in male students who are older, from lower socioeconomic statuses, have not initiated sex, and enrolled at public institutions. Findings also indicate important gender disparities in vaccine uptake that must be addressed in order to achieve optimal vaccine uptake in college-aged males.

  8. HPV test by Hybrid Capture II for the diagnosis of HR-HPV persistent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, Y; Bendahmane, M; Abbou Baker, F; Medles, M; Moueddene, B; Kraiba, R

    2017-11-01

    Persistent high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection is associated with a greater risk of cervical cancer. Statistical data on the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the Algerian population is lacking. We conducted a prospective study of 300 women aged between 25 and 50 years, screened for cervical cancer from 2012 to 2015 in Sidi Bel Abbès, a western region of Algeria. We aimed to assess the reliability of the repeated use of the HC II test (three longitudinal HPV tests 9 months apart from each other) in diagnosing the persistence of HR-HPV infection. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 7.33% and infected women were aged 37.9±3years. For 90.9% of HR-HPV-positive patients, the infection persisted for a mean of 18.5months [95% CI: 16.9-22.1months]. Among these patients, 55.55% developed CIN1 and 11.11% developed CIN2. The sensitivity of the HC II test was 81.74% [95% CI: 71.3-89.6] and its positive predictive value associated with abnormal cervical biopsy was 27.49% [95% CI: 16.0-33.33]. Repeating the HC II test is a good predictor for identifying women at high risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial differences in HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine acceptability, and related beliefs among rural, southern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Brewer, Noel T; Fazekas, Karah I; Mitchell, Cicely E; Smith, Jennifer S

    2009-01-01

    Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine that may influence uptake of the vaccine. We interviewed women (91 black and 47 white) living in a rural area of the Southern United States in 2006. Analyses controlled for socioeconomic status, age, and recruitment location. More white respondents had heard of HPV than had black respondents (57% vs 24%, P < .001), and whites had higher HPV knowledge (42% vs 29% correct responses, P < .05). Blacks were less likely than whites to think that cervical cancer would be a serious threat to their daughters' health (75% vs 96%, P < .001). More blacks than whites thought the ideal age to receive the vaccine was 17 years or older (63% vs 40%, P < .05). Blacks reported lower intentions to vaccinate their daughters than whites (M = 4.14 vs 4.55, P < .05 in unadjusted analyses, but not statistically significant in adjusted analyses). Black and white respondents had different awareness, knowledge, and beliefs related to the HPV vaccine. Communication-based interventions to maximize uptake of the HPV vaccine in the rural, Southern United States may need different messages for black parents of adolescent girls.

  10. What college women know, think, and do about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T; Cheng, An-Lin; Enriquez, Maithe

    2013-02-27

    This cross-sectional study, guided by Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior, aimed to identify factors that influence the decision to obtain an HPV vaccine among college women and to examine the relationships among these factors. An electronic self-administered survey was utilized to collect data. An email invitation was sent to 3074 college women attending a large, public university in southern California, aged between 18 and 26 years. The email directed the recipient to click on a link to a web-based survey if she wanted to participate in the study. Participants in this study were college women (n=384; 175 HPV non-vaccinees and 209 HPV vaccinees). Women in this study knew that a Pap test is still needed after HPV vaccination and that the HPV vaccine does not protect against other Sexually Transmitted Infections. Both non-vaccinees and vaccinees had positive attitudes about mandating HPV vaccine. Knowledge and attitudes toward the vaccine were not directly linked to the outcome predictors - intention to obtain the vaccine and vaccine uptake. Attitude about receiving HPV vaccine, subjective norms (complying with the expectations of others), and perceived behavioral control were correlated with the outcome predictors. Subjective norms consistently predicted intention to obtain HPV vaccine and vaccine uptake. A proposal to mandate the HPV vaccine among young girls/women was acceptable to this population. Vaccination promotion strategies to increase the vaccine uptake rate among the catch-up group (aged 13-26) should include attention to college women's subjective norms. Health care provider's recommendation and encouragement from significant others (i.e., mother and peers) are critical in order for the college women to obtain the vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The prevalence of "high-risk" HPV types in penile condyloma-like lesions: correlation between HPV type and morphology.

    OpenAIRE

    Löwhagen, G B; Bolmstedt, A; Ryd, W; Voog, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the prevalence of "high-risk" human papilloma virus (HPV) types in penile condyloma-like lesions and to correlate HPV types with clinical and histological features. DESIGN--The study included 94 male patients with signs of penile HPV infection. From acuminate, papular and macular lesions, specimens were collected for HPV DNA hybridisation, using the dot blot and Southern blot techniques. Biopsy specimens from 51 cases were examined by light microscopy for signs of koilo...

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dinc,Bedia; Rota, Seyyal; Onan, Anil; Bozdayi,Gulendam; Taskiran,Cagatay; Biri,Aydan; Güner,Haldun

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI), parity and Pap smear results. METHODS: one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively) applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PC...

  13. High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Golob; Mario Poljak; Ivan Verdenik; Mojca Kolbezen Simoniti; Eda Vrtačnik Bokal; Branko Zorn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm param...

  14. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  15. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Thompson, Trevor D; Lynch, Charles F; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lyu, Christopher W; Steinau, Martin; Watson, Meg; Wilkinson, Edward J; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Peters, Edward S; Huang, Youjie; Saber, Maria Sibug; Altekruse, Sean; Goodman, Marc T

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevaccine type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in the United States to evaluate the potential impact of the HPV types in the current and newly approved 9-valent HPV vaccines. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with seven US population-based cancer registries to obtain archival tissue for cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2005. HPV testing was performed on 2670 case patients that were fairly representative of all participating cancer registry cases by age and sex. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated by anatomic site and HPV status. Current US cancer registry data and the detection of HPV types were used to estimate the number of cancers potentially preventable through vaccination. HPV DNA was detected in 90.6% of cervical, 91.1% of anal, 75.0% of vaginal, 70.1% of oropharyngeal, 68.8% of vulvar, 63.3% of penile, 32.0% of oral cavity, and 20.9% of laryngeal cancers, as well as in 98.8% of cervical cancer in situ (CCIS). A vaccine targeting HPV 16/18 potentially prevents the majority of invasive cervical (66.2%), anal (79.4%), oropharyngeal (60.2%), and vaginal (55.1%) cancers, as well as many penile (47.9%), vulvar (48.6%) cancers: 24 858 cases annually. The 9-valent vaccine also targeting HPV 31/33/45/52/58 may prevent an additional 4.2% to 18.3% of cancers: 3944 cases annually. For most cancers, younger age at diagnosis was associated with higher HPV 16/18 prevalence. With the exception of oropharyngeal cancers and CCIS, HPV 16/18 prevalence was similar across racial/ethnic groups. In the United States, current vaccines will reduce most HPV-associated cancers; a smaller additional reduction would be contributed by the new 9-valent vaccine. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  17. College women, HPV genotyping and sexual behavior before HPV vaccination: Results from samples stored for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Conde-Glez, Carlos Jesús; Olamendi-Portugal, Ma Leonidez; García-Cisneros, Santa; Plett-Torres, Tanya; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A

    2017-10-06

    HPV is the sexually transmitted agent most common among young people, like college students. The aim of study was to associate sexual behavior characteristics of women with HPV, detected in genital samples taken before the introduction of the HPV vaccine. Female students during 2001-2005 donated genital samples and the samples were re-analyzed in 2013 for HPV genotyping by RT-PCR. The frozen storage of the students' genital samples allowed the detection of HPV DNA and its genotyping after years of sample collection. HPV prevalence was 22%, HPV16 3.9%, and HPV18 1.1%. Age, multiple sexual partners and the partner's age at first sexual intercourse were significantly associated to HPV. Students with ≥ 3 sexual partners and who did not use condom had 12.8 higher odds of being HPV positive. These results made possible the analysis of HPV prevalence changes, before HPV vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and HPV Type 16 E6 Variants in Two Spanish Population Groups with Different Levels of HPV Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M.; Torres, M.; Muñoz, L.; Fernández-García, E.; Canals, J.; Cabornero, A. I.; Aguilar, E.; Ballesteros, J.; del Amo, J.; García-Sáiz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary. PMID:16597872

  19. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  20. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Matthew H., E-mail: stenmark@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); McHugh, Jonathan B. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mukherji, Suresh K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Carey, Thomas E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  1. Testicular cancer and HPV semen infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGarolla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer represents the more frequent solid tumour affecting males aged 15-35 years.In the last decades, its incidence showed a progressive increased probably due to genetic and environmental factors. Despite exposure to some viruses such as HIV, HCV, EBV and HPV is frequently related to cancer development, there are no studies aimed to evaluate the possible implication of viral infections in the pathogenesis of testicular cancer. In this study we analyzed sperm parameters and prevalence of HPV on sperm in 155 testicular cancer patients at diagnosis (T-1, after orchiectomy (T0 and after 12 months from surgery or from the end of adjuvant treatments (T12. All patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of semen infection than controls (9.5% and 2.4% respectively and altered sperm parameters both at T-1 and T0. Considering sperm parameters, at T-1 we observed a reduction of progressive motility, and after orchiectomy patients showed a reduction of sperm concentration and count and a further worsening of motility. Thereafter, patients were assigned to three groups on the basis of medical option after surgery: S = surveillance, R = radiotherapy and C = chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. At T12, untreated patients had an improvement of sperm parameters while R group and even more C group had a strong decrease of sperm number (p<0.01 both vs T0 and S group. Moreover, patients who received radio and/or chemotherapy had a very high prevalence of HPV semen infection (S: 7.7%, R: 30.8% and C: 61.5%. In conclusion, patients with testicular cancer had frequently altered sperm parameters and higher prevalence of HPV semen infection that were worsened after radio and chemotherapy. Because HPV infection is a risk factor for cancer development and it may further reduce fertility, we suggest screening for HPV in testicular cancer patients at diagnosis and particularly after adjuvant treatments.

  2. Testicular cancer and HPV semen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Ghezzi, Marco; Carraro, Umberto; Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the more frequent solid tumor affecting males aged 15-35 years. In the last decades, its incidence showed a progressive increased probably due to genetic and environmental factors. Despite exposure to some viruses such as HIV, HCV, EBV, and HPV is frequently related to cancer development, there are no studies aimed to evaluate the possible implication of viral infections in the pathogenesis of testicular cancer. In this study, we analyzed sperm parameters and prevalence of HPV on sperm in 155 testicular cancer patients at diagnosis (T-1), after orchiectomy (T0) and after 12 months from surgery or from the end of adjuvant treatments (T12). All patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of semen infection than controls (9.5% and 2.4% respectively,) and altered sperm parameters both at T-1 and T0. Considering sperm parameters, at T-1 we observed a reduction of progressive motility, and after orchiectomy patients showed a reduction of sperm concentration and count and a further worsening of motility. Thereafter, patients were assigned to three groups on the basis of medical option after surgery: S = surveillance, R = radiotherapy, and C = chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. At T12, untreated patients had an improvement of sperm parameters while R group and even more C group had a strong decrease of sperm number (p HPV semen infection (S = 7.7%, R = 30.8%, and C = 61.5%). In conclusion, patients with testicular cancer had frequently altered sperm parameters and higher prevalence of HPV semen infection that were worsened after radio and chemotherapy. Because HPV infection is a risk factor for cancer development and it may further reduce fertility, we suggest screening for HPV in testicular cancer patients at diagnosis and particularly after adjuvant treatments.

  3. Effects of ALA-PDT on HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Ren, X Y; Pan, Y L; Guan, D D; Liu, S; Zou, X Y; Shi, C G; Li, Y Z; Zhang, Y Z

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) type are mainly surgical interventions. However, such treatments are associated with adverse side effects and pose risks for future pregnancies. In order to reduce the requirement for excisional procedures, an effective and noninvasive therapy is needed for women at reproductive age. ALA-PDT has proved to be effective in the treatment of HPV-associated disease in several clinical investigations. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ALA-PDT was investigated in HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial H8 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to measure cytotoxicity in H8 cells. The IC50 of ALA-PDT on H8 cells was about 120.75 ± 1.18 µM. We have now evaluated the mechanism by which ALA-PDT induces cell death. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed a significant dose-dependent induction of apoptosis by ALA-PDT in H8 cells, associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, ALA-PDT down-regulates expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogene as well as up-regulate tumor suppressor RbAp48 protein. Together, our data provides a basis for understanding and developing ALA-PDT as a cure for HPV infection-associated diseases and prevention of cervical cancer.

  4. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model

    OpenAIRE

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Methods: We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined w...

  5. Racial differences in the incidence and clearance of human papilloma virus (HPV): the HPV in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Villa, Luisa L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Akogbe, Gabriel O; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Papenfuss, Mary R; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-10-01

    This analysis assessed the acquisition (incidence) and persistence (clearance) of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection by self-reported race among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infections. Self-reported race was categorized as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander (PI), or multiple and mixed race. Genital samples were combined for HPV DNA testing and categorized by any, oncogenic, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Asian/PI race had significantly the lowest incidence of any, oncogenic, and non-oncogenic HPV infection (P HPV infection (HR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93) when compared to Whites. No significant associations were evident for Asian/PI race for clearance. Multiple and mixed race was significantly associated with lower probability of acquiring non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) and borderline significant associations were observed for any HPV (HR = 0.91) and oncogenic infections (HR = 0.92). Multiple and mixed race was associated with a lower probability of clearing any (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.00) and oncogenic HPV infections (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95). Asian/PI race had the lowest incidence of HPV and exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of infection and was associated with a lower probability of acquiring and clearing an HPV infection. Race-specific differences in HPV infection could be due to behavior, innate genetic differences, or circulating intratypic HPV variants.

  6. Young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Hannerfors, Anna-Karin; Tydén, Tanja

    2012-12-01

    To explore young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination and to identify their beliefs about HPV vaccination. This study employs a qualitative design. Data was collected by audio-taped interviews with 16 HPV vaccinated Swedish women, 17-26 years old. The data was analysed using latent content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: "Fear of cancer", "Reliance on vaccination" and "Mother--the main motivational factor". One of the major reasons for taking the decision to be HPV vaccinated was fear of cancer: vaccination was seen as a way to protect oneself against this. The young women's decision-making surrounding HPV vaccination was based on reliance on vaccination and trust in health care. Support from the mothers of the young women and mothers' sponsorship of costs initiated HPV vaccination. Other motivational factors were advertisements and friends. Despite having been vaccinated, the young women were unaware of the relation between cervical cancer, sexual behaviour and HPV. These HPV vaccinated young women had limited knowledge about HPV. Therefore it is important that health professionals provide comprehensible information about HPV vaccination in attaining informed consent. In order to avoid misunderstandings, health care professionals in youth clinics and schools need to initiate discussion with young women, clarifying the relation between cervical cancer, HPV and sexual transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kelli M; Hinyard, Leslie

    2017-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) affects both men and women; however, recommendations for HPV vaccination among men were not issued in the United States until 2011. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare characteristics of men who did and did not report receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Data from the ten states that completed the HPV vaccination module in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were included in the study. Young men ages 18-26 were included (N = 1624). Categorical variables were compared between those who did and did not receive the HPV vaccine using Chi square. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of HPV vaccination by the above factors. Only 16.5% of men reported at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Having health insurance, having a primary doctor, and receiving an HIV test were predictive of HPV vaccination. Men in Texas were more likely to report HPV vaccination than all other states. Overall, HPV vaccination is low in men. Targeted interventions for improving HPV vaccination rates in men are warranted, especially for those without health insurance or a routine source of care.

  8. Field Evaluation of Xpert HPV Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection by Use of Self-Collected Vaginal and Clinician-Collected Cervical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliman, P; Badman, S G; Gabuzzi, J; Silim, S; Forereme, L; Kumbia, A; Kombuk, B; Kombati, Z; Allan, J; Munnull, G; Ryan, C; Vallely, L M; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wand, H; Mola, G D L; Guy, R; Siba, P; Kaldor, J M; Tabrizi, S N; Vallely, A J

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended that testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) (hrHPV) infection be incorporated into cervical screening programs in all settings worldwide. In many high-burden, low-income countries, it will not be feasible to achieve high cervical screening coverage using hrHPV assays that require clinician-collected samples. We conducted the first evaluation of self-collected vaginal specimens compared with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. Women aged 30 to 54 years attending two well-woman clinics in Papua New Guinea were invited to participate and provided self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical cytobrush specimens. Both specimen types were tested at the point of care by using the Xpert HPV test. Women were given their cervical test result the same day. Those with a positive hrHPV test and positive examination upon visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid were offered same-day cervical cryotherapy. A total of 1,005 women were enrolled, with 124 (12.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.3%, 14.4%) being positive for any hrHPV infection. There was a 99.4% overall percent agreement (OPA) between vaginal and cervical tests for HPV-16 (95% CI, 98.9%, 99.9%), a 98.5% OPA for HPV-18/45 (95% CI, 97.7%, 99.3%), a 94.4% OPA for other hrHPV infections (95% CI, 92.9%, 95.9%), and a 93.4% OPA for all hrHPV types combined (95% CI, 91.8%, 95.0%). Self-collected vaginal specimens had excellent agreement with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. This approach provides for the first time an opportunity to incorporate point-of-care hrHPV testing into clinical cervical screening algorithms in high-burden, low-income settings. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The role of miRNAs in human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancers: bridging between HPV-related head and neck cancer and cervical cancer.