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  1. An easy method for plant polysome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecampion, Cécile; Floris, Maina Huguette Joséphine; Fantino, Jean Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Translation of mRNA to protein is a fundamental and highly regulated biological process. Polysome profiling is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of translational regulation. The method described here is an easy and economical way for fractionating polysomes from various plant tissues....... A sucrose gradient is made without the need for a gradient maker by sequentially freezing each layer. Cytosolic extracts are then prepared in a buffer containing cycloheximide and chloramphenicol to immobilize the cytosolic and chloroplastic ribosomes to mRNA and are loaded onto the sucrose gradient. After...... are then pooled to prepare three different mRNA populations: the polysomes, mRNAs bound to several ribosomes; the monosomes, mRNAs bound to one ribosome; and mRNAs that are not bound to ribosomes. mRNAs are then extracted. This protocol has been validated for different plants and tissues including Arabidopsis...

  2. Microneedles: quick and easy delivery methods of vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most efficient method for infectious disease prevention. Parenteral injections such as intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injections have several advantages in vaccine delivery, but there are many drawbacks. Thus, the development of a new vaccine delivery system has long been required. Recently, microneedles have been attracting attention as new vaccination tools. Microneedle is a highly effective transdermal vaccine delivery method due to its mechanism of action, painlessness, and ease of use. Here, we summarized the characteristics of microneedles and the possibilities as a new vaccine delivery route. PMID:28775980

  3. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training.

  4. User's guide for evaluating physical security capabilities of nuclear facilities by the EASI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.

    1977-06-01

    This handbook is a guide for evaluating physical security of nuclear facilities using the ''Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI)'' method and a hand-held programmable calculator. The handbook is intended for use by personnel at facilities where special nuclear materials are used, processed, or stored. It may also be used as a design aid for such facilities by potential licensees

  5. Randomization for clinical research: an easy-to-use spreadsheet method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Cron, Stanley G; Gusick, Gary M; Hamlin, Shannan K; Hanneman, Sandra K

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we illustrate a new method for random selection and random assignment that we developed in a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. The randomization database is supported by a commonly available spreadsheet. Formulas were written for randomizing participants and for creating a "shadow" system to verify integrity of the randomization. Advantages of this method are that it is easy to use, effective, and portable, allowing it to be shared among multiple investigators at multiple study sites. Clinical researchers may find the method useful for research projects that are pilot studies or conducted with limited funding.

  6. Comparison of concepts in easy-to-use methods for MSD risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of easy-to-use methods for assessing musculoskeletal load and the risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. In all such methods, assessment of load consists in defining input data, the procedure and the system of assessment. This article shows what assessment steps the methods have in common; it also shows how those methods differ in each step. In addition, the methods are grouped according to their characteristic features. The conclusion is that the concepts of assessing risk in different methods can be used to develop solutions leading to a comprehensive method appropriate for all work tasks and all parts of the body. However, studies are necessary to verify the accepted premises and to introduce some standardization that would make consolidation possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. An Easy-to-Use Airborne LiDAR Data Filtering Method Based on Cloth Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground measurements is an essential step to generate digital terrain models (DTMs from airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data. However, most filtering algorithms need to carefully set up a number of complicated parameters to achieve high accuracy. In this paper, we present a new filtering method which only needs a few easy-to-set integer and Boolean parameters. Within the proposed approach, a LiDAR point cloud is inverted, and then a rigid cloth is used to cover the inverted surface. By analyzing the interactions between the cloth nodes and the corresponding LiDAR points, the locations of the cloth nodes can be determined to generate an approximation of the ground surface. Finally, the ground points can be extracted from the LiDAR point cloud by comparing the original LiDAR points and the generated surface. Benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing working Group III/3 are used to validate the proposed filtering method, and the experimental results yield an average total error of 4.58%, which is comparable with most of the state-of-the-art filtering algorithms. The proposed easy-to-use filtering method may help the users without much experience to use LiDAR data and related technology in their own applications more easily.

  8. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  9. Connecting the Dots: From an Easy Method to Computerized Species Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Döge, Klaus-Peter; Peter, Marcus; Eickhölter, Tobias; Mall, Gita

    2017-05-18

    Differences in growth rate of forensically important dipteran larvae make species determination an essential requisite for an accurate estimation of time since colonization of the body. Interspecific morphological similarities, however, complicate species determination. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns on the inside of the cuticula of fly larvae are species specific and grow proportionally with the animal. The patterns can therefore be used for species identification, as well as age estimation in forensically important dipteran larvae. Additionally, in species where determination has proven to be difficult-even when employing genetic methods-this easy and cheap method can be successfully applied. The method was validated for a number of Calliphoridae, as well as Sarcophagidae; for Piophilidae species, however, the method proved to be inapt. The aim of this article is to assess the utility of the MAS method for applications in forensic entomology. Furthermore, the authors are currently engineering automation for pattern acquisition in order to expand the scope of the method. Automation is also required for the fast and reasonable application of MAS for species determination. Using filters on digital microscope pictures and cross-correlating them within their frequency range allows for a calculation of the correlation coefficients. Such pattern recognition permits an automatic comparison of one larva with a database of MAS reference patterns in order to find the correct, or at least the most likely, species. This facilitates species determination in immature stages of forensically important flies and economizes time investment, as rearing to adult flies will no longer be required.

  10. A quick and easy high performance liquid chromatography method for evaluation of cefixime in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Danafar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cefixime is essential member of orally energetic third generation cephalosporin and has tremendous activity aligned with many pathogens. The virtual bioavailability of a newly industrial dispersible tablet as compared with a recognized identified formulation.  A simple and available reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection has been urbanized and validate for cefixime evaluate in human plasma using a C18 analytical column and a mobile phase of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (pH 6.5-acetonitrile (3:1 v/v. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. To method observed major linear response-concentration association all through the cefixime concentration range of 15-100 ng/ml, with the average accuracy within-run and between-run values of 97.29% and 99.27%. The average drug recovery from plasma was 98.2% throughout the linear concentration range. The limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of the method were 5 and 15 ng/ml, respectively. The method is quick, easy, very steady and precise for the partition, assignment, evaluation of cefixime in human plasma.

  11. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation.

  12. ImageJ: A Free, Easy, and Reliable Method to Measure Leg Ulcers Using Digital Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; Aragón-Hernández, Cristina; Hernández-Herero, María José

    2017-12-01

    Wound measurement to document the healing course of chronic leg ulcers has an important role in the management of these patients. Digital cameras in smartphones are readily available and easy to use, and taking pictures of wounds is becoming a routine in specialized departments. Analyzing digital pictures with appropriate software provides clinicians a quick, clean, and easy-to-use tool for measuring wound area. A set of 25 digital pictures of plain foot and leg ulcers was the basis of this study. Photographs were taken placing a ruler next to the wound in parallel with the healthy skin with the iPhone 6S (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA), which has a camera of 12 megapixels using the flash. The digital photographs were visualized with ImageJ 1.45s freeware (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; http://imagej.net/ImageJ ). Wound area measurement was carried out by 4 raters: head of the department, wound care nurse, physician, and medical student. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability using the interclass correlation coefficient. To determine intraobserver reliability, 2 of the raters repeated the measurement of the set 1 week after the first reading. The interrater model displayed an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 with 95% confidence interval of 0.999 to 1.000, showing excellent reliability. The intrarater model of both examiners showed excellent reliability. In conclusion, analyzing digital images of leg ulcers with ImageJ estimates wound area with excellent reliability. This method provides a free, rapid, and accurate way to measure wounds and could routinely be used to document wound healing in daily clinical practice.

  13. The best method to predict easy intubation: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kati; Högman, Marieann; Larsson, Anders; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2014-08-01

    To facilitate evaluation of the airway before endotracheal intubation, different scores have been developed, mainly to predict difficult airways. However, in anesthesia clinical practice in Sweden, scores would be more useful if they could also predict an easy airway, so that the correct category of anesthesia personnel can be allocated. Therefore, we evaluated whether scoring systems commonly used to predict difficult airways could also predict easy endotracheal intubation. This prospective observational study included patients who were scheduled for general anesthesia and required endotracheal intubation. Airways were evaluated preoperatively by two independent variables, namely Mallampati classification and thyromental distance. After anesthesia induction, the Cormack and Lehane grade was assessed. Mallampati scores yielded the highest specificity in predicting easy intubation, and Cormack and Lehane grades yielded the highest positive predictive value for predicting easy intubation. Mallampati classification is an appropriate screening test for predicting easy intubation. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A practical fabrication method of the gecko-inspired easy-removal skin adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilan Li

    2017-06-01

    The averaged pull-off strength under a preload 10 N for 10 s can reach up to approximately five times of peel strength when the peel angle is 30 degree. Also compared with conventional Band-Aids, a slight enhancement in attachment ability and a significant decrease in peel strength between the skin and the adhesives were consistently observed. Therefore, the fabrication of the gecko-inspired structures on the micro-molding of PDMS appeared to offer a near-practical way for manufacturing an easy-removal skin adhesives, albeit in its present form with a comparable adhesion strength and a decreased peel strength. The originality of this work is the reverse de-molding approach based on the combination of the cost- and time-efficient laser cutting methods and the Teflon film as the mold material, which avoid the limitation caused by taking PDMS structure out of the molds, so that provide more variations of the tip geometry. As such, a further development of this fabrication method might be of significant interest in a number of practical applications in skin tissue industrial design.

  15. Machine vision method for online surface inspection of easy open can ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Perfecto; Pastoriza, Vicente; Santamaría, Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Easy open can end manufacturing process in the food canning sector currently makes use of a manual, non-destructive testing procedure to guarantee can end repair coating quality. This surface inspection is based on a visual inspection made by human inspectors. Due to the high production rate (100 to 500 ends per minute) only a small part of each lot is verified (statistical sampling), then an automatic, online, inspection system, based on machine vision, has been developed to improve this quality control. The inspection system uses a fuzzy model to make the acceptance/rejection decision for each can end from the information obtained by the vision sensor. In this work, the inspection method is presented. This surface inspection system checks the total production, classifies the ends in agreement with an expert human inspector, supplies interpretability to the operators in order to find out the failure causes and reduce mean time to repair during failures, and allows to modify the minimum can end repair coating quality.

  16. Comparison of three rapid and easy bacterial DNA extraction methods for use with quantitative real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, S. P.; Degener, J. E.; Harmsen, H. J. M.

    The development of fast and easy on-site molecular detection and quantification methods for hazardous microbes on solid surfaces is desirable for several applications where specialised laboratory facilities are absent. The quantification of bacterial contamination necessitates the assessment of the

  17. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  18. In Search of Easy-to-Use Methods for Calibrating ADCP's for Velocity and Discharge Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, K.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective procedure for calibrating acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) in the field was presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods which are used for calibrating ADCP were discussed. The proposed method requires the use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) with sub-meter accuracy and standard software for collecting ADCP data. The method involves traversing a long (400-800 meter) course at a constant compass heading and speed, while collecting simultaneous DGPS and ADCP data.

  19. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  20. An Easy Method for Drainage of Fluid in Cases of Continuous Irrigation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhijani, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Description of a novel method to perform continuous irrigation for flexor tenosynovitis in a way that is comfortable for the patient and convenient for nursing staff by placing the hand in the suction pouch of a lithotomy style drape attached to wall suction. PMID:28293498

  1. An easy way to obtain thin gold film on silica glass substrate by chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamic-Humblot, Anne-Félicie, E-mail: anne-felicie.lamic@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu 75005, Paris France (France); Casale, Sandra [Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu 75005, Paris France (France); Léger, Cédric; Alpérine, Serge [Sagem Défense Sécurité, 72–74, Rue de la Tour Billy, 95100, Argenteuil France (France); Louis, Catherine [Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu 75005, Paris France (France)

    2013-07-31

    Physical methods of metal deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions are currently used to manufacture electrically conductive surfaces. In the case of silica glass, a supplementary oxide layer is usually required to avoid the uncontrolled growth of metal nanoparticles on the surface. Here, we present a simple chemical method which allows the formation of a high density of small gold nanoparticles forming a film on bare silica glass surface. The deposition of gold takes place at ambient pressure and in water followed by a thermal treatment that leads to the formation a gold film of 6 nm thickness according to atomic force microscopy experiments. This film consists of juxtaposed nanoparticles, which insures electrical conductivity under vacuum, as attested by the possibility of doing scanning electron microscopy imaging without carbon coating. - Highlights: • Gold film is formed with a chemical process. • Gold film is made of juxtaposed gold nanoparticles • Gold film electrically conductive in the conditions of Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  2. A method for the easy fabrication of all-ceramic bridges with the Cerec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Schnock, H A

    2009-01-01

    Both pressing technology and CAD/CAM methods have proven themselves clinically for the fabrication of all-ceramic restorations. The advantages of the Cerec technology for the economic fabrication of all-ceramic bridges can be exploited by the use of burn-out blanks of polymer material. The milling process of very hard ceramics in the milling unit, which has some disadvantages, is replaced by the pressing process and makes the IPS e.max press material accessible to CAD/CAM users, primarily for extending the range of indications to splinted crowns and small all-ceramic bridges.

  3. Utilizing the virus-induced blocking of apoptosis in an easy baculovirus titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchos, Athanasios; Lagoumintzis, George; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-22

    Baculovirus-mediated protein expression is a robust experimental technique for producing recombinant higher-eukaryotic proteins because it combines high yields with considerable post-translational modification capabilities. In this expression system, the determination of the titer of recombinant baculovirus stocks is important to achieve the correct multiplicity of infection for effective amplification of the virus and high expression of the target protein. To overcome the drawbacks of existing titration methods (e.g., plaque assay, real-time PCR), we present a simple and reliable assay that uses the ability of baculoviruses to block apoptosis in their host cells to accurately titrate virus samples. Briefly, after incubation with serial dilutions of baculovirus samples, Sf9 cells were UV irradiated and, after apoptosis induction, they were viewed via microscopy; the presence of cluster(s) of infected cells as islets indicated blocked apoptosis. Subsequently, baculovirus titers were calculated through the determination of the 50% endpoint dilution. The method is simple, inexpensive, and does not require unique laboratory equipment, consumables or expertise; moreover, it is versatile enough to be adapted for the titration of every virus species that can block apoptosis in any culturable host cells which undergo apoptosis under specific conditions.

  4. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades

    Full Text Available Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts.Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD technique, which is the gold standard method.All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6| with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005. The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring.This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  5. Easy and rapid method for the determination of gene expression in cumulus cells incubated for oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro Hideaki

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to develop an easy and rapid method for measuring gene expression in a small number of cells by real-time PCR without RNA extraction and purification, and to use this method to determine more precisely IGF-I gene expression in the cumulus cells surrounding oocytes. Methods First, after small numbers of cumulus cells were lysed in cell lysis buffer, they were digested with various concentrations of DNase I for different periods at 37°C to determine the optimal conditions for digestion of genomic DNA in the lysate. Since nonspecific amplification was liable to occur when the non-purified RT product of the cell lysate was used for real-time PCR with the given primers, the optimal conditions for Mg2+ and annealing temperature were well investigated. Further, to create the same conditions as in the actual sample reaction for measurement by real-time PCR, RT-minus product was added to the reaction mixture of the standard curve, and then the amplification efficiency was assessed. Next, IGF-I gene expression in cumulus cells collected from cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs every 4 h during maturation was determined using the developed method. Results The optimal conditions for measuring gene expression using the cell lysate from a small number of cells were as follows: incubation of the cell lysate with 0.16 U/microL DNase I with 10 U/microL for 30 min, an Mg concentration of 1.5 mM for amplification of target gene by real-time PCR using RT-product of the cell lysate. When the RT-minus products added to the reaction mixture for the standard curve, which was prepared for purified 18SrRNA plasmid, the PCR efficiency was similar between the sample and the standard. The IGF-I gene expression in the cumulus cells was elevated up through the first 8 h of the culture and then declined gradually by the end of maturation, with the maximal gene expression (778-fold seen at 8 h. Conclusion It can be concluded

  6. [A new method for estimating differential item functioning (DIF) for multiple groups and polytomous items: development of index K and the computer program "EasyDIF"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Ryuichi

    2012-04-01

    We propose a new method, called index K, to estimate the degree of differential item functioning (DIF) on a questionnaire or test taken by multiple groups. A computer program (EasyDIF) was developed to calculate index K. In developing the program, the three following concerns were paramount: (a) the program is applicable when there are more than three groups to be analyzed, (b) it is able to accommodate polytomous items, such as a Likert scale, and (c) details of DIF can be presented in a graph. In simulations and using Big Five scale data, the performance of index K was comparable to the Mantel-Haenszel method and to the Poly-SIBTEST. It is necessary to repeat the calculations to obtain index K. However, because EasyDIF has a graphical user interface, it was intuitively easy to use. Therefore, the results were easier to obtain using EasyDIF.

  7. Non-operative management of blunt abdominal trauma: positive predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pankratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years a non-operative management (NOM of blunt  abdominal  trauma has been included into the standard treatment guidelines  in leading  trauma  centers  all over the world.  The  success  of NOM is based  on  careful patient  selection. Nevertheless, the selection  criteria have not been clearly determined up to now.Aim: To identify predictors of successful NOM and to  create  a diagnostic  and  treatment algorithm for its implementation.Materials and methods: 209 patients  with abdominal  trauma  who underwent  laparoscopy  or NOM from January 2006 to September 2015 were included  in the  study. The hemoperitoneum volume  and  organ  injury rate evaluated   by  using  ultrasonography  and  computed  tomography scan, as well as hemoglobin level, blood  pressure,  and  peripheral  pulse  were analyzed. We performed  comparative  analysis of prognostic  values of various selection  criteria for NOM, such as: 1 Huang and McKenney ultrasound scoring systems for hemoperitoneum quantification; 2 hemodynamic parameters; 3 hemoglobin levels;  4 various combinations  of the  above mentioned factors; 5 Sonographic  Scoring for Operating  Room Triage in Trauma (SSORTT scoring system.Results: Positive prognostic  values of parameters included into the study varied from 88 to 91.7% when used separately or in combination with other scored factors. Furthermore, there was no  significant  difference  between positive  predictive value  of all combinations of factors  and McKenney ultrasound hemoperitoneum scoring system used alone.Conclusion: The proposed predictors  as  well as  diagnostic  and  treatment algorithm are easy-to-use  and available in clinical practice.

  8. Development of a glucose sensor employing quick and easy modification method with mediator for altering electron acceptor preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, Mika; Loew, Noya; Inose-Takahashi, Yuka; Okuda-Shimazaki, Junko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Mulchandani, Ashok; Sode, Koji

    2018-02-09

    Enzyme based electrochemical biosensors are divided into three generations according to their type of electron transfer from the cofactors of the enzymes to the electrodes. Although the 3rd generation sensors using direct electron transfer (DET) type enzymes are ideal, the number of enzyme types which possess DET ability is limited. In this study, we report of a glucose sensor using mediator-modified glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), that was fabricated by a new quick-and-easy method using the pre-functionalized amine reactive phenazine ethosulfate (arPES). Thus mediator-modified GDH obtained the ability to transfer electrons to bulky electron acceptors as well as electrodes. The concentration of glucose was successfully measured using electrodes with immobilized PES-modified GDH, without addition of external electron mediators. Therefore, continuous monitoring systems can be developed based on this "2.5th generation" electron transfer principle utilizing quasi-DET. Furthermore, we successfully modified two other diagnostically relevant enzymes, glucoside 3-dehydrogenase and lactate oxidase, with PES. Therefore, various kinds of diagnostic enzymes can achieve quasi-DET ability simply by modification with arPES, suggesting that continuous monitoring systems based on the 2.5th generation principle can be developed for various target molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beta-lactams in continuous infusion for Gram-negative bacilli osteoarticular infections: an easy method for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Alba; Soldevila, Laura; Rigo-Bonnin, Raul; Tubau, Fe; Padullés, Ariadna; Gómez-Junyent, Joan; Ariza, Javier; Murillo, Oscar

    2018-01-23

    Continuous infusion (CI) of beta-lactams could optimize their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices, especially in difficult-to-treat infections. To validate an easy-to-use method to guide beta-lactams dosage in CI (formula). A retrospective analysis was conducted of a prospectively collected cohort (n = 24 patients) with osteoarticular infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) managed with beta-lactams in CI. Beta-lactams dose was calculated using a described formula (daily dose = 24 h × beta-lactam clearance × target "steady-state" concentration) to achieve concentrations above the MIC. We correlated the predicted concentration (C pred  = daily dose/24 h × beta-lactam clearance) with the patient's observed concentration (C obs ) measured by UPLC-MS/MS (Spearman's coefficient). The most frequent microorganism treated was P. aeruginosa (21 cases; 9 MDR). Beta-lactams in CI were ceftazidime (n = 14), aztreonam (7), and piperacillin/tazobactam (3), mainly used in combination (12 with colistin, 5 with ciprofloxacin) and administered without notable side effects. The plasma C obs was higher overall than C pred ; the Spearman correlation between both concentrations was rho = 0.6 (IC 95%: 0.2-0.8) for all beta-lactams, and rho = 0.8 (IC 95%: 0.4-1) for those treated with ceftazidime. The formula may be useful in clinical practice for planning the initial dosage of beta-lactams in CI, while we await a systematic therapeutic drug monitoring. The use of beta-lactams in CI was safe.

  10. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...

  11. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...

  12. Short description of an alternative simplified method for screening recombinant clones within the "AdEasy-System" by Duplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienle Peter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant adenoviral vectors are highly efficient for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. They can easily be produced in large numbers, transduce a wide variety of cell types and generate high levels of transgene expression. The AdEasy system is a widely used system for generating recombinant adenoviral vectors, which are created with a minimum of enzymatic manipulations and by employing homologous recombination in E. coli. In this paper we describe an alternative simplified method for screening recombinant DNA within the AdEasy system. This Duplex-PCR-method is independent of the transgene or insert and can be used for the complete AdEasy system. It is characterized by a simple standard protocol and the results can be obtained within a few hours. The PCR is run with two different primer sets. The primers KanaFor and KanaRev hybridizise with the Kanamycin resistence gene and AdFor and AdRev detect the adenoviral backbone. In case of recombinant clones, two diagnostic fragments with a size of 384 bp and 768 bp are generated. Results The practicability of this method was verified with three different transgenes: Cytosin Deaminase (AdCD, p53 (Adp53 and Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (AdGM-CSF. Recombinant clones are indicated by two diagnostic fragments and are then suitable for further processing. Conclusion In summary, the presented protocol allows fast detection of recombinants with an easy technique by minimizing the amount of necessary steps for generating a recombinant adenovirus. This method is time sparing and cost-effective.

  13. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual ... for Educators Search English Español Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth / For Teens / Easy Exercises for Teens Print ...

  14. EASI graphics - Version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of the Version II of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples. 5 references, 15 figures, 6 tables

  15. A Comparative View on Easy to Deploy non-Integrating Methods for Patient-Specific iPSC Production

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Stefano; Viiri, Leena E.; Marttila, Suvi; Aalto-Set?l?, Katriina

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are routinely produced from dermal fibroblasts, with potential applications ranging from in vitro disease models to drug discovery and regenerative medicine. The need of eliminating the remaining reprogramming factors after iPSC production spurred the development of non-integrating viruses such as Sendai and other methods to deliver episomal vectors, which are progressively lost upon cell division. We compared four widespread methods (Sendai virus, Nucle...

  16. Easy methods to make the neuronavigated targeting of DLPFC accurate and routinely accessible for rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Benjamin; Vassal, François; Boutet, Claire; Jeannin, Sophie; Peyron, Roland; Faillenot, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is the main stimulation target for rTMS treatment of depression. DLPFC is located in the middle frontal gyrus and corresponds to the lateral part of Brodmann Areas 9 and 46. Current methods to locate the DLPFC are either based on head landmarks that are inaccurate, or based on MRI-neuronavigation. Neuronavigated-methods are based either on standardized stereotactic coordinates translated to the individual patient or on brain landmarks requiring neuroanatomical skills for their identification. We developed a script automating the inclusion of already validated targets into patients' MRI, and also a new method to target DLPFC based on neuroanatomical landmarks. The present study aims to assess this new approach. Four targets were compared on 40 hemispheres: three previously validated methods (2 using superimposition of standardized targets on patient MRI and 1 using neuroanatomical landmarks) and the new one presented here. Resulting targets were presented in the individual space and in stereotactic spaces (MNI and Talairach) with the main objective being to reach the middle frontal gyrus and BA9/46. Target dispersion and distances between targets were assessed. All targets were located in the middle frontal gyrus. Our proposed neuro-anatomical target was equivalent to or even better than the previously existing one if we consider the criteria of BA46 achievement and dispersion. The proposed neuroanatomical method and automation of the stereotactic method allow simple and reliable targeting of DLPFC for rTMS treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Digitise this! A quick and easy remote sensing method to monitor the daily extent of dredge plumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Evans

    Full Text Available Technological advancements in remote sensing and GIS have improved natural resource managers' abilities to monitor large-scale disturbances. In a time where many processes are heading towards automation, this study has regressed to simple techniques to bridge a gap found in the advancement of technology. The near-daily monitoring of dredge plume extent is common practice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS imagery and associated algorithms to predict the total suspended solids (TSS concentration in the surface waters originating from floods and dredge plumes. Unfortunately, these methods cannot determine the difference between dredge plume and benthic features in shallow, clear water. This case study at Barrow Island, Western Australia, uses hand digitising to demonstrate the ability of human interpretation to determine this difference with a level of confidence and compares the method to contemporary TSS methods. Hand digitising was quick, cheap and required very little training of staff to complete. Results of ANOSIM R statistics show remote sensing derived TSS provided similar spatial results if they were thresholded to at least 3 mg L(-1. However, remote sensing derived TSS consistently provided false-positive readings of shallow benthic features as Plume with a threshold up to TSS of 6 mg L(-1, and began providing false-negatives (excluding actual plume at a threshold as low as 4 mg L(-1. Semi-automated processes that estimate plume concentration and distinguish between plumes and shallow benthic features without the arbitrary nature of human interpretation would be preferred as a plume monitoring method. However, at this stage, the hand digitising method is very useful and is more accurate at determining plume boundaries over shallow benthic features and is accessible to all levels of management with basic training.

  18. An easy and inexpensive method for quantitative analysis of endothelial damage by using vital dye staining and Adobe Photoshop software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Hisham A; Terry, Mark A; Shamie, Neda; Chen, Edwin S; Friend, Daniel F; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Stoeger, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    We developed a simple, practical, and inexpensive technique to analyze areas of endothelial cell loss and/or damage over the entire corneal area after vital dye staining by using a readily available, off-the-shelf, consumer software program, Adobe Photoshop. The purpose of this article is to convey a method of quantifying areas of cell loss and/or damage. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty corneal transplant surgery was performed by using 5 precut corneas on a human cadaver eye. Corneas were removed and stained with trypan blue and alizarin red S and subsequently photographed. Quantitative assessment of endothelial damage was performed by using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The average difference for cell area damage for analyses performed by 1 observer twice was 1.41%. For analyses performed by 2 observers, the average difference was 1.71%. Three masked observers were 100% successful in matching the randomized stained corneas to their randomized processed Adobe images. Vital dye staining of corneal endothelial cells can be combined with Adobe Photoshop software to yield a quantitative assessment of areas of acute endothelial cell loss and/or damage. This described technique holds promise for a more consistent and accurate method to evaluate the surgical trauma to the endothelial cell layer in laboratory models. This method of quantitative analysis can probably be generalized to any area of research that involves areas that are differentiated by color or contrast.

  19. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  20. Easy and fast extraction methods to determine organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge, soil, and water samples based at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Tayane C R; Santos, Rizia R; Cacique, Ane P; De Sá, Ludimara J; Silvério, Flaviano O; Pinho, Gevany P

    2018-03-04

    Organochlorine pesticides present in sewage sludge can contaminate soil and water when they are used as either fertilizer or agricultural soil conditioner. In this study, the technique solid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was optimized and validated for determination of ten organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge and soil samples. Liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was also validated for the same compounds in water. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. After optimization, the methods showed recoveries between 70% and 115% with relative standard deviation lower than 13% for all target analytes in the three matrices. The linearity was demonstrated in the range of 20 to 70 µg L -1 , 0.5 to 60 µg L -1 , and 3 to 13 µg L -1 , for sludge, soil, and acetonitrile, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged between 2 and 40 µg kg -1 , 1 and 6 µg kg -1 , and 0.5 µg L -1 for sludge, soil, and water, respectively. The methods were used in the study of pesticide lixiviation carried out in a poly vinyl chlorine column filled with soil, which had its surface layer mixed with sludge. The results showed that pesticides are not leached into soil, part of them is adsorbed by the sewage sludge (4-40%), and most pesticides are lost by volatilization.

  1. Simple and easy method to evaluate uptake potential of nanoparticles in mammalian cells using a flow cytometric light scatter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2007-04-15

    Many classes of nanoparticles have been synthesized and widely applied, however, there is a serious lack of information concerning their effects on human health and the environment. Considering that their use will increase, accurate and cost-effective measurement techniques for characterizing "nanotoxicity" are required. One major toxicological concern is that nanoparticles are easily taken up in the human body. In this study, we developed a method of evaluating the uptake potential of nanosized particles using flow cytometric light scatter. Suspended titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (5, 23, or 5000 nm) were added to Chinese hamster ovary cells. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the TiO2 particles easily moved to the cytoplasm of the cultured mammalian cells, not to the nucleus. The intensity of the side-scattered light revealed that the particles were taken up in the cells dose-, time-, and size-dependently. In addition, surface-coating of TiO2 particles changed the uptake into the cells, which was accurately reflected in the intensity of the side-scattered light. The uptake of other nanoparticles such as silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) also could be detected. This method could be used for the initial screening of the uptake potential of nanoparticles as an index of "nanotoxicity".

  2. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  3. Role of non-operative management in pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    Appendectomy is currently considered the standard of care for children with acute appendicitis. Although commonly performed and considered a safe procedure, appendectomy is not without complications. Non-operative management has a role in the treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. In uncomplicated appendicitis, initial non-operative management appears to be safe, with an approximate 1-year success rate of 75%. Compared to surgery, non-operative management is associated with less disability and lower costs, with no increase in the rate of complicated appendicitis. In patients with complicated appendicitis, initial non-operative management with interval appendectomy has been shown to be safe with reported success rates between 66% and 95%. Several studies suggest that initial non-operative management with interval appendectomy may be beneficial in patients with perforated appendicitis with a well-formed abscess or inflammatory mass. Recent data suggest that interval appendectomy may not be necessary after initial non-operative management of complicated appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An easy mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Hun; Choe, Jong Sun

    1988-04-01

    This book deals with an easy mold, which introduces what is a mold kinds and classification of mold. It gives descriptions of easy theories such as basic knowledge on shearing work, clearance, power for punching and shear angle, basic knowledge for bending such as transform by bending, the minimal bending radius, spring back, the length of material, flexural strength for bending, fundamental knowledge for drawing work with transform of drawing and limitation of drawing.

  5. A novel and easy FxCycle™ violet based flow cytometric method for simultaneous assessment of DNA ploidy and six-color immunophenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembhare, Prashant; Badrinath, Yajamanam; Ghogale, Sitaram; Patkar, Nikhil; Dhole, Nilesh; Dalavi, Pooja; Kunder, Nikesh; Kumar, Ashok; Gujral, Sumeet; Subramanian, P G

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal DNA ploidy is a valuable prognostic factor in many neoplasms, especially in hematological neoplasms like B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Current methods of flow-cytometric (FC) DNA-ploidy evaluation are either technically difficult or limited to three- to four-color immunophenotyping and hence, challenging to evaluate DNA-ploidy in minute tumor population with background rich of its normal counterpart cells and other hematopoietic cells. We standardized a novel sensitive and easy method of simultaneous evaluation of six- to seven-color immunophenotyping and DNA-ploidy using a dye-FxCycle Violet (FCV). Linearity, resolution, and coefficient of variation (CV) for FCV were studied using chicken erythrocyte nuclei. Ploidy results of FCV were compared with Propidium iodide (PI) in 20 samples and intra-assay variation for FCV was studied. Using this six-color immunophenotyping & FCV-protocol DNA-ploidy was determined in bone-marrow samples from 124 B-ALL & 50 MM patients. Dilution experiment was also conducted to determine the sensitivity in detection of aneuploidy in minute tumor population. FCV revealed high linearity and resolution in 450/50 channel. On comparison with PI, CV of Go/G1-peak with FCV (mean-CV 4.1%) was slightly higher than PI (mean-CV 2.9%) but had complete agreement in ploidy results. Dilution experiment showed that aneuploidy could be accurately detected up to the limit of 0.01% tumor cells. Intra-assay variation was very low with CV of 0.005%. In B-ALL, hypodiploidy was noted in 4%, hyperdiploidy in 24%, near-hyperdiploidy in 13% and remaining 59% were diploid. In MM, hypodiploidy was in 2%, hyperdiploidy in 58%, near-hyperdiploidy in 8% and remaining 30% were diploid. FCV-based DNA-ploidy method is a sensitive and easy method for simultaneous evaluation of six-color immunophenotyping and DNA analysis. It is useful in DNA-ploidy evaluation of minute tumor population in cases like minimal residual

  6. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples.

  7. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  8. Non-operative management of perforated peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Ahsan, H.N.; Hossain, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to see the morbidity and mortality in peptic ulcer perforation cases by non-operative management in selected cases. Results: In the selected 54 patients, male: female were 49:05. Nine had history of NSAID intake. There was no mortality. Morbidity analysis showed that three had hepatic abscess, four had pelvic abscess, six took prolonged time for improvement, in two cases conservative treatment had to be abandoned and laparotomy was done in the same hospital admission. Conclusion: Non-operative procedure is a safe and effective measure for the management of perforated peptic ulcer in selected cases. (author)

  9. Applying a PCR-based open-reading frame typing method for easy genotyping and molecular epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Yamada, K; Aoki, M; Hosoba, E; Matsumoto, M; Baba, H; Iinuma, Y

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiological techniques, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), or multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have facilitated our understanding of the transmission routes of nosocomial infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, they are time consuming and technically demanding. To perform molecular epidemiological analysis in a standard microbiology laboratory, we aimed to develop a simpler and effective molecular epidemiological technique based on the open-reading frame (ORF) distribution patterns detected by PCR, which we call PCR-based ORF typing (POT). Ten ORFs from genomic islets, five ORFs from genomic islands, and the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) blaIMP and blaVIM were selected by comparing the whole-genome sequences of different Ps. aeruginosa strains (PAO1, PA7, UCBPP-PA14 and LESB58). These 17 ORFs were detected, along with a Ps. aeruginosa marker, using 9-plex and 10-plex PCR systems. The genotypes in the POT were compared to those obtained by using PFGE and MLST. Using the POT method, molecular epidemiological analyses of Ps. aeruginosa can be completed in 4 h. Since this method is very easy to perform, even in standard clinical laboratories, it could be a valuable tool for monitoring daily infection control measures. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. French made nice & easy

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Whether travelling to a foreign country or to your favorite international restaurant, this Nice & Easy guide gives you just enough of the language to get around and be understood. Much of the material in this book was developed for government personnel who are often assigned to a foreign country on a moment's notice and need a quick introduction to the language.

  11. Improving palliative treatment of patients with non-operable cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving palliative treatment of patients with non-operable cancer of the oesophagus: training doctors and nurses in the use of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) in Malawi. ... Nationwide only three hospitals are able to perform oesophagectomies, and there is no radiotherapy- or chemotherapy available. Owing to late ...

  12. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-07-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  13. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirvioe, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  14. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Lu-Qin; Li, Fang-Wei; Ding, Yi; Yang, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ming-Lin

    2014-09-26

    Based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the adsorbing material and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we established a new method for the determination of multiple pesticides in vegetables and fruits. It was determined that bare MNPs have excellent function as adsorbent when purified, and it is better to be separated from the extract. The amount of MNPs influenced the clean-up performance and recoveries. To achieve the optimum performance of modified QuEChERS towards the target analytes, several parameters including the amount of the adsorbents and purification time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, recoveries were evaluated in four representative matrices (tomato, cucumber, orange and apple) with the spiked concentrations of 10 μg kg(-1), 50 μg kg(-1)and 200 μg kg(-1) in all cases. The results showed that the recovery of 101 pesticides ranged between 71.5 and 111.7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10.5%. The optimum clean-up system improved the purification efficiency and simultaneously obtained satisfactory recoveries of multiple pesticides, including planar-ring pesticides. In short, the modified QuEChERS method in addition to MNPs used for removing impurities improved the speed of sample pre-treatment and exhibited an enhanced performance and purifying effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of four sulfonylurea herbicides in cereals using modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanxia; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Hantong; He, Qiao; Huang, Siqi; Qin, Meiling; Chai, Shuangshuang; Gao, Huanhuan; Ma, Youning

    2018-02-16

    A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method, coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of four commonly used sulfonylurea herbicides, ethoxysulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl and orthosulfamuron, in rice, maize, wheat and soybean. Adsorption of the analytes onto the primary-secondary amine used in the clean-up step was avoided by using 1% formic acid in acetonitrile as the extraction solvent to maintain the acidic herbicides in a non-ionized state. Trueness studies were carried out at three levels (2.5, 25 and 250 μg/kg for ethoxysulfuron and 5, 50 and 500 μg/kg for the other three analytes). Promising trueness (70.2%-119.8%) was achieved for all herbicides in all matrices after clean-up, with relative standard deviations (RSDr) < 18.6%. Satisfactory matrix effects (-19.7% to 14.8%) were also obtained. Good linearity of the calibration curves was achieved, with determination coefficients (r) ≥ 0.9956, when the concentration of ethoxysulfuron was in the range 0.5-50 μg/L and that of the other three analytes was in the range 1.0-500 μg/L. The RSD wR for within-laboratory reproducibility was 5.7%. The validated method was successfully used to analyze real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  17. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  18. The activation system Easy 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.; Kopecky, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Safety and waste management of materials for ITER, IFMIF and future power plants require detailed knowledge of the activation caused by irradiation with neutrons, or in the case of IFMIF, deuterons. The European Activation System (EASY) has been developed for such calculations and a new version (EASY-2007) was released earlier this year. This contains a large amount of nuclear data in the European Activation File (EAF-2007) covering neutron-, deuteron- and proton-induced cross sections (about 200,000 reactions have data extending up to 60 MeV), decay data (2,231 nuclides) and subsidiary data on e.g. biological hazards. These data are input to the FISPACT inventory code used to calculate the activation. Recent work has concentrated on the validation of EASY-2007 using integral and differential measurements; these studies are summarised showing examples of reactions agreeing with the experimental results and cases where the library data require further improvement. Integral data above 20 MeV are especially important in improving the library for IFMIF calculations. Using a previous version of EASY a study of the activation of all the elements enabled the identification of the reactions important in producing activation below 20 MeV. The list of 1,340 neutron-reactions producing the dominant radio-nuclides enables further studies to be focused on the important data. This study made extensive use of importance diagrams. This work has been extended to cover the energy region up to 60 MeV, and the new important radionuclides and reactions in this energy range are reported. Although the data above 20 MeV are important for IFMIF and are of interest because of their novelty, the traditional energy region below 20 MeV remains of great importance for most fusion applications. The testing of such large data libraries for reactions with no experimental data is necessary and results from the use of the recently developed method of Statistical

  19. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  20. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) is observed when singly presented written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear at which level in visual perception...... multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  1. Triangulation Made Easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P

    2009-12-23

    We describe a simple and efficient algorithm for two-view triangulation of 3D points from approximate 2D matches based on minimizing the L2 reprojection error. Our iterative algorithm improves on the one by Kanatani et al. by ensuring that in each iteration the epipolar constraint is satisfied. In the case where the two cameras are pointed in the same direction, the method provably converges to an optimal solution in exactly two iterations. For more general camera poses, two iterations are sufficient to achieve convergence to machine precision, which we exploit to devise a fast, non-iterative method. The resulting algorithm amounts to little more than solving a quadratic equation, and involves a fixed, small number of simple matrixvector operations and no conditional branches. We demonstrate that the method computes solutions that agree to very high precision with those of Hartley and Sturm's original polynomial method, though achieves higher numerical stability and 1-4 orders of magnitude greater speed.

  2. Salmonella detection in poultry meat and meat products by the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella method, a LightCycler polymerase chain reaction system, and the International Organization for Standardization method 6579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelli, S; Eyigor, A; Carli, K T

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of the Vitek immunodiagnostic assay system easy Salmonella (VIDAS ESLM) method and a specific real-time PCR system (LightCycler, LCPCR) to complement the International Organization for Standardization Method 6579 (ISO) in detecting Salmonella from a total of 105 naturally contaminated samples comprised of poultry meat and poultry meat products. The detection limit of ISO and LCPCR was 9 cfu/mL for both poultry meat and poultry meat products, whereas that of VIDAS ESLM with both sample types was determined to be 90 cfu/mL. Twelve (33.33%), 11 (30.55%), and 18 (50.00%) out of 36 poultry meat samples were positive for Salmonella by ISO, VIDAS ESLM, and LCPCR, respectively. Salmonella detection rates from poultry meat products were 5.80% for ISO and 8.69% for LCPCR, whereas none of these products tested positive by VIDAS ESLM. In poultry meat samples, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR detection results were in substantial agreement with ISO, with the relative accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates of 97.2, 91.7, and 100%, respectively, for VIDAS ESLM and 83.3, 100, and 75%, respectively, for LCPCR. This is the first report on the evaluation of both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR to complement ISO for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry meat and meat products. We determined that both VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR have the potential to complement the ISO standard culture method in the rapid screening of Salmonella from naturally contaminated poultry meats. For the poultry meat products, VIDAS ESLM and LCPCR can be used for rapid primary screening, and they should be complemented absolutely by ISO. Although LCPCR can preferentially be used for initial screening poultry meat products, the results should definitely be confirmed by ISO. Also, the VIDAS ESLM did not seem to be a suitable method for detecting Salmonella in poultry meat products.

  3. A fast and easy real-time PCR genotyping method for the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurisic, S; Sørensen, A E; Hviid, T V F

    2012-01-01

    and reliable method to screen for the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism using an optimized real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol. The genotyping assay has been validated by comparison with conventional methods. As results can be obtained within a few hours, the assay will have a potential...

  4. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in crop plants by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a calibration based on a single level standard addition in the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Mariela S; Rizzetti, Tiele M; de Souza, Maiara P; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, optimized by a 2 3 full factorial design, was developed for the determination of 72 pesticides in plant parts of carrot, corn, melon, rice, soy, silage, tobacco, cassava, lettuce and wheat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Considering the complexity of these matrices and the need of use calibration in matrix, a new calibration approach based on single level standard addition in the sample (SLSAS) was proposed in this work and compared with the matrix-matched calibration (MMC), the procedural standard calibration (PSC) and the diluted standard addition calibration (DSAC). All approaches presented satisfactory validation parameters with recoveries from 70 to 120% and relative standard deviations≤20%. SLSAS was the most practical from the evaluated approaches and proved to be an effective way of calibration. Method limit of detection were between 4.8 and 48μgkg -1 and limit of quantification were from 16 to 160μgkg -1 . Method application to different kinds of plants found residues of 20 pesticides that were quantified with z-scores values≤2 in comparison with other calibration approaches. The proposed QuEChERS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and using an easy and effective calibration procedure presented satisfactory results for pesticide residues determination in different crop plants and is a good alternative for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Operative Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yalnız

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS is an uncommon lesion seen mainly in children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of 12 patients with AARS treated non-operatively is presented in this study. Material and Methods: Twelve patients with AARS who were treated non-operatively were evaluated retrospectively in terms of recent trauma and respiratory tract infection history, accompanying injuries, radiological findings, duration of symptoms, amount and duration of traction and clinical results of the treatment. Results: Traumatic AARS was present in 8 patients. No evidence of trauma was found in 4 patients. Type I subluxations in 10 and type II subluxations in 2 patients were found according to the Fielding and Hawkins classification. All patients were treated using bed-side mentooccipital tractions. The mean duration of bed-side mentooccipital traction was 3,75 days and the mean amount of load was 1.8 kg. All patients were kept in Philadelphia collars for additional 3 weeks after the clinical recovery. No limitations and pain in head movements were present in any patient at the sixth month follow-up examinations.Conclusion: Paediatric patients with neck pain and torticollis should be investigated concerning trauma and recent respiratory tract infection history in order to avoid any delay in diagnosis of a possible AARS.

  6. Rapid and easy multiresidue method for the analysis of antibiotics in meats by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-06-03

    This study involved the development of a multiresidue method for the rapid analysis of 43 antibiotics in meats using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method was performed using dispersive-solid phase extraction, which is able to analyze 20 samples within 2 h. All compounds were determined simultaneously on a C18 separation column with gradient elution. Validation of the analytical method was performed by carrying out linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, and recovery tests in different meat products. The validation criteria were set according to AOAC International and Japanese validation guidelines. The linearity of each compound was almost the coefficient of determination (r(2)) > 0.98. The LOQs of all tested antibiotics were meats (pork, beef, and chicken).

  7. Three-phase partitioning as a rapid and easy method for the purification and recovery of catalase from sweet potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Yonca Avcı; Kaya, Erdem

    2013-07-01

    Three-phase partitioning (TPP) was used to purify and recover catalase from potato crude extract. The method consists of ammonium sulfate saturation, t-butanol addition, and adjustment of pH, respectively. The best catalase recovery (262 %) and 14.1-fold purification were seen in the interfacial phase in the presence of 40 % (w/v) ammonium sulfate saturation with 1.0:1.0 crude extract/t-butanol ratio (v/v) at pH 7 in a single step. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the enzyme showed comparatively purification and protein molecular weight was nearly found to be 56 kDa. This study shows that TPP is a simple, economical, and quick method for the recovering of catalase and can be used for the purification process.

  8. Determination of cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Qin, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-10-01

    A new, highly sensitive, and selective method was developed for the determination of the cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by using gas chromatography quadruple mass spectrometry. The target compound was extracted using acetonitrile and then cleaned up using dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary and secondary amine and graphitized carbon black, and optionally by a freezing-out cleanup step. The matrix-matched standards gave satisfactory recoveries and relative standard deviation values in different matrices at three fortified levels (0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) ). The overall average recoveries for this method in water, soil, and all fruits matrix at three fortified levels ranged from 76.3 to 101.5% with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.2-11.8% (n = 5). The calculated limits of detection and quantification were typically below 0.005 and 0.015 μg kg(-1), which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by Japanese Positive List. This study provides a theoretical basis for China to draw up maximum residue level and analytical method for cyflumetofen acaricide in different fruits. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thin layer chromatography-spray mass spectrometry: a method for easy identification of synthesis products and UV filters from TLC aluminum foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Waser, Mario; Klampfl, Christian W

    2014-06-01

    A straightforward procedure for direct mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of spots from thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates, without the need of an external ion source, was developed using the aluminum plate backing as spray tip. The spots were cut out shaped as a tip with a 60° angle, mounted in front of the MS orifice, and after addition of a spray solvent spectra were obtained immediately. A high-resolution time-of-flight MS was used since the method is of particular interest for rapid identification or confirmation of spots from TLC plates. The practical benefits of this technique were demonstrated by detection of by-products of organic reactions, by identification of degradation products, and by accurate confirmation of spots when UV filters in sunscreens were analyzed by TLC. Employing the described method TLC spots can be evaluated fast without the need of an external ion source or devices for analyte transfer from TLC to MS, only a basic MS instrument and a high-voltage power supply is required.

  10. Effects of EDTA on routine and specialized coagulation testing and an easy method to distinguish EDTA-treated from citrated plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Ronda A; Gibbs, Kathie; Rodgers, George M; Smock, Kristi J

    2009-01-01

    Coagulation testing is performed with citrate-treated plasma. Samples submitted in other anticoagulants, such as EDTA, should not be tested. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EDTA on routine and specialized coagulation tests and to establish sodium tetraphenylborate testing as a quick and reliable method to identify EDTA-treated plasma samples. We performed the following measurements on citrateand EDTA-treated plasma samples from 10 healthy volunteers: sodium tetraphenylborate testing, prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), potassium concentration, and functional assays for factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, proteins C and S, and antithrombin. Mean values for citrate- and EDTA-treated plasma were most different for PT, PTT, factors V and VIII, and proteins C and S. Sodium tetraphenylborate testing correctly classified 100% of citratetreated and EDTA-treated samples. We confirm that EDTA has effects on coagulation assays. Sodium tetraphenylborate testing is a quick, simple, and inexpensive method for coagulation laboratories to identify samples erroneously submitted in EDTA.

  11. Easy xeno-free and feeder-free method for isolating and growing limbal stromal and epithelial stem cells of the human cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djida Ghoubay-Benallaoua

    Full Text Available Epithelial and stromal stem cells are required to maintain corneal transparency. The aim of the study was to develop a new method to isolate and grow both corneal stromal (SSC and epithelial limbal (LSC stem cells from small human limbal biopsies under culture conditions in accordance with safety requirements mandatory for clinical use in humans. Superficial limbal explants were retrieved from human donor corneo-scleral rims. Human limbal cells were dissociated by digestion with collagenase A, either after epithelial scraping or with no scraping. Isolated cells were cultured with Essential 8 medium (E8, E8 supplemented with EGF (E8+ or Green's medium with 3T3 feeder-layers. Cells were characterized by immunostaining, RT-qPCR, colony forming efficiency, sphere formation, population doubling, second harmonic generation microscopy and differentiation potentials. LSC were obtained from unscraped explants in E8, E8+ and Green's media and were characterized by colony formation and expression of PAX6, ΔNP63α, Bmi1, ABCG2, SOX9, CK14, CK15 and vimentin, with a few cells positive for CK3. LSC underwent 28 population doublings still forming colonies. SSC were obtained from both scraped and unscraped explants in E8 and E8+ media and were characterized by sphere formation, expression of PAX6, SOX2, BMI1, NESTIN, ABCG2, KERATOCAN, VIMENTIN, SOX9, SOX10 and HNK1, production of collagen fibrils and differentiation into keratocytes, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, neurons, adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. SSC underwent 48 population doublings still forming spheres, Thus, this new method allows both SSC and LSC to be isolated from small superficial limbal biopsies and to be primary cultured in feeder-free and xeno-free conditions, which will be useful for clinical purposes.

  12. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, D O; Blattner, M M; Tong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  13. Easy fabrication and high electrochemical capacitive performance of hierarchical porous carbon by a method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hui-li; Ran, Fen; Zhang, Xuan-xuan; Song, Hai-ming; Jing, Wen-xia; Shen, Kui-wen; Kong, Ling-bin; Kang, Long

    2014-01-01

    A hierarchical porous carbon membrane was designed and prepared through a method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and then pyrolysis process using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as precursor. The results of scan electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller characterization reveal that the 3D nanoscaled architecture with hierarchical porous structure was achieved, which not only provide a continuous electron pathway to ensure good electrical contact, but also facilitate ion transport by shortening diffusion pathways. The effect of PAN concentration in casting solution on structure feature of carbon membrane was also studied, indicating that the membrane thickness with different porous structure can be mediated by PAN concentration. As the electrode material for supercapacitor, a high specific capacitance of 277.0 F g −1 was attained at a current density of 5 mA cm −2 and long cycle life of 90.0% capacity retention was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles in 2 mol L −1 KOH solution

  14. Bacteriophage-nanocomposites: an easy and reproducible method for the construction, handling, storage and transport of conjugates for deployment of bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ian R; Illsley, Matthew; Korobeinyk, Alina V; Whitby, Raymond L D

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was proof of concept to develop a novel, cost effective protocol for the binding of bacteriophages to a surface without loss of function, after storage in various media. The technology platform involved covalently bonding bacteriophage 13 (a Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage) to two magnetised multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds using a series of buffers; bacteriophage-nanotube (B-N) conjugates were efficacious after storage at 20 °C for six weeks. B-N conjugates were added to human cell culture in vitro for 9 days without causing necrosis and apoptosis. B-N conjugates were frozen (-20 °C) in cell culture media for several weeks, after which recovery from the human cell culture medium was possible using a simple magnetic separation technique. The retention of viral infective potential was demonstrated by subsequent spread plating onto lawns of susceptible P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the human cell culture medium revealed the production of interleukins by the human fibroblasts upon exposure to the bacteriophage. One day after exposure, IL-8 levels transitorily increased between 60 and 100 pg/mL, but this level was not found on any subsequent days, suggesting an initial but not long lasting response. This paper outlines the development of a method to deliver antimicrobial activity to a surface that is small enough to be combined with other materials. To our knowledge at time of publication, this is the first report of magnetically coupled bacteriophages specific to human pathogens which can be recovered from test systems, and could represent a novel means to conditionally deploy antibacterial agents into living eukaryotic systems without the risks of some antibiotic therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established industrial host for production of recombinant proteins, fuels and chemicals. To enable stable integration of multiple marker-free overexpression cassettes in the genome of S. cerevisiae, we have developed a vector toolkit EasyClone-MarkerFree. The integr...... standardized genome engineering, and should be of particular interest to researchers working on yeast chassis with limited markers available....

  16. Estimation of mean number of daily hand hygiene procedures per patient can represent an effective and easy understandable method to evaluate adherence experience in a tertiary care pediatric hospital of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarelli, P; Lorenzi, I; Caviglia, I; Sacco, R A; LA Masa, D; Castagnola, E

    2016-12-01

    Hand decontamination with alcohol-based antiseptic agents is considered the best practise to reduce healthcare associated infections. We present a new method to monitor hand hygiene, introduced in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Northern Italy, which estimates the mean number of daily hand decontamination procedures performed per patient. The total amount of isopropyl alcohol and chlorhexidine solution supplied in a trimester to each hospital ward was put in relation with the number of hospitalization days, and expressed as litres/1000 hospitalization-days (World Health Organization standard method). Moreover, the ratio between the total volume of hand hygiene products supplied and the effective amount of hand disinfection product needed for a correct procedure was calculated. Then, this number was divided by 90 (days in a quarter) and then by the mean number of bed active in each day in a Unit, resulting in the mean estimated number of hand hygiene procedures per patient per day (new method). The two methods had similar performance for estimating the adherence to correct hand disinfection procedures. The new method identified wards and/or periods with high or low adherence to the procedure and indicated where to perform interventions and their effectiveness. The new method could result easy-to understand also for non-infection control experts. This method can help non-infection control experts to understand adherence to correct hand-hygiene procedures and improve quality standards.

  17. The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, J S

    2010-10-01

    Odontoid fractures currently account for 9-15% of all adult cervical spine fractures, with type II fractures accounting for the majority of these injuries. Despite recent advances in internal fixation techniques, the management of type II fractures still remains controversial with advocates still supporting non-rigid immobilization as the definitive treatment of these injuries. At the NSIU, over an 11-year period between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 2006, 66 patients (n = 66) were treated by external immobilization for type II odontoid fractures. The medical records, radiographs and CT scans of all patients identified were reviewed. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed using the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term functional outcome of patients suffering isolated type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively and to correlate patient age and device type with clinical and functional outcome. Of the 66 patients, there were 42 males and 24 females (M:F = 1.75:1) managed non-operatively for type II odontoid fractures. The mean follow-up time was 66 months. Advancing age was highly correlated with poorer long-term functional outcomes when assessing neck pain (r = 0.19, P = 0.1219), shoulder and arm pain (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007), physical symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.472), functional disability (r = 0.24, P = 0.0476) and psychological distress (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007). Patients >65 years displayed a higher rate of pseudoarthrosis (21.43 vs. 1.92%) and established non-union (7.14 vs. 0%) than patients <65 years. The non-operative management of type II odontoid fractures is an effective and satisfactory method of treating type II odontoid fractures, particularly those of a stable nature. However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union.

  18. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 'Dam it - it's easy!' - or is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, K

    2017-06-09

    Dentists the world over seem to still have issues in making rubber dam application a routine part of practice, even in situations where patients are obviously at risk. In this article, the author - who has delivered hundreds of seminars and hands on tuition in a quick and easy method of dam application (the 'Dam it - it's Easy!' series) to dentists in the UK, Europe, North America and Asia - highlights the similarity of the misconceptions existing in regard to its use by dentists the world over. The valuable advantages to the environment in the dental treatment room by dental dam application are considered underused. The protection offered by routine rubber dam application is second to none in situations that are potentially physically hazardous to patients.

  20. The European Activation System. EASY-2001 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    This document gives an overview of the European Activation System (EASY) as released in 2001. EASY-2001 consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. It is designed to investigate fusion devices that will act as intense sources of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons and cause significant activation of the surrounding materials. However, the very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 20 MeV

  1. An easy guide to factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical technique widely used in psychology and the social sciences. With the advent of powerful computers, factor analysis and other multivariate methods are now available to many more people. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis presents and explains factor analysis as clearly and simply as possible. The author, Paul Kline, carefully defines all statistical terms and demonstrates step-by-step how to work out a simple example of principal components analysis and rotation. He further explains other methods of factor analysis, including confirmatory and path analysis, a

  2. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  3. Comparison of micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Bian, Yanli; Liu, Fengmao; Teng, Peipei; Sun, Pan

    2017-10-06

    Two simple sample pretreatment for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea was developed including micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (ME-IL-VALLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. In ME-IL-VALLME method, the target analyte was extracted by surfactant Tween 20 micellar solution, then the supernatant was diluted with 3mL water to decrease the solubility of micellar solution. Subsequently, the vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was performed in the diluted extraction solution by using the ionic liquid of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF 6 ) as the extraction solvent and Tween 20 as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into the aqueous phase. Parameters that affect the extraction have been investigated in both methods Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantitation were 0.10 and 0.05mgkg -1 , respectively. And good linearity was achieved with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.9941. The relative recoveries ranged from 78.6 to 94.8% and 92.0 to 118.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 7.9-9.6% and 1.2-3.2%, respectively. Both methods were quick, simple and inexpensive. However, the ME-IL-VALLME method provides higher enrichment factor compared with conventional QuEChERS method. The ME-IL-VALLME method has a strong potential for the determination of difenoconazole in complex vegetable matrices with HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How easy the invention is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-01

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  5. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  6. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry to determine benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pol; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa M

    2014-04-25

    A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five benzotriazole, four benzothiazole and five benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge. While the method was being developed, several buffers and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up (dSPE) sorbents were tested. Citrate buffer and Z-sep+ (zirconium-based sorbent) were the most effective extraction buffer and dSPE clean-up material. The absolute recoveries were higher than 80% for all compounds (100ng/g (d.w.)) and the matrix effect was less than -20% for most compounds. The limits of detection were between 0.5 and 10ng/g (d.w.) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 1 and 25ng/g (d.w.). Repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 15% (%RSD, n=5). Several sludge samples from five sewage treatment plants in Catalonia were analysed and the most abundant compounds were 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (181.2ng/g (d.w.)) and 4-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (

  7. Residue analysis of four diacylhydrazine insecticides in fruits and vegetables by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Li, Yuanbo; Song, Wenchen; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-08-01

    The new analytical method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of diacylhydrazine insecticide residues in fruits and vegetables was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The four insecticides (tebufenozide, methoxfenozide, chromafenozide, and halofenozide) were extracted from six fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The determination of the target compounds was achieved in less than 3.0 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+) for tebufenozide, methoxfenozide, and halofenozide and in negative mode (ESI-) for chromafenozide. The limits of detection were below 0.6 μg kg(-1), while the limit of quantification did not exceed 2 μg kg(-1) in different matrices. The QuEChERS procedure by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards gave satisfactory recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) values in different matrices at four spiked levels (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 mg kg(-1)). The overall average recoveries for this method in apple, grape, cucumber, tomato, cabbage, and spinach at four levels ranged from 74.2% to 112.5% with RSDs in the range of 1.4-13.8% (n = 5) for all analytes. This study provides a theoretical basis for China to draw up maximum residue limits and analytical method for diacylhydrazine insecticide in vegetables and fruits.

  8. Easy Bruising: Common as You Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging If you're experiencing easy bruising, you might have questions about what's causing the ... 04, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/easy-bruising/art-20045762 . ...

  9. Slingshot - An Easy Way Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendre, Shilpa M; Agrawal, Khushbu D; Kangane, Suresh K; Ambekar, Anand S

    2017-04-01

    Orthodontic alignment of ectopically placed incisors or canines can be challenging and time consuming. A variety of techniques are used to align such palatally or lingually placed teeth including indirect ties with ligature wires, E-chains, piggy-back methods. This article presents two case reports to describe an effective technique using 'slingshot' method. It is a relatively simple and rapid method which is operator friendly and easily tolerated by the patients.

  10. Humeral shaft fractures: Retrospective results of non-operative and operative treatment of 186 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); B.J. Punt (Bas); G.R. Roukema (Gert); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Humeral shaft fractures account for 1-3% of all fractures and 20% of the fractures involving the humerus. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcome after operative and non-operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures, by comparing the time to radiological

  11. Is non-operative management still justified in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is a feared complication after abdominal operations in both children and adults. The optimal ... Followup data were available for 29 patients. Demographic ... required surgery. Key words: Adhesive small bowel obstruction, children, non-operative management ...

  12. 18 CFR 367.4180 - Account 418, Non-operating rental income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4180 Account 418, Non-operating rental income. (a) The expenses shall include all elements of costs incurred in the...-operating rental income. 367.4180 Section 367.4180 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  13. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    of scenarios in business has, in many cases, remained a cumbersome affair. Very often a large group of consultants, employees and staff is involved in the development of scenarios and strategies, thus making the whole process expensive in terms of time, money and human resources. In response, this article uses...... insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used...

  14. Resource utilization for non-operative cervical radiculopathy: Management by surgeons versus non-surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sophie H; Bohl, Daniel D; Paul, Jonathan T; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Harrop, James S; Ghogawala, Zoher; Hilibrand, Alan S; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2017-07-01

    To compare the estimated resource utilization for non-operative treatment of cervical radiculopathy if managed by surgeons versus non-surgeons. A Cervical Spine Research Society-sponsored survey was administered at a national spine surgery conference to surgeons and non-surgeons, as classified above. The survey asked questions regarding resource utilization and perceived costs for the "average patient" with cervical radiculopathy managed non-operatively. Resource utilization and perceived costs were compared between surgeon and non-surgeon participants, and between private practice and academic and/or hybrid groups that combine academic and private practices. In total, 101 of the 125 conference attendees participated in the survey (return rate 80.8%, of which 60% were surgeons). Surgeon and non-surgeon estimates for duration of non-operative care did not differ (3.3 versus 4.2 months, p=0.071). Estimates also did not differ for estimated number of physical therapy visits (10.5 versus 10.5, p=0.983), cervical injections (1.4 versus 1.7, p=0.272), chiropractic visits (3.1 versus 3.7, p=0.583), or perceived days off from work (14.9 versus 16.3, p=0.816). The only difference identified was that surgeon estimates of the number of physician visits while providing non-operative care were lower than non-surgeon estimates (3.2 versus 4.0, p=0.018). In terms of estimated costs, surgeon and non-surgeon were mostly similar (only difference being that surgeon estimates for the total cost of physician visits per patient were lower than non-surgeon estimates ($382 versus $579, p=0.007). Surgeon estimates for the percent of their patients that go on to receive surgery within 6 months were higher than non-surgeon estimates (28.6% versus 18.8%, p=0.018). Similarly, surgeon estimates for the percent of their patients to go on to receive surgery within 2 years were higher than non-surgeon estimates (37.8% versus 24.8%, p=0.013). Academic/hybrid and private practice group resource

  15. Problems with Cash and Other Non-Operating Assets Value in the Process of Valuing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szczepankowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic practice the process of valuing enterprises is based on potential earnings from companies operating assets ñ operating fixed assets and operating working capital. Cash and other non-operating assets (mainly financial are treated as unproductive, non-income assets. Eventually, in process of pricing their current, accounting value is added to income value of enterprise or cash is treated as source for quick covering the debts of firm, what of course indirectly improve for better value of equity (the lower financial risk. Not taking into account the profitable influence of cash value and other non-operating assets can negatively affect on result of final value of enterprise, reducing it. In the article two alternative approaches (separate and inclusive of cash value is presented. Also main determinants of estimating value of cash are described as well as potential threats of its valuation.

  16. An audit of failed non-operative management of abdominal stab wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D L; Allorto, N L; Thomson, S R

    2010-05-01

    Selective non-operative management based on clinical assessment has been shown to be a generally safe approach in the management of penetrating stab wounds of the torso. However there will be a subset of patients who fail selective non-operative management. This audit focuses on the failures. The metropolitan surgical service in Pietermaritzburg covers 3 hospitals. At the weekly metropolitan morbidity and mortality meeting all trauma patients are reviewed. All cases of failed selective non-operative management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds are discussed. Failed non-operative management is usually defined as any patient who ultimately requires surgical exploration. We do not subscribe to this as we feel as long as the need for surgical intervention is recognised within a short period of time (wound were managed over the 2 year period under review. A total of 192 (56%) of these patients were subjected to mandatory laparotomy. Of these mandatory laparotomies 98% were positive. The remaining 148 (44%) patients were observed. Of the 148 observed patients a total of 30 (20%) subsequently underwent surgery. A total of 13 patients were only taken to surgery after 12h of observation. In this group of 13 patients the average delay between admission and recognition of injury was 40 h. There were six gastric injuries, one pyloric and pancreatic injury, two gallbladder injuries, one liver, one colon and two small bowel injuries. There were no deaths. 9 patients recovered with no additional morbidity. In the remainder, morbidity included, relaparotomy (1), open abdomen (1), renal failure (1) and prolonged stay in ICU (3). Clinical assessment accurately predicts the need for mandatory laparotomy following a stab wound to the torso. In patients who do not meet the indications for mandatory laparotomy and who are subjected to non-operative management 20% will come to surgery. A subgroup may only be recognised as requiring surgery after more than 12h. These patients are at

  17. Rapid mixing chemical oxidative polymerization: an easy route to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    bon nanomaterial suspensions (Gedela et al 2012); here, the problems of poor solvability and/or dispersion of the constituent materials in the solvents used in synthesis protocols can be overcome. In this study, an easy method. (in situ chemical oxidative polymerization) to synthesize small diameter carbon nanotubes ...

  18. Magnitude of non-operative surgical emergency admissions; service implications for surgical and radiological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, R M; Reynolds, I; Ryan, R S; Khan, I; Khan, W; Waldron, R; Barry, K

    2017-02-01

    Financial sustainability is an area of sharp ongoing focus across the broad spectrum of the Irish Health Service. Recent attention has been drawn to the financial implications of non-operative surgical admissions, suggesting that some of these may be unnecessary. In this study, we aim to determine the volume of emergency surgical admissions to Mayo University Hospital (MUH), in particular, to identify the scale of non-operative admissions and to assess the wider inherent implications for acute hospital services. An electronic handover system for emergency surgical admissions was introduced in MUH in September 2014. All surgical admissions from September 1st 2014 to August 31st 2015 were identified from this prospectively maintained database. HIPE (Hospital Inpatient Enquiry) data were not used in this study. Theatre logbooks confirmed those patients who required operative intervention. 1466 patients were admitted as emergencies during the study period. 58 % (850) were male and median age was 48 years (0-100). Average length of stay was 5 days (range 1-125). 327 patients (22.3 %) required operative intervention. The most commonly performed procedure was appendicectomy (52.5 %). 48 (3.3 %) patients were transferred to other hospitals. 131 (8.9 %) admissions related to the acute urological conditions. Of the 1466 admissions, 546 underwent a CT scan, while 342 patients proceeded to ultrasound. Almost 80 % of all surgical emergency admissions were discharged without undergoing a formal operative procedure while generating a significant workload for the radiology department. Changes in working practices and hospital network structures will be required to reduce the burden of non-operative emergency admissions.

  19. "Stiction Syndrome": Non-Operative Management of Patients With Difficult AMS 700 Series Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Nicholas L; Viers, Boyd R; VanDyke, Maia E; Pagliara, Travis J; Morey, Allen F

    2017-09-01

    Static friction (stiction) is a mechanical phenomenon in which a state of increased resistance exists across a control valve mechanism. To present a strategy for non-operative management of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) cases with pump malfunction from pump valve stiction. All patients had American Medical Systems (AMS; Minnetonka, MN, USA) 700 series Momentary Squeeze IPPs with transient pump malfunction owing to pump valve stiction after extended periods of device inactivity. Our evolving non-operative management experience with the "forced deflation" maneuver is described. This technique has successfully prevented the need for surgical pump replacement. Of patients with IPP who were instructed to inflate and deflate daily to prevent stiction recurrence, none have re-presented with difficult inflation. Of 306 patients receiving the AMS 700 series IPP at our institution from 2007 through 2015, 6 (1.9%) presented with difficulty activating the Momentary Squeeze pump (from 2011 through 2015). Four additional patients were referred from outside institutions with the same complaint. All patients (10 of 10, 100%) presented after a prolonged period of inactivity (minimum = 6 weeks) during which the IPP was not cycled and remained stagnant. Although the initial four patients (40%) underwent surgical exploration with pump mobilization and replacement, the six most recent patients (60%) were successfully instructed in the forced deflation maneuver in the office, which enabled the device to cycle normally thereafter. Device inactivity, for as little as 6 weeks, can predispose to Momentary Squeeze pump valve malfunction; and a regimen of daily IPP cycling could prevent stiction-related malfunction. Our findings should encourage practitioners to attempt conservative management of patients with "stiction syndrome" whenever possible, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgery. Kavoussi NL, Viers BR, VanDyke ME, et al. "Stiction Syndrome": Non-Operative Management of Patients

  20. Implementation and Use of Anesthesia Information Management Systems for Non-operating Room Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhenguel, Jason T; Preiss, David A; Urman, Richard D

    2017-12-01

    Non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) encounters comprise a significant fraction of contemporary anesthesia practice. With the implemention of an aneshtesia information management system (AIMS), anesthesia practitioners can better streamline preoperative assessment, intraoperative automated documentation, real-time decision support, and remote surveillance. Despite the large personal and financial commitments involved in adoption and implementation of AIMS and other electronic health records in these settings, the benefits to safety, efficacy, and efficiency are far too great to be ignored. Continued future innovation of AIMS technology only promises to further improve on our NORA experience and improve care quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-operative management of diverticular perforation in a patient with suspected Ehlers–Danlos syndrome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M.C.; Robertson, I.; Waters, P.S.; Hanaghan, J.; Khan, W.; Barry, K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION No consensus exists regarding definitive management of colonic perforation in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), with various authors advocating different operative techniques. Spontaneous colonic perforation is a recognised complication of vascular-type EDS (type IV), with many reported cases in the literature. No such cases have been reported concerning classical-type EDS (type I/II). PRESENTATION OF CASE A 55-year-old male with a family history of EDS presented with acute lower abdominal pain and signs of localised peritonitis. Following resuscitation, computerised tomography identified perforation of a sigmoid diverticulum with localised intraperitoneal air. Considering the potential complications associated with laparotomy in a patient with EDS, a trial of conservative management was undertaken including image-guided drainage of a mesenteric abscess. Intensive care monitoring, nutritional support and intravenous antibiotics also facilitated successful non-operative management. Following discharge, molecular studies confirmed COL5A1 mutation, and a diagnosis of classical Ehlers–Danlos syndrome was established. DISCUSSION This is the first reported case of successful conservative management of colonic diverticular perforation in a patient with classical Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. CONCLUSION EDS is highly significant in the surgical context, with the causative genetic factors serving to further complicate the course of surgical intervention. In the absence of consensus regarding best surgical management, due consideration should be given to non-operative management of benign colonic perforation. PMID:24534685

  2. Initial non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in children: a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial (APAC trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, M.; Lee, J.H. van der; Bakx, R.; The, S.L.; Heurn, E.W.E. van; Heij, H.A.; Gorter, R.R.; Blaauw, I. de; Visschers, R.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has

  3. Initial non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in children: a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial (APAC trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, Max; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Bakx, Roel; The, Sarah-May L.; van Heurn, Ernst W. E.; Heij, Hugo A.; Gorter, Ramon R.; Rippen, H.; Bet, P. M.; Kazemier, G.; Kneepkens, C. M. F.; Wijnen, R.; Offringa, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Bonjer, H. J.; van Rijn, R. R.; Benninga, M. A.; Bemelman, W. A.; Hilarius, D. L.; van Veen, S. A. J. M.; Go, P. M. N. Y. H.; Cense, H. A.; de Vries, A.; Straatman, J.; in ’t Hof, K. H.; van Beek, E. J. A. H.; Bender, M. H. M.; van den Hill, L. C. L.; Bolhuis, H. W.; Treskes, K.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Geubbels, N.; de Blaauw, I.; Botden, S. M. B. I.; Leijdekkers, V. J.; Boonstra, M. C.; Rongen, L. H.; Boerma, E. J. G.; Luyer, M. D. P.; Vugts, G.; Copper, T.; Garssen, F. P.; Hulsker, C.; Visschers, R. G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has

  4. Case report on the non-operative management of a retrievable inferior vena cava filter perforating the duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Fernandez-Moure

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: For patients with significant comorbidities or patients who are poor surgical candidates, non-operative management with close monitoring can serve as an initial approach to the patient with a caval enteric perforation secondary to a retrievable IVC filter.

  5. Competitive Clientelism, Easy Financing and Weak Capitalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    productive capitalists; and (3) easy access to financing for the state and the ruling coalition from foreign aid, mining and cocoa bean exports. As a result, ruling elites’ policy actions did not prioritize the development of new productive sectors (or upgrading of old ones), but were geared towards...

  6. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  7. For Easy Sleep along the Shore:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    investigators put it, “sleep easy at night.” The Research: Technical and human networks. IDRC's lead research partner was LIRNEasia, a non-profit organization that .... the motivation and the capacity to act? The follow-up project seeks to address this worry by preparing the hotels and villages to respond to different types of ...

  8. The role of non-operating income in community benefit provision by not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Reiter, Kristin L

    2013-01-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are under increased public scrutiny for providing what some view as insufficient levels of community benefit compared to their tax-exempt benefits. One potential driver of community benefit is financial surplus, which arises from both patient care (operating) activities and non-patient care (non-operating) activities. This study addresses the effect of hospitals' non-operating income on not-for-profit hospitals' provision of community benefit. The study sample includes 217 unique not-for-profit, non-governmental, general, acute care hospitals in California between 1997 and 2010 that filed annual reports with the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). We model the effect of hospitals' operating and non-operating incomes on hospitals' community benefit, controlling for observable hospital characteristics such as scale and system membership, local competition, time trends, and hospital fixed effects. Our results indicate that non-operating income has no effect on levels of community benefit provided by not-for-profit hospitals. This finding suggests that not-for-profit hospitals budget for uncompensated care at levels that are prioritized over other potential investments if non-operating income falls, but remain fixed if non-operating income rises.

  9. Selective non-operative management of penetrating liver injuries at a UK tertiary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGoey, P; Navarro, A; Beckingham, I J; Cameron, I C; Brooks, A J

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (SNOM) of penetrating abdominal injuries has increasingly been applied in North America in the last decade. However, there is less acceptance of SNOM among UK surgeons and there are limited data on UK practice. We aimed to review our management of penetrating liver injuries and, specifically, the application of SNOM. A retrospective review was performed of patients presenting with penetrating liver injuries between June 2005 and November 2013. Thirty-one patients sustained liver injuries due to penetrating trauma. The vast majority (97%) were due to stab wounds. The median injury severity score was 14 and a quarter of patients had concomitant thoracic injuries. Twelve patients (39%) underwent immediate surgery owing to haemodynamic instability, evisceration, retained weapon or diffuse peritonism. Nineteen patients were stable to undergo computed tomography (CT), ten of whom were selected subsequently for SNOM. SNOM was successful in eight cases. Both patients who failed SNOM had arterial phase contrast extravasation evident on their initial CT. Angioembolisation was not employed in either case. All major complications and the only death occurred in the operatively managed group. No significant complications of SNOM were identified and there were no transfusions in the non-operated group. Those undergoing operative management had longer lengths of stay than those undergoing SNOM (median stay 6.5 vs 3.0 days, p<0.05). SNOM is a safe strategy for patients with penetrating liver injuries in a UK setting. Patient selection is critical and CT is a vital triage tool. Arterial phase contrast extravasation may predict failure of SNOM and adjunctive angioembolisation should be considered for this group.

  10. Selective Non-operative Management of Patients with Abdominal Trauma-Is CECT Scan Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Prakash, Puneet; Joshi, Mohit Kumar; Rathi, Vinita

    2017-10-01

    CECT scan is considered essential for selective non-operative management (SNOM) of patients with abdominal trauma. However, CECT has its own hazards and limitations. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of selective non-operative management of patients with abdominal trauma without the mandatory use of CECT scan in a prospective study. Patients with peritonitis and ongoing intra-abdominal bleed were excluded. Consenting FAST positive, hemodynamically stable patients with blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma between 18 and 60 years of age were included and admitted for SNOM and detailed ultrasonography of the abdomen (in all) with or without CECT abdomen (selectively). Eighty-four patients with abdominal trauma were admitted during the study period. Twenty-two patients did not satisfy the inclusion criteria and 18 required immediate laparotomy based on primary survey. Remaining 44 patients were admitted for SNOM: mean ± SD age of these patients was 27 ± 8.7 years; 40 (89 %) were males. Thirty-five patients (79.54 %) sustained blunt trauma (RTI = 16, Fall = 16, others = 3) while nine patients (20.45 %) sustained penetrating trauma. SNOM without CECT was successful in 36 (81.82 %) patients. Five (11.36 %) patients underwent delayed emergency laparotomy based on clinical and detailed USG evaluation. CECT was not done in these patients. Three patients underwent CECT for various reasons; however, they were managed with SNOM. Thus, SNOM without abdominal CECT was successful in 36 (81.82 %) patients. SNOM failed in five patients but abdominal USG was sufficient. SNOM can be practised safely in patients of abdominal trauma with limited use of CECT scan.

  11. Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy vs Active Non-operative Therapy for the Treatment of Biliary Dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bryan K; Grodman, Caresse; Walker, Jerri; Dean, Scott; Tiley, Edward H; Hamrick, Roland E; Statler, Kristen; Emmett, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite widespread adoption by the surgical community, high-quality prospective data supporting the practice of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for the treatment of biliary dyskinesia (BD) is lacking. Methods Adult patients meeting criteria for diagnosis of BD (Rome III symptoms, normal ultrasound, gallbladder ejection fraction<38%) were randomized to either LC or a trial of non-operative (NO) therapy with a low-dose neuromodulator (amitriptyline 25mg/day). Patients in the NO arm were allowed to cross over to the surgical arm and remain in the study for any reason. Besides collection of basic demographics and medical/surgical history, patients were administered a standardized quality of life (QOL) assessment (SF-8) and a symptom-specific questionnaire (Rome III criteria) at enrollment and monthly through the study to assess the effect of treatment on biliary symptoms and overall QOL. Results Thirty patients were enrolled over 12 months (15LC, 15NO). In the LC group, 13 underwent LC, 1 refused surgery, 1 withdrew. In the NO group, 14 crossed over to the LC group (of which 13 had LC), yielding 26 patients who underwent LC. SF-8 physical scores (PCS-8) were significantly improved at both the first and last follow-up visits (p<0.0001, p=0.0003 respectively). SF-8 mental scores (MCS-8) were also significantly improved at both the first and last follow-up visits (p=0.0187, p=0.0017 respectively). With median follow-up of 12 months [range 3–14], all 26 reported relief of pain. Conclusions This pilot study raises doubts regarding the feasibility of a randomized trial, presumably due to both clinician and patient bias toward LC and the lack of “gold-standard” non-operative treatments. However, these prospective data indicate that, with careful patient selection (standardized symptom criteria/imaging methodology), LC results in pain relief and significant improvement in QOL in BD patients. Further prospective study of these findings is warranted. PMID

  12. Fixed point algebras for easy quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Weber, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Compact matrix quantum groups act naturally on Cuntz algebras. The first author isolated certain conditions under which the fixed point algebras under this action are Kirchberg algebras. Hence they are completely determined by their K-groups. Building on prior work by the second author,we prove...... that free easy quantum groups satisfy these conditions and we compute the K-groups of their fixed point algebras in a general form. We then turn to examples such as the quantum permutation group S+ n,the free orthogonal quantum group O+ n and the quantum reflection groups Hs+ n. Our fixed point......-algebra construction provides concrete examples of free actions of free orthogonal easy quantum groups,which are related to Hopf-Galois extensions....

  13. A Prospective Assessment of Clinical and Patient-Reported Outcomes of Initial Non-Operative Management of Ventral Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holihan, Julie L; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan R; Mo, Jiandi; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical or patient-reported outcomes with non-operative management of ventral hernias. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the clinical and patient-reported outcomes of patients undergoing initial non-operative treatment of their ventral hernia. This was a prospective observational study of patients undergoing non-operative management of ventral hernias. Primary outcome was rate of surgical repair of the ventral hernias. Secondary outcomes included rate of emergency repair, elective repair, and emergency room visits. In addition, validated measurement tools for patient satisfaction and cosmetic satisfaction with their abdomen, abdominal pain, and patient function (modified Activities Assessment Scale, AAS) were utilized. Of 128 patients who underwent non-operative management of a ventral hernia, 99(77.3%) patients were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 12.2(10.4-13.5) months. Twenty (20.2%) patients had at least 1 emergency room visit associated with their hernia. One-quarter (n = 2323.2%) underwent ventral hernia repair following enrollment. Twenty (20.2%) underwent elective repair, and 3 (3.0%) underwent emergent repair. Based on the modified AAS survey, patients who were managed non-operatively experienced no change in patient centered outcomes, while patients converted to operative management had improved scores. While the short-term risk of emergency surgery with non-operative management of ventral hernias is moderate, the chance of an emergency room visit and surgery is high. Patients who undergo non-operative management of their ventral hernias have no change in patient-reported outcomes at one year, while those converted to operative management experience improvement.

  14. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  15. Simultaneous determination of three herbicides in wheat, wheat straw, and soil using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a sensitive and effective analytical method for the extraction and detection of three herbicide residues (florasulam, fluroxypyr, and halauxifen-methyl) in wheat and soil was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water followed by salting out, dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup, and detection using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The target analytes were detected within a 5 min runtime using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography high-strength silica trifunctional column connected to an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The method was validated in five replicates at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Adequate pesticide quantification and identity confirmation were attained, even at the lowest concentration levels. The method showed very good accuracy and precision. Good recoveries were observed for the three herbicides and mostly ranged between 75.8 and 114.6%, with intraday relative standard deviations herbicide. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the three herbicides in actual trial samples, and the results proved that the proposed method was effective in detecting these three herbicides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Clinical course of non-operated patients with spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Michihiro; Kinouchi, Junnosuke; Maruiwa, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The clinical course of spinal cord tumors in 24 non-operated patients who were followed by MRI for more than 1 year was investigated retrospectively. Only 7 patients were positive in neurological symptoms. 7 patients had multiple tumors, and the histopathologic diagnosis in 16 patients was neurinoma. The MRI findings changed in 4 patients, and follow-up MR images showed rapid growth of 2 neurinomas. The clinical manifestations did not change in 17 patients, but they improved in 3 patients whose symptoms were not caused by tumors and improved after temporary worsening caused by tumor growth in 2 patients. They worsened in 2 patients with intramedullary tumors associated with neurological symptoms. The diameter of the spinal cord of the patients with intramedullary tumors increased, making the spinal cord susceptible to both anterior and posterior compression. Finally, the clinical course of the patients with spinal cord tumors did not deteriorate rapidly, except in the patients with intramedullary tumor associated with neurological manifestations. We concluded that when spinal cord tumors that are asymptomatic or associated with minor symptoms are diagnosed as neurinoma or neurofibroma based on the MRI findings, early surgery should not be performed and followed by meticulous follow-up. (author)

  17. Non-operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas: a review of the literature and a comparison with operative cases : a review of the literature and a comparison with operative cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J M

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that favour spontaneous recovery in patients who suffered a spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). METHODS: The literature was reviewed regarding non-operative cases of SSEH (SSEH(cons)). Sixty-two cases from the literature and 2 of our own cases were collected,

  18. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe cleanup method followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of perchlorate, bromate and hypophosphite in flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Hou, Xiangchang; Wang, Li; Wu, Yuluan; Chen, Liwei; Dong, Hao; Wang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    A selective, sensitive and useful method, based on modified QuEChERS cleanup combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI - ) mode, was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three inorganic anions including perchlorate (ClO 4 - ), bromate (BrO 3 - ) and hypophosphite (H 2 PO 2 - ) in flour. The extraction parameters and LC-MS/MS conditions were optimized by single-factor experiment and sorbent combination in modified QuEChERS clean-up was optimized through response surface analysis. Three target analytes were separated on a normal-phase Phenomenex Luna Silica (2) column (150mm×2.0mm, 5μm, 100Å) with the mobile phase of a mixture of 5mmol/L ammonium acetate water solution and acetonitrile, detected by MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring and quantified by external standard method. The developed method was validated in terms of the sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, and matrix effect. The method showed a good linearity (R 2 >0.999) for all analytes in their respective concentration ranges. The ILOQs and MLOQs for perchlorate, bromate and hypophosphite were 0.1, 0.5, 5.0μg/L and 2.0, 6.0, 60.0μg/L, respectively. The average recoveries of three target analytes from the negative samples spiked at three different concentrations were in a range from 84.6% to 104.9%. The intra-day precision (n=6) and inter-day precision (n=5) of the target analytes were in the ranges of 2.9%-6.9% and 6.4%-8.2%. The matrix effect of this method was observed between 0.83 and 1.17 and was acceptable. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the concentrations of these inorganic anions in flour. Results found that perchlorate and hypophosphite were detected in 33 out of 50 and 7 out of 50 flour samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in leafy vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-Jun; Cao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chan; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Jin, Mao-Jun; Wang, Shan-Shan; She, Yong-Xin; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-24

    In the present study, a quick and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPxEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPxEOs) (x=2-20) in three leafy vegetables, including cabbage, lettuce, and spinach using a modified "QuEChERS" method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Under optimized conditions, the 38 target analytes were analyzed within a short period of time (5 min). The linearities of the matrix-matched standard calibrations were satisfactory with coefficients of determination (R 2 )>0.99 and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were in between 0.02-0.27 and 0.18-1.75μgkg -1 , respectively. The recovery of all target analytes spiked at three (low, medium, and high) fortification levels in various leafy vegetables were ranged from 72.8-122.6% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤18.3%. The method was successfully applied to market samples and the target analytes were found in all monitored samples, with total concentrations of 0-8.67μgkg -1 and 15.75-95.75μgkg -1 for OPxEOs and NPxEOs (x=2-20), respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed UHPSFC-ESI-MS/MS method is rapid and versatile and could be extrapolated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of APxEOs in other leafy vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PHP Solutions Dynamic Web Design Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the second edition of David Power's highly-respected PHP Solutions: Dynamic Web Design Made Easy. This new edition has been updated by David to incorporate changes to PHP since the first edition and to offer the latest techniques - a classic guide modernized for 21st century PHP techniques, innovations, and best practices. You want to make your websites more dynamic by adding a feedback form, creating a private area where members can upload images that are automatically resized, or perhaps storing all your content in a database. The problem is, you're not a programmer and the thought o

  1. Circummandibular wiring made easy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures are less common in children as compared to adults. The treatment plan in children has to be modified as compared to adults considering the presence of tooth buds and potential disturbances in growth. Use of acrylic splints has been one of the popular techniques in children because of its relatively easy placement and reduced risk of hindrances to growth of jaw. These splints have been traditionally been fixed with the help of cements and circummandibular wires. We describe the use of intravenous cannula stilete instead of traditional bone awl to secure the splint in place.

  2. UNESCO TO BLAME: Reality or Easy Escape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira Roders

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “UNESCO to blame” is a trend often observed in scholarly works. In those studies UNESCO is accused to privilege Eurocentric standards on heritage conservation. Is this reality or an easy escape? Can this trend be noted in other UNESCO reference texts? This article seeks to answer this question by studying the two main inscription-based conventions and their contribution to heritage management, while performing a data analysis on the countries behind these conventions, and their roles over time. The 1972 World Heritage Convention and the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage are, therefore, taken as case studies. Based on the results, this paper elaborates on a critical analysis, distinguishing what UNESCO, as well as, Europe can eventually be blamed for and what may be used by the countries as an easy escape. This paper ends setting a research agenda to raise awareness and generate factual knowledge on the role of supranational governance in setting standards in global ethics, in particular, to guideline heritage conservation.

  3. Thromboembolic Prophylaxis with Heparin in Patients with Blunt Solid Organ Injuries Undergoing Non-operative Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsilouskaya, Tatsiana; Haltmeier, Tobias; Cathomas, Marionna; Eberle, Barbara; Candinas, Daniel; Schnüriger, Beat

    2017-05-01

    Patients with blunt solid organ injuries (SOI) are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and VTE prophylaxis is crucial. However, little is known about the safety of early prophylactic administration of heparin in these patients. This is a retrospective study including adult trauma patients with SOI (liver, spleen, kidney) undergoing non-operative management (NOM) from 01/01/2009 to 31/12/2014. Three groups were distinguished: prophylactic heparin (low molecular weight heparin or low-dose unfractionated heparin) ≤72 h after admission ('early heparin group'), >72 h after admission ('late heparin group'), and no heparin ('no heparin group'). Patient and injury characteristics, transfusion requirements, and outcomes (failed NOM, VTE, and mortality) were compared between the three groups. Overall, 179 patients were included; 44.7% in the 'early heparin group,' 34.6% in the 'late heparin group,' and 20.8% in the 'no heparin group.' In the 'late heparin group,' the ISS was significantly higher than in the 'early' and 'no heparin groups' (median 29.0 vs. 17.0 vs. 19.0; p < 0.001). The overall NOM failure rate was 3.9%. Failed NOM was significantly more frequent in the 'no heparin group' compared to the 'early' and 'late heparin groups' (10.8 vs. 3.2 vs. 1.3%; p = 0.043). In the 'early heparin group' 27.5% patients suffered from a high-grade SOI; none of these patients failed NOM. Mortality did not differ significantly. Although not statistically significant, VTE were more frequent in the 'no heparin group' compared to the 'early' and 'late heparin groups' (10.8 vs. 4.8 vs. 1.3%; p = 0.066). In patients with SOI, heparin was administered early in a high percentage of patients and was not associated with an increased NOM failure rate or higher in-hospital mortality.

  4. Treatment results of non-operated lung cancer by radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Watarai, Jiro; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Sashi, Ryuji; Shindo, Masaaki; Kato, Toshio

    1993-01-01

    The treatment results of 152 non-operated lung cancer patients were analyzed. Median survival times (MST; months) for all patients based on the stage (UICC'87) were 28 M (n=12) for stage I, 18 M (n=16) for stage II, 8 M (n=58) for stage III A, 6 M (n=46) for stage III B, and 4 M (n=20) for stage IV. The effect of combined radiochemotherapy was quite evident in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Here, the MST of the radiotherapy alone group (n=11) was 5 M, whereas that of radiochemotherapy group (n=14) was 12 M (p<0.05). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effect of radiochemotherapy was recognized only in stage III A and III B patients. In this case, the MST of the radiotherapy alone group (n=50) was 6 M, whereas that of the radiochemotherapy group (n=38) was 9 M (p<0.05). The duration of time from the initial therapy to the occurrence of distant metastasis in stage III A and III B patients was longer in the radiochemotherapy group than in the radiotherapy alone group (p<0.05). As for the metastatic sites, a delay in the occurrence of brain, lung and pleural metastasis was also recognized in the radiochemotherapy group (p<0.05). In this retrospective study, the value of combined radiochemotherapy was evident in SCLC and stage III-NSCLC patients. However, there was considerable case to case variation in the dosage, combination of agents and timing of chemotherapy. Recently, more aggressive chemotherapy is now being applied. (author)

  5. Systemic review: Radiation therapy alone in medical non-operable endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen-Banasik, E; Christiaens, M; Shash, E; Coens, C; Casado, A; Herrera, F G; Ottevanger, P B

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a good option for inoperable and frail patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Because of the lack of large multicentre trials, a systematic review was performed in an attempt to get an overview on the feasibility and efficacy of this specific approach. We performed a bibliographic search for articles in English or French which were published in PubMed from the start of this database in January 1969 to identify publications on radiation therapy (RT) as single treatment for localised non-operable carcinoma of the endometrium. The review was completed following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Twenty-five reports containing 2694 patients treated with RT as single treatment were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. Disease-specific survival (DSS) at 5 years was reported for a cohort of 1322 (49.1%) patients. The combined DSS for this group of patients was 78.5% (range: 68.4-92%; 95% confidence interval: 74.5-82.5). External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with brachytherapy (BT) was used in 1278 patients (47.4%), BT alone in 1383 patients (51.3%), and EBRT alone in 33 patients (1.2%). The average occurrence of grade III or worse late toxicity was 3.7% for EBRT + BT, 2.8% for BT alone, and 1.2% for EBRT alone. RT is in terms of disease control and toxicity, an acceptable option for non-surgical candidate patients. Prospective multicentre randomised or observational trials are needed to validate these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Thosani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95 and female (n = 65 who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate.

  7. HUMeral Shaft Fractures: MEasuring Recovery after Operative versus Non-operative Treatment (HUMMER): A multicenter comparative observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); H.W. Bolhuis (Hugo); P.K. Bos (Koen); M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); M.M.M. Bruijninckx (Milko); J. de Haan (Jeroen); W. Deenik (Wendy); B.J. Dwars (Boudewijn); M.G. Eversdijk (Martin); J.C. Goslings (Carel); R. Haverlag (Robert); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); A.J.H. Kerver (Albert J.H.); K.A. Kolkman (Karel); K. Leenhouts (Kees); S.A.G. Meylaerts (Sven); H. Poeze; R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); B.J. Punt (Bas); W.H. Roerdink (Herbert); G.R. Roukema (Gert); J.B. Sintenie (Jan Bernard); N.M.R. Soesman (Nicolaj); A.F.K. Tanka (Andras); E.J.T. ten Holder (Edgar); M. van der Elst (Maarten); F.H.W.M. van der Heijden (Frank); F.M. van der Linden (Frits); P. van der Zwaal (Peer); J.P. van Dijk (Johannes); H.P.W. van Jonbergen; E.J.M.M. Verleisdonk (Egbert); J.P.A.M. Vroemen (Jos); M. Waleboer (Marco); P. Wittich (Philippe); W.P. Zuidema (Wietse); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); D. den Hartog (Dennis); R. Onstenk (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Fractures of the humeral shaft are associated with a profound temporary (and in the elderly sometimes even permanent) impairment of independence and quality of life. These fractures can be treated operatively or non-operatively, but the optimal tailored treatment is an

  8. Non-operative management for penetrating splenic trauma : how far can we go to save splenic function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, Roy; Teuben, Michel Paul Johan; Hoosain, Fatima; Taylor, Liezel Phyllis; Hardcastle, Timothy Craig; Blokhuis, Taco Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/231997841; Warren, Brian Leigh; Leenen, Luke Petrus Hendrikus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071390596

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective non-operative management (NOM) for the treatment of blunt splenic trauma is safe. Currently, the feasibility of selective NOM for penetrating splenic injury (PSI) is unclear. Unfortunately, little is known about the success rate of spleen-preserving surgical procedures. The aim

  9. Parallel programming with Easy Java Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquembre, F.; Christian, W.; Belloni, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nearly all of today's processors are multicore, and ideally programming and algorithm development utilizing the entire processor should be introduced early in the computational physics curriculum. Parallel programming is often not introduced because it requires a new programming environment and uses constructs that are unfamiliar to many teachers. We describe how we decrease the barrier to parallel programming by using a java-based programming environment to treat problems in the usual undergraduate curriculum. We use the easy java simulations programming and authoring tool to create the program's graphical user interface together with objects based on those developed by Kaminsky [Building Parallel Programs (Course Technology, Boston, 2010)] to handle common parallel programming tasks. Shared-memory parallel implementations of physics problems, such as time evolution of the Schrödinger equation, are available as source code and as ready-to-run programs from the AAPT-ComPADRE digital library.

  10. Operative versus non-operative treatment for closed, displaced, intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Damian; Parsons, Nick; Shaw, Ewart; Kulikov, Yuri; Hutchinson, Charles; Thorogood, Margaret; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-07-24

    To investigate whether surgery by open reduction and internal fixation provides benefit compared with non-operative treatment for displaced, intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Pragmatic, multicentre, two arm, parallel group, assessor blinded randomised controlled trial (UK Heel Fracture Trial). 22 tertiary referral hospitals, United Kingdom. 151 patients with acute displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures randomly allocated to operative (n=73) or non-operative (n=78) treatment. The primary outcome measure was patient reported Kerr-Atkins score for pain and function (scale 0-100, 100 being the best possible score) at two years after injury. Secondary outcomes were complications; hindfoot pain and function (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score); general health (SF-36); quality of life (EQ-5D); clinical examination; walking speed; and gait symmetry. Analysis was by intention to treat. 95% follow-up was achieved for the primary outcome (69 in operative group and 74 in non-operative group), and a complete set of secondary outcomes were available for 75% of participants. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome (mean Kerr-Atkins score 69.8 in operative group v 65.7 in non-operative group; adjusted 95% confidence interval of difference -7.1 to 7.0) or in any of the secondary outcomes between treatment groups. Complications and reoperations were more common in those who received operative care (estimated odds ratio 7.5, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 41.8). Operative treatment compared with non-operative care showed no symptomatic or functional advantage after two years in patients with typical displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus, and the risk of complications was higher after surgery. Based on these findings, operative treatment by open reduction and internal fixation is not recommended for these fractures.Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN37188541. © Griffin et al 2014.

  11. An Evolving Worldview: Making Open Source Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Worldview is an interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global satellite imagery. Worldview supports an open data policy so that academia, private industries and the general public can use NASA's satellite data to address Earth science related issues. Worldview was open sourced in 2014. By shifting to an open source approach, the Worldview application has evolved to better serve end-users. Project developers are able to have discussions with end-users and community developers to understand issues and develop new features. Community developers are able to track upcoming features, collaborate on them and make their own contributions. Developers who discover issues are able to address those issues and submit a fix. This reduces the time it takes for a project developer to reproduce an issue or develop a new feature. Getting new developers to contribute to the project has been one of the most important and difficult aspects of open sourcing Worldview. After witnessing potential outside contributors struggle, a focus has been made on making the installation of Worldview simple to reduce the initial learning curve and make contributing code easy. One way we have addressed this is through a simplified setup process. Our setup documentation includes a set of prerequisites and a set of straightforward commands to clone, configure, install and run. This presentation will emphasize our focus to simplify and standardize Worldview's open source code so that more people are able to contribute. The more people who contribute, the better the application will become over time.

  12. Femoral shaft fractures in young children (<5 years of age): operative and non-operative treatments in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, M; Kaiser, M M; Grauel, F; Gielok, C; Illing, P

    2016-12-01

    Femoral shaft fractures comprise around 4 % of all long-bone fractures in childhood. There is controversy about the treatment of fractures in children below 5 years, between those preferring non-operative methods, such as casting or traction, and those supporting elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN). This retrospective study evaluates the day-by-day treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 6-60 months in four major paediatric surgery trauma centres in Germany from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011 by chart review. We analysed all patient-related data, causes of fracture, fracture type, treatment method and potential post-treatment complications. We identified 225 patients (male to female 2:1) with femoral shaft fractures. Around 2/3 of these resulted from falls of less than 1 m or 1-3 m, the most frequent result (>40 %) being a long spiral fracture. All 19 children below 1 year of age were treated by casting or traction. Between the ages of 12 and 24 months (n = 56), different treatment concepts were preferred (1/5 ESIN, 2/5 traction and 2/5 spica casting). Between 24 and 36 months, operative and non-operative therapies were equally distributed. In children older than 36 months (n = 64), most fractures were treated by ESIN: six children by external fixation and 14 by other treatments like spica casting, plate osteosynthesis or a combination of methods. 42 changes of treatment were performed: traction to spica casting or secondary operative treatment and 21 complications occurred (nails left in place for too long, skin defects or wound infections). Spica casting of femoral shaft fractures or, in some cases, traction is still the preferred treatment in the first and second years of life. In the third year, children are treated operatively as well as non-operatively, although now there is no current evidence of better short-term outcomes in operatively treated children. But elastic stable intramedullary nailing is the standard

  13. Non-operative treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wever Jan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. Case presentation A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treated non-operatively with naso-gastric suction and intravenous medication. Gastrointestinal involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and therapeutic considerations in a high risk patient are discussed. Conclusion Non-surgical treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer should be considered in high risk patients, as is the case in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients must be carefully observed and operated on if non-operative treatment is unsuccessful.

  14. Non-operative treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Justus-Martijn; Oddens, Jorg R; Van Royen, Barend J; Wever, Jan; Olsman, Jan G

    2004-01-08

    Clinical characteristics and complications of Duchenne muscular dystrophy caused by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration are well known. Gastro-intestinal involvement has also been recognised in these patients. However an acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer has not been documented up to now. A 26-year-old male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of acute perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer is treated non-operatively with naso-gastric suction and intravenous medication. Gastrointestinal involvement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and therapeutic considerations in a high risk patient are discussed. Non-surgical treatment for perforated gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer should be considered in high risk patients, as is the case in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients must be carefully observed and operated on if non-operative treatment is unsuccessful.

  15. Blunt trauma pancreatic duct injury managed by non-operative technique, a case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 15 year old boy who presented with generalised abdominal pain following a seemingly minor collision at weekend soccer. Investigation revealed a grade IV pancreatic injury that was subsequently managed with pancreatic stent insertion by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP and total parenteral nutrition (TPN prior to recommencing low fat diet 10 days post-injury. Keywords: Trauma, Blunt injury, Pancreas, Non-operative

  16. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  17. Differential algebras without differentials: An easy C++ implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Automated differentiation can be motivated and explained rather plainly without any reference to infinitesimals or differentials whatsoever. We shall describe one possible approach in this paper. The method which we shall use will suggest its own implementation. However, FORTRAN is not the most natural language in which to carry it out. In the second section we shall describe an almost trivial implementation using C++. (Indeed, one of the motivations for writing this paper is to persuade militant FORTRAN extremists to invest the four or five days necessary to learn this powerful and easy language.) Take heed, however, that what we describe below is only a stripped-down implementation, written in three days, of differential algebra's most essential features; it is not as robust as and does not contain the battery of tools available in Berz's DA package, the product of a significant amount of work. 10 refs

  18. A germination test: an easy approach to know the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawar, A.; Bhatti, I.A.; Bhatti, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation is an evolving preserving technique that provides a shield against the spoilage and might have a potential to ensure the food safety and security world wide. In the present study, feasibility to apply germination test to distinguish an un-irradiated and irradiated samples of wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans was checked. Samples were irradiated to the absorbed doses ranging from 0-10 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator and were germinated in plant growth chamber. Root and shoot lengths were measured at 7th day after gamma radiation treatment. In all the irradiated samples root and shoot lengths were decreased with the increase in radiation absorbed doses. The seeds irradiated to the absorbed doses more than 2 kGy were not germinated. Germination test proved as an easy and simple method to detect irradiation in wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans irradiated even at low absorbed doses. (author)

  19. Easy characterization of petroleum fractions: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, J. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)); Castells, F. (Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Catalunya (Spain))

    1993-12-01

    A new method for characterizing petroleum fractions, based on pseudocomponent breakdown using the integral method has been developed. It requires only that one has an atmospheric true boiling point (tbp) distillation curve and known the entire fraction density. The proposed characterization procedure is valid for representing any oil fraction (light or heavy) with a boiling point range smaller than 300 K. It is based on the hypothesis of constant Watson's characterization factor, K[sub w], for all the pseudocomponents. Outside this range, it is less accurate (greater errors in material and molar balances). Therefore, a method considering the variable K[sub w] is best to treat these fractions.

  20. Placing piggy back: An easy way out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of piggy back nickel-titanium (NiTi archwire with stainless steel base archwire is often a part of an orthodontic treatment mechanics. Here is an innovative method for securing the piggy back.

  1. High prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in elderly patients with non-operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension referred for balloon pulmonary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Roik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Aim : To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Material and methods : Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years with excluded CTEPH. Results : Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01, and therefore elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64–21.46, p = 0.007 when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. Conclusions : All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA.

  2. The long-term outcome of patients treated operatively and non-operatively for scoliosis deformity secondary to spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, A; Vivas, L; Law, P W; Stephens, D; Davis, A M; Howard, A; Jarvis, J G; Wright, J G

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adults with spina bifida cystica (SBC) who had been treated either operatively or non-operatively for scoliosis during childhood. We reviewed 45 patients with a SBC scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥ 50º) who had been treated at one of two children's hospitals between 1991 and 2007. Of these, 34 (75.6%) had been treated operatively and 11 (24.4%) non-operatively. After a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (standard deviation (sd) 4.3) clinical, radiological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes were evaluated using the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire (SBSQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Although patients in the two groups were demographically similar, those who had undergone surgery had a larger mean Cobb angle (88.0º (sd 20.5; 50.0 to 122.0) ; : versus 65.7º (sd 22.0; 51.0 to 115.0); p < 0.01) and a larger mean clavicle-rib intersection difference (12.3 mm; (sd 8.5; 1 to 37); versus 4.1 mm, (sd 5.9; 0 to 16); p = 0.01) than those treated non-operatively. Both groups were statistically similar at follow-up with respect to walking capacity, neurological motor level, sitting balance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. Spinal fusion in SBC scoliosis corrects coronal deformity and stops progression of the curve but has no clear effect on HRQOL. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. The effects of various physical non-operative modalities on the pain in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, J J; Jauregui, J J; Leichliter, A K; Elmallah, R K; Bhave, A; Mont, M A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various non-operative modalities of treatment (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES); insoles and bracing) on the pain of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify the therapeutic options which are commonly adopted for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The outcome measurement tools used in the different studies were the visual analogue scale and The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index pain index: all pain scores were converted to a 100-point scale. A total of 30 studies met our inclusion criteria: 13 on insoles, seven on TENS, six on NMES, and four on bracing. The standardised mean difference (SMD) in pain after treatment with TENS was 1.796, which represented a significant reduction in pain. The significant overall effect estimate for NMES on pain was similar to that of TENS, with a SMD of 1.924. The overall effect estimate of insoles on pain was a SMD of 0.992. The overall effect of bracing showed a significant reduction in pain of 1.34. Overall, all four non-operative modalities of treatment were found to have a significant effect on the reduction of pain in OA of the knee. This study shows that non-operative physical modalities of treatment are of benefit when treating OA of the knee. However, much of the literature reviewed evaluates studies with follow-up of less than six months: future work should aim to evaluate patients with longer follow-up. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. Reliability of predictive models for non-operative healing potential of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans knee lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppstrom, Tyler J; Haskel, Jonathan D; Gausden, Elizabeth B; Meyer, Russel; Shin, Yong-Woon; Nguyen, Joseph T; Green, Daniel W

    2016-08-01

    While juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) lesions have greater healing potential than equivalent lesions in adults, only 50% of JOCD lesions demonstrate radiographic healing after six months of non-operative treatment. Two previous studies have produced nomograms to predict a patient's probability of healing with non-operative treatment based on patient and lesion characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine inter- and intra-observer reliability of the predictive nomograms. A consecutive series of 34 skeletally immature patients (40 knees), who underwent non-operative treatment for stable JOCD lesions was retrospectively reviewed. At two time points at least one week apart, two medical students, two orthopaedic surgeons, and a radiologist made measurements of the JOCD lesions. These measurements, along with patient ages and pain type, were used to generate a point value for each lesion based on both nomograms. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were calculated to determine inter- and intra-rater reliability. We found near perfect intra-rater correlation (ICC) for all raters' individual OCD measurements, as well as total point score for the two nomograms (ICC range, 0.780-0.929). Additionally, there was near perfect inter-rater reliability among raters for total scores and individual components of each nomogram (ICC range, 0.721-0.974). There is high inter- and intra-rater reliability for both point systems for predicting healing of JOCD lesions. Clinicians should be aware of these as tools to help guide decision making in patients with JOCD lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-operative treatment of neglected bilateral posterior four-part fracture- dislocation of the shoulders--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifesanya, A O; Ogundele, O J; Anejukwo, A A

    2015-09-01

    Bilateral posterior dislocation of the shoulders is rare and may result from a seizure. A 48 year-old HIV-positive man who presented eight weeks after bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral fractures of the surgical necks of both humeri is reviewed. He was treated with an algesics and physiotherapy and was able to return to work after 9 months. The rarity of this lesion, its late presentation, the importance of a high index of suspicion in making the diagnosis and the fair outcome of non-operative treatment informed this report.

  6. Surgical versus non-operative treatment for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Lin; Guo, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Hu, Hao-Yu; Zheng, Yi-Li; Wang, Xue-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of surgical versus non-operative treatment on the physical function and safety of patients with lumbar disc herniation. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched from initiation to 15 May 2017. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated surgical versus non-operative treatment for patients with lumbar disc herniation were selected. The primary outcomes were pain and side-effects. Secondary outcomes were function and health-related quality of life. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean difference with 95% confidence interval. A total of 19 articles that involved 2272 participants met the inclusion criteria. Compared with non-operative treatment, surgical treatment was more effective in lowering pain (short term: mean difference = -0.94, 95% confidence interval = -1.87 to -0.00; midterm: mean difference = -1.59, 95% confidence interval = -2.24 to -9.94), improving function (midterm: mean difference = -7.84, 95% confidence interval = -14.00 to -1.68; long term: mean difference = -12.21, 95% confidence interval = -23.90 to -0.52) and quality of life. The 36-item Short-Form Health Survey for physical functions (short term: mean difference = 6.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.43 to 12.08) and bodily pain (short term: mean difference = 5.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.40 to 10.45) was also utilized. No significant difference was observed in adverse events (mean difference = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.28 to 2.38). Low-quality evidence suggested that surgical treatment is more effective than non-operative treatment in improving physical functions; no significant difference was observed in adverse events. No firm recommendation can be made due to instability of the summarized data.

  7. Assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis after separating operations in comparison with non-operated patients with compensated and decompensated clinical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алий Саитович Тугушев

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Separating operations are recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding from varicose veins of gullet as a result of portocaval (azygoportal shunting at cirrhosis and directed to its elimination using azygoportal separation. At the same time the frequency of relapse of bleeding after operations remains rather high. And the formation of new varicose nodi as a result of disorder of hepatic and splanchnic hemodynamics that inevitably appears at different dates after operation is considered as the main cause of it. At the same time an assessment of hemodynamic changes after azygoportal separation is interpreted in different ways by different authors.Aim of research. To assess an influence of separating surgical interventions on the character of changes of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in comparison with non-operated patients with compensated and decompensated clinical course.Material and methods. There were examined 190 patients with cirrhosis: in 133 took place gastrointestinal bleeding from varicose veins of gullet, in 57 – diuretic resistant ascites. 16 patients underwent separating operations. 20 patients underwent endoscopic sclerotherapy of gullet veins. 84 patients died during observation (7 after surgical treatment. Duration of observation was from 2-3 weeks to 2,5-3 years. All patients underwent the repeated ultrasound of abdominal cavity. There were assessed diameter of hepatic and splenic vessels; quantitative and qualitative characteristics of blood flow in hepatic and splenic arteries, portal and splenic veins.Results of research. At assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics the changes of portal blood flow in first months after operation characterized with moderate dilation of portal vein and decrease of linear speed in it. At the same time the volumetric blood flow did not essentially change. It was noticed the decrease of volumetric blood flow in splenic vein at the expense of constriction of its lumen and

  8. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  9. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benitez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics. - Highlights: • Propose a method for finding the easy axis of roll magnetic anisotropy. • Study of the causes of multi-axial anisotropy of MBN energy in API-5L steels. • Analyze the causes of the roll magnetic anisotropy

  10. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Pérez-Benitez, J.A., E-mail: benitez_edl@yahoo.es [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espina-Hernández, J.H. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM Edif. Z-4 3 Piso, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-01-15

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics. - Highlights: • Propose a method for finding the easy axis of roll magnetic anisotropy. • Study of the causes of multi-axial anisotropy of MBN energy in API-5L steels. • Analyze the causes of the roll magnetic anisotropy.

  11. Defining Privacy Is Supposed to Be Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Gross, Thomas; Viganò, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Formally specifying privacy goals is not trivial. The most widely used approach in formal methods is based on the static equivalence of frames in the applied pi-calculus, basically asking whether or not the intruder is able to distinguish two given worlds. A subtle question is how we can be sure...

  12. Sample Size Estimation: The Easy Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a simple approach to making quick sample size estimates for basic hypothesis tests. Although there are many sources available for estimating sample sizes, methods are not often integrated across statistical tests, levels of measurement of variables, or effect sizes. A few parameters are required to estimate sample sizes and…

  13. NON - OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF NON - CAVITATED APPROXIMAL CARIOUS LESIONS OF PERMANENT CHIDREN’S TEETH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiza I. Kabakchieva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To apply and follow up in clinical conditions the success rate of microinvasive technique of infiltration with low viscosity resin ICON® (DMG of non cavitated approximal caries lesions of permanent children's teeth for a period of one year. Material and methods: The study included 18 children aged 7-16 years. They were divided into two groups - children with medium and high caries risk. The survey include 20 teeth with approximal non-cavitated enamel lesions up to the outer third of dentin (E1, E2, D1 – according to the manufacturer’s instructions of ICON®. The size of the lesions was determined using bitewing radiographs and the activity - by Papilla Bleeding Index. The clinical application of the infiltr+ant (ICON® Caries Infiltrant Proximal, DMG was conducted according to the manufacturer's instructions. Bitewing radiographs were made at 6 and 12 months after infiltration in order to evaluate the success of the method. A test of the difference between two relative proportions and alternative test for analysis of the results were used. Results: Our study confirm the hypothesis that this method of infiltration is equally successful for permanent teeth in patients with moderate caries risk as well as those at high caries risk. Conclusion: This study is the first survey regarding the success of the application of ICON® for treatment of non-cavitated approximal carious lesions in permanent dentition of children in the country. Research in this direction should continue in order to increase the conviction that caries can be controlled and arrested in its earliest stages.

  14. Non-operative versus operative treatment for blunt pancreatic trauma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Michael V; Wettergren, André; Hillingsø, Jens Georg

    2014-01-01

    METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 5, 2013), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED and CPCI-S) and ZETOC. In addition, we searched bibliographies of relevant articles, conference...... or language of publication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used relevant search strategies to obtain the titles and abstracts of studies that were relevant for the review. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility. MAIN RESULTS: The search found 83 relevant references. We excluded all...

  15. EasyPipes - Final/annual report; EasyPipes - Rapport final/annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinelli, P.; Thomann, P.; Weber, W. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Hollmuller, P. [University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This report describes follow-up activities in the field of design of buried air-to-ground heat exchangers for ventilated low-energy buildings. Such heat exchangers preheat the inlet air in winter and cool it in summer, contributing to significantly reduce the energy consumption and improve indoor thermal comfort. They have been extensively studied at the University of Geneva, Switzerland by P. Hollmuller, B. Lachal et al. since 2001. The corresponding reports can be found in the ETDE data base. The present and latest report of the series deals with implemented improvements of the computer simulation program for the dimensioning of such heat exchangers. A previous, experimentally and analytically validated version, based on TRNSYS formalism, was not enough user-friendly for architects and engineers in the practice. A new interface called EasyPipes, based on the windows input and output formalism and including graphical features, has been developed. Details are reported on.

  16. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA DI BALI EASY HOLIDAY DENPASAR BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Kevin Perangin-Angin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This Journal aimed to know the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and opportunities as well as threats from the external environment and create strategies and marketing programs that can be applied in the Bali Easy Holiday. The technique data collection using observation, interview, questionnaire, the study of literature and documentation study. Sampling techniques using a purposive sampling. Data analysis techniques using qualitative descriptive analysis and Likert scale analysis. The results of this research are obtaining indicators of strengths and weaknesses of internal environment and the opportunities and threats of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 16 indicators of strengths and 4 indicators of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 9 indicators of opportunities 5 indicators of threats in Bali Easy Holiday. Marketing strategies can be applied to Bali Easy Holiday, namely : the creation of strategy and product development, market development strategies, promotion strategy, a strategy of improved human resources, the strategy of market penetration strategies, improvement of the quality of products and services and pricing strategies. This research has some advice for Bali Easy Holiday is to increase the intensity of promotion, provide ease reservations and payments to consumers, renew tour packages, provide affordable rates to customers and formed a marketing division.

  17. Visual exploration of the attribute space of DANS EASY metadata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Bosch, Olav; Scharnhorst, A.M.; Doorn, P.K.; Koning, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Study of the metadata of the Electronic Archiving System (EASY) of Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) for the purpose of getting insight in the internal structure of the collection. The visualization contains a dump of the EASY metadata set and all important data files that were generated

  18. Baseline varus deformity is associated with increased joint loading and pain of non-operated knee two years after unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Du Hyun; Han, Hyuk-Soo; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kwak, Yoon-Ho; Park, Jae-Young; Lee, Myung Chul

    2018-03-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to document the gait pattern of patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA), (2) to determine the knee adduction moment (KAM) changes in the non-operated knee, and (3) to identify the predictors of change in KAM in the non-operated knee. The study recruited 23 patients with advanced unilateral knee OA. The preoperative Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of the non-operated knee was one or two; non-operated knee pain, rated using a numeric rating scale (NRS), was less than three out of 10 points. We used a commercial gait analysis system to evaluate kinetics and kinematics. Radiological and gait measurements at the two-year follow-up were compared with baseline data. The preoperative asymmetrical gait cycle characterized by elongation of the stance phase of the non-operated knee became symmetrical after TKA. The average KAM of the non-operated knee increased (P=0.010) and it was best predicted by the baseline mechanical axis of the non-operated knee. If the baseline mechanical axis was varus four degrees or above (varus group), the average KAM increased by 0.64 (% body weight×height, P=0.015), while for varus less than four degrees (non-varus group), KAM was unchanged. The KL grade was increased in the varus group (P=0.020) but it was unchanged in the non-varus group. Average pain NRS score was also higher (P=0.044) in the varus group. Close follow-up is necessary for patients with a baseline varus deformity of the non-operated knee because of the higher possibility of developing pain, subsequent arthritis and increased joint loading of the non-operated knee. III, retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is non-operative approach applicable for penetrating injuries of the left thoraco-abdominal region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Kones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently, diagnostic laparoscopy (DL is recommended for the left thoraco-abdominal region penetrating injuries (LTARP. However, organ and diaphragmatic injury may not be detected in all of these patients. Our aim is to focus on this LTARP patient group without any operative findings and to highlight the evaluation of diagnostic tools in the high-tech era for a possible selected conservative treatment. Material and methods: The patients who were admitted to ED due to LTARP, and who underwent routine DL were evaluated retrospectively in terms of demographic, clinical, radiological, and operative findings of the patients. Results: The current study included 79 patients with LTARP. In 44 of 79 patients, abdominal injury was not detected. In 30 patients an isolated diaphragmatic injury was revealed and in 4 patients a visceral injury was accompanying to diaphragmatic injury. Surgical findings revealed that the diaphragm was the organ most likely to sustain injury. In patients with more than one positive diagnostic findings need for surgery rate was 61.5%, however; in patients with one positive diagnostic finding (n = 53, positive surgical finding rate was only 35.8%, (p = 0.03. Regarding the combined use of all diagnostic tools in these patients; such as physical examination, plain chest X-ray, and computed tomography, when this method was used for pre-operative diagnosis, sensitivity was measured as 82.7%, specificity 84.1%, PPV 77.4% and NPV 88.1%. Conclusion: Although DL is reliable for diagnosis of diaphragmatic and visceral injury in patients with LTARP. However, individual decision making for laparoscopic intervention is needed to prevent morbidity of an unnecessary operation under emergent setting due to high rates of negative intraabdominal findings. Keywords: Wounds penetrating, Physical examination, Diagnostic imaging, Treatment outcome

  20. Growing bone assessment made easy at chairside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dalvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various intraoral radiographic techniques have been utilized to study bone changes following periodontal therapy, for example, digital subtraction radiography, computer-assisted densitometric image analysis, computed tomography (CT, and cone bean CT. This short communication provides an insight about a novel yet simple technique which utilizes a user-friendly software (Adobe Photoshop CS3 and provides the clinician a quick, objective economical tool to assess periodontal regeneration (bone fill radiographically. The use of this software is recommended in any clinical trial, wherein bone is target tissue to be assessed at different time intervals. It can find clinical applications include endodontic periapical cyst therapy, implant, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and orthopedics surgeries. This method is simple, reliable, and reproducible and helps in objective assessment of radiographic changes of the periodontal osseous defects following periodontal therapy.

  1. Linear and integer programming made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2016-01-01

    Linear and integer programming are fundamental toolkits for data and information science and technology, particularly in the context of today’s megatrends toward statistical optimization, machine learning, and big data analytics. Drawn from over 30 years of classroom teaching and applied research experience, this textbook provides a crisp and practical introduction to the basics of linear and integer programming. The authors’ approach is accessible to students from all fields of engineering, including operations research, statistics, machine learning, control system design, scheduling, formal verification, and computer vision. Readers will learn to cast hard combinatorial problems as mathematical programming optimizations, understand how to achieve formulations where the objective and constraints are linear, choose appropriate solution methods, and interpret results appropriately. •Provides a concise introduction to linear and integer programming, appropriate for undergraduates, graduates, a short cours...

  2. Fusion of Landsat TM and ground spectrometry data in monitoring of non-operating mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo N.

    2009-09-01

    Surface mining activities in Europe are estimated to cover an area of 5-10 000 km2. In this paper we suggest that the availability of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for Earth observation allows the collection of environmental and minerelated data for use in the planning and undertaking of mine restoration work on cost-effective basis. The advantage is that these data are acquired digitally and can be easily processed and utilized in various information formats. Important step in the data processing is the verification of airborne data. For this purpose ground spectrometry measurements of samples taken from test sites have been performed. In the last decade several mining areas and corresponding dumps are subject to reclamation process in Bulgaria. We focused our research on one of the most important in the copper production for 20 year period for our country - Asarel-Medet deposit. This mining complex consists of an open mine, the dumps and a processing plant. After ceasing the exploitation of Medet deposit in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period, which is to end this year. To process the data, which characterize the progress of the land cover restoration, several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and are economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  3. Clinical Factors Associated with the Non-Operative Airway Management of Patients with Robin Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank P. Albino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe indications for surgical airway management in patients with Robin sequence (RS and severe airway obstruction have not been well defined. While certain patients with RS clearly require surgical airway intervention and other patients just as clearly can be managed with conservative measures alone, a significant proportion of patients with RS present with a more confusing and ambiguous clinical course. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features and objective findings of patients with RS whose airways were successfully managed without surgical intervention.MethodsThe authors retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of infants with RS evaluated for potential surgical airway management between 1994 and 2014. Patients who were successfully managed without surgical intervention were included. Patient demographics, nutritional and respiratory status, laboratory values, and polysomnography (PSG findings were recorded.ResultsThirty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. The average hospital stay was 16.8 days (range, 5–70 days. Oxygen desaturation (<70% by pulse oximetry occurred in the majority of patients and was managed with temporary oxygen supplementation by nasal cannula (59% or endotracheal intubation (31%. Seventy-five percent of patients required a temporary nasogastric tube for nutritional support, and a gastrostomy tube placed was placed in 9%. All patients continued to gain weight following the implementation of these conservative measures. PSG data (n=26 demonstrated mild to moderate obstruction, a mean apneahypopnea index (AHI of 19.2±5.3 events/hour, and an oxygen saturation level <90% during only 4% of the total sleep time.ConclusionsNonsurgical airway management was successful in patients who demonstrated consistent weight gain and mild to moderate obstruction on PSG, with a mean AHI of <20 events/hour.

  4. Oswestry Disability Index scoring made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, P B

    2008-09-01

    Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires.

  5. Easy Suprapubic Tube Placement Using a Van Buren Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Lawrence M

    2018-01-17

    To place a suprapubic tube without using specialized instruments. Suprapubic cystostomy is a straightforward urological procedure, which nevertheless may become complicated if the equipment needed to perform the operation is unavailable. Nowadays, in most operating rooms, control of urological instruments has been taken away from a small cadre of dedicated urology nurses, and instead is delegated to a central sterilization department or is even outsourced, leading to an increased rate of instrument misplacement or breakage. Disposable kits are useful, but may not be stocked at all facilities. Hence, the tools needed by the urologist to perform suprapubic cystostomy may not be readily available when they are needed. This reality was the impetus for the development of the following technique for suprapubic tube placement, which relies only upon ordinary instruments. A simple method is described for placing a suprapubic catheter using a curved Van Buren sound, a cystoscope, and a minor surgical set. Not only is the operation is easy to do, but is also advantageous in that the catheter may be exchanged over a wire, if necessary, before the establishment of a suprapubic tract. The technique depends on the presence of an intact urethra; therefore, it is contraindicated in the setting of pelvic trauma. This suprapubic cystostomy method may be used either as a primary technique or as a back-up procedure if the urologist's preferred instrumentation is not available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-operative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures leads to acceptable functional outcomes, however at the expense of 40% subsequent surgeries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M. A. M.; van Eerten, P. V.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N. W. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although secondary displacement following closed reduction and plaster immobilisation is high, several guidelines still recommend non-operative treatment for displaced distal radius fractures with an adequate closed reduction. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional

  7. Scientific Visualization Made Easy for the Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, M.; Henderson, B.

    2002-12-01

    amirar is an application program used in creating 3D visualizations and geometric models of 3D image data sets from various application areas, e.g. medicine, biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, and engineering. It has demonstrated significant adoption in the market place since becoming commercially available in 2000. The rapid adoption has expanded the features being requested by the user base and broadened the scope of the amira product offering. The amira product offering includes amira Standard, amiraDevT, used to extend the product capabilities by users, amiraMolT, used for molecular visualization, amiraDeconvT, used to improve quality of image data, and amiraVRT, used in immersive VR environments. amira allows the user to construct a visualization tailored to his or her needs without requiring any programming knowledge. It also allows 3D objects to be represented as grids suitable for numerical simulations, notably as triangular surfaces and volumetric tetrahedral grids. The amira application also provides methods to generate such grids from voxel data representing an image volume, and it includes a general-purpose interactive 3D viewer. amiraDev provides an application-programming interface (API) that allows the user to add new components by C++ programming. amira supports many import formats including a 'raw' format allowing immediate access to your native uniform data sets. amira uses the power and speed of the OpenGLr and Open InventorT graphics libraries and 3D graphics accelerators to allow you to access over 145 modules, enabling you to process, probe, analyze and visualize your data. The amiraMolT extension adds powerful tools for molecular visualization to the existing amira platform. amiraMolT contains support for standard molecular file formats, tools for visualization and analysis of static molecules as well as molecular trajectories (time series). amiraDeconv adds tools for the deconvolution of 3D microscopic images. Deconvolution is the

  8. A NON-OPERATIVE APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN A TRIATHLETE: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Gilden, Brad

    2016-12-01

    Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS) causes significant exercise related pain secondary to increased intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) in the lower extremities. CECS is most often treated with surgery with minimal information available on non-operative approaches to care. This case report presents a case of CECS successfully managed with physical therapy. Case report. A 34-year-old competitive triathlete experienced bilateral anterior and posterior lower leg pain measured with a numerical pain rating scale of 7/10 at two miles of running. Pain decreased to resting levels of 4/10 two hours post exercise. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral CECS with left lower extremity ICP at rest measured at 36 mmHg (deep posterior), 36-38 mmHg (superficial posterior), and 25 mmHg (anterior). Surgery was recommended. The patient chose non-operative care and was treated with physical therapy using the Functional Manual Therapy approach aimed at addressing myofascial restrictions, neuromuscular function and motor control deficits throughout the lower quadrant for 23 visits over 3.5 months. At discharge the patient had returned to running pain free and training for an Olympic distance triathlon. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale improved from 62 to 80. The patient reported minimal post exercise tightness in bilateral lower extremities. Left lower extremity compartment pressure measurements at rest were in normal ranges measuring at 11 mmHg (deep posterior), 8 mmHg (superficial posterior), 19 mmHg (anterior), and 10 mmHg (lateral). Three-years post intervention the patient remained pain free with a Global Rating of Change of 6. This case report describes the successful treatment of a triathlete with Functional Manual Therapy resulting in a return to competitive sports without pain. Level 4.

  9. Ridership impacts of South Florida's EASY smart card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Smart card-based Automated Fare Collection Systems (AFCS) are being increasingly deployed in transit systems across the US. Miami-Dade Transit (MDT) has recently deployed such a system branded as the EASY Card. The South Florida Regional Transportati...

  10. Randomized Clinical Trial: The Use of SpeechEasy® in Stuttering Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. Aims: The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Methods &…

  11. Modern TRIZ A Practical Course with EASyTRIZ Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Orloff, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    This is the first open practical guide for Modern TRIZ technology of effective inventive thinking. Modern TRIZ makes possible creating the innovations and inventions with systematic methods supported with effective EASyTRIZ technology and software. Vang Venming, company owner, inventor, participant of a 2-day workshop for 1,000 students at the North-Eastern Forestry University, Harbin, China: Right here, at this Modern TRIZ workshop, I came up with a new idea which improves my own patent. This is simply fabulous! I would never have believed before that it is possible! Seung-Hyen Yoo, professor of Mechanical Engineering, AJOU University, Suwon, Republic of Korea: We have known TRIZ for more than 10 years, and have successfully used it in engineering consulting and student training. And we saw a new TRIZ at lectures and workshops delivered by Professor Orloff in the Republic of Korea before experts working for SAMSUNG and other companies, and before faculty and students of several universities. Heinrich Kochs, ...

  12. Easy Long-Term Identifiers and the "Data Paper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, John

    2011-05-01

    A new publishing paradigm is needed to cope with the deluge of data artifacts produced by data-intensive science, many of which are vital to data re-use and verification of published scientific conclusions. Due to the limitations of traditional publishing, most of these artifacts are not usually disseminated, cited, or preserved. At the California Digital Library (CDL), one promising approach to the problem is to wrap these artifacts in the metaphor of a "data paper", assigning and managing data citations with our EZID (easy-eye-dee) identifier service. A data paper is a somewhat unfamiliar bundle of scholarly output with a familiar facade: minimally, a set of links to archived artifacts and a cover sheet containing familiar elements such as title, authors, date, abstract, and persistent identifier _ just enough to create basic citations, build "overlay journals", and enable discovery of data by internet search engines. Over time, we expect to add elements that permit deeper domain-specific discovery and re-use, such as variable names, methods, etc. At the same time, for data and identifiers that we manage, we will leverage as much domain-agnosticism data and identifier as possible.

  13. Preimage Selective Trapdoor Function: How to Repair an Easy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public key cryptosystems are constructed by embedding a trapdoor into a one-way function. So, the one-wayness and the trapdoorness are vital to public key cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel public key cryptographic primitive called preimage selective trapdoor function. This scenario allows to use exponentially many preimage to hide a plaintext even if the underlying function is not one-way. The compact knapsack problem is used to construct a probabilistic public key cryptosystem, the underlying encryption function of which is proven to be preimage selective trapdoor one-way functions under some linearization attack models. The constructive method can guarantee the noninjectivity of the underlying encryption function and the unique decipherability for ciphertexts simultaneously. It is heuristically argued that the security of the proposal cannot be compromised by a polynomial-time adversary even if the compact knapsack is easy to solve. We failed to provide any provable security results about the proposal; however, heuristic illustrations show that the proposal is secure against some known attacks including brute force attacks, linearization attacks, and key-recovery attacks. The proposal turns out to have acceptable key sizes and performs efficiently and hence is practical.

  14. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL. A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Dagmar I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of non-union and identified speciic limitations of the shoulder function in subgroups of patients with these injuries. Aim A prospective, multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT will be conducted in 21 hospitals in the Netherlands, comparing fracture consolidation and shoulder function after either non-operative treatment with a sling or a plate fixation. Methods/design A total of 350 patients will be included, between 18 and 60 years of age, with a dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture. The primary outcome is the incidence of non-union, which will be determined with standardised X-rays (Antero-Posterior and 30 degrees caudocephalad view. Secondary outcome will be the functional outcome, measured using the Constant Score. Strength of the shoulder muscles will be measured with a handheld dynamometer (MicroFET2. Furthermore, the health-related Quality of Life score (ShortForm-36 and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH Outcome Measure will be monitored as subjective parameters. Data on complications, bone union, cosmetic aspects and use of painkillers will be collected with follow-up questionnaires. The follow-up time will be two years. All patients will be monitored at regular intervals over the subsequent twelve months (two and six weeks, three months and one year. After two years an interview by telephone and a written survey will be performed to evaluate the two-year functional and mechanical outcomes. All data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis, using univariate and multivariate analyses. Discussion This trial will provide level-1 evidence for the comparison of consolidation and functional outcome between two standardised

  15. Selective non-operative management of stab wounds to the posterior abdomen is safe: the Pietermaritzburg experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Victor; Oosthuizen, George; Sartorius, Benn; Clarke, Damian

    2015-09-01

    The selective non-operative management (SNOM) of stab injuries of the anterior abdomen is well established, but its application to the posterior abdomen remains controversial. A retrospective review of 1013 patients was undertaken at a major trauma service in South Africa over a five-year period. Ninety per cent of patients were males, and the mean age was 25 years. The mean time from injury to presentation was 4h and 73% of all injuries were inflicted by knives. A total of 9% (93) of patients required a laparotomy [Group A] and 82% (833) were successfully observed without the need for operative intervention [Group B]. CT imaging was performed on 52 patients (5%) who had haematuria [Group C], 25 (3%) who had neurological deficits [Group D], and 10 (1%) with retained weapon injuries [Group E]. The accuracy of physical examination for identifying the presence of organ injury was 88%. All observed patients who required laparotomy declared themselves within 24h. There were no mortalities as direct result of our current management protocol. Selective management based on active clinical observation and serial physical examination is safe, and when coupled with the judicious use of advanced imaging, is a prudent and reliable approach in a resource constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  17. GeoEasy an open source project for surveying calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Siki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the GeoEasy program started in 1997. Twenty years later in 2017 it became free software under GPL license, version 3.0.0 is freely available for everybody. The core development of GeoEasy is made on Linux operating system, using Tcl/Tk script language, thanks to the Tcl/Tk ports to other operating systems, the program can be run on Linux, Windows, Android and OSX machines. Objectives of the development are to create user friendly graphical user interface (GUI for surveying calculations in a modular structure with flexible, open connections to other programs. Both educational and professional usages are supported.

  18. A concept of drastically easy maintenance (DREAM) tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Murakami, Y.; Adachi, J.; Miura, H.; Aoki, I.; Seki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Here, a new concept of easy maintenance tokamak reactor is proposed. For the easy maintenance scheme, a plasma configuration with high aspect ratio (with slender doughnut shape) around 6 and a small number of torus sectoring of 12 are introduced. The adjacent torus sectors are mechanically jointed by a bolt/flange structure. A plasma vacuum region is comprised of a cryostat inner surface and 12 horizontal access doors. Overall machine size is determined from a fusion power of 3 GW and almost 100% bootstrap current within moderate Troyon coefficient of 3.5, MHD safety factor of 5 and plasma elongation of 1.6. (author)

  19. The current status of customer retention at Easy Fit, and ways to improve it in the future

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the customer retention of the company called Easy Fit. Two sets of methods are utilised, in order to answer the research question: customer data analysis and a customer survey. The investigation is limited to six Easy Fit centres around Finland. The focus is on the current status of customer retention, which is examined based on the customer data. This part includes the average customer lifespan, attendance patterns, and the customer retention rate. The future pro...

  20. EasyGene – a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to other areas of sequence analysis, a measure of statistical significance of a putative gene has not been devised to help in discriminating real genes from the masses of random Open Reading Frames (ORFs in prokaryotic genomes. Therefore, many genomes have too many short ORFs annotated as genes. Results In this paper, we present a new automated gene-finding method, EasyGene, which estimates the statistical significance of a predicted gene. The gene finder is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM that is automatically estimated for a new genome. Using extensions of similarities in Swiss-Prot, a high quality training set of genes is automatically extracted from the genome and used to estimate the HMM. Putative genes are then scored with the HMM, and based on score and length of an ORF, the statistical significance is calculated. The measure of statistical significance for an ORF is the expected number of ORFs in one megabase of random sequence at the same significance level or better, where the random sequence has the same statistics as the genome in the sense of a third order Markov chain. Conclusions The result is a flexible gene finder whose overall performance matches or exceeds other methods. The entire pipeline of computer processing from the raw input of a genome or set of contigs to a list of putative genes with significance is automated, making it easy to apply EasyGene to newly sequenced organisms. EasyGene with pre-trained models can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/EasyGene.

  1. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are easy to read and what is their reading level? To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus is a consumer health ... are at the same reading level. MedlinePlus does not decide the literacy level ...

  2. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  3. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  4. Ontsmetten met Easy Ice Clean ("Coldblast") "Proof of principle"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludeking, D.J.W.; Hamelink, R.; Gulik, van M.W.; Diepenhorst, T.

    2012-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is er gekeken naar de potentie en het proof of principle van de Cold Jet techniek van Easy Ice Clean in de tuinbouw. Met dit onderzoek is getracht te beantwoorden of de Cold Jet techniek potentie heeft als alternatieve ontsmettingstechniek voor chemische middelen. De techniek die in

  5. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  6. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  7. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  8. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate…

  9. Easy 3D Mapping for Indoor Navigation of Micro UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2017-01-01

    a map of sufficient precision and on the other limit complexity to a manageable level. This paper presents a box based approach for easy generation 3D maps to serve as the basis for indoor navigation of UAS. The basic building block employed is a 3D axis parallel box (APB). Unions of APBs constitute...

  10. Technical Manual: easyCBM. Technical Report #1408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Farley, Dan; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saven, Jessica L.; Wray, Kraig A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research…

  11. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  12. Smartphone photomicrography: A quick, easy, useful technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smartphone photomicrography: A quick, easy, useful technique for the clinician. Dear Sir,. We would like to bring into the attention of clinicians that a technique that we found very quick and useful in obtaining photomicrographs. Photomicrography—a photographic capture of an image seen through a microscope—is ...

  13. Fast and Easy Searching of Files in Unisys 2200 Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been written to enable (1) fast and easy searching of symbolic files for one or more strings of characters, dates, or numerical values in specific fields or columns and (2) summarizing results of searching other fields or columns.

  14. A System-Wide Approach to Physician Efficiency and Utilization Rates for Non-Operating Room Anesthesia Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mitchell H; Huynh, Tinh T; Breidenstein, Max W; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    There has been little in the development or application of operating room (OR) management metrics to non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) sites. This is in contrast to the well-developed management framework for the OR management. We hypothesized that by adopting the concept of physician efficiency, we could determine the applicability of this clinical productivity benchmark for physicians providing services for NORA cases at a tertiary care center. We conducted a retrospective data analysis of NORA sites at an academic, rural hospital, including both adult and pediatric patients. Using the time stamps from WiseOR® (Palo Alto, CA), we calculated site utilization and physician efficiency for each day. We defined scheduling efficiency (SE) as the number of staffed anesthesiologists divided by the number of staffed sites and stratified the data into three categories (SE 1). The mean physician efficiency was 0.293 (95% CI, [0.281, 0.305]), and the mean site utilization was 0.328 (95% CI, [0.314, 0.343]). When days were stratified by scheduling efficiency (SE 1), we found differences between physician efficiency and site utilization. On days where scheduling efficiency was less than 1, that is, there are more sites than physicians, mean physician efficiency (95% CI, [0.326, 0.402]) was higher than mean site utilization (95% CI, [0.250, 0.296]). We demonstrate that scheduling efficiency vis-à-vis physician efficiency as an OR management metric diverge when anesthesiologists travel between NORA sites. When the opportunity to scale operational efficiencies is limited, increasing scheduling efficiency by incorporating different NORA sites into a "block" allocation on any given day may be the only suitable tactical alternative.

  15. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL). A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, S.A.; Jong, M. de; Sier, C.F.M.; Krijnen, P.; Duijff, J.W.; Thiel, T.P. van; Rijcke, P.A. de; Soesman, N.M.; Hagenaars, T.; Boekhoudt, F.D.; Vries, M.R. de; Roukema, G.R.; Tanka, A.F.; Bremer, J. van den; Meulen, H.G. van der; Bronkhorst, M.W.; Dijkman, B.A. van; Zutphen, S.W. van; Vos, Dieuwke; Schep, N.W.; Eversdijk, M.G.; Olden, G.D.J. van; Brand, J.G. van den; Hillen, R.J.; Frolke, J.P.M.; Schipper, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of non-union and

  16. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL). A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, S.A.; de Jong, M.; Sier, C.F.M.; Krijnen, P.; Duijff, J.W.; van Thiel, T.P.H.; de Rijcke, P.A.R.; Soesman, N.M.R.; Hagenaars, T.; Boekhoudt, F.D.; de Vries, M.R.; Roukema, G.R.; Tanka, A.F.K.; van den Bremer, J.; van der Meulen, H.G.W.M.; Bronkhorst, M.W.G.A.; van Dijkman, B.A.; van Zutphen, S.W.A.M.; Vos, D.I.; Schep, N.W.L.; Eversdijk, M.G.; van Olden, G.D.J.; van den Brand, J.G.H.; Hillen, R.J.; Frolke, J.P.M.; Schipper, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of non-union and

  17. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL). A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A.; de Jong, Mireille; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Krijnen, Pieta; Duijff, Jan W.; van Thiel, Tom P. H.; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Soesman, Nicolaj M. R.; Hagenaars, Tjebbe; Boekhoudt, Freek D.; de Vries, Mark R.; Roukema, Gert R.; Tanka, Andras F. K.; van den Bremer, Jephta; van der Meulen, Hub G. W. M.; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; van Dijkman, Bart A.; van Zutphen, Stephan W. A. M.; Vos, Dagmar I.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; van Olden, Ger D. J.; van den Brand, Johan G. H.; Hillen, Robert Jan; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Schipper, Inger B.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of non-union and identified

  18. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: Non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL). A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Stegeman (Sylvia); M. de Jong (Mireille); C.F.M. Sier (Cornelis); P. Krijnen (Pieta); J.W. Duijff (Jan); T.P.H. Thiel (Tom); P.A.R. Rijcke (Piet); N.M.R. Soesman (Nicolaj); T. Hagenaars (Tjebbe); F.D. Boekhoudt (Freek D.); M.R. de Vries (Mark); G.R. Roukema (Gert); A.F.K. Tanka (Andras); J. van den Bremer (Jephta); H.G.W.M. Meulen (Hub); M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); B.A. van Dijkman (Bart); S.W.A.M. van Zutphen (Stephan); D.I. Vos (Dagmar); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); M.G. Eversdijk (Martin); G.D.J. van Olden (Ger); J.G.H. van den Brand (Johan); R. Hillen (Robert); J.P.M. Frölke (Jan Paul); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of

  19. Angiosarcoma arising in the non-operated, sclerosing breast after primary irradiation, surviving 6 years post-resection: A case report and review of the Japanese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Angiosarcoma may occur in the non-operated breast, post irradiation. The potential difficulties of diagnosing angiosarcoma against background fibrosis should be kept in mind. Initial radical surgery currently represents the only effective treatment for improving survival in these patients.

  20. "easyMine" – realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Böttger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project “easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

  1. Assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis after splenectomy in comparison with non-operated patients at the decompensated stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алий Саитович Тугушев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenectomy in patients with cirrhosis presupposes an increase of blood inflow into portal system to decrease the portal pressure. At the same time there are different opinions about splenectomy. So it is actual to study the character of changes of blood flow in vessels of abdominal cavity in pre- and postsurgical periods and assessment of an influence of these changes on the clinical course of cirrhosis.Aim of research: To assess an influence of splenectomy on the character of changes of splanchnic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis comparing to non-operated patients with compensated and decompensated clinical course.Materials and methods: There were examined 190 patients with cirrhosis: gastrointestinal bleeding from oesophagus varicose veins took place in 133 patients, diuretic resistant ascites – in 57 ones. 19 patients underwent splenectomy: 7 – in association with sewing of the left gastric vein and artery, 6 – with “skeletonization” of the lesser curvature of stomach with Nessen’s operation, 2 – with Patsiora’s operation, 2 – with application of selective porto-caval shunt between the low mesenteric vein and the left vein of an ovary. 84 patients died during observation. The duration of observation was from 0.5 to 3.5 years. All patients underwent fibrogastroscopy every 3–4 month. Hemodynamics was assessed on the base of repeated ultrasound of abdominal cavity. There were assessed diameter of hepatic and splenic vessels; qualitative and quantitative characteristics of blood flow in hepatic and splenic arteries, portal and splenic veins.Results of research: Changes of hemodynamics in patients after splenectomy as opposed to non-operative patients are characterized with the decrease of diameter of portal vein at almost stable speed of the linear blood flow in it. The result is some decrease of the volume of portal blood and index of portal blood congestion that indirectly indicates the decrease of portal pressure

  2. Non-operative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures leads to acceptable functional outcomes, however at the expense of 40% subsequent surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, M A M; van Eerten, P V; Goslings, J C; Schep, N W L

    2017-10-01

    Although secondary displacement following closed reduction and plaster immobilisation is high, several guidelines still recommend non-operative treatment for displaced distal radius fractures with an adequate closed reduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional outcomes, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, in non-operative treated patients with displaced distal radius fractures and an adequate closed reduction confirmed on radiograph. From a retrospective database, we reviewed non-operative treated adult patients with an unilateral displaced distal radius fracture and adequate closed reduction confirmed on radiograph. The primary outcome was the DASH score at 12months. DASH scores were prospectively collected pre-trauma and at three, six and 12months. Secondary outcome was the number of subsequent surgeries due to secondary displacement or a symptomatic malunion, and their possible predictors. Additionally, the difference in DASH scores between patients who were treated due to secondary displacement and asymptomatic malunion was compared. One-hundred and sixteen patients were included. The median age was 62 years and 79% was female. Fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification as follows: AO/OTA type A (49%), AO/OTA type B (3%), AO/OTA type C (48%). After 12months the median DASH score was 15. Forty-six (40%) patients underwent subsequent surgery due to a secondary displacement or symptomatic malunion. No significant differences in DASH scores between patients who were treated non-operatively and patients who received subsequent surgery were found. Younger patients were more likely to undergo subsequent surgery. Patients with a symptomatic malunion had significant higher DASH scores compared to patients with secondary displacement. Non-operative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures after adequate closed reduction confirmed on radiograph leads to acceptable functional

  3. Initial non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in children: a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial (APAC trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapen, Max; van der Lee, Johanna H; Bakx, Roel; The, Sarah-May L; van Heurn, Ernst W E; Heij, Hugo A; Gorter, Ramon R

    2017-11-15

    Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial. In this article, we provide the study protocol for the APAC (Antibiotics versus Primary Appendectomy in Children) trial. This multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial randomises children aged 7-17 years with imaging-confirmed simple appendicitis between appendectomy and NOT. Patients are recruited in 15 hospitals. The intended sample size, based on the primary outcome, rate of complications and a non-inferiority margin of 5%, is 334 patients.NOT consists of intravenous antibiotics for 48-72 hours, daily blood tests and ultrasound follow-up. If the patient meets the predefined discharge criteria, antibiotic treatment is continued orally at home. Primary outcome is the rate of complications at 1-year follow-up. An independent adjudication committee will assess all complications and their relation to the allocated treatment. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, delayed appendectomies, QoL, pain and (in)direct costs.The primary outcome will be analysed both according to the intention-to-treat principle and the per-protocol principle, and is presented with a one-sided 97.5% CI. We will use multiple logistic and linear regression for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively, to adjust for stratification factors. The protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. Data monitoring is performed by an independent institute and a Data Safety Monitoring Board has been assigned. Results will be presented

  4. EasyModeller: A graphical interface to MODELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Bhusan K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MODELLER is a program for automated protein Homology Modeling. It is one of the most widely used tool for homology or comparative modeling of protein three-dimensional structures, but most users find it a bit difficult to start with MODELLER as it is command line based and requires knowledge of basic Python scripting to use it efficiently. Findings The study was designed with an aim to develop of "EasyModeller" tool as a frontend graphical interface to MODELLER using Perl/Tk, which can be used as a standalone tool in windows platform with MODELLER and Python preinstalled. It helps inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models in a simple and straightforward way. Conclusion EasyModeller provides a graphical straight forward interface and functions as a stand-alone tool which can be used in a standard personal computer with Microsoft Windows as the operating system.

  5. EasyModeller: A graphical interface to MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntal, Bhusan K; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Reddanna, Pallu

    2010-08-16

    MODELLER is a program for automated protein Homology Modeling. It is one of the most widely used tool for homology or comparative modeling of protein three-dimensional structures, but most users find it a bit difficult to start with MODELLER as it is command line based and requires knowledge of basic Python scripting to use it efficiently. The study was designed with an aim to develop of "EasyModeller" tool as a frontend graphical interface to MODELLER using Perl/Tk, which can be used as a standalone tool in windows platform with MODELLER and Python preinstalled. It helps inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models in a simple and straightforward way. EasyModeller provides a graphical straight forward interface and functions as a stand-alone tool which can be used in a standard personal computer with Microsoft Windows as the operating system.

  6. Soft modes in the easy plane pyrochlore antiferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, J D M; Holdsworth, P C W

    2004-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations lift the high ground state degeneracy of the classical nearest neighbour pyrochlore antiferromagnet, with easy plane anisotropy, giving a first-order phase transition to a long range ordered state. We show, from spin wave analysis and numerical simulation, that even below this transition a continuous manifold of states, of dimension N 2/3 , exist (N is the number of degrees of freedom). As the temperature goes to zero a further 'order by disorder' selection is made from this manifold. The pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er 2 Ti 2 O 7 is believed to have an easy plane anisotropy and is reported to have the same magnetic structure. This is perhaps surprising, given that the dipole interaction lifts the degeneracy of the classical model in favour of a different structure. We interpret our results in the light of these facts

  7. UNESCO to blame:Reality or easy escape?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Roders, A Ana; Grigolon, AB Anna

    2015-01-01

    “UNESCO to blame” is a trend often observed in scholarly works. In those studies UNESCO is accused to privilege Eurocentric standards on heritage conservation. Is this reality or an easy escape? Can this trend be noted in other UNESCO reference texts? This article seeks to answer this question by studying the two main inscription-based conventions and their contribution to heritage management, while performing a data analysis on the countries behind these conventions, and their roles over tim...

  8. easyDAS: Automatic creation of DAS servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez Rafael C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS has proven to be a successful way to publish and share biological data. Although there are more than 750 active registered servers from around 50 organizations, setting up a DAS server comprises a fair amount of work, making it difficult for many research groups to share their biological annotations. Given the clear advantage that the generalized sharing of relevant biological data is for the research community it would be desirable to facilitate the sharing process. Results Here we present easyDAS, a web-based system enabling anyone to publish biological annotations with just some clicks. The system, available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/panda-srv/easydas is capable of reading different standard data file formats, process the data and create a new publicly available DAS source in a completely automated way. The created sources are hosted on the EBI systems and can take advantage of its high storage capacity and network connection, freeing the data provider from any network management work. easyDAS is an open source project under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusions easyDAS is an automated DAS source creation system which can help many researchers in sharing their biological data, potentially increasing the amount of relevant biological data available to the scientific community.

  9. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10−9 can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM applications.

  10. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup −9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  11. Characterizing volumetric discontinuities present in NPP heat exchangers with EASY: an eddy current data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2011-01-01

    Eddy current is a very important NDT inspection method widely used to perform integrity evaluation of tubes installed in heat exchangers. For nuclear power plants, a classical example is the remote inspection of steam generators and condensers, as well as other ordinary auxiliary equipment. Data evaluation can be performed by means of precise phase and amplitude measurements of complex impedance signals, represented as Lissajous figures plotted on the screen of the inspection systems. This paper presents the software EASY, a computer assisted analysis system developed at CDTN to help the characterization of volumetric discontinuities present in heat exchangers tubes. Data to be analyzed are obtained from commercial eddy current equipment data file, such as ECT MAD8D. Main advantage of that system is its portability and easy use, since it can be executed in ordinary PC, under Microsoft Windows operating system. (author)

  12. Easy fabrication of thin membranes with through holes. Application to protein patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Masters

    Full Text Available Since protein patterning on 2D surfaces has emerged as an important tool in cell biology, the development of easy patterning methods has gained importance in biology labs. In this paper we present a simple, rapid and reliable technique to fabricate thin layers of UV curable polymer with through holes. These membranes are as easy to fabricate as microcontact printing stamps and can be readily used for stencil patterning. We show how this microfabrication scheme allows highly reproducible and highly homogeneous protein patterning with micron sized resolution on surfaces as large as 10 cm(2. Using these stencils, fragile proteins were patterned without loss of function in a fully hydrated state. We further demonstrate how intricate patterns of multiple proteins can be achieved by stacking the stencil membranes. We termed this approach microserigraphy.

  13. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the management of post-pneumonectomy air leak and adult respiratory distress syndrome of the non-operated lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Szkorupa; Martin, Simek; Ondrej, Zuscich; Josef, Chudacek; Cestmir, Neoral; Vladimir, Lonsky

    2017-07-01

    Post-pneumonectomy air leak and severe respiratory failure of the non-operated lung is considered to be a life-threatening complication of lung surgery. We present the case report of a 68-year-old man who underwent a right pneumonectomy for spinocellular carcinoma. Refractory respiratory failure occurred following bronchial stump air leakage and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of the non-operated lung. Established veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) was utilized to maintain tissue oxygenation while re-do surgery was performed. The leaking bronchial stump was closed with an azygos vein patch and, subsequently, weaning off ECMO was accomplished 7 days later. The patient fully recovered and he is limited only by mild exertional dyspnea at 24 months follow-up after the initial surgery.

  15. Physics over easy Breakfasts with Beth and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Azaroff, L V

    2010-01-01

    During a sequence of meals, the author relates the principal features of physics in easy-to-understand conversations with his wife Beth. Beginning with the studies of motion by Galileo and Newton through to the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics in the 20th century, all important aspects of electricity, energy, magnetism, gravity and the structure of matter and atoms are explained and illustrated. The second edition similarly recounts the more recent application of these theories to nanoparticles, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement and quantum computers. By

  16. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  17. An easy path to convex analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mordukhovich, Boris S

    2013-01-01

    Convex optimization has an increasing impact on many areas of mathematics, applied sciences, and practical applications. It is now being taught at many universities and being used by researchers of different fields. As convex analysis is the mathematical foundation for convex optimization, having deep knowledge of convex analysis helps students and researchers apply its tools more effectively. The main goal of this book is to provide an easy access to the most fundamental parts of convex analysis and its applications to optimization. Modern techniques of variational analysis are employed to cl

  18. Detection of the Magnetic Easy Direction in Steels Using Induced Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard M. Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional manufacturing processes cause plastic deformation that leads to magnetic anisotropy in processed materials. A deeper understanding of materials characterization under rotational magnetization enables engineers to optimize the overall volume, mass, and performance of devices such as electrical machines in industry. Therefore, it is important to find the magnetic easy direction of the magnetic domains in a simple and straightforward manner. The Magnetic easy direction can be obtained through destructive tests such as the Epstein frame method and the Single Sheet Tester by taking measurements in regions of irreversible magnetization usually called domains. In the present work, samples of rolled SAE 1045 steel (formed by perlite and ferrite microstructures were submitted to induced magnetic fields in the reversibility region of magnetic domains to detect the magnetic easy direction. The magnetic fields were applied to circular samples with different thicknesses and angles varying from 0° to 360° with steps of 45°. A square sample with a fixed thickness was also tested. The results showed that the proposed non-destructive approach is promising to evaluate the magnetic anisotropy in steels independently of the geometry of the sample. The region studied presented low induction losses and was affected by magnetic anisotropy, which did not occur in other works that only took into account regions of high induction losses.

  19. Astrophysics is easy! an introduction for the amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysics is often –with some justification – regarded as incomprehensible without the use of higher mathematics. Consequently, many amateur astronomers miss out on some of the most fascinating aspects of the subject. Astrophysics Is Easy! cuts through the difficult mathematics and explains the basics of astrophysics in accessible terms. Using nothing more than plain arithmetic and simple examples, the workings of the universe are outlined in a straightforward yet detailed and easy-to-grasp manner.   The original edition of the book was written over eight years ago, and in that time, advances in observational astronomy have led to new and significant changes to the theories of astrophysics. The new theories will be reflected in both the new and expanded chapters.   A unique aspect of this book is that, for each topic under discussion, an observing list is included so that observers can actually see for themselves the concepts presented –stars of the spectral sequence, nebulae, galaxies, even black ...

  20. Expanding global forest management: An easy first' proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winjum, J.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Meganck, R.A. (United Nations Environment Programme, Kingston (Jamaica)); Dixon, R.K.

    1993-04-01

    World leaders have become increasingly aware of the contributions of sustainable forest resources to political, social, economic, and environmental health. As a result, interest is growing for a world treaty or protocol on forest management and protection. This article focuses on global forest management. The first section discusses the current situtation in global forest management (10-12% of the total). Benefits of global benefit to management included sustained and even increased yield, slowing of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and conservation of biodiversity and increase sustainable use options. The Noordwijk Goal is discussed as one example of concrete global action. Finally, the easy first approach is presented in detail. It involves starting in areas where the obstacles are minimal to develop early momentum and a can do outlook for implementation. Difficulties of this approach involve dealing with the political, social, and economic aspects of resource constraints that many nations face daily. But the easy first approach attempts to demonstrate that not all financial commitments, political agreements and forest management techniques must be in place for work to start.

  1. [Statistical analysis using freely-available "EZR (Easy R)" software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    Clinicians must often perform statistical analyses for purposes such evaluating preexisting evidence and designing or executing clinical studies. R is a free software environment for statistical computing. R supports many statistical analysis functions, but does not incorporate a statistical graphical user interface (GUI). The R commander provides an easy-to-use basic-statistics GUI for R. However, the statistical function of the R commander is limited, especially in the field of biostatistics. Therefore, the author added several important statistical functions to the R commander and named it "EZR (Easy R)", which is now being distributed on the following website: http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/. EZR allows the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates and so on, by point-and-click access. In addition, by saving the script automatically created by EZR, users can learn R script writing, maintain the traceability of the analysis, and assure that the statistical process is overseen by a supervisor.

  2. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    We derive an easy-to-implement and efficient algorithm for solving multi-label image partitioning problems in the form of the problem addressed by Region Competition. These problems jointly determine a parameter for each of the regions in the partition. Given an estimate of the parameters, a fast approximate solution to the multi-label sub-problem is derived by a global update that uses smoothing and thresholding. The method is empirically validated to be robust to fine details of the image that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper! Experimental comparison to the state-of-the-art in multi-label solutions to Region Competition shows that our method achieves equal or better accuracy, with the main advantage being speed and ease of implementation.

  3. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. METHODS: A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. RESULTS: During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26409380

  4. Tailor-made resealable micro(bio)reactors providing easy integration of in situ sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viefhues, Martina; Vrouwe, Elwin X; Sun, Shiwen; Mayr, Torsten; Valikhani, Donya; Nidetzky, Bernd; Bolivar, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    Flow microreactors utilizing immobilized enzymes are of great interest in biocatalysis development. Most of the common devices are permanently closed, single-use systems, which allow limited physical and chemical surface modifications and evaluation methods. In this paper we will present resealable flowcells that overcome these limitations and moreover allow a quick and easy integration of sensor systems, because of the use of modular building blocks. The devices were utilized to study the enzyme activity of glucose oxidase immobilized on chemically modified glass surfaces under flow conditions, employing integrated optical oxygen sensors for on-line monitoring. (paper)

  5. Tailor-made resealable micro(bio)reactors providing easy integration of in situ sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viefhues, Martina; Sun, Shiwen; Valikhani, Donya; Nidetzky, Bernd; Vrouwe, Elwin X.; Mayr, Torsten; Bolivar, Juan M.

    2017-06-01

    Flow microreactors utilizing immobilized enzymes are of great interest in biocatalysis development. Most of the common devices are permanently closed, single-use systems, which allow limited physical and chemical surface modifications and evaluation methods. In this paper we will present resealable flowcells that overcome these limitations and moreover allow a quick and easy integration of sensor systems, because of the use of modular building blocks. The devices were utilized to study the enzyme activity of glucose oxidase immobilized on chemically modified glass surfaces under flow conditions, employing integrated optical oxygen sensors for on-line monitoring.

  6. Facile fabrication of a superhydrophobic fabric with mechanical stability and easy-repairability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-15

    The poor mechanical stability of superhydrophobic fabrics severely hindered their use in practical applications. Herein, to address this problem, we fabricated a superhydrophobic fabric with both mechanical stability and easy-repairability by a simple method. The mechanical durability of the obtained superhydrophobic fabric was evaluated by finger touching and abrasion with sandpaper. The results show that rough surface textures of the fabric were retained, and the fabric surface still exhibited superhydrophobicity after tests. More importantly, when the fabric lost its superhydrophobicity after a long-time abrasion, it can be easily rendered with superhydrophobicity once more by a regeneration process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prestressed CFRP Fabrics for Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Beams with an Easy Prestressing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakar, G.; Tanarslan, H. M.

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to use prestressed CFRP plates for strengthening in order to prevent their debonding and thus to increase their strengthening efficiency. For this purpose, and easy-to-use piece of equipment was created. To determine the effectiveness of this method, an experimental program was carried out, and the effect of prestressed CFRP on the behavior and ultimate strength of reinforced concrete beams was examined in threepoint bending tests. A remarkable increase in their strength with debonding was seen for every specimen to which a prestressed CFRP plate had been applied.

  8. No easy answers science and the pursuit of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2005-01-01

    In No Easy Answers, Allan Franklin offers an accurate picture of science to both a general reader and to scholars in the humanities and social sciences who may not have any background in physics. Through the examination of nontechnical case studies, he illustrates the various roles that experiment plays in science. He uses examples of unquestioned success, such as the discoveries of the electron and of three types of neutrino, as well as studies that were dead ends, wrong turns, or just plain mistakes, such as the “fifth force,” a proposed modification of Newton's law of gravity. Franklin argues that science is a reasonable enterprise that provides us with knowledge of the natural world based on valid experimental evidence and reasoned and critical discussion, and he makes clear that it behooves all of us to understand how it works.

  9. Astrophysics is easy! an introduction for the amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, Mike

    2007-01-01

    With some justification, many amateur astronomers believe astrophysics is a very difficult subject, requiring at least degree-level mathematics to understand it properly. This isn’t necessarily the case. Mike Inglis' quantitative approach to the subject explains all aspects of astrophysics in simple terms and cuts through the incomprehensible mathematics with which this fascinating subject is all too often associated. Astrophysics is Easy! begins by looking at the H-R diagram and other basic tools of astrophysics, then ranges across the universe, from a first look at the interstellar medium and nebulae, through the birth, evolution and death of stars, to the physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A unique feature of this book is the way that Dr. Inglis lists example objects for practical observation at every stage, so that practical astronomers can go and look at the object or objects under discussion – using only easily-available commercial amateur equipment.

  10. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  11. Clinical outcome of percutaneous RF-ablation of non-operable patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Parner, Vibeke Kirk; Tuxen, Malgorzata K.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite improved anti-neoplastic treatment the prognosis for patients with liver metastases from metastatic breast cancer remains poor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) at the Department...

  12. Breathe easy in Seattle : addressing asthma disparities through healthier housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.W.; Rabkin, J.C. [Seattle and King County, Seattle Public Health, Seattle, WA (United States); Takaro, T.K. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Faculty of Health Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of mortality associated with asthma in children in the United States has significantly increased over the past two decades and remains high. This paper described three home intervention projects that spanned the spectrum from individual behaviour change to improving housing quality. It described 2 healthy homes projects and 1 project known as Breathe Easy Homes. The first healthy home project involved randomly assigning 274 low-income asthmatic children to a high or low intensity group. Community health workers (CHWs) visited all homes to assess exposures, develop an action plan, and provide bedding encasements. The high intensity group received cleaning equipment and an average of 7 additional visits over a year while the low group received only the initial visit. In the second healthy home project, 309 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to a CHW intervention group or usual care group. All participants received clinic based asthma education from a nurse. The breathe easy homes project involved using a pre-post design to examine the benefits of a new home designed to reduce asthma trigger on outcomes among 35 low-income children with asthma. All homes received a detailed inspection by a remediation coordinator who identified conditions associated with exposure to asthma triggers, such as moisture and mould, dust, pets, tobacco smoke and wood smoke. Mitigative actions included the use of proper ventilation, vacuuming with a high efficiency particulate filter and avoiding the use of fireplaces and wood stoves. It was concluded that home visits increased asthma control behaviours, reduced urgent health services, improved caregiver quality-of-life and decreased asthma symptoms. 93 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Easy Applicable Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion on Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Yücel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Akciğer Transplantasyonun da Kolay Uygulanabilir İskemi ve Reperfüzyon Modeli Easy Applicable Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion on Lung transplantation Akciğer İskemi ve Reperfüzyon Modeli Lung Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion Türkçe özet Giriş:Akciğer transplantasyon (AT%u2019unda organ disfonksiyonunun en önemli nedenleri arasında yer alan iskemi reperfüzyon (İ/R hasarını önlemek için birçok klinik ve deneysel çalışma yapılmıştır. Çalışmamızda mikrocerrahi gerektirmeyen, kısa sürede uygulanabilecek, karmaşık prosedür içermeyen, ucuz, geliştirilebilir ve İ/R hasarının araştırılabileceği bir AT modeli oluşturulmasını amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmamızda Sprague Dawley ırkı, 200-225g ağırlığındaki 21 adet erkek rat kullanıldı. Her biri yedi rat içeren üç grup oluşturuldu. İlk grup kontrol grubu (KG, ikinci grup donör grubu (DG ve üçüncü grup İ/R grubu (İRG olarak adlandırıldı. KG%u2019daki deneklere herhangi bir ek işlem yapılmadan sol akciğer alt lobundan histopatolojik ve biyokimyasal inceleme için örnekleme yapıldı. DG%u2019daki deneklere sol üst lobektomi ile allograft sol alt lob çıkarılma işlemi uygulandı. İRG%u2019na sol üst lobektomi ve sol alt loba giden pulmoner arter ve ven dalı proksimal yönde kateterizasyon işlemi uygulandı. Pulmoner arter ve ven kateterizasyon işleminden sonra allogreft sol alt lob iki saat süreyle reperfüze ve reventile edildi. AAD%u2019dan histopatolojik ve biyokimyasal inceleme için örnekleme yapıldı ve istatistiksel olarak değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Histopatolojik incelemede kontrol grubuna göre İRG%u2019nda konjesyon, kanama, parankimal makrofaj ve PMN lökosit infiltrasyonu, amfizem, atelektazi, vakuolar dejenerasyon ve peribronşiyal lenfosit infiltrasyonu açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı sonuç elde edildi. MDA seviyesinde ve GPX aktivitesinde İRG grubunda ortalama artarken, SOD ve CAT

  14. A Novel Assay for Easy and Rapid Quantification of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersoe, Mette E; Rasmussen, Lone; Andersen, Leif P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells could be a new way to counteract infections with this organism. We here present a novel method for quantification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to cells. METHODS: Helicobacter pylori is allowed to adhere to AGS...... of the method, we demonstrate that adhesion of both a sabA and babA deletion mutant of H. pylori is significantly reduced compared to the wild type. CONCLUSION: The method offers a number of applications and may be used to compare the adherence potential of different strains of H. pylori to either cells...... or different materials or to screen for potential anti-adhesive compounds. The results presented here suggest that this easy and reproducible assay is well suited for quantitative investigation of H. pylori adhesion....

  15. Easy and Fast Reconstruction of a 3D Avatar with an RGB-D Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aihua; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yuxin; Zheng, Yinglong; Li, Guiqing; Han, Guoqiang

    2017-05-12

    This paper proposes a new easy and fast 3D avatar reconstruction method using an RGB-D sensor. Users can easily implement human body scanning and modeling just with a personal computer and a single RGB-D sensor such as a Microsoft Kinect within a small workspace in their home or office. To make the reconstruction of 3D avatars easy and fast, a new data capture strategy is proposed for efficient human body scanning, which captures only 18 frames from six views with a close scanning distance to fully cover the body; meanwhile, efficient alignment algorithms are presented to locally align the data frames in the single view and then globally align them in multi-views based on pairwise correspondence. In this method, we do not adopt shape priors or subdivision tools to synthesize the model, which helps to reduce modeling complexity. Experimental results indicate that this method can obtain accurate reconstructed 3D avatar models, and the running performance is faster than that of similar work. This research offers a useful tool for the manufacturers to quickly and economically create 3D avatars for products design, entertainment and online shopping.

  16. Successful return to sports in athletes following non-operative management of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries: medium-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolley, D; Gabr, A; Benjamin-Laing, H; Haddad, F S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of the non-operative treatment of high-grade posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, particularly Hughston grade III injuries, which have not previously been described. This was a prospective study involving 46 consecutive patients who were athletes with MRI-confirmed isolated PCL injuries presenting within four weeks of injury. All had Hughston grade II (25 athletes) or III (21 athletes) injuries. Our non-operative treatment regimen involved initial bracing, followed by an individualised rehabilitation programme determined by the symptoms and physical signs. The patients were reviewed until they had returned to sports-specific training, and were reviewed again at a mean of 5.2 years (3 to 9). The mean time to return to sports-specific training was 10.6 weeks and the mean time to return to full competitive sport was 16.4 weeks (10 to 40). A total of 42 patients (91.3%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport two years after the injury, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). At five years, 32 patients (69.5%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport, and 38 patients (82.6%) were playing at a competitive level, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). Medium-term review of a series of athletes suggests that commencing the non-operative management of isolated, Hughston grade II and III PCL injuries within four weeks of injury gives excellent functional outcomes with a high proportion returning to the same or higher level of sport. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:774-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Personalised Hip Therapy: development of a non-operative protocol to treat femoroacetabular impingement syndrome in the FASHIoN randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Peter Dh; Dickenson, Edward J; Robinson, David; Hughes, Ivor; Realpe, Alba; Hobson, Rachel; Griffin, Damian R; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is increasingly recognised as a cause of hip pain. As part of the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome, we developed a protocol for non-operative care and evaluated its feasibility. In phase one, we developed a protocol for non-operative care for FAI in the UK National Health Service (NHS), through a process of systematic review and consensus gathering. In phase two, the protocol was tested in an internal pilot RCT for protocol adherence and adverse events. The final protocol, called Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT), consists of four core components led by physiotherapists: detailed patient assessment, education and advice, help with pain relief and an exercise-based programme that is individualised, supervised and progressed over time. PHT is delivered over 12-26 weeks in 6-10 physiotherapist-patient contacts, supplemented by a home exercise programme. In the pilot RCT, 42 patients were recruited and 21 randomised to PHT. Review of treatment case report forms, completed by physiotherapists, showed that 13 patients (62%) received treatment that had closely followed the PHT protocol. 13 patients reported some muscle soreness at 6 weeks, but there were no serious adverse events. PHT provides a structure for the non-operative care of FAI and offers guidance to clinicians and researchers in an evolving area with limited evidence. PHT was deliverable within the National Health Service, is safe, and now forms the comparator to arthroscopic surgery in the UK FASHIoN trial (ISRCTN64081839). ISRCTN 09754699. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Outcome Study of Non-operative Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis in Middle-aged Patients With Reference to the Body Mass Index—A Randomised Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Peng Meng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the year 2006 to 2008, 69 patients of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knees were divided randomly and entered into three non-operative treatment protocols. It included 4 weeks of pharmacological treatment followed by 4 weeks of specific treatments (physiotherapy, acupuncture, and combined. The pretreatment and post-treatment physical and functional statuses were evaluated. Their body mass index (BMI was measured. The patients with below-normal BMI did not benefit from all the three treatment protocols. However, all other groups of increased BMI did benefit from all three treatment protocols in terms of pain score, analgesic sparing, and knee scores.

  19. Easy labeling of proliferative phase and sporogonic phase of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are eukaryotic, unicellular parasites that have been studied for more than 150 years. These organisms are extraordinary in their ability to invade a wide range of hosts including vertebrates and invertebrates, such as human and commercially important animals. A lack of appropriate labeling methods has limited the research of the cell cycle and protein locations in intracellular stages. In this report, an easy fluorescent labeling method has been developed to mark the proliferative and sporogonic phases of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells. Based on the presence of chitin, Calcofluor White M2R was used to label the sporogonic phase, while β-tubulin antibody coupled with fluorescence secondary antibody were used to label the proliferative phase by immunofluorescence. This method is simple, efficient and can be used on both infected cells and tissue slices, providing a great potential application in microsporidia research.

  20. Designing easy DNA extraction: Teaching creativity through laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantini, Endang; Lisdiana, Lisa; Isnawati; Tanzih Al Haq, Aushia; Trimulyono, Guntur

    2017-05-01

    Subject material concerning Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) structure in the format of creativity-driven laboratory practice offers meaningful learning experience to the students. Therefore, a laboratory practice in which utilizes simple procedures and easy-safe-affordable household materials should be promoted to students to develop their creativity. This study aimed to examine whether designing and conducting DNA extraction with household materials could foster students' creative thinking. We also described how this laboratory practice affected students' knowledge and views. A total of 47 students participated in this study. These students were grouped and asked to utilize available household materials and modify procedures using hands-on worksheet. Result showed that this approach encouraged creative thinking as well as improved subject-related knowledge. Students also demonstrated positive views about content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking skills. This study implies that extracting DNA with household materials is able to develop content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking of the students. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):216-225, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  2. Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to Tai Chi Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa L; Wherry, Sarah J; Larkey, Linda K; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Swan, Pamela D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory response and energy expenditure during the practice of Tai Chi Easy (TCE). TCE has been proposed as a low-intensity alternative to traditional physical activity. Oxygen cost data were collected from 10 healthy adult women (mean age of 47.9 ± 12.8 years) at rest and during a 30-min session of TCE using an automated metabolic cart and heart rate (HR) telemetry. The Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was utilized to measure subjective intensity of the TCE movements. The mean oxygen consumption (VO(2)) for the movements ranged from 4.3 ml kg(-1)min(-1) to 5.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1) with an overall mean of 5.0 ml kg(-1)min(-1). The mean HR for all activity was 67.0 beats per minute and the mean energy expenditure (EE) was 1.6 Kcal min(-1). Cardiorespiratory and EE responses to TCE indicate that this a low intensity exercise appropriate for individuals requiring activity prescriptions of approximately 2 metabolic equivalents (METs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The IBA Easy-E-Beam™ Integrated Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam™ for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  4. Ideologies in Mandela’s No Easy Walk to Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AbdulhameedFaris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideology has great influence on the traits and behaviors of leaders. It is the vehicle by which we could understand our leaders and our leaders could understand us. The present paper is an endeavor to reveal the ideological dimension that is embedded in the discourse of Nelson Mandela, with special reference to his address No Easy Walk to Freedom which was delivered in 1953. It is conducted on the approach of Critical Discourse Analysis. Van Dijk's (2004 Political Ideological Strategies and Wodak's (2005 Discursive Strategies of Positive Self- and Negative Other-Presentation were accommodated to achieve the objective of the study. The findings demonstrated that Van Dijk's strategies of actor description, positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation and Wodak's two chosen strategies of argumentation and perspectivation were supportive in exploring the ideologies penetrated in Mandela's discourse. They five strategies proved to be helpful devices in exploring the fundamentally embedded ideologies in Mandela's discourse which are "white superiority" and "black inferiority". White superiority was the ideological foundation of the white minority to establish the apartheid system in South Africa for decades, whereas black inferiority was the ideological foundation of the black majority to sustain different forms of resistance against the white governments. Therefore, it could be perceived that the social acts of both the blacks and the whites were formed and structured in terms of these two ideological foundations.

  5. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiao; Luo, Chunqiu; Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao; Yuan, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  6. BioMart – biological queries made easy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorisson Gudmundur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists need to perform complex queries, often across a variety of databases. Typically, each data resource provides an advanced query interface, each of which must be learnt by the biologist before they can begin to query them. Frequently, more than one data source is required and for high-throughput analysis, cutting and pasting results between websites is certainly very time consuming. Therefore, many groups rely on local bioinformatics support to process queries by accessing the resource's programmatic interfaces if they exist. This is not an efficient solution in terms of cost and time. Instead, it would be better if the biologist only had to learn one generic interface. BioMart provides such a solution. Results BioMart enables scientists to perform advanced querying of biological data sources through a single web interface. The power of the system comes from integrated querying of data sources regardless of their geographical locations. Once these queries have been defined, they may be automated with its "scripting at the click of a button" functionality. BioMart's capabilities are extended by integration with several widely used software packages such as BioConductor, DAS, Galaxy, Cytoscape, Taverna. In this paper, we describe all aspects of BioMart from a user's perspective and demonstrate how it can be used to solve real biological use cases such as SNP selection for candidate gene screening or annotation of microarray results. Conclusion BioMart is an easy to use, generic and scalable system and therefore, has become an integral part of large data resources including Ensembl, UniProt, HapMap, Wormbase, Gramene, Dictybase, PRIDE, MSD and Reactome. BioMart is freely accessible to use at http://www.biomart.org.

  7. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Anthropometric Measures and Frailty Prediction in the Elderly: An Easy-to-Use Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Elizabeth Closs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anthropometry is a useful tool for assessing some risk factors for frailty. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminatory performance of anthropometric measures in identifying frailty in the elderly and to create an easy-to-use tool. Methods. Cross-sectional study: a subset from the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly in the Family Health Strategy (EMI-SUS evaluating 538 older adults. Individuals were classified using the Fried Phenotype criteria, and 26 anthropometric measures were obtained. The predictive ability of anthropometric measures in identifying frailty was identified through logistic regression and an artificial neural network. The accuracy of the final models was assessed with an ROC curve. Results. The final model comprised the following predictors: weight, waist circumference, bicipital skinfold, sagittal abdominal diameter, and age. The final neural network models presented a higher ROC curve of 0.78 (CI 95% 0.74–0.82 (P<0.001 than the logistic regression model, with an ROC curve of 0.71 (CI 95% 0.66–0.77 (P<0.001. Conclusion. The neural network model provides a reliable tool for identifying prefrailty/frailty in the elderly, with the advantage of being easy to apply in the primary health care. It may help to provide timely interventions to ameliorate the risk of adverse events.

  9. Non-operative management of medial meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with worsening arthritis and poor clinical outcome at 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Aaron J; Reardon, Patrick J; Johnson, Nick R; Mohan, Rohith; Peter, Logan; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) are a significant source of pain and dysfunction, but little is known about the natural history and outcome and for non-operative management of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of non-operative treatment of MMPRTs and (2) risk factors for worse outcomes. A retrospective review was performed for patients with symptomatic, unrepaired MMPRTs and a minimum 2-year follow-up for IKDC and Tegner outcome scores. Baseline and final radiographs were reviewed and graded according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores. Baseline MRIs were reviewed for the presence of meniscal extrusion, subchondral oedema, and insufficiency fractures. Failure was defined as conversion to arthroplasty or severely abnormal patient subjective IKDC score. Fifty-two patients (21M:31F) with a mean age of 58 ± 10 years were diagnosed with symptomatic MMPRTs clinically and confirmed by MRI and followed for a mean of 62 ± 30 months. Sixteen patients (31 %) underwent total knee arthroplasty at a mean of 30 ± 32 months after diagnosis with higher Kellgren-Lawrence grades associated with increased rates of arthroplasty (p = 0.01). Mean IKDC scores for the remaining patients were 61.2 ± 21 with significantly lower scores in females compared to males (75 ± 12 vs. 49 ± 20; p = 0.03). Mean Kellgren-Lawrence grades and rates of arthritis progressed over time on radiographs (1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 1.0; p meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with poor clinical outcome, worsening arthritis, and a relatively high rate of arthroplasty at 5-year follow-up. Female gender was associated with lower subjective scores and higher rate of arthroplasty. The current study provides a natural history benchmark for clinical outcomes that can be expected in patients with medial meniscus posterior horn root tears undergoing non-operative treatment and helps in counselling

  10. Pan-regional (cervico-thoraco-lumbo-sacral spinal epidural abscess with multi-level discitis, vertebral body osteomyelitis and facet joint septic arthritis: complete resolution with non-operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukutty Manickam, MRCS

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Even pan-regional CTLS SEA with multi-level discitis, vertebral body osteomyelitis and facet joint septic arthritis can be managed non-operatively. A complete clinical and radiological resolution can be achieved with antibiotics alone.

  11. Guided eruption of palatally impacted canines through combined use of 3-dimensional computerized tomography scans and the easy cuspid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Siani, Lea; Caprioglio, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The permanent maxillary canine has a high incidence of impaction. In the clinical treatment of impaction, the first problem is diagnosis and localization. The new diagnostic 3-dimensional systems shown in this article provide valid support in understanding anatomic connections and planning the movements needed for orthodontic correction. Thus, the clinician can reduce the incidence of iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures. This article reviews several biomedical systems for guided eruption of palatally impacted canines and discusses a new device for guided eruption of the surgically disimpacted tooth. This device, called Easy Cuspid, is designed to reduce recognized problems with reaction forces through a simple method. A clinical case of bilateral impaction of the permanent maxillary canines shows the application of the diagnostic method and the biomechanical system, Easy Cuspid.

  12. The electrocardiogram made (really) easy: Using small-group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicine designed small-group tutorials using animations and analogies as methods to improve the ECG interpretation skills of students. Objectives. To improve students' ability to interpret ECGs and assess their perceptions of the tutorials. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 67 final-year medical students after ...

  13. EasyGene – a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2003-01-01

    is the expected number of ORFs in one megabase of random sequence at the same significance level or better, where the random sequence has the same statistics as the genome in the sense of a third order Markov chain.Conclusions: The result is a flexible gene finder whose overall performance matches or exceeds......Background: Contrary to other areas of sequence analysis, a measure of statistical significance of a putative gene has not been devised to help in discriminating real genes from the masses of random Open Reading Frames (ORFs) in prokaryotic genomes. Therefore, many genomes have too many short ORFs...... annotated as genes.Results: In this paper, we present a new automated gene-finding method, EasyGene, which estimates the statistical significance of a predicted gene. The gene finder is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) that is automatically estimated for a new genome. Using extensions of similarities...

  14. Soliton instabilities in the easy plane ferromagnet Heisenberg chain with out-of-plane spin deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, J.; Leon, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Casilla 298-V, Santiago (Chile)]. e-mail: julio.pozo@udp.cl

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the presence of out-of-plane spin deviation {rho}({xi}) in the easy-plane ferromagnetic Heisenberg chain by using the coupled-boson operators together with the Schwinger transformation for the spin operator; this method allows us to conclude that the critical behaviour of the instability is due to the velocity of the nonlinear excitations (solitons) only for an appropriate range of the magnetic field. In this case, when the velocity becomes lower, the stable soliton corresponding to {rho}({xi}) is distorted by magnons and loses stability. If we increase the velocity of {rho}({xi}), it then decays into high frequency-oscillations. Nevertheless, we find an opposite competence effect produced by the velocity and the magnetic field on {rho}({xi}). (Author)

  15. Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0965 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for...Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling by Satwik Bisoi Science and...REPORT TYPE Memorandum Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2017 July 05–2017 August 18 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Easy Atomic Force

  16. Easy characterization of petroleum fractions: Part 2. [PBREAK program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, J. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)); Castells, F. (Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Catalunya (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    A method for characterizing petroleum fractions, based on pseudocomponent breakdown using the integral method has been developed. It uses the assumption of a constant Watson's characterization factor for all the pseudocomponents. The method requires only a true boiling point curve (tbp) and the entire fraction's density. A FORTRAN program gives a detailed output of pseudocomponents characterizing the complex mixture after one selects the number of pseudocomponents and correlations for predicting their physical properties. Part 1 showed the derivation that is the basis for the method. Here, they explain the program and it's subroutines. Also, two examples are given that show the flexibility of the program.

  17. Easy access to 6-membered iminoalditols - important glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge

    Stereoselective methods for synthesising iminoalditols are still needed, as this class of compounds is known to contain strong glycosidase inhibitors. We have for some time investigated (1) the possibilities for using 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy-aldonolactones as starting materials for such compo......Stereoselective methods for synthesising iminoalditols are still needed, as this class of compounds is known to contain strong glycosidase inhibitors. We have for some time investigated (1) the possibilities for using 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy-aldonolactones as starting materials...

  18. An easy protocol for the domino synthesis of diversely functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    struction of diversely functionalized heterocycles.3. Development of efficient methods to construct spiro compounds has been a topic of great relevance in organic synthesis due to their pronounced biological importance as they are used as anticancer agents,4 antibacterial agents,5 anticonvulsant agents,6 anti- tuberculosis ...

  19. Listen: When words don't come easy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Listening is at the very heart of communication in healthcare, but largely ignored in research and teaching. This paper presents different perspectives on listening within the context of healthcare and its implications for goal-directed communication. METHODS: The assets of listening are

  20. Listen: when words don't come easy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Listening is at the very heart of communication in healthcare, but largely ignored in research and teaching. This paper presents different perspectives on listening within the context of healthcare and its implications for goal-directed communication. Methods: The assets of listening

  1. DNA Methylation Signature Analysis: How Easy Is It to Perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperi, Christina; Farmaki, Elena; Vlastos, Fotis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.; Martinet, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic changes, or heritable alterations in gene function that do not affect DNA sequence, are rapidly gaining acceptance as co-conspirators in carcinogenesis. Although DNA methylation signature analysis by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction has been a breakthrough method in speed and sensitivity for gene methylation studies, several factors still limit its application as a routine diagnostic and prognostic test. PMID:19183791

  2. Solving large scale structure in ten easy steps with COLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassev, Svetlin; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100 Mpc/h with particles of mass ≈ 5 × 10 9 M s un/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10 11 M s un/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obtained with LPT. A standard detailed N-body run is orders of magnitude slower than our COLA-based code. The speed-up we obtain with COLA is due to the fact that we calculate the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT, while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos. Achieving a similar level of accuracy in halo statistics without the COLA method requires at least 3 times more timesteps than when COLA is employed

  3. Displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle: non-operative treatment versus plate fixation (Sleutel-TRIAL). A multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Jong, Mireille; Sier, Cornelis F M; Krijnen, Pieta; Duijff, Jan W; van Thiel, Tom P H; de Rijcke, Piet A R; Soesman, Nicolaj M R; Hagenaars, Tjebbe; Boekhoudt, Freek D; de Vries, Mark R; Roukema, Gert R; Tanka, Andras F K; van den Bremer, Jephta; van der Meulen, Hub G W M; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A; van Dijkman, Bart A; van Zutphen, Stephan W A M; Vos, Dagmar I; Schep, Niels W L; Eversdijk, Martin G; van Olden, Ger D J; van den Brand, Johan G H; Hillen, Robert Jan; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Schipper, Inger B

    2011-08-24

    The traditional view that the vast majority of midshaft clavicular fractures heal with good functional outcomes following non-operative treatment may be no longer valid for all midshaft clavicular fractures. Recent studies have presented a relatively high incidence of non-union and identified speciic limitations of the shoulder function in subgroups of patients with these injuries. A prospective, multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in 21 hospitals in the Netherlands, comparing fracture consolidation and shoulder function after either non-operative treatment with a sling or a plate fixation. A total of 350 patients will be included, between 18 and 60 years of age, with a dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture. The primary outcome is the incidence of non-union, which will be determined with standardised X-rays (Antero-Posterior and 30 degrees caudocephalad view). Secondary outcome will be the functional outcome, measured using the Constant Score. Strength of the shoulder muscles will be measured with a handheld dynamometer (MicroFET2). Furthermore, the health-related Quality of Life score (ShortForm-36) and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Outcome Measure will be monitored as subjective parameters. Data on complications, bone union, cosmetic aspects and use of painkillers will be collected with follow-up questionnaires. The follow-up time will be two years. All patients will be monitored at regular intervals over the subsequent twelve months (two and six weeks, three months and one year). After two years an interview by telephone and a written survey will be performed to evaluate the two-year functional and mechanical outcomes. All data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis, using univariate and multivariate analyses. This trial will provide level-1 evidence for the comparison of consolidation and functional outcome between two standardised treatment options for dislocated midshaft clavicular fractures. The

  4. An Easy yet Effective Method for Detecting Spatial Domain LSB Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Minati; Adhikary, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Digitization of image was a revolutionary step for the fields of photography and Image processing as this made the editing of images much effortless and easier. Image editing was not an issue until it was limited to corrective editing procedures used to enhance the quality of an image such as, contrast stretching, noise filtering, sharpening etc. But, it became a headache for many fields when image editing became manipulative. Digital images have become an easier source of tampering and forge...

  5. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  6. Soldered Power Arm: An Easy and Effective Method for Intrusion and Retraction of Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan K Vakil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthodontic correction of deep overbite can be achieved with several mechanisms that will result in true intrusion of anterior teeth, extrusion of posterior teeth, or a combination of both. For the orthodontic correction of bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion with deep bite, there are several treatment modalities like segmented arch approach, retraction and intrusion utility arches, temporary anchorage devices. Though not a novel therapeutic concept, the use of miniscrew implants to obtain absolute anchorage has recently become very popular in clinical orthodontic approaches. To allow the use of sliding mechanics for bodily retraction with intrusion of anterior teeth, we devised a soldered power arm (SPA on standard molar tube. It is simple, stable, precise and effective in cases where anterior teeth need to be simultaneously retracted and intruded. A power arm can be readily fabricated from 20 gauge stainless steel wire and soldered on the molar buccal tube so as to avoid any distortion or loosening of power arm from molar tube during the course of the treatment. The SPA works efficiently with the molar being stabilized in all three planes of space. The resultant force vector is directed more apically toward the center of resistance of the anchor unit, which resulted in the treatment outcome of retraction and intrusion of the anterior teeth and correction of the deep bite.

  7. Easy Method to Examine Single Nerve Fiber Excitability and Conduction Parameters Using Intact Nonanesthetized Earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähring, Robert; Bauer, Christiane K.

    2014-01-01

    The generation and conduction of neuronal action potentials (APs) were the subjects of a cell physiology exercise for first-year medical students. In this activity, students demonstrated the all-or-none nature of AP generation, measured conduction velocity, and examined the dependence of the threshold stimulus amplitude on stimulus duration. For…

  8. 'Label and go' - A fast and easy radiolabelling method for pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, C.; Mien, L.-K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Salar-Behzadi, S. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Knaeusl, B. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dudczak, R.; Kletter, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, H. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2010-03-15

    For the development and process optimization of pharmaceutical equipment, it is important to investigate the underlying processes. Taking the fluidized bed technology as an example, the study of particle flow pattern and convection of the particles within the functional unity is essential for construction and process improvement. With positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) it is possible to study the real-time particle motion with radiolabelled particles. We established a fast and simple labelling technique with [{sup 18}F]fluoride for pellets composed of Avicel and anion exchange resin. The uptake of activity ranged from 1.3% to 1.7% per mg and 8.6% to 16.3% per pellet. A specific binding of [{sup 18}F]fluoride with increasing degree of anion exchange resin in the pellets could be observed.

  9. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  10. Idea on saanud jala EASi ukse vahele / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta lõpus ostis EAS 700 000 krooni eest reklaamibüroo Idea AD teenuseid. EAS-i partneriks sai Idea 2004. aastal, kui ta ootamatult tõusis reklaamikampaania riigihanke võitnud Tanki kõrvale. Diagramm: EAS-i suurematele partneritele makstud koondsummad

  11. Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools Department of Industrial Relations Cal/OSHA Consultation Service Research ... puborder.asp http://www.cdc.gov/niosh Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools ...

  12. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  13. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  14. Early closure of temporary ileostomy—the EASY trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard; Correa-Marinez, A; Skullmann, S

    2011-01-01

    ;months after surgery (stoma creation). Discussion The aim of the EASY trial is to evaluate the efficiency of early reversal of temporary ileostomy after surgery for rectal cancer versus late reversal. The EASY trial is expected to have a huge impact on patient safety as well as an improvement in patient...

  15. A Novel Assay for Easy and Rapid Quantification of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skindersoe, Mette E; Rasmussen, Lone; Andersen, Leif P; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Reducing adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells could be a new way to counteract infections with this organism. We here present a novel method for quantification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to cells. Helicobacter pylori is allowed to adhere to AGS or MKN45g cells in a 96-well microtiter plate. Then wells are added saponin, which lyses the cells without affecting the bacteria. After addition of alamarBlue(®) (resazurin) and 1- to 2-hour incubation, fluorescence measurements can be used to quantify the number of adherent bacteria. By use of the method, we demonstrate that adhesion of both a sabA and babA deletion mutant of H. pylori is significantly reduced compared to the wild type. The method offers a number of applications and may be used to compare the adherence potential of different strains of H. pylori to either cells or different materials or to screen for potential anti-adhesive compounds. The results presented here suggest that this easy and reproducible assay is well suited for quantitative investigation of H. pylori adhesion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Infinite circuits are easy. How about long ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Mikhail; Wang, Xinzhe

    2015-01-01

    We consider a long but finite (ladder) circuit with alternating connections of resistors in series and parallel and derive an explicit expression for its equivalent resistance as a function of the number of repeating blocks, $R_{\\rm eq}(k)$. This expression provides an insight on some adjacent topics, such as continued fractions and a druncard's random walk in a street with a gutter. We also remark on a possible method of solving the non-linear recurrent relation between $R_{\\rm eq}(k)$ and $...

  17. Phonics Pathways Clear Steps to Easy Reading and Perfect Spelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hiskes, Dolores G

    2011-01-01

    Teaches students of all ages the basics of phonics with a time-tested, foolproof method This tenth edition of the best-selling book teaches reading using sounds and spelling patterns. These sounds and patterns are introduced one at a time, and slowly built into words, syllables, phrases, and sentences. Simple step-by-step directions begin every lesson. Although originally designed for K-2 emergent readers, this award-winning book is also successfully being used with adolescent and adult learners, as well as second language learners and students with learning disabilities. Wise and humorous pro

  18. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  19. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  20. Suction blister grafting - Modifications for easy harvesting and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suction blister grafting is a simple modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. But raising the blisters may be time consuming and transferring to the recipient site may be difficult as the graft is ultrathin. By doing some modifications we can make the technique simpler and easier. We can decrease the blister induction time by intradermal injection of saline, exposure to Wood′s lamp, intrablister injection of saline. By these methods we can decrease the blister induction time from 2-3 hrs to 45-90 minutes. After harvesting the graft, it can be transferred to the recipient area by taking the graft on a sterile glass slide, on the gloved finger, rolling the graft over a sterile syringe and then spreading on the recipient area, or taking on the sterile wrapper of paraffin dressing and then placing over the recipient area.

  1. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry data processing made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Lea G; Skou, Peter B; Khakimov, Bekzod; Bro, Rasmus

    2017-06-23

    Evaluation of GC-MS data may be challenging due to the high complexity of data including overlapped, embedded, retention time shifted and low S/N ratio peaks. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach, PARAFAC2 based Deconvolution and Identification System (PARADISe), for processing raw GC-MS data. PARADISe is a computer platform independent freely available software incorporating a number of newly developed algorithms in a coherent framework. It offers a solution for analysts dealing with complex chromatographic data. It allows extraction of chemical/metabolite information directly from the raw data. Using PARADISe requires only few inputs from the analyst to process GC-MS data and subsequently converts raw netCDF data files into a compiled peak table. Furthermore, the method is generally robust towards minor variations in the input parameters. The method automatically performs peak identification based on deconvoluted mass spectra using integrated NIST search engine and generates an identification report. In this paper, we compare PARADISe with AMDIS and ChromaTOF in terms of peak quantification and show that PARADISe is more robust to user-defined settings and that these are easier (and much fewer) to set. PARADISe is based on non-proprietary scientifically evaluated approaches and we here show that PARADISe can handle more overlapping signals, lower signal-to-noise peaks and do so in a manner that requires only about an hours worth of work regardless of the number of samples. We also show that there are no non-detects in PARADISe, meaning that all compounds are detected in all samples. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF FOLEY’S CATHETER WITH EXTRAAMNIOTIC SALINE INFUSION (EASI ON CERVICAL RIPENING AND INDUCTION OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulakandathil Mani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The favourability of cervix is of fundamental importance for successful induction of labour. Unfavourable cervix should be ripened before induction is started. The various methods available for cervical ripening include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological. Pharmacological methods though effective are associated with significant lethal untoward effect on mother, foetus or newborn and expensive also. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Foley's catheter with extra amniotic saline infusion (EASI on cervical ripening and induction of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, from January 2012 to October 2012. Total of 201 antenatal women who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. The main outcome variables were the number of subjects with favourable Bishop's score, mode of delivery, induction delivery interval, newborn Apgar score and incidence of intra-amniotic infection or postpartum endomyometritis. RESULTS The mean pretreatment Bishop's score was 2.125±0.609, 75.6% were having Bishop's score 2. There was significant improvement in Bishop’s score after EASI. 156 patients achieved Bishop's score >6 after EASI. Maximum patients (76.6% achieved vaginal delivery. The caesarean rate was 18.4%. The mean induction delivery interval was 11.02 hours. 68.2% women required oxytocin induction or augmentation. The mean Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8.94 with 99% babies having Apgar score >7 at 5 minutes and 12.34% NICU admissions. No maternal complications were observed. CONCLUSION EASI is an effective method for cervical ripening and EASI ripening resulted in successful induction with shorter induction delivery interval, low caesarean section rate with no maternal, foetal or neonatal complication. EASI is simple, reversible, inexpensive, easily

  3. GCL – An Easy Way for Creating Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Trzaska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphical User Interfaces (GUI can be created using several approaches. Beside using visual editors or a manually written source code, it is possible to employ a declarative method. Such a solution usually allows working on a higher abstraction level which saves the developers' time and reduces errors. The approach can follow many ideas. One of them is based on utilizing a Domain Specific Language (DSL. In this paper we present the results of our research concerning a DSL language called GCL (GUI Creating Language. The prototype is implemented as a library for Java with an API emulating the syntax and semantics of a DSL language. A programmer, using a few keywords, is able to create different types of GUIs, including forms, panels, dialogs, etc. The widgets of the GUI are built automatically during the run-time phase based on a given data instance (an ordinary Java object and optionally are to be customized by the programmer. The main contribution of our work is delivering a working library for a popular platform. The library could be easily ported for other programming languages such the MS C#.

  4. Making it Easy to Construct Accurate Hydrological Models that Exploit High Performance Computers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Terrel, A.; Certik, O.; Seljebotn, D.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will focus on two barriers to progress in the hydrological modeling community, and research and development conducted to lessen or eliminate them. The first is a barrier to sharing hydrological models among specialized scientists that is caused by intertwining the implementation of numerical methods with the implementation of abstract numerical modeling information. In the Proteus toolkit for computational methods and simulation, we have decoupled these two important parts of computational model through separate "physics" and "numerics" interfaces. More recently we have begun developing the Strong Form Language for easy and direct representation of the mathematical model formulation in a domain specific language embedded in Python. The second major barrier is sharing ANY scientific software tools that have complex library or module dependencies, as most parallel, multi-physics hydrological models must have. In this setting, users and developer are dependent on an entire distribution, possibly depending on multiple compilers and special instructions depending on the environment of the target machine. To solve these problem we have developed, hashdist, a stateless package management tool and a resulting portable, open source scientific software distribution.

  5. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  6. Rectifying calibration error of Goldmann applanation tonometer is easy!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Choudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT is the current Gold standard tonometer. However, its calibration error is common and can go unnoticed in clinics. Its company repair has limitations. The purpose of this report is to describe a self-taught technique of rectifying calibration error of GAT. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine slit-lamp-mounted Haag-Streit Goldmann tonometers (Model AT 900 C/M; Haag-Streit, Switzerland were included in this cross-sectional interventional pilot study. The technique of rectification of calibration error of the tonometer involved cleaning and lubrication of the instrument followed by alignment of weights when lubrication alone didn′t suffice. We followed the South East Asia Glaucoma Interest Group′s definition of calibration error tolerance (acceptable GAT calibration error within ±2, ±3 and ±4 mm Hg at the 0, 20 and 60-mm Hg testing levels, respectively. Results: Twelve out of 29 (41.3% GATs were out of calibration. The range of positive and negative calibration error at the clinically most important 20-mm Hg testing level was 0.5 to 20 mm Hg and -0.5 to -18 mm Hg, respectively. Cleaning and lubrication alone sufficed to rectify calibration error of 11 (91.6% faulty instruments. Only one (8.3% faulty GAT required alignment of the counter-weight. Conclusions: Rectification of calibration error of GAT is possible in-house. Cleaning and lubrication of GAT can be carried out even by eye care professionals and may suffice to rectify calibration error in the majority of faulty instruments. Such an exercise may drastically reduce the downtime of the Gold standard tonometer.

  7. Haplessly hoping: macaque major histocompatibility complex made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Roger W; Karl, Julie A; Bohn, Patrick S; Nimityongskul, Francesca A; Starrett, Gabriel J; O'Connor, David H

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products control the repertoire of T cell responses that an individual may create against pathogens and foreign tissues. This text will review the current understanding of MHC genetics in nonhuman primates, with a focus on Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). These closely related macaque species provide important experimental models for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis, vaccine development, and transplantation research. Recent advances resulting from the application of several cost effective, high-throughput approaches, with deep sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to perform MHC genotyping of large macaque cohorts. Pyrosequencing of cDNA amplicons with a Roche/454 GS Junior instrument, provides excellent resolution of MHC class I allelic variants with semi-quantitative estimates of relative levels of transcript abundance. Introduction of the Illumina MiSeq platform significantly increased the sample throughput, since the sample loading workflow is considerably less labor intensive, and each instrument run yields approximately 100-fold more sequence data. Extension of these sequencing methods from cDNA to genomic DNA amplicons further streamlines the experimental workflow and opened opportunities for retrospective MHC genotyping of banked DNA samples. To facilitate the reporting of MHC genotypes, and comparisons between groups of macaques, this text also introduces an intuitive series of abbreviated rhesus MHC haplotype designations based on a major Mamu-A or Mamu-B transcript characteristic for ancestral allele combinations. The authors believe that the use of MHC-defined macaques promises to improve the reproducibility, and predictability of results from pre-clinical studies for translation to humans.

  8. Refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy and physiology--Multimodal approach to treated lesions in patients with non-operable distal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension--Technique, safety and efficacy of 50 consecutive angioplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Marek; Wretowski, Dominik; Łabyk, Andrzej; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-15

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging therapeutic method in CTEPH. We aimed to prove the safety and efficacy of refined BPA driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy (IVUS/OCT) and physiology (pulmonary pressure ratio, PPR) in non-operable distal CTEPH. 11 pts (mean age 76, 59–84, 7 males) were enrolled in the BPA program according to the following inclusion criteria: 1. Non-operable CTEPH; 2. RHC with mPAP > 30 mm Hg; 3. At least one segmental perfusion defect at lung scintigraphy; 4. WHO class > II. Overall, 9 pts underwent 27 BPA sessions (mean 3 sessions per patient, range 1–5), 50 pulmonary arteries were dilated (mean 6 vessels per patient, range 3–9; 2.03 dilated arteries per session). All the angioplasties were performed according to an algorithm, which incorporated anatomical and functional assessment of targeted lesions. We performed BPA of 32 web lesions, 5 ring-like stenosis and 13 complete obstructions. BPA resulted in clinical and hemodynamic improvement. WHO class improved from pre-BPA to post-BPA (p = 0.018), and 6 MWD increased from 304 m to 384 m (p = 0.03), NT-proBNP dropped from 1248 pg/ml to 730 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Mean PAP and PVR decreased (p = 0.01), while CO and CI increased (p = 0.01). All dilated arteries were patent at angiographic reassessment. No significant complications occurred and all treated patients are still alive. Insignificant transient reperfusion pulmonary oedema occurred in only 2 patients, who responded well to supplemental oxygen. Refined BPA with assessment of intrapulmonary physiology using a pressure wire and precise evaluation of anatomy with IVUS and OCT provides hemodynamic and functional improvement, with minimal complications in distal non-operable CTEPH. This observation requires further validation in a large prospective study.

  9. Easy and industrially applicable impregnation process for preparation of diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun; Gokce, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The high porosity, high oil and water absorption capacity and low density of diatomite make it ideal for industrial applications. The porous structure of diatomite protects phase change materials (PCMs) from environmental factors as a supporting matrix and phase changes occur in nanopores of diatomite. Previous research on diatomite/PCMs composites aimed optimal composite preparation but many methods were feasible only in laboratory scale. In large scale industrial fabrication, easy, continuous and steady state methods are need to be performed. The main purpose of this study was to prepare leakage-free, thermally stable nanocomposite PCMs (nanoCPCMs) by an easy, continuous and steady state method for high temperature thermal energy storage applications. A series of nanoCPCMs with different paraffin:diatomite mass ratios were prepared. The properties of nanoCPCMs have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The leak (exudation) test was performed on prepared composites at higher temperatures (95 °C) in comparison with literature. As the optimum composite for thermal energy storage applications, thermal reliability of nanoCPCM was evaluated after 400 cycles of melting and freezing. NanoCPCM melted at 36.55 °C with latent heat of 53.1 J/g. - Highlights: • Diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy and industrially applicable impregnation process was developed. • Influence of diatomite: PCM mass ratio on thermal properties reported.

  10. EasyPCC: Benchmark Datasets and Tools for High-Throughput Measurement of the Plant Canopy Coverage Ratio under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions of genotype, environment, and management under field conditions is vital for selecting new cultivars and farming systems. Image analysis is considered a robust technique in high-throughput phenotyping with non-destructive sampling. However, analysis of digital field-derived images remains challenging because of the variety of light intensities, growth environments, and developmental stages. The plant canopy coverage (PCC ratio is an important index of crop growth and development. Here, we present a tool, EasyPCC, for effective and accurate evaluation of the ground coverage ratio from a large number of images under variable field conditions. The core algorithm of EasyPCC is based on a pixel-based segmentation method using a decision-tree-based segmentation model (DTSM. EasyPCC was developed under the MATLAB® and R languages; thus, it could be implemented in high-performance computing to handle large numbers of images following just a single model training process. This study used an experimental set of images from a paddy field to demonstrate EasyPCC, and to show the accuracy improvement possible by adjusting key points (e.g., outlier deletion and model retraining. The accuracy (R2 = 0.99 of the calculated coverage ratio was validated against a corresponding benchmark dataset. The EasyPCC source code is released under GPL license with benchmark datasets of several different crop types for algorithm development and for evaluating ground coverage ratios.

  11. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  12. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  13. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  14. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: t_yoshi@ees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106 (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes. - Highlights: • We clarify how the alignment of easy axis of MNP affects the AC magnetization. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest AC hysteresis loop. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest harmonic magnetization spectra. • The AC magnetization is strongly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  15. Spray-coated fluorine-free superhydrophobic coatings with easy repairability and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weici; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xinjie; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-01

    The present paper reports a very simple and low-cost fluorine-free superhydrophobic coating prepared by spray-coating metal alkylcarboxylates, for example, Cu[CH(3)(CH(2))(10)COO](2), onto virtually any substrates. Superhydrophobicity with a static water contact angle of about 160 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees was achieved from the proper precursor concentration. The advantages of the present approach include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, an industrial implementation method, and easy repairability and applicability so as to make a great application potential in practice. The hydrophobicity of coatings and the adhesion to water were found to be dependent on the surface morphology that was governed by the precursor concentrations from which coatings were prepared. The static wetting behavior of water droplets with different sizes gentlly deposited on the coatings was studied in more detail and correlated to theories, i.e., Wenzel's and Cassie's models. The results indicated that nanoribbon-textured coatings prepared from low precursor concentration (0.02 M) exhibited a transition from the metastable Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state with increments in the droplet volume, and eventually droplets firmly stick to the surface even when the droplet was gently deposited on the surface. Surface coatings with dual roughness at both microscale and nanometer scale were formed as the concentration (0.04 M) was increased and conferred a stable Cassie state, even for increased droplet size and increased droplet deposit speed.

  16. Make It Short and Easy: Username Complexity Determines Trustworthiness Above and Beyond Objective Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Chrobot, Nina; Newman, Eryn; Schwarz, Norbert; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Can the mere name of a seller determine his trustworthiness in the eye of the consumer? In 10 studies (total N = 608) we explored username complexity and trustworthiness of eBay seller profiles. Name complexity was manipulated through variations in username pronounceability and length. These dimensions had strong, independent effects on trustworthiness, with sellers with easy-to-pronounce or short usernames being rated as more trustworthy than sellers with difficult-to-pronounce or long usernames, respectively. Both effects were repeatedly found even when objective information about seller reputation was available. We hypothesized the effect of name complexity on trustworthiness to be based on the experience of high vs. low processing fluency, with little awareness of the underlying process. Supporting this, participants could not correct for the impact of username complexity when explicitly asked to do so. Three alternative explanations based on attributions of the variations in name complexity to seller origin (ingroup vs. outgroup), username generation method (seller personal choice vs. computer algorithm) and age of the eBay profiles (10 years vs. 1 year) were tested and ruled out. Finally, we show that manipulating the ease of reading product descriptions instead of the sellers' names also impacts the trust ascribed to the sellers.

  17. Make It Short and Easy: Username Complexity Determines Trustworthiness Above and Beyond Objective Reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can the mere name of a seller determine his trustworthiness in the eye of the consumer? In 10 studies (total N = 608 we explored username complexity and trustworthiness of eBay seller profiles. Name complexity was manipulated through variations in username pronounceability and length. These dimensions had strong, independent effects on trustworthiness, with sellers with easy-to-pronounce or short usernames being rated as more trustworthy than sellers with difficult-to-pronounce or long usernames, respectively. Both effects were repeatedly found even when objective information about seller reputation was available. We hypothesized the effect of name complexity on trustworthiness to be based on the experience of high vs. low processing fluency, with little awareness of the underlying process. Supporting this, participants could not correct for the impact of username complexity when explicitly asked to do so. Three alternative explanations based on attributions of the variations in name complexity to seller origin (ingroup vs. outgroup, username generation method (seller personal choice vs. computer algorithm and age of the eBay profiles (10 years vs. 1 year were tested and ruled out. Finally, we show that manipulating the ease of reading product descriptions instead of the sellers’ names also impacts the trust ascribed to the sellers.

  18. Influence of spherical assembly of copper ferrite nanoparticles on magnetic properties: orientation of magnetic easy axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Biplab K; Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2014-06-07

    The magnetic properties of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared via sol-gel auto combustion and facile solvothermal method are studied focusing on the effect of nanoparticle arrangement. Randomly oriented CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NP) are obtained from the sol-gel auto combustion method, while the solvothermal method allows us to prepare iso-oriented uniform spherical ensembles of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NS). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used to investigate the composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The field-dependent magnetization measurement for the NS sample at low temperature exhibits a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop (M(R)/M(S) ~ 1), suggesting cubic anisotropy in the system, whereas for the NP sample, typical features of uniaxial anisotropy (M(R)/M(S) ~ 0.5) are observed. The coercive field (HC) for the NS sample shows anomalous temperature dependence, which is correlated with the variation of effective anisotropy (K(E)) of the system. A high-temperature enhancement of H(C) and K(E) for the NS sample coincides with a strong spin-orbit coupling in the sample as evidenced by significant modification of Cu/Fe-O bond distances. The spherical arrangement of nanocrystals at mesoscopic scale provokes a high degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis along the applied field leading to a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of the system is carried out, emphasizing the influence of the formation of spherical iso-oriented assemblies.

  19. Rapid, easy, and cheap randomization: prospective evaluation in a study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    request at 18 and 20 min, respectively. The method described here produced an email audit trail, which proved useful to the primary study. Conclusions We report a method of third party randomization that uses current technology to operationalize randomization and allocation in a rapid, easy, and cost-effective manner. Other investigators may find this method useful, particularly for small RCTs, including pilot RCTs, on a tight budget.

  20. An easy and efficient strategy for KEL genotyping in a multiethnic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Prisco Arnoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kell blood group system expresses high and low frequency antigens with the most important in relation to transfusion including the antithetic KEL1 and KEL2; KEL3 and KEL4; KEL6 and KEL7 antigens. Kell is a clinically relevant system, as it is highly immunogenic and anti-KEL antibodies are associated with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although required in some situations, Kell antigen phenotyping is restricted due to technical limitations. In these cases, molecular approaches maybe a solution. This study proposes three polymerase chain reaction genotyping protocols to analyze the single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for six Kell antithetic antigens expressed in a Brazilian population. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 800 blood donor samples and three polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols were used to genotype the KEL*1/KEL*2, KEL*3/KEL*4 and KEL*6/KEL*7 alleles. KEL*3/KEL*4 and KEL*6/KEL*7 genotyping was standardized using the NlaIII and MnlI restriction enzymes and validated using sequencing. KEL*1/KEL*2 genotyping was performed using a previously reported assay. RESULTS: KEL genotyping was successfully implemented in the service; the following distribution of KEL alleles was obtained for a population from southeastern Brazil: KEL*1 (2.2%, KEL*2 (97.8%, KEL*3 (0.69%, KEL*4 (99.31%, KEL*6 (2.69% and KEL*7 (97.31%. Additionally, two individuals with rare genotypes, KEL*1/KEL*1 and KEL*3/KEL*3, were identified. CONCLUSION: KEL allele genotyping using these methods proved to be reliable and applicable to predict Kell antigen expressions in a Brazilian cohort. This easy and efficient strategy can be employed to provide safer transfusions and to help in rare donor screening.

  1. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  2. Effects of self-esteem on electrophysiological correlates of easy and difficult math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Qinglin; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of easy versus difficult math on event-related potentials as a function of self-esteem in 28 undergraduate students. First, it was found that participants responded much more rapidly to an easy task. Second, the amplitude of P2 (150-300 ms) was more positive amplified in low self-esteem participants when compared to high self-esteem participants. Third, the difficult task elicited a greater N2 (300-450 ms) component than the easy task, but only in the low self-esteem participants. Finally, the easy task elicited a greater late positive component (LPC: 450-600 ms) compared with the difficult task and the difficult task elicited a greater LPC (900-1200 ms) components compared with the easy task separately, which were consistent with behavioral reaction times. We speculate that the difficult math might have induced more negative emotions in subjects with low self-esteem, and that low self-esteem individuals might be more susceptible to interpret the difficult task as threatening.

  3. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  4. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  5. CrossQuery: a web tool for easy associative querying of transcriptome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni U Wagner

    Full Text Available Enormous amounts of data are being generated by modern methods such as transcriptome or exome sequencing and microarray profiling. Primary analyses such as quality control, normalization, statistics and mapping are highly complex and need to be performed by specialists. Thereafter, results are handed back to biomedical researchers, who are then confronted with complicated data lists. For rather simple tasks like data filtering, sorting and cross-association there is a need for new tools which can be used by non-specialists. Here, we describe CrossQuery, a web tool that enables straight forward, simple syntax queries to be executed on transcriptome sequencing and microarray datasets. We provide deep-sequencing data sets of stem cell lines derived from the model fish Medaka and microarray data of human endothelial cells. In the example datasets provided, mRNA expression levels, gene, transcript and sample identification numbers, GO-terms and gene descriptions can be freely correlated, filtered and sorted. Queries can be saved for later reuse and results can be exported to standard formats that allow copy-and-paste to all widespread data visualization tools such as Microsoft Excel. CrossQuery enables researchers to quickly and freely work with transcriptome and microarray data sets requiring only minimal computer skills. Furthermore, CrossQuery allows growing association of multiple datasets as long as at least one common point of correlated information, such as transcript identification numbers or GO-terms, is shared between samples. For advanced users, the object-oriented plug-in and event-driven code design of both server-side and client-side scripts allow easy addition of new features, data sources and data types.

  6. English made easy, v.1 a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combina

  7. Introduction to the Evaluation in Ayres Sensory Integration®(EASI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Zoe; Parham, L Diane; Roley, Susanne Smith; Ruzzano, Laura; Schaaf, Roseann C

    Comprehensive, reliable, and valid assessment is essential for individually tailored, appropriate, and effective intervention planning and implementation. Research, education, and practice using an Ayres Sensory Integration ® (ASI) approach have a long history of prioritizing comprehensive assessment. To meet the need for a set of tests that will fully evaluate the constructs of ASI with psychometrically strong, internationally appropriate, and easily accessible measurement tools, the development of the Evaluation in Ayres Sensory Integration ® (EASI) has been initiated. This article introduces the EASI, describes the overarching plan for its development, and reports the results of promising preliminary analyses of discriminative validity data. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. English made easy volume one a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text

  9. Easy, Efficient, and Mobile Way to Train Microsurgical Skills During Busy Life of Neurosurgical Residency in Resource-Challenged Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotarinen, Antti; Niemelä, Mika; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai

    2017-11-01

    Residents' lives are hectic-it is hard to find a place and time for training basic and advanced microsurgical skills. Surgical instruments and sutures can be purchased (or loaned from another department), but the most expensive and space-occupying device is the microscope. In developing countries, microscopes are used where they are needed most, in operating rooms. Furthermore, a conventional microscope is not portable. For all of these reasons, the availability of microscopes for training microsurgery is limited. We used a coffee cup and smartphone (CCS) as a training device instead of a microscope. The coffee cup was the base, and the smartphone functioned to magnify, illuminate, and visualize objects. We measured 2 residents' performance on end-to-end artificial bypass before and after 5 days of CCS-based training. We were able to quickly set up the environment for practicing microsurgical skills in any surrounding. After 5 days of training with CCS we could see significant development of microsurgical performance with a conventional microscope as well. The learning curve was dependent on baseline performance. CCS is efficient, mobile, and easy to set up. Even though our smartphone-based training was in 2 dimensions, we could improve our microsurgical performance with conventional microscopes, which have 3-dimensional capability. CCS also provides an easy method to record one's microsurgical training. CCS improved both of the subjects' microsurgical performance, making it a good alternative for a traditional microscope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Easy-to-use, general, and accurate multi-Kinect calibration and its application to gait monitoring for fall prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staranowicz, Aaron N; Ray, Christopher; Mariottini, Gian-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Falls are the most-common causes of unintentional injury and death in older adults. Many clinics, hospitals, and health-care providers are urgently seeking accurate, low-cost, and easy-to-use technology to predict falls before they happen, e.g., by monitoring the human walking pattern (or "gait"). Despite the wide popularity of Microsoft's Kinect and the plethora of solutions for gait monitoring, no strategy has been proposed to date to allow non-expert users to calibrate the cameras, which is essential to accurately fuse the body motion observed by each camera in a single frame of reference. In this paper, we present a novel multi-Kinect calibration algorithm that has advanced features when compared to existing methods: 1) is easy to use, 2) it can be used in any generic Kinect arrangement, and 3) it provides accurate calibration. Extensive real-world experiments have been conducted to validate our algorithm and to compare its performance against other multi-Kinect calibration approaches, especially to show the improved estimate of gait parameters. Finally, a MATLAB Toolbox has been made publicly available for the entire research community.

  11. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical modeling of tear strength for one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical modeling imparts significant role in predicting the impact of potential factors affecting the one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing. Investigation of significant factors on tear strength of cotton fabric for single step fixation of reactive printing and easy care finishing has been carried out in this research work using experimental design technique. The potential design factors were; concentration of reactive dye, concentration of crease resistant, fixation method and fixation temperature. The experiments were designed using DoE (Design of Experiment) and analyzed through software Design Expert. The detailed analysis of significant factors and interactions including ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), residuals, model accuracy and statistical model for tear strength has been presented. The interaction and contour plots of vital factors has been examined. It has been found from the statistical analysis that each factor has an interaction with other factor. Most of the investigated factors showed curvature effect on other factor. After critical examination of significant plots, quadratic model of tear strength with significant terms and their interaction at alpha = 0.05 has been developed. The calculated correlation coefficient, R2 of the developed model is 0.9056. The high values of correlation coefficient inferred that developed equation of tear strength will precisely predict the tear strength over the range of values. (author)

  13. A nanobody:GFP bacterial platform that enables functional enzyme display and easy quantification of display capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Sofie; Fischer, Emil C; Martínez, Virginia; Seppälä, Susanna; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2016-05-03

    Bacterial surface display is an attractive technique for the production of cell-anchored, functional proteins and engineering of whole-cell catalysts. Although various outer membrane proteins have been used for surface display, an easy and versatile high-throughput-compatible assay for evaluating and developing surface display systems is missing. Using a single domain antibody (also called nanobody) with high affinity for green fluorescent protein (GFP), we constructed a system that allows for fast, fluorescence-based detection of displayed proteins. The outer membrane hybrid protein LppOmpA and the autotransporter C-IgAP exposed the nanobody on the surface of Escherichia coli with very different efficiency. Both anchors were capable of functionally displaying the enzyme Chitinase A as a fusion with the nanobody, and this considerably increased expression levels compared to displaying the nanobody alone. We used flow cytometry to analyse display capability on single-cell versus population level and found that the signal peptide of the anchor has great effect on display efficiency. We have developed an inexpensive and easy read-out assay for surface display using nanobody:GFP interactions. The assay is compatible with the most common fluorescence detection methods, including multi-well plate whole-cell fluorescence detection, SDS-PAGE in-gel fluorescence, microscopy and flow cytometry. We anticipate that the platform will facilitate future in-depth studies on the mechanism of protein transport to the surface of living cells, as well as the optimisation of applications in industrial biotech.

  14. Use of a versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM) passive samplers for pesticide determination in continental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Thalita Dallapícula; Cassella, Ricardo J; de la Guardia, Miguel; Pastor, Agustín; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-11-01

    The versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM), a passive sampler device widely used for air monitoring, was evaluated as passive sampler for the determination of 23 pesticides in water. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed for determination of pesticides after microwave-assisted-extraction and specific clean-up of deployed samplers. The proposed methodology reached method detection levels from 2 to 10 ng pesticide per sampler. Sampling rate (Rs) was determined for every pesticide from an uptake isotherm study performed at three different concentration levels (50, 125, and 250 ng L -1 ). The obtained R S values ranged from 0.06 to 0.76 L d -1 . The obtained limits of detection for a 24-h passive sampling were from 4 to 50 ng L -1 . The effect of water parameters, such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength, were evaluated for their effect on pesticides retention using VERAMs. Pesticide R S values were independent of the water composition and increased on increasing temperature. Finally, the VERAM uptake was compared with that obtained using classic semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). This study is the first precedent for the use of VERAMs as passive samplers for the adsorption and concentration of pesticides in water and it confirms the satisfactory analytical figures of merit of VERAM as passive sampler of water. Graphical Abstract Scheme of water sampling of pesticides using versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM) passive samplers.

  15. Neonatal carrier: An easy to make alternative device to costly transport chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Milind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of sick neonates to the surgical centers or transportation within the center is an essential requirement of neonatal surgery. Neonatal transport incubators are costly, space occupying, and are not available at many places in the developing countries. We report here a cheap yet effective and easy to make, alternate neonatal carrier device.

  16. Developing a Resilient Just Culture in SMS and FRMS : EasyJet Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 7: Developing a Resilient Just Culture in SMS and FRMS – easyJet Implementation The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human

  17. Can expressions of anger enhance creativity? A test of the emotions as social information (EASI) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Anastasopoulou, C.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM)—the desire to

  18. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  19. Exploring Architectures for Fast and Easy Development of Immersive Learning Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; Slootmaker, Aad; Hummel, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Nadolski, R. J., Slootmaker, A., & Hummel, H. G. K. (2009). Exploring Architectures for Fast and Easy Development of Immersive Learning Scenarios. Presentation given at Online Educa. December, 3-4, 2009, Berlin, Germany. [For Powerpoint-version of this presentation. Please

  20. Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Turner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 5: Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors

  1. An integrable, web-based solution for easy assessment of video-recorded performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Todsen, Tobias; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    , and access to this information should be restricted to select personnel. A local software solution may also ease the need for customization to local needs and integration into existing user databases or project management software. We developed an integrable web-based solution for easy assessment of video...

  2. Digital Technology in the Visual Arts Classroom: An [un]Easy Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Judith; Cutcher, Alexandra; Wilks, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the dichotomy of the uneasy and easy partnerships that exist between digital technology and visual arts education. The claim that by putting computers into schools "we have bought 'one half of a product'... we've bought the infrastructure and the equipment but we haven't bought the educational…

  3. Topology optimization using PETSc: An easy-to-use, fully parallel, open source topology optimization framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework for parallel and easy-to-implement topology optimization using the Portable and Extendable Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). The presented framework is based on a standardized, and freely available library and in the published form it solves the mi...

  4. Easy simulation and design of on-chip inductors in standard CMOS processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jørgensen, Allan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to CMOS inductor modelling, that allow easy simulation in SPICE-like simulators. A number of test results are presented concerning optimal center hole, inductor area, wire spacing and self-inductance. Finally a comprehensive design guide is provided on how to design...... close-to-optimal inductors without the use of electromagnetic simulators...

  5. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  6. The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 3. Technical Report #1221

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students' ability to respond to…

  7. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  8. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  9. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  10. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  11. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  12. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  13. Alternate Form and Test-Retest Reliability of easyCBM Reading Measures. Technical Report # 0906

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a test-retest and alternate form reliability study of grade 1, 3, 5, and 8 reading measures from the easyCBM assessment system. Approximately 50 students in each grade participated in the study. In Grade 1, we studied the following measures: Phoneme Segmenting, Letter Sounds, Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage…

  14. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyun Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.

  15. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  16. Can expressions of anger enhance creativity? A test of the emotions as social information (EASI) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, Gerben A.; Anastasopoulou, Christina; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM) the desire to

  17. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Hamish R; Quinlan, John F; Allison, Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  18. HiFive: a tool suite for easy and efficient HiC and 5C data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauria, Michael Eg; Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E; Corces, Victor G; Taylor, James

    2015-10-24

    The chromatin interaction assays 5C and HiC have advanced our understanding of genomic spatial organization, but analysis approaches for these data are limited by usability and flexibility. The HiFive tool suite provides efficient data handling and a variety of normalization approaches for easy, fast analysis and method comparison. Integration of MPI-based parallelization allows scalability and rapid processing time. In addition to single-command analysis of an entire experiment from mapped reads to interaction values, HiFive has been integrated into the open-source, web-based platform Galaxy to connect users with computational resources and a graphical interface. HiFive is open-source software available from http://taylorlab.org/software/hifive/ .

  19. Easy access to geophysical data sets at the IRIS Data Management Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, C.; Ahern, T.; Suleiman, Y.; Karstens, R.; Weertman, B.

    2012-04-01

    At the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) we primarily manage seismological data but also have other geophysical data sets for related fields including atmospheric pressure and gravity measurements and higher level data products derived from raw data. With a few exceptions all data managed by the IRIS DMC are openly available and we serve an international research audience. These data are available via a number of different mechanisms from batch requests submitted through email, web interfaces, near real time streams and more recently web services. Our initial suite of web services offer access to almost all of the raw data and associated metadata managed at the DMC. In addition, we offer services that apply processing to the data before it is sent to the user. Web service technologies are ubiquitous with support available in nearly every programming language and operating system. By their nature web services are programmatic interfaces, but by choosing a simple subset of web service methods we make our data available to a very broad user base. These interfaces will be usable by professional developers as well as non-programmers. Whenever possible we chose open and recognized standards. The data returned to the user is in a variety of formats depending on type, including FDSN SEED, QuakeML, StationXML, ASCII, PNG images and in some cases where no appropriate standard could be found a customized XML format. To promote easy access to seismological data for all researchers we are coordinating with international partners to define web service interfaces standards. Additionally we are working with key partners in Europe to complete the initial implementation of these services. Once a standard has been adopted and implemented at multiple data centers researchers will be able to use the same request tools to access data across multiple data centers. The web services that apply on-demand processing to requested data include the capability to apply instrument corrections and

  20. Easy-to-read texts for students with intellectual disability: linguistic factors affecting comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Ávila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio; Tavares, Gema; Gómez, Marcos; Hernández, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The use of 'easy-to-read' materials for people with intellectual disabilities has become very widespread but their effectiveness has scarcely been evaluated. In this study, the framework provided by Kintsch's Construction-Integration Model (1988) is used to examine (i) the reading comprehension levels of different passages of the Spanish text that have been designed following easy-to-read guidelines and (ii) the relationships between reading comprehension (literal and inferential) and various linguistic features of these texts. Sixteen students with mild intellectual disability and low levels of reading skills were asked to read easy-to-read texts and then complete a reading comprehension test. The corpus of texts was composed of a set of forty-eight pieces of news selected from www.noticiasfacil.es, a Spanish digital newspaper that publishes daily journalistic texts following international guidelines for the design of easy-to-read documents (IFLA, Tronbacke B. (1997) Guidelines for Easy-to-read Materials. IFLA, The Hague). Participants correctly answered 80% of the comprehension questions, showing significantly higher scores for literal questions than for inferential questions. The analyses of the texts' linguistic features revealed that the number of coreferences was the variable that best predicted literal comprehension, but contrary to what the previous literature seemed to indicate, the relationship between the two variables was inverse. In the case of inferential comprehension, the number of sentences was a significant negative predictor; that is, the higher the sentence density, the lower the ability of these students to find relationships between them. The effects of the rest of linguistic variables, such as word frequency and word length, on comprehension were null. These results provide preliminary empirical support for the use of easy-to-read texts but bring into question the validity of some popular design guidelines (e.g. augmenting word frequency) to

  1. ANALYSIS OF PRINTING PARAMETERS FOR PRODUCTION OF COMPONENTS WITH ​EASY3DMAKER​ PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rengevič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented article deals with analyses and testing appropriate parameters for the production of components manufactured with rapid prototyping technology - Easy3DMaker printer. The quality of the printed component with a specific shape is analyzed. The analyzed materials are ABS Printplus and PLA Printplus. These materials are printed at different temperatures and speeds. combinations of different settings were tested in order to find the best conditions for printing with different nozzles. The quality of individual printed samples is assessed visually and by touch. The efficiency in terms of print time under various conditions was also analyzed. The main benefit of testing is the establishment of appropriate conditions for printing components on a Easy3DMaker printer. The article does not focus on mechanical properties of the examined samples.

  2. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  3. PHY∙FI: fast and easy online creation and manipulation of phylogeny color figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    -processing the phylogeny figure in some other general-purpose graphics program. PHY·FI is versatile, easy-to-use and fast, and supports comprehensive graphical control, several download image formats, and the possibility of dynamically collapsing groups of nodes into named subtrees (e.g. "Primates"). The user can create...... a color figure from any phylogeny, or other kind of tree, represented in the widely used parenthesized Newick format. Conclusion PHY·FI is fast and easy to use, yet still offers full color control, tree manipulation, and several image formats. It does not require any downloading and installing, and thus...... any internet user regardless of computer skills, and computer platform, can benefit from it. PHY·FI is free for all and is available from this web address: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/phyfi/go...

  4. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, ...... and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect....

  5. Microstructured barbs on the North American porcupine quill enable easy tissue penetration and difficult removal

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Ankrum, James A.; Guo, Dagang; Chester, Shawn A.; Yang, Seung Yun; Kashyap, Anurag; Campbell, Georgina A.; Wood, Robert J.; Rijal, Ram K.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    North American porcupines are well known for their specialized hairs, or quills that feature microscopic backward-facing deployable barbs that are used in self-defense. Herein we show that the natural quill’s geometry enables easy penetration and high tissue adhesion where the barbs specifically contribute to adhesion and unexpectedly, dramatically reduce the force required to penetrate tissue. Reduced penetration force is achieved by topography that appears to create stress concentrations al...

  6. Persuasive strategies in Mandela’s No Easy Walk to Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdulhameed Faris; Shamala Paramasivam; Tan Bee Hoon; Abdul Muati Zamri

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable politicians are those who are skilled at communicating their ideas with a good sense of persuasion. The present paper is an endeavour to investigate the persuasive strategies of the African leader, Nelson Mandela, with reference to his address No Easy Walk to Freedom (1953). Johnstone’s (2008) framework for persuasive strategies was used for the analysis. The findings demonstrate the use of three persuasive strategies – quasilogical, presentational and analogical. Quasilogical argu...

  7. Performance assessment of Vita Easy Shade spectrophotometer on colour measurement of aesthetic dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhazali, N; Burnside, G; Smith, R W; Preston, A J; Jarad, F D

    2011-12-01

    Four different shades were used to produce 20 samples of resin-based composite and 20 samples of porcelain to evaluate the performance ability of an intra oral test spectrophotometer compared to a reference spectrophotometer. The absolute colour coordinates CIELAB values measured with both spectrophotometers were significantly different (p spectrophotometers (p < 0.05). Therefore, the Easy Shade can be used in dental practice and dental research with some limitations.

  8. How to Build a Better Mousetrap: Developing an Easy, Functional ERM

    OpenAIRE

    Brett, Kelsey; Castro, Jeanne M; Vacek, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The need for various stakeholders in the library to access licensing information is critical when various departments are working with electronic resources. Managing these electronic resources can be a daunting task for those who have little experience working in the Resource Manager interface. This paper offers the process of developing an easy, functional ERM that is user-friendly. It offers the steps that electronic resource coordinators at the University of Houston took to create a new re...

  9. Optimization of the standards clinico-neurology and beam diagnostics of an easy brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, I.P.; Semisalov, S.Ya.; Sajko, D.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    16825 cases of a brain injury (BI) at the persons are investigated is more senior than 14 years. Axial computer topography (ACT) at concussion of a head brain was made 1/3 injureds. The careful analysis clinico-neuralgic symptoms allows to optimize purpose the ACT at easy BI, that not only improves quality of diagnostics, but in the certain degree normalizes beam loading on the injureds

  10. Suppression of quantum tunneling for all spins for easy-axis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Avinash; Paranjape, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of quantum spin systems corresponds to a dynamical Lagrangian which contains the usual kinetic energy, the couplings and interactions of the spins, and an additional, first-order kinematical term which corresponds to the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) term for the spin degree of freedom. It was shown that in the case of the kinetic dynamics determined only by the WZNW term, half-odd integer spin systems show a lack of tunneling phenomena, whereas integer spin systems are subject to it in the case of potentials with easy-plane easy-axis symmetry. Here we prove for the theory with a normal quadratic kinetic term of arbitrary strength or the first-order theory with azimuthal symmetry (which is equivalently the so-called easy-axis situation), that the tunneling is in fact suppressed for all nonzero values of spin. This model exemplifies the concept that in the presence of complex Euclidean action, it is necessary to use the ensuing complex critical points in order to define the quantum (perturbation) theory. In the present example, if we do not do so, exactly the opposite, erroneous conclusion that the tunneling is unsuppressed for all spins, is reached.

  11. Easy-to-perform and cost-effective fabrication of continuous-flow reactors and their application for nanomaterials synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldi, Domenico Andrea; Yanar, Fatih; Mosayyebi, Ali; García-Manrique, Pablo; Stulz, Eugen; Carugo, Dario; Zhang, Xunli

    2018-02-06

    The translation of continuous-flow microreactor technology to the industrial environment has been limited by cost and complexity of the fabrication procedures and the requirement for specialised infrastructure. In the present study, we have developed a significantly more cost-effective and easy-to-perform fabrication method for the generation of optically transparent, continuous-flow reactors. The method combines 3D printing of master moulds with sealing of the PDMS channels' replica using a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Morphological characterisation of the 3D printed moulds was performed and reactors were fabricated with an approximately square-shaped cross-section of 1 mm 2 . Notably, they were tested for operation over a wide range of volumetric flow rates, up to 20 ml/min. Moreover, the fabrication time (i.e., from design to the finished product) was reactors have been applied to the production of both inorganic nanoparticles (silver nanospheres) and organic vesicular systems (liposomes), and their performance compared with reactors produced using more laborious fabrication methods. Numerical simulations were performed to characterise the transport of fluids and chemical species within the devices. The developed fabrication method is suitable for scaled-up fabrication of continuous-flow reactors, with potential for application in biotechnology and nanomedicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics’ biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. Results The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. Conclusions In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L-1 without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum. PMID:24558966

  13. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics' biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bastian; Lemmer, Hilde; Horn, Harald; Müller, Elisabeth

    2014-02-22

    Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L(-1) without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum.

  14. A large-strain, fast-response, and easy-to-manufacture electrothermal actuator based on laser-reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Qian; Deng, Ning-Qin; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Wang, Dan-Yang; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we have developed a high-performance graphene electrothermal actuator (ETA). The fabrication method is easy, fast, environmentally friendly, and suitable for preparing both large-size and miniature graphene ETAs. When applied with the driving voltage of 65 V, the graphene ETA achieves a large bending angle of 270° with a fast response of 8 s and the recovery process costs 19 s. The large bending deformation is reversible and can be precisely controlled by the driving voltage. A simple robotic hand prepared by using a single graphene ETA can hold the object, which is more than ten times the weight of itself. By virtue of its large-strain, fast response, and easy-to-manufacture, we believe that the graphene ETA has tremendous potential in extensive applications involving biomimetic robotics, artificial muscles, switches, and microsensors in both macroscopic and microscopic fields.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Damage and Fracture Mechanisms Controlling the Performance of Full Aperture Easy Open Ends for Food Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. L. P.; Nagy, G. T.; Owen, D. R. J.

    2011-05-01

    Can manufacturers produce hundreds of millions of cans annually, increasingly, food cans are being opened by lifting a tab on the can end that initiates a fracture, which then propagates around a circumferential score. The damage and fracture mechanisms that lead to crack initiation and propagation in the opening process, however, are not fully understood, therefore optimisation of easy open end scores is largely based on trial and error. This paper presents an experimental analysis that concentrates on the combined shear and bending forces as applied to the particular industrial method concerning full aperture easy open ends. The influence of a gradually increasing gap measured between the score and shear force location on traditional groove geometries and depths are examined for two different packaging steels. Earlier studies have shown that the complete opening cycle depends on fracture modes I, II & III as well as their combination. Experimental results for Modes I, II & III will be presented, however attention will focus on the behaviour of the initial fracture point, whereby prior investigations have shown it to be influenced primarily by mode II shearing. After initial specimen manufacture, where the score is formed by pressing a punch into a thin steel sheet the predeformed scored specimens are loaded in shear to simulate the local stress field found during the initial opening phase. Experiments have been completed using a novel Mode II experimental technique that has been designed for use in the majority of commercially available tensile test machines. Experimental results indicate that opening forces can change radically with different gap sizes and that there is considerable potential for the industrialised process of can end manufacture to be optimised through the efficient management and control of the can ends dimensional parameters.

  16. Eestisse lendama asuv easyGroup raiub samamoodi läbi ka kinoäris / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2004-01-01

    Odavlennufirma easyGroup rakendab oma äristrateegiat ka kinoäris, soovides muuta olukorda, kus kinod on täis vaid viiendiku ulatuses. Lisad: Virgin tegutseb samal põhimõttel; easyGroup; Võrdlus. Kommenteerib Peeter Rebane

  17. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between…

  18. Making the Good Even Better: Feedback from easyCBM Focus Groups, School Year 2009/2010. Technical Report # 1001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Lai, Cheng-Fei

    2010-01-01

    This technical report provides a summary of feedback from teachers, administrators, and support personnel who used the easyCBM progress monitoring and benchmark assessment system during school year 2009/2010. Data were gathered from semi-structured focus groups conducted during the 2010 easyCBM August Institute at the University of Oregon. Results…

  19. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  20. Efficacy of early controlled motion of the ankle compared with no motion after non-operative treatment of an acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Hølmich, Per

    2016-01-01

    controlled motion of the ankle in weeks 3-8 after rupture. The control group is immobilized. In total, 130 patients will be included from one big orthopedic center over a period of 2½ years. The primary outcome is the patient-reported Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score evaluated at 12 months post...... affects functional and patient-reported outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is performed as a blinded, randomized, controlled trial with patients allocated in a 1:1 ratio to one of two parallel groups. Patients aged from 18 to 70 years are eligible for inclusion. The intervention group performs early...... of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a randomized setup. The study uses the patient-reported outcome measure, the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, as the primary endpoint, as it is believed to be the best surrogate measure for the tendon's actual capability to function in everyday life. TRIAL...

  1. Identifying key soil cyanobacteria easy to isolate and culture for arid soil restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Beatriz; Ángeles Muñoz-Martín, M.; Chamizo, Sonia; Román, Raúl; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    scarcely developed soils with low thickness, poor structure and low organic matter content, while soils in the second site present high degradation due to human activities. Cyanobacterial biocrust at different developmental stages were collected and maintained in the laboratory under dry and dark conditions until they were processed. Different culture media, with and without N, were used to isolate single trichomes, in order to have representatives of N fixing and non-fixing cyanobacteria. The isolated strains were morphological and genetically characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results from cultures of several soil samples with different media show that the most representative soil cyanobacteria genera in these areas and easiest to maintain under laboratory conditions were: Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Leptolyngbya and Trichocoleus from the El Cautivo experimental site; and Nostoc, Tolypothrix and Leptolyngbya from the limestone quarry. In this study, we present a description of some of the cyanobacteria colonizing biocrust in these area, which are easy to be isolated and cultured under laboratory conditions, as a previous step to design a restoration method for their inoculation on degraded soils.

  2. Current-Induced Switching of a Single-Molecule Magnet with Arbitrary Oriented Easy Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate theoretically how tilting of an easy axis of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) from the orientation collinear with magnetic moments of the leads affects the switching process induced by current flowing through the system. To do this we consider a model system that consists of a SMM embedded in the nonmagnetic barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy axis of the SMM forms an arbitrary angle with magnetic moments of the leads (the latt...

  3. Easy synthesis of CaB2O4 via pyrolysis of calcium fructoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Wagner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the thermal behavior of calcium fructoborate samples of composition Ca(C6H10O6BO2.3.5H 2O showed that CaB2O4 is generated as the final solid pyrolysis residue. On the basis of these observations a new, very easy, synthetic procedure for the preparation of high purity samples of this calcium borate is proposed. The material was characterized by X ray powder diffractometry and IR spectroscopy.

  4. Between Gentlemen, Sambas and Beers: the discursive construction of the easy mulatto woman in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Braga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to undertake a reading of the discourses that deal with the imaginary about easy mulatto woman in Brazil (Freyre, 2006 [1933], considering its historical and semiological density. That aim is based on statements that emerge on that mulatto woman in slavery period, discussing how it is put to the test during the twentieth century and, finally, analysing the updates and appropriations of that memory nowadays. The starting point is a discourse analysis derived from Michel Pêcheux, but also incorporates the contributions of Michel Foucault, as well as current discussions undertaken by Jean-Jacques Courtine, especially those concerning to the Historical Semiology.

  5. Discrete breathers in classical ferromagnetic lattices with easy-plane anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalack, J. M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    Discrete breathers (nonlinear localized modes) have been shown to exist in various nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice systems. This paper is devoted to the investigation of a classical d-dimensional ferromagnetic lattice with easy plane anisotropy. Its dynamics is described via the Heisenberg model....... Discrete breathers exist in such a model and represent excitations with locally tilted magnetization. They possess energy thresholds and have no analogs in the continuum limit. We are going to review the previous results on such solutions and also to report new results. Among the new results we show...

  6. Voltage control of a magnetization easy axis in piezoelectric/ferromagnetic hybrid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Koog; Lee, Jeong-Won; Shin, Sung-Chul; Song, Han Wook; Lee, Chang Ho; No, Kwangsoo

    2003-01-01

    We have established a spontaneous magnetization-axis switching in ferromagnetic films by applying a low voltage to a piezoelectric layer in a newly developed hybrid system comprised of the ferromagnetic and piezoelectric films. The magnetization easy axis along which a spontaneous magnetization is oriented, is readily switchable by a voltage without applying an external magnetic field through both the inverse magnetostrictive and piezoelectric effects of CoPd and lead-zirconate-titanate alloy films, respectively. This challenging work provides a new way into the memory writing as well as storage means of ultrahigh bit densities in nonvolatile magnetic random access memory

  7. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  8. Effect of Maximal Apnoea Easy-Going and Struggle Phases on Subarachnoid Width and Pial Artery Pulsation in Elite Breath-Hold Divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in subarachnoid space width (sas-TQ, the marker of intracranial pressure (ICP, pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and cardiac contribution to blood pressure (BP, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations throughout the maximal breath hold in elite apnoea divers. Non-invasive assessment of sas-TQ and cc-TQ became possible due to recently developed method based on infrared radiation, called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS.The experimental group consisted of seven breath-hold divers (six men. During testing, each participant performed a single maximal end-inspiratory breath hold. Apnoea consisted of the easy-going and struggle phases (characterised by involuntary breathing movements (IBMs. Heart rate (HR was determined using a standard ECG. BP was assessed using the photoplethysmography method. SaO2 was monitored continuously with pulse oximetry. A pneumatic chest belt was used to register thoracic and abdominal movements. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was estimated by a 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasonic probe. sas-TQ and cc-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS. Wavelet transform analysis was performed to assess cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations.Mean BP and CBFV increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and were further augmented by IBMs. cc-TQ increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and remained stable during the IBMs. HR did not change significantly throughout the apnoea, although a trend toward a decrease during the easy phase and recovery during the IBMs was visible. Amplitudes of BP, CBFV and cc-TQ were augmented. sas-TQ and SaO2 decreased at the easy phase of apnoea and further decreased during the IBMs.Apnoea increases intracranial pressure and pial artery pulsation. Pial artery pulsation seems to be stabilised by the IBMs. Cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations does not

  9. Health Literacy Online: A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2012-09-01

    Health Literacy Online: A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites is a practical and well-written resource for public health and health communication professionals and web designers. This guide builds on the principles of web usability and adds to existing best practices by providing research-based strategies for writing and designing health websites especially for users with limited literacy and health literacy skills. This guide synthesizes years of lessons learned from Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion's original research with hundreds of web users, experience with revising the healthfinder.gov, as well as strategies supported by the Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines (Usability.gov). In the United States, roughly one third of adults have limited literacy skills, yet far more (as many as 90%) have limited health literacy skills, meaning they have trouble understanding complex health information. This how-to guide is timely and developed with the aim of creating easy-to-use health websites to reach as many web users as possible, especially those with limited literacy and health literacy skills.

  10. Distortion Analysis Toolkit—A Software Tool for Easy Analysis of Nonlinear Audio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakarinen Jyri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several audio effects devices deliberately add nonlinear distortion to the processed signal in order to create a desired sound. When creating virtual analog models of nonlinearly distorting devices, it would be very useful to carefully analyze the type of distortion, so that the model could be made as realistic as possible. While traditional system analysis tools such as the frequency response give detailed information on the operation of linear and time-invariant systems, they are less useful for analyzing nonlinear devices. Furthermore, although there do exist separate algorithms for nonlinear distortion analysis, there is currently no unified, easy-to-use tool for rapid analysis of distorting audio systems. This paper offers a remedy by introducing a new software tool for easy analysis of distorting effects. A comparison between a well-known guitar tube amplifier and two commercial software simulations is presented as a case study. This freely available software is written in Matlab language, but the analysis tool can also run as a standalone program, so the user does not need to have Matlab installed in order to perform the analysis.

  11. The Effect of Easy-Going Steel on KBF's Seismic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Mahmoudi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The knee bracing steel frame (KBF is a new type of energy dissipating frame which enjoys exceptional ductility and lateral stiffness. Rather than the beam-column joint, one end of the diagonal brace in KBF is attached to the knee element. Indeed, the knee element as a hysteretic damper is designed and detailed to behave like a structural fuse by sustaining controlled inelastic deformations as well as by dissipating seismic energy, yet other parts and connections remain elastic. Simultaneously, the lower strength steel is utilized in knee element based on the general concept of easy-going steel (EGS. As the current paper takes into account the effect of easy going steel on KBF's response modification factor, several frames with similar dimensions but varying heights are designed based on the Iranian code of practice. For this purpose, initially the knee elements are substituted with the one made of EGS and subsequently the seismic parameters such as response modification factor and seismic performance levels are compared based on non-linear incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. The average values of response modification factor for these frames have been obtained 11.4 and 11.6 for KO and KE frames respectively. The results reveal that the frames' stiffness and ductility factor with EGS augments by 10% and 6% respectively.

  12. Development of easy-to-use interface for nuclear transmutation computing, VCINDER code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeon Kum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CINDER code has about 60 years of development history, and is thus one of the world's best transmutation computing codes to date. Unfortunately, it is complex and cumbersome to use. Preparing auxiliary input files for activation computation from MCNPX output and executing them using Perl script (activation script is the first difficulty, and separation of gamma source computing script (gamma script, which analyzes the spectra files produced by CINDER code and creates source definition format for MCNPX code, is the second difficulty. In addition, for highly nonlinear problems, multiple human interventions may increase the possibility of errors. Postprocessing such as making plots with large text outputs is also time consuming. One way to improve these limitations is to make a graphical user interface wrapper that includes all codes, such as MCNPX and CINDER, and all scripts with a visual C#.NET tool. The graphical user interface merges all the codes and provides easy postprocessing of graphics data and Microsoft office tools, such as Excel sheets, which make the CINDER code easy to use. This study describes the VCINDER code (with visual C#.NET and gives a typical application example.

  13. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  14. A distributed optical grid network infrastructure for future easy-to-use innovative network services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sugang; Harai, Hiroaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Extending the researches on wavelength switched optical networks (WSON), efficient integration of the novel optical packet switching network and wavelength switching-based optical circuit switching network technologies which offers both best-effort packet delivery and QoS guaranteed lightpath services has been being studied. In addition, researches on the optical-layer transparent data processing, such as all-optical wavelength multicasting, all-optical 3R regeneration, etc, are conducted simultaneously. It is believed that future innovative optical network services (INSes) would be built on these novel future-proof technologies, and foster colorful applications in the new generation networks. Before the wide applications of INS in different fields, there would be a foreseeable strong requirement for INS firstly posed by pioneer grid applications, e.g., e-science, e-government, and e-banking, etc, which would require the high-performance underlying networks. Our research here is motivated to glue the optical networks and grid applications by integrating lightpath, geographically distributed INS systems and grid resources (e.g., computers, storages, instruments, etc.), and finally offering an easy-to-use high performance networked grid computing environment-optical grid network (OGN) to user applications. In this paper, we introduce our research activities of a distributed optical grid network infrastructure (OGNI), and the creation of the future easy-to-use INS based on OGNI. The proposals have been validated through fieldtrial experiments over a developed WSON testbed.

  15. Distortion Analysis Toolkit—A Software Tool for Easy Analysis of Nonlinear Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Jyri

    2010-12-01

    Several audio effects devices deliberately add nonlinear distortion to the processed signal in order to create a desired sound. When creating virtual analog models of nonlinearly distorting devices, it would be very useful to carefully analyze the type of distortion, so that the model could be made as realistic as possible. While traditional system analysis tools such as the frequency response give detailed information on the operation of linear and time-invariant systems, they are less useful for analyzing nonlinear devices. Furthermore, although there do exist separate algorithms for nonlinear distortion analysis, there is currently no unified, easy-to-use tool for rapid analysis of distorting audio systems. This paper offers a remedy by introducing a new software tool for easy analysis of distorting effects. A comparison between a well-known guitar tube amplifier and two commercial software simulations is presented as a case study. This freely available software is written in Matlab language, but the analysis tool can also run as a standalone program, so the user does not need to have Matlab installed in order to perform the analysis.

  16. An easy and efficient method to produce {gamma}-amino alcohols by reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Maria Ines N.C.; Braga, Antonio C.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: herrera@iqm.unicamp.br

    2004-12-01

    Reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones 2 with NaBH{sub 4} in glacial acetic acid gave {gamma}-amino alcohols 1 in 70% to 98% yield with diastereomeric excesses, preferentially the syn product, from 44% to 90%. The stereochemistry of these compounds was confirmed by analysis of their tetrahydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives 3. (author)

  17. Dot-ELISA affinity test: an easy, low-cost method to estimate binding activity of monoclonal antibodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Jankovičová, B.; Horák, Daniel; Bílková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2013), 1000168_1-1000168_5 ISSN 2155-9872 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12053; GA MŠk 7E09109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE; European Commission(XE) 228980 - CAMINEMS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : dot- ELISA * affinity * monoclonal antibody Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  18. An easy 'one tube' method to estimate viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts using real-time qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paziewska-Harris, A.; Schoone, G.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Viability estimation of the highly resistant oocysts of Cryptosporidium remains a key issue for the monitoring and control of this pathogen. We present here a simple 'one tube' quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for viability estimation using a DNA extraction protocol which preferentially solubilizes

  19. A method for evaluation of suspension quality easy applicable to practice. The effect of mixing on floc properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubáková, Petra; Pivokonský, Martin; Pivokonská, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2011), s. 184-195 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/0247 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : aggregation * drinking water treatment * floc properties * flocculation * test of aggregation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  20. Quick, Easy Method to Show Living Soil Organisms to High School or Beginning-Level College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The living component of soil is difficult for students to learn about and understand because students have difficulty relating to things they cannot see (beyond sight, beyond mind). Line drawings from textbooks help explain conceptual relationships but do little to stimulate an active interest in the living component of soil. Alternatively,…

  1. EasyClone: method for iterative chromosomal integration of multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Strucko, Tomas; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin

    2014-01-01

    of multiple genes with an option of recycling selection markers. The vectors combine the advantage of efficient uracil excision reaction-based cloning and Cre-LoxP-mediated marker recycling system. The episomal and integrative vector sets were tested by inserting genes encoding cyan, yellow, and red...... on episomal plasmids, where correspondingly 95% and 6% of the cells were within a fluorescence interval of Log10 mean ± 15% for all three colors. We demonstrate that selective markers can be simultaneously removed using Cre-mediated recombination and all the integrated heterologous genes remain...

  2. Small – but not easy: evaluation of sampling methods in floodplain lakes including whole-lake sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Janáč, Michal; White, S.M.; Ondračková, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2009), s. 102-108 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Sampling strategy * Floodplain lake * Electrofishing * Beach seining * Fish behaviour Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2009

  3. A reliable and easy to transport quality control method for chlamydia and gonorrhoea molecular point of care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badman, S G; Causer, L M; Guy, R; Wand, H; Donovan, B; Tabrizi, S N; Speers, D; Shephard, M D; Vallely, A; Whiley, D

    2018-04-01

    Quality control (QC) is an essential component of point-of-care testing programs. In the context of a randomised-controlled trial (TTANGO) using GeneXpert (Xpert) Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) point-of-care testing in remote areas of Australia, we aimed to develop and utilise a stable positive control material. Bacterial cultures of CT and NG were resuspended together to provide cycle threshold (C t ) values of approximately 25 cycles for both CT and NG when tested on the Xpert CT/NG assay. These positive control suspensions were dried in aliquots, heat inactivated, and then provided to 12 participating health services as research-only QC samples in kit form. At each service, a QC sample was resuspended and tested each month on the Xpert. QC results, including Xpert C t values, were analysed from each site over 30 months and we calculated costs per QC sample. Overall, at 12 health services there were 89 QC samples tested (average of 8 tests per site per year). Mean C t values for the 89 controls samples were 25.25 cycles (SD = 1.15) for CT, 24.04 cycles (SD = 1.400) for one NG target and 23.35 cycles (SD = 1.55) for the other NG target. No significant differences in C t value for CT or NG controls were observed over a trial period of 30 months. Positive QC samples for research use in a trial of a molecular point-of-care assay were inexpensive to produce and stable when stored at 2-8°C. For routine use, additional requirements such as meeting National Association of Testing Authority (NATA) regulations and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) approval will need to be achieved. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. All rights reserved.

  4. Non operative management of cerebral abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Cerebral abscess is a focal intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Patients typically present with varying combinations of aheadache, progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, and evidence of infection. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imagingare the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosing cerebral abscess. The treatment of cerebral abscess has been a challenge. Small cerebralabscesses (managed by the use of intravenous mannitol (or hypertonic saline) and dexamethasone. Acute seizures should be terminated with the administration of intravenous benzodiazepines or by intravenous fosphenytoin. Anticonvulsants prophylaxis must be initiated immediately and continued at least one year due to high risk in the cerebral abscesses. Easier detection of underlying conditions, monitoring of the therapeutic progress, and recognition of complications have probably contributed to the improved prognosis.

  5. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  6. Soliton–antisoliton interaction in a parametrically driven easy-plane magnetic wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzagasti, D., E-mail: deterlino@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Aramayo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Laroze, D. [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 55021 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-11

    In the present work we study the soliton–antisoliton interaction in an anisotropic easy-plane magnetic wire forced by a transverse uniform and oscillatory magnetic field. This system is described in the continuous framework by the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. We find numerically that the spatio-temporal magnetization field exhibits both annihilative and repulsive soliton–antisoliton interactions. We also describe this system with the aim of the associated Parametrically Driven and Damped Nonlinear Schrödinger amplitude equation and give an approximate analytical solution that roughly describes the repulsive interaction. - Highlights: • We study the interactions of solitons with opposite polarity with the LLG equation. • We found that there exists both annihilative and repulsive interactions. • Similar results we found for the Parametrically Driven and Damped NLS equation. • We obtain an approximate analytical solution for the repulsive interaction.

  7. esATAC: An Easy-to-use Systematic pipeline for ATAC-seq data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huan; Li, Yanda; Wang, Xiaowo

    2018-03-07

    ATAC-seq is rapidly emerging as one of the major experimental approaches to probe chromatin accessibility genome-wide. Here, we present "esATAC", a highly integrated easy-to-use R/Bioconductor package, for systematic ATAC-seq data analysis. It covers essential steps for full analyzing procedure, including raw data processing, quality control and downstream statistical analysis such as peak calling, enrichment analysis and transcription factor footprinting. esATAC supports one command line execution for preset pipelines, and provides flexible interfaces for building customized pipelines. esATAC package is open source under the GPL-3.0 license. It is implemented in R and C ++. Source code and binaries for Linux, MAC OS X and Windows are available through Bioconductor https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/esATAC.html). xwwang@tsinghua.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. It’s easy to learn good posture and correct movements at work!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    Excessive and repetitive effort and incorrect movements pose a real health hazard, but we can all significantly improve our working conditions with a few simple actions that are easy to learn and put into practice.   The Safety Training Service offers a training course on this subject delivered by a certified external specialist or expert. The one-day course, "Working Conditions – Manual Handling”, is open to anyone whose role requires them to manually lift heavy loads, whether regularly or occasionally. It contains some theory but is mainly practical and will teach you to identify hazardous situations and optimise your effort. The scheduled sessions are in French but English sessions can also be arranged on request. The course description and registration form can be found in the training catalogue on the Safety Training Service’s website or by following this direct link. Don’t hesitate to contact us if you have any questions...

  9. Union Jack and checkerboard lattices with easy plane single ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2017-11-01

    The zero-temperature phase diagrams of the antiferromagnetic Union Jack and checkerboard lattices, with spin one and an easy-plane single anisotropy term, are studied using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism (also known as flavor wave theory). We find that the Union Jack lattice has a quantum phase transition (QPT) at J2/J1 = 0.707 between a Néel and a collinear phase, while the checkerboard lattice has a QPT at J2/J1 = 0.785, from the Néel to a magnetically disordered phase. The ground state phase diagrams of the two models are different, both from each other and from that of the square lattice antiferromagnet with all the next nearest neighbors. For the checkerboard lattice, we calculate the spin gap and the ground state energy in the disordered phase. This phase is a candidate for a spin liquid state.

  10. Easy moment direction and antiferromagnetic domain wall motion in Mn{sub 2}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthem, Vitoria M.T.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Colin, Claire V.; Haettel, Richard; Dufeu, Didier [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Givord, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.givord@neel.cnrs.fr [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    The interest of giving active functions to antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials in spintronics devices has been realized recently. Mn{sub 2}Au is a high-Néel temperature antiferromagnet with large Mn moment, lying in plane of the tetragonal structure. To determine the direction of the moments in Mn{sub 2}Au, an original approach is demonstrated, which should be generic to planar AFM materials. It involves the rotation of the granular sample around an axis perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The family of easy moment directions is 〈110〉. For grains prevented from rotating, the dominant magnetization process is AFM domain wall motion. Textured Mn{sub 2}Au nanoelements could be introduced in spintronics devices, in which the Mn moments would be switched under modest external excitation.

  11. Motofit - integrating neutron reflectometry acquisition, reduction and analysis into one, easy to use, package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.nelson@ansto.gov.au [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); New Illawarra Rd, PMB1, Menai, NSW2234 (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    The efficient use of complex neutron scattering instruments is often hindered by the complex nature of their operating software. This complexity exists at each experimental step: data acquisition, reduction and analysis, with each step being as important as the previous. For example, whilst command line interfaces are powerful at automated acquisition they often reduce accessibility by novice users and sometimes reduce the efficiency for advanced users. One solution to this is the development of a graphical user interface which allows the user to operate the instrument by a simple and intuitive 'push button' approach. This approach was taken by the Motofit software package for analysis of multiple contrast reflectometry data. Here we describe the extension of this package to cover the data acquisition and reduction steps for the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer. Consequently, the complete operation of an instrument is integrated into a single, easy to use, program, leading to efficient instrument usage.

  12. Motofit - integrating neutron reflectometry acquisition, reduction and analysis into one, easy to use, package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The efficient use of complex neutron scattering instruments is often hindered by the complex nature of their operating software. This complexity exists at each experimental step: data acquisition, reduction and analysis, with each step being as important as the previous. For example, whilst command line interfaces are powerful at automated acquisition they often reduce accessibility by novice users and sometimes reduce the efficiency for advanced users. One solution to this is the development of a graphical user interface which allows the user to operate the instrument by a simple and intuitive "push button" approach. This approach was taken by the Motofit software package for analysis of multiple contrast reflectometry data. Here we describe the extension of this package to cover the data acquisition and reduction steps for the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer. Consequently, the complete operation of an instrument is integrated into a single, easy to use, program, leading to efficient instrument usage.

  13. Motofit - integrating neutron reflectometry acquisition, reduction and analysis into one, easy to use, package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The efficient use of complex neutron scattering instruments is often hindered by the complex nature of their operating software. This complexity exists at each experimental step: data acquisition, reduction and analysis, with each step being as important as the previous. For example, whilst command line interfaces are powerful at automated acquisition they often reduce accessibility by novice users and sometimes reduce the efficiency for advanced users. One solution to this is the development of a graphical user interface which allows the user to operate the instrument by a simple and intuitive 'push button' approach. This approach was taken by the Motofit software package for analysis of multiple contrast reflectometry data. Here we describe the extension of this package to cover the data acquisition and reduction steps for the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer. Consequently, the complete operation of an instrument is integrated into a single, easy to use, program, leading to efficient instrument usage.

  14. Nearest-cell: a fast and easy tool for locating crystal matches in the PDB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramraj, V.; Evans, G.; Diprose, J. M.; Esnouf, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    A fast and easy tool to locate unit-cell matches in the PDB is described. When embarking upon X-ray diffraction data collection from a potentially novel macromolecular crystal form, it can be useful to ascertain whether the measured data reflect a crystal form that is already recorded in the Protein Data Bank and, if so, whether it is part of a large family of related structures. Providing such information to crystallographers conveniently and quickly, as soon as the first images have been recorded and the unit cell characterized at an X-ray beamline, has the potential to save time and effort as well as pointing to possible search models for molecular replacement. Given an input unit cell, and optionally a space group, Nearest-cell rapidly scans the Protein Data Bank and retrieves near-matches

  15. The easy ADL home: A physical-virtual approach to domestic living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Pederson, Thomas; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Smart environments worthy of the name need to capture, interpret, and support human activities that take place within their realms. Most existing efforts tend to focus on either real world activities or activities taking place in the virtual world accessed through digital devices. However......, as digital computation continues to permeate our everyday real world environments, and as the border between physical and digital continues to blur for the human agents acting in these environments, we need system design approaches that can cope with human activities that span the physical-virtual gap....... In this paper, we present such an approach and use it for designing a smart home intended to support Activities of Daily Living (ADL). The easy ADL home is designed based on a wearable personal server that runs a personal ADL support middleware and a set of computationally augmented everyday objects within...

  16. An Easy-to-Implement Protocol for Preparing Postnatal Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janin Lautenschläger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Postnatally derived cultures of ventral mesencephalic neurons offer several crucial advantages over embryonic ventral mesencephalic cultures, including a higher content of TH-positive cells and the ability to derive cells from the substantia nigra, which contains the neurons most vulnerable to Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, these cultures are more challenging to produce consistently. Here, we provide an easy-to-implement protocol for culturing postnatal ventral mesencephalic cells from the substantia nigra (SN and the ventral tegmental area using commercially available media, dishes, and general lab equipment, avoiding extensive material and equipment purchases. The protocol can be completed in about 5 h and provides ventral midbrain neuron cultures on cortex glia feeder layers in three weeks’ time. The protocol uses an optimized protease digestion, tissue storage in Hibernate A during dissection and purification of neurons on an OptiPrep density gradient.

  17. Recognition of genetic predisposition in pediatric cancer patients: An easy-to-use selection tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Loeffen, Jan L C M; Waanders, Esmé; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Kuiper, Roland P; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-03-01

    Genetic predisposition for childhood cancer is under diagnosed. Identifying these patients may lead to therapy adjustments in case of syndrome-related increased toxicity or resistant disease and syndrome-specific screening programs may lead to early detection of a further independent malignancy. Cancer surveillance might also be warranted for affected relatives and detection of a genetic mutation can allow for reproductive counseling. Here we present an easy-to-use selection tool, based on a systematic review of pediatric cancer predisposing syndromes, to identify patients who may benefit from genetic counseling. The selection tool involves five questions concerning family history, the type of malignancy, multiple primary malignancies, specific features and excessive toxicity, which results in the selection of those patients that may benefit from referral to a clinical geneticist. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous Easy-Plane Deconfined Phase Transition on the Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; He, Yin-Chen; Eggert, Sebastian; Moessner, Roderich; Pollmann, Frank

    2018-03-01

    We use large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons on the kagome lattice. In the limit of strong nearest-neighbor interactions at 1 /3 filling, the interplay between frustration and quantum fluctuations leads to a valence bond solid ground state. The system undergoes a quantum phase transition to a superfluid phase as the interaction strength is decreased. It is still under debate whether the transition is weakly first order or represents an unconventional continuous phase transition. We present a theory in terms of an easy plane noncompact C P1 gauge theory describing the phase transition at 1 /3 filling. Utilizing large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations with parallel tempering in the canonical ensemble up to 15552 spins, we provide evidence that the phase transition is continuous at exactly 1 /3 filling. A careful finite size scaling analysis reveals an unconventional scaling behavior hinting at deconfined quantum criticality.

  19. Modulational instability and localized modes in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bing, E-mail: bingtangphy@jsu.edu.cn; Li, Guang-Ling; Fu, Mei

    2017-03-15

    A semiclassical theoretical study on the property of the modulational instability of corresponding linear spin-waves and the presence of nonlinear localized excitations in a discrete quantum ferromagnetic spin chain with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy is reported. We consider the Glauber coherent-state representation combined with the Dyson-Maleev transformation for local spin operators as the basic representation of the system, and derive the equation of motion by means of the Ehrenfest theorem. Using a modulational instability analysis of plane waves, we predict the existence regions of bright envelope solitons and intrinsic localized spin-wave modes. Besides, with the help of a semidiscrete multi-scale method, we obtain analytical solutions for the bright envelope soliton and intrinsic localized spin-wave mode. Moreover, we analyze their existence conditions, which agree with the results of modulational instability analysis. - Highlights: • The anisotropy plays significant role in both the property of the modulational instability and the existence conditions for localized modes in ferromagnetic chains. • The analytical solutions of localized modes are obtained. • The appearance conditions for such localized modes agree with the modulational instability analysis.

  20. Technical Note: A safe, cheap, and easy-to-use isotropic diffusion MRI phantom for clinical and multicenter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullens, Pim; Bladt, Piet; Sijbers, Jan; Maas, Andrew I R; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-03-01

    Since Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data acquisition and processing are not standardized, substantial differences in DWI derived measures such as Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) may arise which are related to the acquisition or MRI processing method, but not to the sample under study. Quality assurance using a standardized test object, or phantom, is a key factor in standardizing DWI across scanners. Current diffusion phantoms are either complex to use, not available in larger quantities, contain substances unwanted in a clinical environment, or are expensive. A diffusion phantom based on a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution, together with a phantom holder, is presented and compared to existing diffusion phantoms for use in clinical DWI scans. An ADC vs. temperature calibration curve was obtained. ADC of the phantom (808 to 857 ± 0.2 mm 2 /s) is in the same range as ADC values found in brain tissue. ADC measurements are highly reproducible across time with an intra-class correlation coefficient of > 0.8. ADC as function of temperature (in Kelvin) can be estimated as ADCm(T)=[exp(-7.09)·exp-2903.81T-1293.55] with a total uncertainty (95% confidence limit) of ± 1.7%. We present an isotropic diffusion MRI phantom, together with its temperature calibration curve, that is easy-to-use in a clinical environment, cost-effective, reproducible to produce, and that contains no harmful substances. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Proton spectroscopy of the thalamus in a homogeneous sample of patients with easy-to-control juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Claudia da Costa; Valente, Kette Dualibi Ramos; Fiore, Lia Arno; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia, E-mail: claudia.leite@hc.fm.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2017-09-15

    Objective: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a subtype of genetically determined generalized epilepsy that does not present abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic alterations in the thalamus in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with easy-to-control JME, using short-echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and Methods: We performed single-voxel (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm), short-echo time (TE = 35 ms) proton MRS of the thalamus in 21 patients with JME and in 14 healthy age-matched controls. We quantified N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total NAA, creatine (Cr), choline, and myo-inositol (MI), as well as the sum of glutamate and glutamine signals, all scaled to internal water content, and we calculated metabolite ratios using Cr as a reference. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MI level and the MI/Cr ratio were significantly lower in the thalami of patients diagnosed with JME than in those of the controls. Other metabolites and their ratios did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: In our sample of 21 JME patients, we identified lower levels of MI in the thalamus. No significant abnormalities were observed in the concentrations or ratios of other metabolites. (author)

  2. An easy to calculate equation to estimate GFR based on inulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinalis, Dimitrios; Thiel, Gilbert T

    2009-10-01

    For the estimation of renal function on the basis of serum creatinine, either the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation or the MDRD formula is commonly used. Compared to MDRD (using power functions), CG has the advantage of easy calculability at the bedside. MDRD, however, approaches glomerular filtration rate (GFR) more precisely than CG and gives values corrected for a body surface area (BSA) of 1.73 m(2). We wondered whether CG could be adapted to estimate GFR rather than creatinine clearance without losing the advantage of easy calculability. In this prospective study, inulin clearance under well-defined conditions was taken as the gold standard for GFR. In 182 living kidney donors, inulin clearance was measured under standardized conditions (protein, salt and water intake, overnight stay) before and after nephrectomy. Together with the serum creatinine level, and demographic and clinical data, 281 measurements of inulin clearance were used to compare the accuracy of different estimation equations. Using stepwise multiple regression, a new set of constants was defined for a CG-like equation in order to estimate GFR. The MDRD equation underestimated GFR by 9%, and the quadratic equation suggested by Rule overestimated GFR by 12.4%. The new CG-like equation, even when calculated with 'mental arithmetic-friendly' rounded parameters, showed significantly less bias (1.2%). The adapted equation is GFR[mL/min] = ((155 - Age[years]) x weight [kg]/serum creatinine [micromol/L]) x 0.85 if female. We propose the CG-like equation called IB-eGFR (Inulinclearance Based eGFR) to estimate GFR more reliably than MDRD, Rule's equation or the original Cockcroft-Gault equation. As our data represent a Caucasian population, the adapted equation is still to be validated for patients of other ethnicity.

  3. Easy-going, rational, susceptible and struggling eaters: A segmentation study based on eating behaviour tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Arvola, Anne; Karhunen, Leila; Pennanen, Kyösti

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations. Finnish (n = 1060) and German (n = 1070) samples were segmented on the basis of their responses to a modified Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R15). Well-being, coping strategies and food consumption habits of the segments were studied. Segmentation revealed four segments: "Susceptible", "Easy-going", "Rational" and "Struggling". These segments were similar in both countries with regard to well-being, coping strategies and food choices. EE and UE co-occurred, and these tendencies were mainly responsible for differentiating the segments. Members of the "Rational" and "Easy-going" segments, who had low scores for EE and UE, tended to experience vitality and positive emotions in life, and contentment with their eating. By contrast, the "Susceptible" and "Struggling" segments, with more pronounced tendencies towards EE and UE, experienced lower levels of vitality and less frequently positive emotions, applied less adaptive coping strategies and experienced more discontent with eating. The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to identify segments, with differing eating habits, coping strategies and well-being on the basis of the eating behaviour tendencies EE, UE and CR. We discuss possible viewpoints for the design of interventions and food products to help people towards psychologically and physiologically healthier eating styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. EASY-II Renaissance: n, p, d, α, γ-induced Inventory Code System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Eastwood, J. W.; Morgan, J. G.

    2014-04-01

    The European Activation SYstem has been re-engineered and re-written in modern programming languages so as to answer today's and tomorrow's needs in terms of activation, transmutation, depletion, decay and processing of radioactive materials. The new FISPACT-II inventory code development project has allowed us to embed many more features in terms of energy range: up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence and covariance, so as to cover all anticipated application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, stockpile and fuel cycle stewardship, materials characterization and life, and storage cycle management. In parallel, the maturity of modern, truly general purpose libraries encompassing thousands of target isotopes such as TENDL-2012, the evolution of the ENDF-6 format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF have allowed the activation code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles (n, p, d, α, γ), are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code system, EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It includes many new features and enhancements, but also benefits already from the feedback from extensive validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

  5. PHY·FI: fast and easy online creation and manipulation of phylogeny color figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredslund Jakob

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to depict a phylogeny, or some other kind of abstract tree, is very frequently experienced by researchers from a broad range of biological and computational disciplines. Thousands of papers and talks include phylogeny figures, and often during everyday work, one would like to quickly get a graphical display of, e.g., the phylogenetic relationship between a set of sequences as calculated by an alignment program such as ClustalW or the phylogenetic package Phylip. A wealth of software tools capable of tree drawing exists; most are comprehensive packages that also perform various types of analysis, and hence they are available only for download and installing. Some online tools exist, too. Results This paper presents an online tool, PHY·FI, which encompasses all the qualities of existing online programs and adds functionality to hopefully eliminate the need for post-processing the phylogeny figure in some other general-purpose graphics program. PHY·FI is versatile, easy-to-use and fast, and supports comprehensive graphical control, several download image formats, and the possibility of dynamically collapsing groups of nodes into named subtrees (e.g. "Primates". The user can create a color figure from any phylogeny, or other kind of tree, represented in the widely used parenthesized Newick format. Conclusion PHY·FI is fast and easy to use, yet still offers full color control, tree manipulation, and several image formats. It does not require any downloading and installing, and thus any internet user regardless of computer skills, and computer platform, can benefit from it. PHY·FI is free for all and is available from this web address: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/phyfi/go

  6. Hybrid Monte Carlo methods in computational finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao Rodriguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are highly appreciated and intensively employed in computational finance in the context of financial derivatives valuation or risk management. The method offers valuable advantages like flexibility, easy interpretation and straightforward implementation. Furthermore, the

  7. Visual assessment of Ki67 using a 5-grade scale (Eye-5) is easy and practical to classify breast cancer subtypes with high reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akira I; Bando, Kenji; Sugita, Atsuro; Maeda, Toshiharu; Ueda, Norifumi; Matsukage, Shoichi; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Kito, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Oshiro, Yumi; Inoue, Hiromichi; Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi; Yamashita, Natsumi; Aogi, Kenjiro; Moriya, Takuya

    2015-05-01

    Personalised breast cancer therapy requires pathological characterisation of tumours. The proliferative index, based on Ki67, is pivotal, but a standard method has not been established. Here we look for an easy and practical way to evaluate Ki67. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, HER2 and Ki67 (MIB-1) was performed on resected specimens from 406 primary invasive ductal carcinomas. Ki67 labelling index (LI) from manual counting was compared with visual assessment using a 5-grade scale (Eye-5). Next, 10 pathologists evaluated 100 samples with marked hot spots by using Eye-5. Another 100 samples without marking were also assessed by eight pathologists. One year later, two pathologists reviewed 222 cases with Eye-5. Prognosis was analysed among estrogen receptor-positive cases with postoperative endocrine therapy. Eye-5 showed good correlation to LI. All 136 cases of score 4-5 had LI >20% and all 56 cases of score 1 had LIKi67 by a 5-grade scale (Eye-5) is fast, easy, and reliable with acceptably low interobserver and intraobserver variability. Eye-5 can replace LI in many luminal tumours, and is a strong candidate as a standard method of evaluating Ki67. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Easy-to-use augmented reality neuronavigation using a wireless tablet PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Li, Fang; Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology solves the problem of view switching in traditional image-guided neurosurgery systems by integrating computer-generated objects into the actual scene. However, the state-of-the-art AR solution using head-mounted displays has not been widely accepted in clinical applications because it causes some inconvenience for the surgeon during surgery. In this paper, we present a Tablet-AR system that transmits navigation information to a movable tablet PC via a wireless local area network and overlays this information on the tablet screen, which simultaneously displays the actual scene captured by its back-facing camera. With this system, the surgeon can directly observe the intracranial anatomical structure of the patient with the overlaid virtual projection images to guide the surgery. The alignment errors in the skull specimen study and clinical experiment were 4.6 pixels (approx. 1.6 mm) and 6 pixels (approx. 2.1 mm), respectively. The system was also used for navigation in 2 actual clinical cases of neurosurgery, which demonstrated its feasibility in a clinical application. The easy-to-use Tablet-AR system presented in this study is accurate and feasible in clinical applications and has the potential to become a routine device in AR neuronavigation.

  9. How easy is it to contact the duty medical doctor responsible for acute admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhai, A; Goodman, F; Juchniewichz, H; Martin, A; Porter, G; White, C; Williams, L; Hopkins, A

    1990-09-15

    To ascertain ease or difficulty of contacting duty junior doctors responsible for acute medical admissions by telephone. Telephone survey of hospitals in six health regions in England and Wales. 70 Randomly selected hospitals, 15 of which were excluded because of non-acceptance of acute medical admissions. 71 Duty doctors (duty house physicians, senior house officers, or registrars responsible for acute medical admissions) in 48 hospitals; seven duty doctors in seven hospitals were excluded (four declined to participate and three required a written explanation of the survey). 67 Doctors gave full information to all questions. Time taken for hospital switchboards and duty doctors to reply to telephone call, diagnoses of patients recently admitted, and on call rotas and hours of sleep of duty doctors. Hospital switchboards responded within 30 seconds in 87 (74%) calls, and in 76 calls (64%) the duty doctor requested was contacted within a further two minutes. Chest pain, possibly due to myocardial infarction, was the most common reason for acute medical admissions. Nearly half (48%) of the duty doctors in larger hospitals reported having 4-5 hours sleep or less on their nights on call. Most (30) were on a one in three rota; two were on a one in two rota. Despite impressions to the contrary contacting the duty medical team by telephone seemed fairly easy. Although most junior doctors were on a rota of one in three or better, insufficient recognition may be given to their deprivation of sleep during nights on duty.

  10. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  11. SOMOTE_EASY: AN ALGORITHM TO TREAT THE CLASSIFICATION ISSUE IN REAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leonardo Pereira Rufino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most classification tools assume that data distribution be balanced or with similar costs, when not properly classified. Nevertheless, in practical terms, the existence of database where unbalanced classes occur is commonplace, such as in the diagnosis of diseases, in which the confirmed cases are usually rare when compared with a healthy population. Other examples are the detection of fraudulent calls and the detection of system intruders. In these cases, the improper classification of a minority class (for instance, to diagnose a person with cancer as healthy may result in more serious consequences that incorrectly classify a majority class. Therefore, it is important to treat the database where unbalanced classes occur. This paper presents the SMOTE_Easy algorithm, which can classify data, even if there is a high level of unbalancing between different classes. In order to prove its efficiency, a comparison with the main algorithms to treat classification issues was made, where unbalanced data exist. This process was successful in nearly all tested databases

  12. Microstructured barbs on the North American porcupine quill enable easy tissue penetration and difficult removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Ankrum, James A; Guo, Dagang; Chester, Shawn A; Yang, Seung Yun; Kashyap, Anurag; Campbell, Georgina A; Wood, Robert J; Rijal, Ram K; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-26

    North American porcupines are well known for their specialized hairs, or quills that feature microscopic backward-facing deployable barbs that are used in self-defense. Herein we show that the natural quill's geometry enables easy penetration and high tissue adhesion where the barbs specifically contribute to adhesion and unexpectedly, dramatically reduce the force required to penetrate tissue. Reduced penetration force is achieved by topography that appears to create stress concentrations along regions of the quill where the cross sectional diameter grows rapidly, facilitating cutting of the tissue. Barbs located near the first geometrical transition zone exhibit the most substantial impact on minimizing the force required for penetration. Barbs at the tip of the quill independently exhibit the greatest impact on tissue adhesion force and the cooperation between barbs in the 0-2 mm and 2-4 mm regions appears critical to enhance tissue adhesion force. The dual functions of barbs were reproduced with replica molded synthetic polyurethane quills. These findings should serve as the basis for the development of bio-inspired devices such as tissue adhesives or needles, trocars, and vascular tunnelers where minimizing the penetration force is important to prevent collateral damage.

  13. Don’t words come easy?A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi eStarrfelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a word superiority effect can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modelling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect.

  14. Helping technophobic teachers ease the burden of marking with easy-to-use online quizzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIP Paul Chi Hong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that teacher stress was due to teachers spending long hours in marking their students’ work such as quizzes and examination papers from large class sizes. With this problem in mind, a new web 2.0 technology has emerged, Quiz Center supported by DiscoverySchool.com which can help technophobic teachers make a free and easy-to-use online quiz. Online quizzes can be automatically marked by a script or managed by a server. In this paper, the following sections were addressed:1 the need for using online quizzes to ease the burden of teachers:2 the definitions of different types of online quizzes and the advantages and reasons for using them;3 the reasons for using Quiz Center from DiscoverySchool.com; 4 a sharing of how I made an online multiple-choice email quiz with Quiz Center from the perspective of a technophobic teacher; and 5 a discussion on the limitations, recommendations and implications for using online quizzes.

  15. Easy-to-read consumer communications: a missing link in Medicaid managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J; Stableford, S

    1999-02-01

    Effective consumer communication is key to successfully moving Medicaid recipients into managed care systems and realizing the promised cost savings from the upheaval. Yet, little attention has been paid to educating these consumers with easy-to-read materials. The Maine Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Health Literacy Center, with the support of the Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc., addressed the problem by offering three national skills training workshops called Writing for the Medicaid Market. The training was marketed to public and private organizations providing Medicaid managed care services, including state Medicaid officials, health benefit counselor staff (enrollment brokers), managed care plan (HMO) staff, and consumer advocates. The training addressed the core issue in health literacy: the mismatch between the low literacy skills of the target population and the high reading level of most health and managed care materials. Posttraining survey data revealed that training was successful in skill building, but also that it addressed only the tip of the iceberg. Faulty and/or nonexistent communication planning limits the success not only of Medicaid, but of other large health and social programs as well. The authors outline the broad scope of the national health literacy problem, share their posttraining survey data, discuss lessons extrapolated from both their data and their experience, and propose a national agenda to address a vast and generally ignored public problem.

  16. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullain, Gilles; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    TbxDy1-xFe2/Pt/Pb(Zrx, Ti1-x)O3 thin films were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient αΗΜΕ was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large αΗΜΕ of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance.

  17. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France); Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes - CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bonfim, Marlio [Universidade Federal do Paraná, DELT, Curitiba (Brazil); Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie [Univ Lyon, ECL, UCB Lyon1, CNRS, Ampere, F-69134 Ecully (France)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  18. Fernald - As Closure Approaches Changing Public Participation Is Not an Easy (or Popular) Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Public participation at a closure site evolves. In large part it's driven by the players - neighbors, DOE, contractors, regulators and to some extent, the media. At Fernald, public participation became an integral part of the decision making process in the late 80's. At that time the Department of Energy was really just beginning to understand the extent of environmental contamination caused by 40 years of uranium metal production. Today, as cleanup nears an end (Figure 1), the Fernald Citizens Advisory Board and other key stakeholders stand at a crossroads. The DOE Office of Environmental Management is working with the Office of Legacy Management and its' contractors as they prepare to take over stewardship of the site. DOE is chartering Local Stakeholder Organizations, LSO's, made up of elected officials to serve as the voice of the public. The transition at Fernald will likely be more difficult than at other cleanup sites. Many area stakeholders have 20 years of time committed to this project. For most, Fernald was an emotional subject that effected their community and families. Change is not easy. (authors)

  19. Hindu Nationalism and the (Not So Easy Art of Being OutragedThe Ram Setu Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Jaffrelot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hindu nationalists have become experts in the art of being outraged after the crystallization of the Hindutva ideology in the 1920s. Articulating a deep rooted inferiority complex, they have tried hard to denounce the disrespectful behaviour of the minorities they feared most – especially the Muslims – in order to mobilize new followers. Such a process was likely to trigger riots and to polarise society along communal lines – and eventually to translate into votes. However, a purely instrumentalist interpretation of the Hindu nationalist use of outrage would be too simplistic. The use of sacred symbols is not that easy, as evident from the case of the Ram Setu movement. It shows that the Sangh Parivar finds it more difficult to mobilize followers when the culprits are not Muslims. It also shows that the exploitation of the outrage is more complicated when its instigators are born Hindus. In any case, the holy character of the outraged symbol is not enough: it has to be historical; and it has to be useful too.

  20. E/Z MAS: An easy-to-use computerized materials control and accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities that handle and process nuclear materials are required to track their nuclear holdings and to keep adequate records that manage and control the inventory of those holdings. The complexity of a system that does this job is directly proportional to the complexity of the facility's operations. This paper describes an approach to computerized materials protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) that was introduced by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the fall of 1997. This new system, E/Z MAS, is the latest addition to the LANL suite of computerized MPC and A tools, which also includes the CoreMAS system. E/Z MAS was initially designed to address the needs of those facilities that have small to modest MPC and A needs but has been expanded to provide full functionality for any facility. The system name, E/Z MAS, reflects the system's easy-to-use characteristics, which include ease of installation and ease of software maintenance. Both CoreMAS and E/Z MAS have been provided to facilities in the Former Soviet Union to assist them in implementing a computerized MPC and A system that meets their needs. In this paper the authors will address the functionality of CoreMAS and E/Z MAS, and an argument in favor of intranet-based material control and accountability will be advanced

  1. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters. - Highlights: • Soft and hard magnetic PDMS composites were microstructured by injection molding. • Tunable or autonomous magnetic microdevices can be fabricated using this approach. • Continuous-flow bacterial cell trapping and deviation were demonstrated.

  2. Pathology crossword competition: an active and easy way of learning pathology in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, T T; Sabaridah, I; Rajyaguru, K M; Mazidah, A M

    2012-02-01

    In line with the trend to engage students in active learning, it is imperative to introduce new strategies that make learning more interesting, especially in undergraduate curricula. This study aimed to determine students' performance and perception in pathology crosswords as an active way of learning and to assess their ability to memorise difficult terms in pathology. A crossword competition in pathology was conducted for two batches (year 2009 and 2010) of Phase 2 medical students in Malaysia. Crossword puzzles were prepared using an online application. Two sets of puzzles were prepared, with 20 questions for the assessment of general pathology and 20 for systemic pathology. The purpose was to compare the students' recent and remote memorising abilities, as general pathology was taught a year before proceeding to systemic pathology teaching. There were 12 groups per batch, with 8-10 students in a group. Survey questionnaires were used to assess the students' perception of the competition. Descriptive analysis was performed for comparison of performance. The mean score of correctly answered questions in general pathology was 12.75 and 11.50 in batch 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean score for systemic pathology was 14.50 in 2009 and 13.83 in 2010. Students in the 2009 batch performed better, but this was not statistically significant (p-value > 0.05). A positive response was observed from the questionnaires. Applying crossword puzzles as a new strategy is a useful and easy way for undergraduate medical students to learn pathology.

  3. The alignment of impacted and ectopic teeth using the Easy-Way-Coil (EWC) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Teeth that do not spontaneously erupt in the dental arch or are ectopic must normally be surgically exposed. For orthodontic correction a traction device must be attached to the affected tooth over which the already-raised mucoperiosteal flap is lowered to improve the periodontal condition. The author has developed a system at his private orthodontic practice for this purpose, and it has proven itself over a 10-year period. A traction spring is fastened to a lingual button that is attached to the etched tooth surface using an adhesive. The appliance is activated by systematically shortening the spring. A total of 103 patients were treated successfully in this way, 45 of whom had presented a unilaterally ectopic canine requiring an average treatment time of 17.8 months from surgical exposure to removal of the fixed appliance. None of the patients suffered inflammatory reactions in the oral mucosa adjacent to the traction spring during the treatment. Two impacted teeth were ankylosed and could not be aligned. The EWC-System is clinically a reliable, efficient, easy to use and economical system for the alignment of impacted and ectopic teeth.

  4. A robust preference for cheap-and-easy strategies over reliable strategies when verifying personal memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Adelman, James S

    2017-08-01

    People depend on various sources of information when trying to verify their autobiographical memories. Yet recent research shows that people prefer to use cheap-and-easy verification strategies, even when these strategies are not reliable. We examined the robustness of this cheap strategy bias, with scenarios designed to encourage greater emphasis on source reliability. In three experiments, subjects described real (Experiments 1 and 2) or hypothetical (Experiment 3) autobiographical events, and proposed strategies they might use to verify their memories of those events. Subjects also rated the reliability, cost, and the likelihood that they would use each strategy. In line with previous work, we found that the preference for cheap information held when people described how they would verify childhood or recent memories (Experiment 1), personally important or trivial memories (Experiment 2), and even when the consequences of relying on incorrect information could be significant (Experiment 3). Taken together, our findings fit with an account of source monitoring in which the tendency to trust one's own autobiographical memories can discourage people from systematically testing or accepting strong disconfirmatory evidence.

  5. Easy-to-prepare autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of refractory corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu En; Chen, Chiung Ju; Hu, Chao-Chien; Cheng, Cheng-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    As platelets are rich in growth factors for tissue regeneration, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat some refractory corneal defects. Although PRP is effective, the cost of its preparation is very high. This article presents three cases of refractory corneal ulcer under the prescription of autologous PRP. The autologous PRP used in these cases was easily prepared in the blood bank laboratory. In this paper, we collected three patients with refractory corneal ulcer who were unresponsive to conventional treatment. The patients presented with neurotrophic ulcer, exposure corneal ulcer, and limbal deciency with corneal ulcer after hepatitic keratitis. Although we easily prepared autologous PRP eye drops using simple laboratory centrifugation, this preparation still had a clinical effect on corneal defect. The mean intervention time was 24 ± 6.9 days. The case with exposure corneal ulcer had significant wound healing and the other two cases felt subjective symptom relief. There were some clinical improvements of refractory corneal ulcers in our three cases. We present the clinical results of three cases and report an easy procedure for the preparation of autologous PRP. Autologous PRP prepared simply in the laboratory, it may be an alternative option for treating refractory corneal ulcer.

  6. Red cell indexes made easy using an interactive animation: do students and their scores concur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachroo, Upasana; Vinod, Elizabeth; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; W, Jesi; Prince, Neetu

    2018-03-01

    A good understanding of red cell indexes can aid medical students in a considerable manner, serving as a basis to unravel both concepts in red cell physiology and abnormalities associated with the same. In this study, we tried to assess whether an interactive animation was helpful in improving student comprehension and understanding of red cell indexes compared with conventional classroom teaching. Eighty-eight first-year MBBS students participated, of which 44 were assigned to group A and 44 were assigned to group B after randomization. After further creation of smaller groups, students were provided with 45 min to revise red cell indexes, after which they were required to complete a multimodal questionnaire. Group A subgroups used written material for revision, whereas group B subgroups had access to an interactive animation. After completion of the questionnaire, group A students also used the animation after which feedback was collected from all students. Efficacy of the animation to improve learning and retention was demonstrated, as group B students scored significantly higher than group A students on the questionnaire ( P = 0.0003). A clear majority of the students agreed/strongly agreed that the animation was easy to operate, conveyed important concepts efficiently, and improved their knowledge of related clinical aspects as well. From the results and feedback, we found that the animation was a simple, well-received model, which, by significantly improving student performance, corroborated our hypothesis that inclusion of interactive animation into student curriculum can advance their academic attainment, compared with didactic teaching alone.

  7. EasyMIFS and SiteHound: a toolkit for the identification of ligand-binding sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Sanchez, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    SiteHound uses Molecular Interaction Fields (MIFs) produced by EasyMIFs to identify protein structure regions that show a high propensity for interaction with ligands. The type of binding site identified depends on the probe atom used in the MIF calculation. The input to EasyMIFs is a PDB file of a protein structure; the output MIF serves as input to SiteHound, which in turn produces a list of putative binding sites. Extensive testing of SiteHound for the detection of binding sites for drug-like molecules and phosphorylated ligands has been carried out. EasyMIFs and SiteHound executables for Linux, Mac OS X, and MS Windows operating systems are freely available for download from http://sitehound.sanchezlab.org/download.html. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Perfume fingerprinting by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry: nearly instantaneous typification and counterfeit detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Renato; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Marques, Lygia Azevedo; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2008-11-01

    Perfume counterfeiting is an illegal worldwide practice that involves huge economic losses and potential consumer risk. EASI is a simple, easily performed and rapidly implemented desorption/ionization technique for ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Herein we demonstrate that EASI-MS allows nearly instantaneous perfume typification and counterfeit detection. Samples are simply sprayed onto a glass rod or paper surface and, after a few seconds of ambient drying, a profile of the most polar components of the perfume is acquired. These components provide unique and reproducible chemical signatures for authentic perfume samples. Counterfeiting is readily recognized since the exact set and relative proportions of the more polar chemicals, sometimes at low concentrations, are unknown or hard to reproduce by the counterfeiters and hence very distinct and variable EASI-MS profiles are observed for the counterfeit samples.

  9. A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like in modern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user’s physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based

  10. Simple mathematical model of sacroiliac screws safe-zone-Easy to implement by pelvic inlet and outlet views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Amir; Keener, Emily; Dubose, Candice; Lowe, Jason A

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous sacral screw fixation is the mainstay of posterior pelvic ring fixation. This study quantifies the accuracy of fluoroscopic screw placement using post-operative CT scans and redefines the fluoroscopic safe zone using a mathematical calculation obtained from Inlet and outlet images. The authors hypothesized that a mathematical calculation of screw placement within the ala will improve accuracy of screw placement. A retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center with pelvic fractures fixed with iliosacral screws from January 2011 to December 2014 was performed. Accuracy of screw placement was determined by comparing fluoroscopy to post-operative CT scans. A mathematical calculation of screw position within the sacral ala was applied to determine assess screw position and compared to CT findings. Ninety-four patients with 156 screws met inclusion criteria, of which 50 (32.0%) had a cortical breech on CT. The sensitivity and specificity of the inlet-outlet safe zone using mathematical calculation were 97.1% and 84.0%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92.7% and 93.3%, respectively. Overall accuracies of the radiographic inlet-outlet and lateral safe zones were 92.9% and 70.0%, respectively (p-value = 0.004). Sacral dysmorphism was not found to be associated with sacral cortical breech. A Simple mathematical calculation (screw position relative to percentage of bone width) on the inlet-outlet provides an accurate way to predict the accuracy of sacroiliac screws. The method is easy to implement, part of the surgery work-flow, and provides higher accuracy than relying on subjective interpretation of inlet, outlet, and lateral images. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1478-1484, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MINIMALLY-INVASIVE TUBE THORACOSTOMY MADE EASY WITH A COMBINATION OF THORACIC ULTRASOUND AND SMALL BORE CHEST DRAIN KITS (12F TO 16F USING GUIDEWIRE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Minimally-invasive tube thoracostomy made easy with a combination of thoracic ultrasound and small bore chest drain kits (12F to16F using guidewire technique. The present study is aimed at easy and safe insertion of small bore chest drains (12F to 16F using Seldinger technique under ultrasound guidance with least discomfort to the patient. Large bore chest drains of size >20F using blunt dissection technique is painful, difficult to place in thick chest walls and technically more demanding. Placing the drains blindly basing on chest x-ray image may sometimes injure the underlying lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present study included 21 cases, of which 12 cases (57.1% were of pleural effusion and 9 cases (42.8% were of pneumothorax. Thoracic ultrasound was utilised by the operator for all pleural effusions and for those cases of pneumothorax who were on ventilator before tube insertion. Small bore chest drains (12F to 16F designed for guidewire technique were used in the present study. RESULTS Complete and sustainable lung expansion was seen in 19 of 21 cases (90.4%. It failed in remaining 2 cases (9.5% who had complex empyemas and hepatic hydrothorax. Pleurodesis was attempted in 6 cases (28.5% using tetracycline injectable form with success rate of 90%. Patient tolerance was good with numeric pain rating score of 1 to 3 (range 0 to 10; 0 = no pain; 5 = moderate pain; 10 = worst possible pain. CONCLUSION Using small bore chest tubes of sizes 12F to 16F designed for guidewire technique of insertion and utilising thoracic ultrasound, while insertion made the procedure easy and safe, less painful and good tolerance from patient’s point of view. Complete and sustainable lung expansion was seen in 90.4% of cases and highly efficacious for spontaneous and iatrogenic pneumothorax and in noncomplex and malignant pleural effusions. The technique is less demanding and thoracic ultrasound knowledge can be easily learnt and a combination of this

  12. Characterization of anti-theft devices directly from the surface of banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Cuelbas, Claudio José; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Using Brazilian banknotes as a test case, forensic examination and identification of Rhodamine B dye anti-theft device (ATD) staining on banknotes were performed. Easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used since it allows fast and simple analysis with no sample preparation providing molecular screening of the surface with direct desorption and ionization of the security dye. For a more accurate molecular characterization of the ATD dye, Q Exactive Orbitrap™ Fourier transform (tandem) mass spectrometry using eletrospray ionization (ESI-HRMS/MS) was also applied. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploratory outcome assessment of Qigong/Tai Chi Easy on breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda K; Roe, Denise J; Smith, Lisa; Millstine, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) experience symptoms affecting overall quality of life (QOL), often for a prolonged period post-treatment. Meditative Movement (MM), including Qigong and Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE), has demonstrated benefit for improving QOL issues such as fatigue and sleep, but there is limited evidence of its impact on cognitive function, overall physical activity, and body weight for BCSs. This double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study with 87 female BCSs explored effects of QG/TCE on mental and physical QOL (Medical Outcomes Survey, Short Form), cognitive function (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function and two cognitive performance tests from the WAIS III), overall levels of physical activity (PA)(Brief Physical Activity Questionnaire) and body mass index (BMI). Twelve weekly sessions of QG/TCE were compared to sham Qigong (SQG), a gentle movement control intervention similar to QG/TCE but without the focus on breathing and meditative state. Both groups demonstrated pre-to-post-intervention improvements in physical and mental health, level of PA, self-reported cognitive function, and cognitive performance tests, though without significant differences between QG/TCE and SQG. For a subset of women enrolled later in the study, a significant reduction in BMI [-0.66 (p=0.048)] was found for QG/TCE compared to SQG. Practices that include gentle movement (such as QG/TCE or our sham protocol) among women with a history of breast cancer may improve many facets of the cancer experience, including QOL, cognitive function, and PA patterns. Practicing QG/TCE may show some advantage for BMI reduction compared to non-meditative gentle exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic simulation for all: two affordable, upgradable, and easy-to-build laparoscopic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Smith, David P

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has established itself as the approach of choice for a multitude of operations in general, urological, and gynecological surgery. A number of factors make performing laparoscopic surgery technically demanding, and as such it is crucial that surgical trainees hone their skills safely on trainers before operating on patients. These can be highly expensive. Here, we describe a novel and upgradable approach to constructing an affordable laparoscopic trainer. A pattern was produced to build an upgradable laparoscopic trainer for less than $100. The basic model was constructed from an opaque plastic crate with plywood base, 2 trocars, and 2 pairs of disposable laparoscopic instruments. A laptop, a light emitting diode (LED), and a fixed webcam were utilized to visualize the box interior. An enhanced version was also created, as an optional upgrade to the basic model, featuring a neoprene-trocar interface and a simulated mobile laparoscope. The described setup allowed trainees to gain familiarity with laparoscopic techniques, beginning with simple manipulation and then progressing through to more relevant procedures. Novices began by moving easy-to-grasp objects between containers and then attempting more challenging manipulations such as stacking sugar cubes, excising simulated lesions, threading circular mints onto cotton, and ligating fastened drinking straws. These techniques have introduced the necessity of careful instrument placement and have increased trainees' dexterity with laparoscopy. Here, we have outlined an upgradable and affordable alternative laparoscopic trainer that has given many trainees crucial experience with laparoscopic techniques, allowing them to safely improve their manual skill and confidence. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Reversibly Sealed, Easy Access, Modular (SEAM Microfluidic Architecture to Establish In Vitro Tissue Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay V Abhyankar

    Full Text Available Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allows several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm, self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young's modulus (~ 1kPa. To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. We anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.

  16. Gait velocity in senior people. An easy test for detecting mobility impairment in community elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, M; Schapira, M; Varela, C; Pitteri, C; Soriano, E R; Kaplan, R; Camera, L A; Mayorga, L M

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment is an important part of the evaluation of elderly patients. Mobility problems detected by functional tests predict the development of more severe disability and injurious events such as falls and hip fractures. Several tests to evaluate mobility have been described, but most of them are difficult to perform by a primary care physicians or take much time in the ambulatory setting. To evaluate different mobility test to detect mobility impairment in community senior people. Select an easier test to perform on the ambulatory ward by a GP with the hypothesis that gait velocity could be an easier test to detect early mobility impairment. A cohort of 100 elderly subjects of 75 year and older were selected from our database and contacted by phone. The subjects were appointed and assessed by three geriatricians from January to May 2000. The measures including MMSE, Yesavage Test, ADL (Barhtel) and IADL (Lawton), the Get Up and Go test, the POMA, one leg balance test and the Gait Velocity (GV). A gait velocity of 0.8 m/s or lower was defined as a pathological gait velocity (PGV). 95 subjects, mean age 79.63 (+/- 4) ranged form 75 to 95. Women in 71.3%. The ADLs were normal on 85% of the patients and the MMSE was normal on 78%. There was a significant association between pathological gait velocity (gait velocity reported recurrent falls in the previous 6 months while 35% of subjects with pathological gait velocity did. (OR 0.32 CI95% 010-099 p gait velocity (gait velocity could be a test easy to perform, no time consuming, and an operative tool to apply in the ambulatory care to detect elderly patients with mobility impairment.

  17. Polar2Grid 2.0: Reprojecting Satellite Data Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, D.; Strabala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Polar-orbiting multi-band meteorological sensors such as those on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite pose substantial challenges for taking imagery the last mile to forecast offices, scientific analysis environments, and the general public. To do this quickly and easily, the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin has created an open-source, modular application system, Polar2Grid. This bundled solution automates tools for converting various satellite products like those from VIIRS and MODIS into a variety of output formats, including GeoTIFFs, AWIPS compatible NetCDF files, and NinJo forecasting workstation compatible TIFF images. In addition to traditional visible and infrared imagery, Polar2Grid includes three perceptual enhancements for the VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB), as well as providing the capability to create sharpened true color, sharpened false color, and user-defined RGB images. Polar2Grid performs conversions and projections in seconds on large swaths of data. Polar2Grid is currently providing VIIRS imagery over the Continental United States, as well as Alaska and Hawaii, from various Direct-Broadcast antennas to operational forecasters at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) offices in their AWIPS terminals, within minutes of an overpass of the Suomi NPP satellite. Three years after Polar2Grid development started, the Polar2Grid team is now releasing version 2.0 of the software; supporting more sensors, generating more products, and providing all of its features in an easy to use command line interface.

  18. Development of a sensitive, generic and easy to use organophosphate skin disclosure kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Wosar, Andreas; Baumann, Madlen; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2017-10-05

    Various organophosphorus compounds (OP), primarily the nerve agent VX and other V-agents, are highly toxic to humans after skin exposure. Percutaneous exposure by such OP results in a delayed onset of toxic signs which enables the initiation of specific countermeasures if contamination is detected rapidly. Presently available mobile detection systems can hardly detect skin exposure by low volatile OP. In order to fill this gap an OP skin disclosure kit was developed which should fulfill different requirements, i.e. a high sensitivity, coverage of human toxic OP, easy handling, rapid results, small dimension and weight. The kit includes a cotton swab to sample skin, human AChE as target and chemicals for a color reaction based on the Ellman assay which is recorded by visual inspection. OP is dissolved from the sampler in a test tube filled with phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.4) and incubated with lyophilized human AChE for 1min. The reaction with acetylthiocholine and 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (1min) results in a rich yellow color in the absence of OP and in contrast, in transparent or pale yellow buffer in the presence of OP. At the recommended conditions, the limit of detection is 100ng VX and Russian VX and 50ng Chinese VX on plain surface and 200ng VX on rat skin. With activated pesticides, paraoxon and malaoxon, a concentration of ∼10μg can be detected on plain surface. The ready-to-use kit has a weight of 16g and a size of 10×12×1cm. In the end, this kit has the potential to fill a major gap and to enable timely detection of OP skin exposure and initiation of life-saving countermeasures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding resonance graphs using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and why we use EJS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of equal amplitude but different driving frequencies, and (2) different amounts of damping. The simulation aims to create a visually intuitive way of understanding how the series of amplitude versus driving frequency graphs are obtained by showing how the displacement of the system changes over time as it transits from the transient to the steady state. A suggested ‘how to use’ the model is added to help educators and students in their teaching and learning, where we explain the theoretical steady-state equation time conditions when the model begins to allow data recording of maximum amplitudes to closely match the theoretical equation, and the steps to collect different runs of the degree of damping. We also discuss two of the design features in our computer model: displaying the instantaneous oscillation together with the achieved steady-state amplitudes, and the explicit world view overlay with scientific representation with different degrees of damping runs. Three advantages of using EJS include: (1) open source codes and creative commons attribution licenses for scaling up of interactively engaging educational practices; (2) the models made can run on almost any device, including Android and iOS; and (3) it allows the redefinition of physics educational practices through computer modeling.

  20. ViewDEX: An efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakansson, M.; Svensson, S.; Zachrisson, S.; Svalkvist, A.; Baath, M.; Maansson, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of investigation techniques, image processing, workstation monitors, analysing tools etc. within the field of radiology is vast, and the need for efficient tools in the evaluation and optimisation process of image and investigation quality is important. ViewDEX (Viewer for Digital Evaluation of X-ray images) is an image viewer and task manager suitable for research and optimisation tasks in medical imaging. ViewDEX is DICOM compatible and the features of the interface (tasks, image handling and functionality) are general and flexible. The configuration of a study and output (for example, answers given) can be edited in any text editor. ViewDEX is developed in Java and can run from any disc area connected to a computer. It is free to use for non-commercial purposes and can be downloaded from http://www.vgregion.se/sas/viewdex. In the present work, an evaluation of the efficiency of ViewDEX for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, free-response ROC (FROC) studies and visual grading (VG) studies was conducted. For VG studies, the total scoring rate was dependent on the number of criteria per case. A scoring rate of ∼ 150 cases h -1 can be expected for a typical VG study using single images and five anatomical criteria. For ROC and FROC studies using clinical images, the scoring rate was ∼ 100 cases h -1 using single images and ∼ 25 cases h -1 using image stacks (∼ 50 images case-1). In conclusion, ViewDEX is an efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies. (authors)

  1. Comparing the Methodologies in ASTM G198: Is There an Easy Way Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASTM(1) G198, Standard test method for determining the relative corrosion performance of driven fasteners in contact with treated wood, was accepted by consensus and published in 2011. The method has two different exposure conditions for determining fastener corrosion performance in treated wood. The first method places the wood and embedded...

  2. When deception becomes easy : The effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockstaele, B.; Wilhelm, C.; Meijer, E.; Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people

  3. The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Middle School Mathematics Measures. Technical Report #1207

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Irvin, P. Shawn; Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM CCSS middle school mathematics measures, designed for use within a response to intervention framework. All items were developed in collaboration with experienced middle school mathematics teachers and were written to align with the Common Core State…

  4. Ovarian Suspension With Adjustable Sutures: An Easy and Helpful Technique for Facilitating Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Seow, Kok-Min

    2015-01-01

    To describe a method of ovarian suspension with adjustable sutures (OSAS) for facilitating laparoendoscopic single-site gynecologic surgery (LESS) and to investigate the effect of OSAS on LESS. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). University teaching hospital. One hundred seventy-eight patients with benign 5- to 15-cm cystic ovarian tumors who underwent LESS with OSAS (suspension group, n = 90) and without OSAS (control group, n = 88). For patients who underwent OSAS (suspension group), 1 end of double-head straight needles with a polypropylene suture was inserted into the pelvic cavity through the abdominal skin to penetrate the cyst or ovarian parenchyma and puncture outside the abdominal skin. After cutting off the needles, both sides of the remaining suture were held together by a clamp, without knotting, so that the manipulator could "lift," "loosen," or "fix" the stitches to adjust the tension. The average time to create OSAS was 2.9 min. For the suspension and control groups, the average blood loss was 81.4 and 131.8 mL (p < .001), and the operative time was 42.0 and 61.3 min (p < .001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications (5.6% vs 9.1%; p = .365), but there were significant differences in conversions to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (5.6% vs 15.9%; p = .025) and laparotomy (1.1% vs 6.8%; p = .040). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratios of conversion to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 0.126; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311-0.508) and laparotomy (OR, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.002-0.479) were much lower in the suspension group; the risk of complications was comparable (OR, 0.346; 95% CI, 0.085-1.403). OSAS is an easy, safe, and feasible method that offers advantages during LESS. Although routine use of OSAS is not necessary, OSAS can be considered during LESS to facilitate the surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. New classification of operators' human errors at overseas nuclear power plants and preparation of easy-to-use case sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    At nuclear power plants, plant operators examine other human error cases, including those that occurred at other plants, so that they can learn from such experiences and avoid making similar errors again. Although there is little data available on errors made at domestic plants, nuclear operators in foreign countries are reporting even minor irregularities and signs of faults, and a large amount of data on human errors at overseas plants could be collected and examined. However, these overseas data have not been used effectively because most of them are poorly organized or not properly classified and are often hard to understand. Accordingly, we carried out a study on the cases of human errors at overseas power plants in order to help plant personnel clearly understand overseas experiences and avoid repeating similar errors, The study produced the following results, which were put to use at nuclear power plants and other facilities. (1) ''One-Point-Advice'' refers to a practice where a leader gives pieces of advice to his team of operators in order to prevent human errors before starting work. Based on this practice and those used in the aviation industry, we have developed a new method of classifying human errors that consists of four basic actions and three applied actions. (2) We used this new classification method to classify human errors made by operators at overseas nuclear power plants. The results show that the most frequent errors caused not by operators themselves but due to insufficient team monitoring, for which superiors and/or their colleagues were responsible. We therefore analyzed and classified possible factors contributing to insufficient team monitoring, and demonstrated that the frequent errors have also occurred at domestic power plants. (3) Using the new classification formula, we prepared a human error case sheets that is easy for plant personnel to understand. The sheets are designed to make data more understandable and easier to remember

  6. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Hu, Y.M., E-mail: yongmaohu@163.com [College of Engineering, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China); Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhu, Y., E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xiang, J.Zh., E-mail: jzhxiang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO{sub 4} and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti

  7. Phytotracker, an information management system for easy recording and tracking of plants, seeds and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Jeroen; Sornay, Emily; Marchbank, Angela; de Graaf, Barend Hj; Murray, James Ah

    2012-10-13

    A large number of different plant lines are produced and maintained in a typical plant research laboratory, both as seed stocks and in active growth. These collections need careful and consistent management to track and maintain them properly, and this is a particularly pressing issue in laboratories undertaking research involving genetic manipulation due to regulatory requirements. Researchers and PIs need to access these data and collections, and therefore an easy-to-use plant-oriented laboratory information management system that implements, maintains and displays the information in a simple and visual format would be of great help in both the daily work in the lab and in ensuring regulatory compliance. Here, we introduce 'Phytotracker', a laboratory management system designed specifically to organise and track plasmids, seeds and growing plants that can be used in mixed platform environments. Phytotracker is designed with simplicity of user operation and ease of installation and management as the major factor, whilst providing tracking tools that cover the full range of activities in molecular genetics labs. It utilises the cross-platform Filemaker relational database, which allows it to be run as a stand-alone or as a server-based networked solution available across all workstations in a lab that can be internet accessible if desired. It can also be readily modified or customised further. Phytotracker provides cataloguing and search functions for plasmids, seed batches, seed stocks and plants growing in pots or trays, and allows tracking of each plant from seed sowing, through harvest to the new seed batch and can print appropriate labels at each stage. The system enters seed information as it is transferred from the previous harvest data, and allows both selfing and hybridization (crossing) to be defined and tracked. Transgenic lines can be linked to their plasmid DNA source. This ease of use and flexibility helps users to reduce their time needed to organise

  8. Phytotracker, an information management system for easy recording and tracking of plants, seeds and plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwland Jeroen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of different plant lines are produced and maintained in a typical plant research laboratory, both as seed stocks and in active growth. These collections need careful and consistent management to track and maintain them properly, and this is a particularly pressing issue in laboratories undertaking research involving genetic manipulation due to regulatory requirements. Researchers and PIs need to access these data and collections, and therefore an easy-to-use plant-oriented laboratory information management system that implements, maintains and displays the information in a simple and visual format would be of great help in both the daily work in the lab and in ensuring regulatory compliance. Results Here, we introduce ‘Phytotracker’, a laboratory management system designed specifically to organise and track plasmids, seeds and growing plants that can be used in mixed platform environments. Phytotracker is designed with simplicity of user operation and ease of installation and management as the major factor, whilst providing tracking tools that cover the full range of activities in molecular genetics labs. It utilises the cross-platform Filemaker relational database, which allows it to be run as a stand-alone or as a server-based networked solution available across all workstations in a lab that can be internet accessible if desired. It can also be readily modified or customised further. Phytotracker provides cataloguing and search functions for plasmids, seed batches, seed stocks and plants growing in pots or trays, and allows tracking of each plant from seed sowing, through harvest to the new seed batch and can print appropriate labels at each stage. The system enters seed information as it is transferred from the previous harvest data, and allows both selfing and hybridization (crossing to be defined and tracked. Transgenic lines can be linked to their plasmid DNA source. This ease of use and flexibility

  9. Experimental validation of the ''EasyTest Cell'' operational principle for autonomous MEA characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, I. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Topalov, G.; Slavcheva, E.; Lefterova, E. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tsotridis, G. [European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schnakenberg, U. [Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1, RWTH-Aachen University, Sommerfeld Str. 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The paper presents the experimental validation of the ''EasyTest Cell'' operational principle via comparative electrochemical tests on MEAs carried out in three types of electrochemical hydrogen energy conversion (EHEC) testing cells: conventional polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWE), properly equipped with all the required auxiliaries (products conditioning and supplying, reagents removal, etc.), and the simple, autonomous EasyTest Cell. Along with EasyTest Cell validation and demonstration of its advantages, the influence of argon pressure during sputtering on the electrode characteristics, including gas diffusion limitations was investigated. The electrodes under investigation were magnetron sputtered C/Ti/IrO{sub x} (IrO{sub x} loading in the range 0.12-0.4 mg cm{sup -2}), C/Ti/IrO{sub x}/Pt/IrO{sub x} (IrO{sub x} 0.08/Pt 0.06/IrO{sub x} 0.08 mg cm{sup -2}), sputtered at various argon pressure C/Ti/Pt (0.15 and 0.25 mg cm{sup -2}), and commercial ELAT electrode (V.21, Lot MB030105-1, Pt loading 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}, E-TEK). The results obtained proved the reliability, simplicity (running-periphery-free) and broadened experimental possibilities of EasyTest Cell over PEMFC and PEMWE single cell testing. Thus, significant cost reduction and resource saving in R and D laboratory can be achieved. Moreover, validation of EasyTest Cell contributes not only to testing facilitations, but potentially to standardization of MEA testing since it gives possibilities for precise control and more uniform distribution of the working parameters applied to the testing object, which are both compulsory for performance comparison and qualifying. (author)

  10. Can easy-to-use software deliver effective e-learning in dental education? A randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelber, J P; Hilbert, T S; Ratka-Krüger, P

    2012-08-01

    For the production of computer-based learning environments, a wide range of software solutions can be used which differ not only in their functionality but also vary in cost and ease to program. The aim of our study was to evaluate the overall efficiency and student's perception of two case-based e-learning programs that were produced with either an easy-to-use or a complex software. Eighty-five dental students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group studied with a laborious, high-interactive e-learning program (complex-software group). The second group studied within a low-interactive learning environment (easy-software group) that was easy to be programmed. Both programs identically referred to a case report on localised aggressive periodontitis. Learning outcome was tested by a pre- and post-test. Furthermore, questionnaires on workload, motivation, perceived usefulness and perceived learning outcome were used. Learners in the easy-software group showed better results in the post-test F(1, 82) = 4.173, P software tools have the potential to be beneficial in dental education. Students were showing a high acceptance and ability in using both e-learning environments. We conclude that e-learning programs for case-based learning do not have to be overly laborious to program to be useful. Based on our results, we want to encourage instructors to produce case-based e-learning tools with easy-to-use software. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Easy to use program “Simkine3” for simulating kinetic profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TLSoda which uses backward differentiation method is utilised to solve resulting ODEs and Downhill Simplex method is used to optimise the estimated rate constants in a robotic way. An online help file is developed using HelpScrible Demo to guide the users of Simkine3. The versatility of the software is demonstrated by ...

  12. Designing web-apps for smartphones can be easy as making slideshow presentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Todsen, Tobias; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinician involvement in smartphone application development poses problems considering the extensive use of smartphones among medical professionals and patients. FINDINGS: We present a simple method for the clinician to develop simple web-apps using only an Internet browser...... and a text editor. CONCLUSIONS: This method may help clinicians develop simple web-apps and increase clinician involvement in smartphone content....

  13. Electroless oxidation of diamond surfaces in ceric and ferricyanide solutions: An easy way to produce 'C-O' functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N., E-mail: nathalie.simon@uvsq.f [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles-St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78000 Versailles (France); Charrier, G.; Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles-St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78000 Versailles (France)

    2010-08-01

    Despite many works are devoted to oxidation of diamond surfaces, it is still a challenge, to successfully produce well defined 'C-O' functions, particularly for functionalization purposes. In this paper we describe and compare, for the first time, the 'electroless' oxidation of as-deposited polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) films in ceric and ferricyanide solutions at room temperature. Both reactions efficiently generate oxygen functionalities on BDD surface. While a higher amount of 'C-O' moieties is produced with Ce{sup 4+} as oxidizing agent, the use of ferricyanide specie seems the most interesting to specifically generate hydroxyl groups. Additionally, this easy to perform oxidative method appears not damaging for diamond surfaces and adapted to conductive or non-conductive materials. The resulting surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle and capacitance-voltage analysis.

  14. Development of a new test for the easy characterization of the adhesion at the interface of bilayer tablets: proof-of-concept study by experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busignies, Virginie; Mazel, Vincent; Diarra, Harona; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2014-12-30

    Although, adhesion at the interface of bilayer tablets is critical for their design it is difficult to characterize this adhesion between layers. In view of this, a new test with an easy implementation was proposed for the characterization of the interface of bilayer tablets. This work is presented as a proof-of-concept study to investigate the reliability of this new test with regard to the effects of some critical process parameters (e.g., compaction pressure applied on each layer) and material attributes (e.g., elasticity of the layered materials) on the interfacial adhesion of bilayer tablets. This was investigated using a design of experiment approach and the results obtained were in good accordance with those obtained with other tests and thus, confirms the potential of such a method for the measurement of the interfacial adhesion of bilayer tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures on a DVD as easy&cheap photoelectrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Michele; Calvillo, Laura; Zheng, Jian; Rizzi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gianandrea.rizzi@unipd.it; Durante, Christian; Giallongo, Giuseppe; Chirkov, Dymitrov; Colazzo, Luciano; Marega, Carla; Gennaro, Armando; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-03-31

    Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles have been grown by pulse-electrochemical deposition on a Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) which acts as a nanostructured electrode. Prior to Cu{sub 2}O deposition, the silver-coated rectangular-shaped grooves of the disassembled DVD were coated with a TiO{sub 2} thin film by a modified sol–gel method, where oxalic acid is used in place of the usual mineral acids to peptize the precipitated hydrous titania formed from the hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide. This procedure leaves no inorganic residues after UV-curing, resulting in a high quality film, mainly composed of TiO{sub 2}-anatase. As demonstrated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, the DVD grooves are filled by a 120–130 nm thick TiO{sub 2} film, while the thickness of the TiO{sub 2} deposit on the crests is only ca. 50 nm. This inhomogeneous thickness leads to an inhomogeneous electric field when the DVD is used as an electrode for depositing Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles, which eventually leads to the growth of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles only on the DVD crests. A highly regular and reproducible Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} stripe-like heterostructure is obtained where both semiconducting oxides are aside. This system has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements. A possible use of this easy&cheap electrode as a visible light responsive sensor to water soluble organics in basic solution is suggested. - Highlights: • A commercial DVD is recycled to prepare cheap photo-electrochemical sensors. • The sensing elements are Cu{sub 2}O nanostripes grown on a nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin film obtained at room temperature. • Water soluble organics can be detected by dissolved O{sub 2} activation with visible light.

  16. Testing biological liquid samples using modified m-line spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusciuk, Elzbieta; Rybiński, Grzegorz

    2005-09-01

    Non-chemical method of detection of sugar concentration in biological (animal and plant source) liquids has been investigated. Simplified set was build to show the easy way of carrying out the survey and to make easy to gather multiple measurements for error detecting and statistics. Method is suggested as easy and cheap alternative for chemical methods of measuring sugar concentration, but needing a lot effort to be made precise.

  17. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Computer Science; Frankel, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-16

    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  18. E-Commerce: easy access, easy business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappel, A. [Union Gas Ltd., Chatham, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this workshop presentation which dealt with the increased use of E-Commerce in the energy industries. E-Commerce refers to the use of any kind of electronic communication, including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce offers real-time access and real-time solutions to energy marketers. This paper discussed growth trends and the driving force behind E-Commerce. Market and regulatory changes such as unbundling and business transformation are some of the factors responsible for the increased used of E-Commerce. This workshop also described some of the intricacies of the Union Gas web site.

  19. An easy two-step microwave assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, SC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2) - decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) heterostructures were synthesized by microwave assisted wet impregnation method. CNTs of three different aspect ratios were compared. The hybrid samples were characterized by powder X...

  20. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Wee, Loo Kang; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted ...

  1. Evaluación del sistema de incorporación de productos fitosanitarios •Easy Flow•

    OpenAIRE

    Fortun Sanchez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The tasks of preparation and application of pesticides suppose a risk of environmental pollution and also for the user. This document proposes a study of a new system of induction hopper "Easy Flow" whose objective is to reduce risks and facilitate the operations mentioned, emptying and cleaning the container too. The device introduces the product directly to the tank and has a built-in cleaning system. To evaluate the operation have been used three different viscosities to determine possible...

  2. An easy access to two epimeric N-substituted (2S)-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)pyrrolidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria Joselice e; Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex; Cottier; Louis; Sinou, Denis; Srivastava, Rajendra M.

    2005-01-01

    An easy and efficient route for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure β-aminoketones 5a, 6 and γ-aminoalcohols 1a, 2a, 3, 4 from L-prolinol 7 and L-proline 15 is described. One of the key steps is the use of Tebbe's reagent allowing the transformation of the ester function to an enol ether without any racemization. (author)

  3. An easy access to two epimeric N-substituted (2S)-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)pyrrolidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Joselice e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex (France). ESCPE Lyon. Lab. de Synthese Asymetrique; Cottier; Louis; Sinou, Denis [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex (France). ESCPE Lyon - Ecole Superieure de Chimie, Physique et Electronique de Lyon. Lab. de Synthese Asymetrique; Srivastava, Rajendra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental]. E-mail: rms@ufpe.br

    2005-09-15

    An easy and efficient route for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure {beta}-aminoketones 5a, 6 and {gamma}-aminoalcohols 1a, 2a, 3, 4 from L-prolinol 7 and L-proline 15 is described. One of the key steps is the use of Tebbe's reagent allowing the transformation of the ester function to an enol ether without any racemization. (author)

  4. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  5. Determination of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in muscle and viscera using liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry with Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The official analytical method of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare for testing for veterinary drug residues in foods is the multiresidue analysis of β-agonists. Samples are pretreated through liquid–liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. This method is time consuming and requires the intensive use of solvents. To improve analytical efficiency and reduce costs, our study incorporated QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe techniques to establish a new method of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in animal muscle and viscera. The pretreatment time was shortened and solvent usage was minimized. The modified analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. The results demonstrated that the correlation coefficients of the tissue calibration curve were higher than 0.99 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 1 ppb. The average recoveries in spiked samples varied from 70% to 120%, and the relative difference between duplicated analysis results was lower than 10%. On the basis of the results, the proposed method was concluded to be an appropriate procedure for determining the presence of β-agonists, and demonstrated the advantages of high recovery rates in spiked samples, high precision, reduced analysis time and solvent usage, and lower costs.

  6. Introduction to partial differential equations and Hilbert space methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, Karl E

    1997-01-01

    Easy-to-use text examines principal method of solving partial differential equations, 1st-order systems, computation methods, and much more. Over 600 exercises, with answers for many. Ideal for a 1-semester or full-year course.

  7. A fast, sensitive and easy colorimetric assay for chitinase and cellulase activity detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Gaber, Yasser; Fraaije, Marco

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of the current colorimetric methods for detection of chitinase or cellulase activities on the insoluble natural polymers chitin and cellulose depend on a chemical redox reaction. The reaction involves the reducing ends of the hydrolytic products. The Schales' procedure and the

  8. Estimating the Wavelength of Sodium Emission in Flame--The Easy Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Simple "box spectroscopes" are not new. Different methods of building them at home using cheap diffraction gratings have been described. However, their use has often been confined to looking at street lights, discharge tubes, and enjoying the beautiful spectra of various lamps. Construction of the box spectroscope usually involves a narrow slit…

  9. It's Not Easy Being Green: Evaluating Student Performance in Online Business Communication Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Joel P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how technology complicates the submission and return of assignments in distance education courses. Notes that although software provides some solutions, marking papers and providing meaningful feedback to students in an online environment proves to be more complicated and time consuming than the traditional pen-on-paper method. Considers…

  10. Prostate specific antigen doubling time calculation: not as easy as 1, 2, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Regan, Meredith M; Oh, William K

    2006-11-01

    Although prostate specific antigen doubling time is widely used to predict outcomes such as time to progression and prostate cancer specific mortality, clinicians may be unaware of the impact of method on prostate specific antigen doubling time calculation. We present a critical review of the literature to assess the diversity of methods used to calculate prostate specific antigen doubling time. We then describe the need for methodological consistency with the literature by showing examples from our clinical experience at our institution. A comprehensive review of articles evaluating prostate specific antigen doubling time as a prognostic and predictive indicator in various prostate cancer disease states was performed using PubMed. Case examples were drawn from the prostate cancer database at our institution. The database is a registry of 4,651 patients with prostate cancer who have been seen at our institution since 1998. The methodology of prostate specific antigen doubling time calculation is inconsistent in the literature. Based on our experience and data presented in the literature the different methods in the literature are not always interchangeable. Small deviations from the methods outlined in a study can sometimes lead to wide variation in calculated prostate specific antigen doubling time. This variation of up to several months or longer is large enough to cause errors in assessment of prognosis and can even lead to incorrect management. The rules for prostate specific antigen doubling time calculation found in the literature can be categorized into 4 parameter groups, including method, calculation interval, data acquisition rules and data analysis rules. Case examples illustrate the importance of adherence to the literature with regard to each parameter. Consistency with the literature in methodological elements of prostate specific antigen doubling time calculation is essential for the accurate calculation of prostate specific antigen doubling time

  11. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  12. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Shaun; Auron, Philip E; Benos, Panayiotis V

    2007-03-30

    Transcription factor (TF) proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations). We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the comparative study

  13. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor (TF proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations. We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the

  14. Easy ways to remember the progression of MRI signal intensity changes of intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizlin, Z.V. [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: zeev25@yahoo.com; Shewchuk, J.R. [Medical Imaging, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, British Columbia (Canada); Clement, J.J. [Radiology, St Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper discusses the different ways to remember the progression of MRI signal intensity changes of intracranial hemorrhage. Several techniques that have been proposed to remember the progression of MRI signal intensity changes occurring in hematomas with time are discussed. In the opinion of the authors, the graph method is the easiest to remember. This may be because radiology is a highly visual speciality, and visual mnemonics seem easier to remember.

  15. Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

  16. easyCBM CCSS Math Item Scaling and Test Form Revision (2012-2013): Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to document the piloting and scaling of new easyCBM mathematics test items aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to describe the process used to revise and supplement the 2012 research version easyCBM CCSS math tests in Grades 6-8. For all operational 2012 research version test forms (10…

  17. Magnetic graphene as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Li, Xue; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Zai-Gen; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-07

    In this study, magnetic graphene was used as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tobacco. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS procedure toward target analytes, several parameters affecting the clean-up efficiency including the amount of the adsorbent and clean-up time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a method for the determination of 26 OCPs residues in tobacco was established by coupling the modified QuEChERS procedure to on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). The limits of detection of proposed method for 26 OCPs residues ranged from 0.01275 to 3.150ng/g. And good linearities of the proposed method were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9985 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility of method was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, the relative standard deviations were less than 11.1 and 15.0%, respectively. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 64-126% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of OCPs residues in tobacco, the proposed method has the advantages of simple to operate, low cost and high clean-up ability. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs residues in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Easy approach to assembling a biomimetic color film with tunable structural colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Tang, Bingtao; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen

    2015-06-01

    The self-assembly of silica microspheres into a close-packed array is a simple method of fabricating three-dimensional photonic crystal structural color films. However, the color is very dull because of the interferences of scattering and background light. In this study, we added a small quantity of surface-modified carbon black (CB) to the system of colloidal silica in n-propanol. The use of n-propanol as a dispersant is beneficial to the rapid development of photonic crystal films during the process of dip-coating. The doping of CB into silica microspheres can absorb background and scattering light, resulting in vivid structural colors.

  19. Ident 1D - a novel software tool for an easy identification of material constitutive parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, L.; Cotoni, V.; Nicola, L.; Sainte Catherine, C.

    1998-01-01

    Non-linear finite element computations make use of very sophisticated constitutive equations for description of materials behaviour. The first difficulty encountered by potential users is the gap existing between raw material characterisation on uniaxial specimens and the knowledge of the required equation's parameters. There are very few software for this particular task. IDENT 1D is a special software developed under Matlab language in our laboratory, which is able to provide a complete optimised parameters set for implemented models. The originality of IDENT 1D is that no initial estimation of the material parameters is requested of the user. Two main examples are described in this article: the Lemaitre and Chaboche creep law coupled with damage and a non unified cyclic law proposed by Contesti and Cailletaud with a separation of plastic and viscous strain terms which is called DDI model. For both laws, the identification method is completely described. Each method is then applied to a set of experimental data. In both cases, the results of the parameters identification show a very good agreement with experimental data. (authors)

  20. Easy To Use Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis for Landslide Risk Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Dibs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many countries throughout the world suffered from the natural risks, they cause a large damage in property and loss in human lives, we cannot prevent the occurring of these hazards but, it is possible to reduce their affect in saving human lives and reducing the damage in properties. Several methodologies have been conducted to predict the suitable model for landslide assessment. The susceptibility maps of landslide hazard generated by combining the remote sensed data with the capability of GIS (geographic information system. We discussed different type of algorithms and factors for modeling the prediction of landslide risk assessment such as SVM (support vector machine, DT (decision tree, ANFIS (adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system, AHP (analytic hierarchy process, ANN (artificial neural network, probability frequency of landslides occurrence factors model and empirical model. The study evaluated various parameters that are responsible for landslide occurrence and the weighting for each parameter and its importance to probable of landslide activity. AHP method, Weights of evidence model, and back propagation method have been applied for weighting the factors.  We found that using ANN algorithm with more than ten factors will give high accuracy result especially if the validation performs by field surveys data.

  1. Functional assessment of the elderly with the use of EASY-Care Standard 2010 and Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, Dorota; Pacholska, Renata; Strugała, Magdalena; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    The wide variation in performance among the elderly leads to the search for a suitable instrument to identify the necessary support. The aim of this study was to examine the scope of independent functioning of the elderly and to indicate the necessary support using basic instruments, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and EASY-Care Standard 2010. For statistical analysis were qualified 101 questionnaires of patients from oncological surgery clinic. The study group was dominated by women (79.2%). The average age for the entire group was 74.7 ± 7.5 years. In terms of basic life activities (Barthel Index), 75.2% of the elderly performed most of their activities independently. The Lawton IADL (Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Scale) median was 25 points. Moderate depression (Geriatric Depression Scale) reported 37.6% of the group. The influence of age, education, mode of movement and efficiency in basic and instrumental life activities and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale) was demonstrated in the results in three scales of the EASY-Care Standard 2010 questionnaire: Independence score, Risk of break down in care and Risk of falls. There was no difference in terms of gender and the nature of the residence. The study group of the elderly was characterised by a good level of efficiency in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Questionnaire EASY-Care Standard 2010 enables to identify functional limitations of the elderly that may form the basis for planning individual support. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. An easy and efficient permeabilization protocol for in vivo enzyme activity assays in cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Randi Engelberth; Erstad, Simon Matthé; Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that thrive in diverse ecosystems and play major roles in the global carbon cycle. The abilities of cyanobacteria to fix atmospheric CO2 and to allocate the fixed carbons to chemicals and biofuels have attracted growing attentions as sustainable...... microbial cell factories. Better understanding of the activities of enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism would lead to increasing product yields. Currently cell-free lysates are the most widely used method for determination of intracellular enzyme activities. However, due to thick cell walls...... for permeabilization of the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and determination of two intracellular enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/decarboxylase (Rubisco) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), that play pivotal roles in the central carbon metabolism...

  3. F and Ti doped silicate nanocomposite thin films for antimicrobial and easy clean applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YongSeong; Son, You-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jin; Cho, Won-Je; Raj, C Justin; HyunYu, Kook

    2014-12-01

    Titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) silane precursor were employed to coat transparent thin film on the glass substrate and these effectively prevents pollution on the glass from microorganisms. The each nanocomposition film was prepared by sol-gel method, the solution of nanocomposite was coated by spin coater with 1200 rpm for 30 sec and cured by thermal at 100 degrees C on glass which surface treated with Piranha solution. The nanocomposite films with highly self cleaning efficacy were fabricated and studied for various molar compositions of TEOS, TIPO and FAS. TEOS/TIPO film in glass substrate shows an optical transparency over 90% up to 30 mol% of TIPO in TEOS/TIPO composite films and also FAS incorporated up to 4 mol% onto TEOS/TIPO films. The anti-microbial efficiency of the nanocomposite film was improved 30% when it was exposed under UV light radiation than that in ambient condition.

  4. Recruitment of young women to a trial of chlamydia screening – as easy as it sounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillip

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting to trials is complex and difficult. The Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI trial aims to see if screening women for chlamydia and treating those found to be infected reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in the following twelve months. It focuses on young, sexually active, multiethnic, mainly inner city, female students. The main aim of this paper is to describe our recruitment methods. Secondary aims in two small subgroups, are to compare characteristics of women recruited with those not recruited, and to explore participants' understanding of when their samples would be tested for chlamydia. Methods Women students attending lectures or in common rooms at 22 universities and further education colleges were recruited by female research assistants working in pairs. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on sexual health and to provide self-taken vaginal swabs. In addition, during 3 recruitment sessions, a female medical student asked non-participants to complete a brief anonymous questionnaire on reasons for not taking part. Finally another female medical student contacted 40 consecutive participants within a month of recruitment and asked if they understood that their samples might not be tested for a year. Results With enormous effort over 2 years we recruited 2526 women. A survey of 61 non-responders showed only 18 (30% were eligible to take part (age Conclusion As in other studies, a key to attaining recruitment targets was the enthusiasm of the research team. Minority ethnic groups were probably under-represented, but understanding of participants was good. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT 00115388

  5. Easy-to-use rapid test for direct detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadl, M; Pölzler, T; Flekna, G; Thompson, L; Slaghuis, J; Köfer, J; Hein, I; Wagner, M

    2009-12-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. One important source of infection is poultry. Results from the Dutch Campylobacter Risk Management and Assessment project indicate that meat from broiler flocks shedding >or=7 log CFU Campylobacter per g of feces poses the greatest risk of transmitting campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid test that would identify chicken flocks shedding high numbers of Campylobacter. We used lateral flow technology as the alternative test method, and selected the culture method according to International Organization for Standardization guidelines. To evaluate the test under field conditions, we sampled either chicken droppings at farms or cecal contents at the slaughterhouse. PCR was used to confirm presumptive Campylobacter spp. colonies. Under laboratory conditions, chicken feces containing >or=6.7 log CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni or >or=7.1 log CFU/g Campylobacter coli were identified by the lateral flow test. Overall, 3 (33%) of 10, and 29 (85%) of 34 C. jejuni- or C. coli-positive chicken flocks were identified at farms and slaughterhouses, respectively, by using the lateral flow test. Fecal samples containing >or=7.3 log of C. jejuni or C. coli CFU/g as determined by plating were always positive when using the lateral flow test. A single person testing seven flocks at a time could obtain test results within 2 h of sampling. This simple and rapid lateral flow test may contribute significantly to the identification of chicken flocks shedding high numbers of Campylobacter.

  6. Easy Access to Functional Patterns on Cellulose Paper by Combining Laser Printing and Material-Specific Peptide Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große, Steffi; Wilke, Patrick; Börner, Hans G

    2016-09-05

    Phage display biopanning is used to identify peptides that show material-selective adsorption, effectively distinguishing between the cellulose of paper and the printed toner of standard office laser printers. These genetically selected 12mer peptides can selectively coat either non-printed cellulose or printed toner patterns. Furthermore, triazolindione ligation chemistry is exploited to introduce, for example, dyes or functional peptides selectively to the coatings. The strategy offers an easy access towards the patterned functionalization of paper-based materials, which potentially is of relevance for low-cost diagnostics or biomedical devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. EasyCloneYALI: CRISPR/Cas9-based synthetic toolbox for engineering of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holkenbrink, Carina; Dam, Marie Inger; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin

    2018-01-01

    . Here, we present the EasyCloneYALI genetic toolbox, which allows streamlined strain construction with high genome editing efficiencies in Y. lipolytica via the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The toolbox allows marker-free integration of gene expression vectors into characterized genome sites as well as marker......-free deletion of genes with the help of CRISPR/Cas9. Genome editing efficiencies above 80% were achieved with transformation protocols using non-replicating DNA repair fragments (such as DNA oligos). Furthermore, the toolbox includes a set of integrative gene expression vectors with prototrophic markers...

  8. In-plane anisotropy of a nano-scaled magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic easy axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Eriko; Kanai, Shun; Sato, Koji; Yamanouchi, Michihiko; Sato, Hideo; Ikeda, Shoji; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of a 100-nm-diameter CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with perpendicular magnetic easy axis by homodyne-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and junction resistance measurements. The resonant frequency depends clearly on the direction of the in-plane magnetic field, which is also the case for the angle dependence of the junction resistance. A good correspondence between the two independent measurements indicates the presence of unintentionally introduced in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the present MTJ.

  9. EASY-An Instrument for Surveillance of Physical Activity in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Schenkelberg, Michaela A; Beets, Michael; DiStefano, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Physical activity (PA) promotion among youth is a public health priority and there is a need for robust surveillance systems to help support such initiatives. Existing youth PA self-report instruments that are used for surveillance lack information regarding the types and contexts of activity. Further, these instruments have limited validity with accelerometry. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report instrument, with sound psychometric properties, for monitoring compliance with PA guidelines in youth. In focus groups, 162 middle school students identified 30 forms of PA that are highly prevalent in that age group. We incorporated these activities into three preliminary forms of a self-report instrument. An independent sample of middle school students (n = 537) was randomly assigned to complete one of the three preliminary versions of the instrument. Rasch analysis was applied to the responses to the three formats, and a yes/no plus frequency format emerged as the preferred method. A third sample of 342 middle school students then completed the yes/no plus frequency instrument twice following a seven-day period during which they wore an accelerometer. Using both Rasch analysis and traditional correlational methods, validity and reliability of a 14-item instrument were established. Data were collected during 2012 - 2015. Spearman correlation coefficient for the association between the cumulative score for the 14 items and minutes per day of accelerometry-derived moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 0.33 (95% CI 0.22, 0.43; pinstrument was 0.90 and 0.44, respectively. The study produced a PA self-report instrument for youth that was found to be reliable (r=0.91), valid versus accelerometry (r=0.33), and acceptably specific and sensitive in detecting compliance with PA guidelines.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where

  10. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Adam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM, quercitrin (4 µM and quercetin (4 µM. Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was

  11. Minilaparoscopic hysterectomy made easy: first report on alternative instrumentation and new integrated energy platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ying Woo; Lim, Li Min; Fong, Yoke Fai

    2014-05-01

    Minilaparoscopy is an attractive approach for hysterectomy due to advantages such as reduced morbidities and enhanced cosmesis. However, it has not been popularized due to the lack of suitable instruments and high technical demand. We aim to highlight the first case of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy reported in Asia and the use of a new integrated energy platform, Thunderbeat. We would like to propose an alternative method of instrumentation, so as to improve the feasibility and safety of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy. The first minilaparoscopic hysterectomy in Singapore was successfully completed using the alternative instrumentation and new energy platform. There was no conversion or complication during the surgery. The patient recovered uneventfully. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of such alternative instrumentation. This approach in instrumentation and the new energy platform will improve the feasibility and speed of the surgery and ensure safety in our patients. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. MemBrain: An Easy-to-Use Online Webserver for Transmembrane Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Yang, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Yang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2018-03-01

    Membrane proteins are an important kind of proteins embedded in the membranes of cells and play crucial roles in living organisms, such as ion channels, transporters, receptors. Because it is difficult to determinate the membrane protein's structure by wet-lab experiments, accurate and fast amino acid sequence-based computational methods are highly desired. In this paper, we report an online prediction tool called MemBrain, whose input is the amino acid sequence. MemBrain consists of specialized modules for predicting transmembrane helices, residue-residue contacts and relative accessible surface area of α-helical membrane proteins. MemBrain achieves a prediction accuracy of 97.9% of A TMH, 87.1% of A P, 3.2 ± 3.0 of N-score, 3.1 ± 2.8 of C-score. MemBrain-Contact obtains 62%/64.1% prediction accuracy on training and independent dataset on top L/5 contact prediction, respectively. And MemBrain-Rasa achieves Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.733 and its mean absolute error of 13.593. These prediction results provide valuable hints for revealing the structure and function of membrane proteins. MemBrain web server is free for academic use and available at www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Defect-selective dry etching for quick and easy probing of hexagonal boron nitride domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinke; Lee, Joohyun; Park, Sangwoo; Woo, Hwi Je; Lee, Sungjoo; Song, Young Jae

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a new method to selectively etch the point defects or the boundaries of as-grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films and flakes in situ on copper substrates using hydrogen and argon gases. The initial quality of the chemical vapor deposition-grown hBN films and flakes was confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different gas flow ratios of Ar/H2 were then employed to etch the same quality of samples and it was found that etching with hydrogen starts from the point defects and grows epitaxially, which helps in confirming crystalline orientations. However, etching with argon is sensitive to line defects (boundaries) and helps in visualizing the domain size. Finally, based on this defect-selective dry etching technique, it could be visualized that the domains of a polycrystalline hBN monolayer merged together with many parts, even with those that grew from a single nucleation seed.

  14. Easy and fast detection and genotyping of high-risk human papillomavirus by dedicated DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Valérie; Chevallier, Anne; Magnone, Virginie; Barbry, Pascal; Vandenbos, Fanny; Bongain, André; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    Persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is correlated with an increased risk of developing a high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion. A two-step method was developed for detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV. DNA was firstly amplified by asymmetrical PCR in the presence of Cy3-labelled primers and dUTP. Labelled DNA was then genotyped using DNA microarray hybridization. The current study evaluated the technical efficacy of laboratory-designed HPV DNA microarrays for high-risk HPV genotyping on 57 malignant and non-malignant cervical smears. The approach was evaluated for a broad range of cytological samples: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of high-grade (ASC-H). High-risk HPV was also detected in six atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) samples; among them only one cervical specimen was found uninfected, associated with no histological lesion. The HPV oligonucleotide DNA microarray genotyping detected 36 infections with a single high-risk HPV type and 5 multiple infections with several high-risk types. Taken together, these results demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the HPV DNA microarray approach. This approach could improve clinical management of patients with cervical cytological abnormalities.

  15. Parallel and Other Simulations in R Made Easy: An End-to-End Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hofert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how to set up, conduct, and analyze large simulation studies with the new R package simsalapar (= simulations simplified and launched parallel. A simulation study typically starts with determining a collection of input variables and their values on which the study depends. Computations are desired for all combinations of these variables. If conducting these computations sequentially is too time-consuming, parallel computing can be applied over all combinations of select variables. The final result object of a simulation study is typically an array. From this array, summary statistics can be derived and presented in terms of flat contingency or LATEX tables or visualized in terms of matrix-like figures. The R package simsalapar provides several tools to achieve the above tasks. Warnings and errors are dealt with correctly, various seeding methods are available, and run time is measured. Furthermore, tools for analyzing the results via tables or graphics are provided. In contrast to rather minimal examples typically found in R packages or vignettes, an end-to-end, not-so-minimal simulation problem from the realm of quantitative risk management is given. The concepts presented and solutions provided by simsalapar may be of interest to students, researchers, and practitioners as a how-to for conducting realistic, large-scale simulation studies in R.

  16. Good exams made easy: The item management system for multiple examination formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochlehnert Achim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development, implementation and evaluation of assessments require considerable resources and often cannot be carried out by a single faculty/institution. Therefore some medical faculties have founded cooperation projects which mainly focus on the exchange of multiple choice questions (MCQs. Methods Since these cooperation projects do not entirely support all relevant processes in terms of preparation, implementation and evaluation of assessment, in 2006 the Medical Assessment Alliance (MAA was founded for mutual support. In addition to MCQs the MAA started to develop innovative assessment formats and facilitate content through a coordinated exchange of experiences. To support cooperation within this network, the web-based Item Management System (IMS was developed which supports all processes of the assessment workflow as an all-in-one working platform. Results At present, the Alliance has 28 partner faculties in Europe. More than 2.800 users in 750 working groups are collaborating. Currently 90.000 questions have been stored in the IMS. Since 2007, nearly 4.600 examinations have been successfully conducted. Conclusion This article describes in detail the unique features of the IMS and contrasts it with the item management systems of other associations.

  17. Easy and safe coated optical fiber direct connection without handling bare optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel field installable splicing technique for the direct connection of 250 μm diameter coated optical fiber that does not require bare optical fiber to be handled. Our proposed technique can realize a low insertion loss over a wide field installation temperature range of -10-40 °C. The keys to coated optical fiber direct connection are a cleaving technique and a technique for removing coated optical fiber. As the cleaving technique, we employed a method where the fiber is stretched and then a blade is pushed perpendicularly against the stretched fiber. As a result we confirmed that fiber endfaces cleaved at -10-40 °C were all mirror endfaces. With the removal technique, the coating is removed inside the connecting component by incorporating a circular cone shaped coating removal part. A mechanical splice based on these techniques successfully achieved a low insertion loss of less than 0.11 dB and a return loss of more than 50 dB at -10, 20, and 40 °C. In addition, the temperature cycle characteristics were stable over a wide temperature range of -40-75 °C.

  18. Tooth for a tooth: Tissue engineering made easy at dental chairside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kharidhi Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stem cells are unspecialized, multipotent cells which can differentiate into different cell types. The human periodontal ligament encloses subpopulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs which are able to regenerate the periodontium by differentiating into various cells of PDL. Literature have shown the promising results of periodontal regeneration by exvivo cultured transplantation of PDLSCs into the osseous defects. Methods: Based on current literature on use of ex vivo culture and associated problems, a novel technique is being presented , Stem cell application in periodontal regeneration (SAI-PRT which uses autologous PDLSCs along with its niche adhering to extracted tooth root for direct application using gelatin sponge as scaffold in regeneration of intrabony periodontal defect bypassing ex-vivo culture. Results: The cases initiated under SAI-PRT protocol, and have shown excellent clinical and radiographic improvement in intrabony defect using direct transplant of autologous PDLSCs . Conclusions: SAI-PRT can be used for the treatment of periodontal osseous defects at chair side.

  19. 'It's Not Easy': School Nurse Pain Assessment Practices for Students with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brenna L

    2016-04-01

    Assessing pain in children with special needs presents unique challenges for school nurses, as no evidence-based or clinical standards to guide practices have been established for use in the school setting. Additionally, school nurse staffing has not kept pace with the growth in the population of children with special needs, which has increased by 60% since 2002. The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' pain assessment practices for students with special needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted via the web. Participants/Subjects: Of 3,071 special needs school nurses invited, 27% participated (n = 825). STATA13 was used to analyze descriptive statistics, while content analysis was performed in NVIVO 10. The majority of participants assessed pain in students with special needs using objective assessments (97.34%) and consultations with teachers (91.09%) and parents (88.64%). School nurses utilize pain assessment methods used previously in other practice areas, and rated pain assessment practices at the low benchmark of adequate. Overall, school nurses assess pain by selecting approaches that are best matched to the abilities of the student with special needs. When assessing students with special needs, nurses should utilize objective clinical assessments, teacher consultations, and parent input scales. In addition to continuing education, policies facilitating lower nurse-to-student ratios are needed to improve pain assessment practices in the school setting. Research to understand the perspectives of nurses, teachers, parents, and students is needed to support the creation of evidence-based policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding people is easy: but we have to re-think the world from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudge, Colin

    2005-09-01

    Agriculture designed to make best use of landscape and to be maximally sustainable would also provide food of the highest nutritional and gastronomic standards, and would inevitably employ a great many people. Thus it would solve the world's food problems, and its principal social problem, at a stroke. But agriculture in practice is designed for a quite different purpose--to generate wealth, in the cause of 'economic growth'. The pressing need is not for more science and technology, but to recognise the true cause of the problems and to re-think priorities. We could all be well fed. Indeed, everyone in the world who is ever likely to be born could be fed to the highest standards of gastronomy as well as of nutrition until humanity itself comes to an end. We already have most of the necessary technique--perhaps all that is needed. We could always do with more excellent science but we need not depend, as we are often told from on high, on the next technological fix. The methods that can provide excellent food would also create a beautiful environment, with plenty of scope for other creatures, and agreeable and stable agrarian economies with satisfying jobs for all. In reality, in absolute contrast, we have created a world in which almost a billion are chronically undernourished; another billion are horribly overnourished, so that obesity and diabetes are epidemic, and rising; a billion live on less than two dollars a day; and a billion live in urban slums--a figure set to increase and probably at least to double over the next half century; while other species are disappearing so fast that biologists speak of mass extinction.