WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern north america

  1. Addressing wind integration issues in north eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-27

    Wind energy has been growing rapidly in the north eastern region of North America in response to an increasing focus on security of supply issues and greater public concern over climate change. The purpose of this report was to address the issues associated with wind integration in the north east by evaluating issues that inhibit the transmission of wind; identifying actions that will improve the integration of wind; and profiling processes that could facilitate the uptake of wind. Specifically, the report sought to identify wind integration issues that may arise in the north east region in the next 5 to 10 year period. The report provided an overview of the north east and its wind resource, including an overview of the north east electricity market; wind energy overview; and intermittent wind farms. The global experience of wind integration to date was also presented. This included long-term wind vision; wind resource data set; multi-integration studies; upgrading and expanding transmissions systems; balancing area size; forecasting; geographical diversity; increasing system flexibility; and whole sale markets. A north east wind integration seminar was also highlighted. It was concluded that large scale wind could produce sufficient revenues to pay for the addition of substantial transmission with added benefits to the loads. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 appendices.

  2. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  3. Trail Trees: Living Artifacts (Vivifacts of Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Kawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Living trees historically modified by human populations, oftentimes referred to as “culturally modified trees” (CMTs, are found throughout the North American landscape. In eastern North America specifically, indigenous populations bent thousands of trees to mark trails, and some of these still exist in the region today. In this article, we present a synthesis of current knowledge on trail trees, including their speculated functions, formation, and selection. We also examine the theoretical implications of these living artifacts (or vivifacts and how they may open new avenues for investigation by archaeologists, environmental historians, and ethnobiologists. To conclude, we make a call for expanded public recognition and documentation of trail trees, discussing the need for their incorporation into forest and park management plans.

  4. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  5. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  6. Bird collision impacts at wind turbines in eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Curry, Richard; Guarnaccia, John [Curry and Kerlinger, LLC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the incidence of bird collisions at wind turbines in Eastern North America. Modern wind turbines are high, with long, tubular towers. Bird fatality is analyzed and references to the relevant studies that have been done are given. 26 sites were investigated for turbine mortality in 2011 and these are shown on a map. 64 turbines were examined in Maple Ridge and it was seen that 4 birds were killed per turbine per year. The results demonstrated that no eagles were killed, there were no endangered species involved and there was no real deviation from site to site. More than 80,000 individual turbines were researched and more than $30 million spent on the study. Around 120,000 birds are killed per year, or an average of over 6 birds per turbine per year, in the United States. It is clear from the extensive research conducted that there are a lot of data on birds and turbines; the data show that songbirds are the most often affected.

  7. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  8. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  9. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  10. Comparative phylogeography of the wild-rice genus Zizania (Poaceae) in eastern Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Wei; Wu, Jin-Wei; Qi, Mei-Xia; Lu, Qi-Xiang; Lee, Peter F; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Comparative phylogeography of intercontinental disjunct taxa allowed us not only to elucidate their diversification and evolution following geographic isolation, but also to understand the effect of climatic and geological histories on the evolutionary processes of closely related species. A phylogeographic analysis was conducted on the eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus Zizania to compare intracontinental phylogeographic patterns between different continents. Surveys were conducted of 514 individuals using three chloroplast DNA fragments and three nuclear microsatellite loci. These individuals included 246 from 45 populations of Zizania latifolia in eastern Asia, and the following from North America: 154 individuals from 26 populations of Z. aquatica, 84 individuals from 14 populations of Z. palustris, and 30 individuals from one population of Z. texana. The genetic diversity of North American Zizania was significantly higher than that of eastern Asian Zizania. High levels of genetic differentiation among populations and no signal of population expansion were detected in three widespread species. No phylogeographic structure was observed in Z. latifolia, and discordant patterns of cpDNA and microsatellite markers were observed in North American Zizania. Reduced variation in Zizania latifolia likely reflects its perennial life history, the North American origin of Zizania, and the relative homogeneity of aquatic environments. High levels of genetic differentiation suggest limited dispersal among populations in all Zizania species. The more complex patterns of diversification and evolution in North American Zizania may be driven by the greater impact of glaciation in North America relative to eastern Asia. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Field Guide for the Biological Control of Weeds in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field guide provides information about invasive weeds in Eastern North America and their associated biological control agents. Information about plant identification and ecology is provided through photographs and descriptions for each weed species. The guide also includes photographs of the bi...

  12. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  13. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  14. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  15. Hydroclimatology and Comparative Soil Erosion in Eastern North America and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Extreme soil erosion and hydrologic disruption during the historical period of European agricultural occupance has been well documented for several regions of the US. Why was it so much more severe in the US than in Western Europe, the place of origin of most settlers? While choice of crops, agricultural practices, literacy, tenancy and economic factors were all contributing factors, differences of hydroclimatology, specifically rainfall intensities and amounts, also played a strong role. The climate of Western Europe is Marine West Coast (Koeppen:Cfb)while that of Eastern North America is Humid Subtropical or Humid Continental(Cfa, Dfa). While both regions are humid, Western Europe tends to have well-distributed rainfall occurring in moderate storms whereas Eastern North America has more erratic rainfall occurring in often intense storms. A comparison of long-term frequency-magnitude relationships of storms shows much lower values for Europe than for America. For example, a 100-year-24 hour event in the southeastern US is about 2-4 times as great as that in lowland England. European settlers simply did not have the agronomic and engineering techniques to deal with this excessive rainfall and such techniques were not developed in he US until the 1930s. . Agricultural fields in Britain generally require no engineering such as terracing, contour strip cropping, or even contour plowing to handle excess water but they are absolutely required in the eastern US. There is evidence that climate change will affect these features. For example, intense rainstorms in southern England in recent years have flooded roads (because the drains were inadequate), eroded fields (no conservation measures), and flooded villages (storm channels were too small).For future projects, Europeans may well have to look to the engineering practices developed and used in the eastern US.

  16. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  17. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  19. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  20. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-07

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.

  1. Molecular identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in eastern North America by using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-07-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.

  2. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  3. Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline in Eastern North America Linked with Phytophagous Insect Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiry, Najat; Filion, Louise

    1996-05-01

    Macrofossil evidence indicates that the mid-Holocene hemlock [ Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline that occurred over a wide area in eastern North America was associated with phytophagous insect activity. In situhemlock macrofossils and insect remains found in a paludified dunefield at the northern limit of hemlock testify that two defoliation events occurred at 4910 ± 90 and 4200 ± 100 yr B.P., respectively. The sharp coincidence of remains from hemlock needles with chewing damage typical of hemlock looper feeding, head capsules from the hemlock looper ( Lambdina fiscellaria) and the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana), absence of hemlock fruiting remains, and tree-ring anomalies in fossil hemlocks that died prematurely (caused mass mortality. Our findings indicate that defoliation can affect ecosystems for centuries, especially when long-lived tree species are involved.

  4. Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Christian O; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Tilman, David

    2016-07-01

    Does variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region.

  5. Tracking population loss in Cornus florida since discovery of Discula destructiva, causal agent of dogwood anthracnose, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Jones; William D. Smith; Daniel B. Twardus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation monitoring project was to document the losses of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida (L.), an important ornamental and wildlife tree that grows across much of Eastern North America. The project was prompted in 2001 by the apparent abundance of flowering dogwoods along roadsides in the Morgantown, WV, area, despite a...

  6. Quality Control and First Insights on the Variability of Surface Wind Observations for North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro Montesinos, J.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P.; García-Bustamante, E.; Conte, J.; Casabella, N.; Beltrami, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, a policy change in energy sources has been fostered in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of this has been to reduce the dependency on energy produced abroad and to propose feasible alternatives with the aim of reducing greenhouse emissions. The region offers a high potential for the development of wind energy facilities and studies within the framework of wind resource assessment are encouraged. Studies of this nature rely on the quality of observational data. Henceforth, it is essential to develop procedures that ensure the reliability of observations before they are subjected to any subsequent analysis. This work summarizes the Quality Control process applied to an observational database of surface wind module and direction in North Eastern North America. The data set consists of 525 stations compiled from three different sources: 344 land sites from Environment Canada (EC; 1940-2009) located in the provinces of Atlantic Canada and Quebec; 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC; 1988-2008); and 141 land sites over both Eastern Canada and North Eastern USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1975-2010). The process comprises different phases that: 1) unify measurement units and recording times; 2) find accidentally duplicated periods of data within a time series or between different stations; 3) check for physical consistency in the ranges of values; 4) detect time intervals of anomalous low and high variability; and 5) look for long term biases in mean and variance. The temporal extension and resolution of the quality controlled database allows to explore the wind variability at different temporal scales, from daily to multidecadal. This contribution will present a first assessment of the wind field climatology in the region, including a description of long term trends, analogous of wind circulation regimes and their relationship to large scale

  7. Evolution of biogeographic disjunction between eastern Asia and North America in Chamaecyparis: Insights from ecological niche models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of plants between eastern Asia (EA and North America (NA is one of the most well-known biogeographic patterns. However, the formation and historical process of this pattern have been long debated. Chamaecyparis is a good model to test previous hypotheses about the formation of this disjunct pattern as it contains six species disjunctly distributed in EA, western North America (WNA and eastern North America (ENA. In this study, we applied ecological niche models to test the formation of the disjunct pattern of Chamaecyparis. The model calibrated with the EA species was able to predict the distribution of eastern NA species well, but not the western NA species. Furthermore, the eastern Asian species were shown to have higher niche overlap with the eastern North American species. The EA species were also shown to share more similar habitats with ENA species than with WNA species in the genus. Chamaecyparis species in WNA experienced a significant niche shift compared with congeneric species. Chamaecyparis had a low number of suitable regions in Europe and the middle and western NA during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM period, and became extinct in the former region whereas it retains residual distribution in the latter. The extirpations in western NA and Europe in response to the late Neogene and Quaternary climatic cooling and the more similar habitats between ENA and EA ultimately shaped the current intercontinental disjunct distribution of Chamaecyparis. Both current hypotheses may be also jointly applied to explain more eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunctions observed today.

  8. Mantle source heterogeneity of the Early Jurassic basalt of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2017-08-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the basaltic rocks from the Early Jurassic Eastern North America (ENA) sub-province of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the systematic compositional variation from South to North. Moreover, the tectono-thermal regime of the CAMP is debated as it demonstrates geological and structural characteristics (size, radial dyke pattern) that are commonly associated with mantle plume-derived mafic continental large igneous provinces but is considered to be unrelated to a plume. Mantle potential temperature (T P) estimates of the northern-most CAMP flood basalts (North Mountain basalt, Fundy Basin) indicate that they were likely produced under a thermal regime (T P ≈ 1450 °C) that is closer to ambient mantle (T P ≈ 1400 °C) conditions and are indistinguishable from other regions of the ENA sub-province (T Psouth = 1320-1490 °C, T Pnorth = 1390-1480 °C). The regional mantle potential temperatures are consistent along the 3000-km-long ENA sub-province suggesting that the CAMP was unlikely to be generated by a mantle plume. Furthermore, the mantle potential temperature calculation using the rocks from the Northern Appalachians favors an Fe-rich mantle (FeOt = 8.6 wt %) source, whereas the rocks from the South Appalachians favor a less Fe-rich (FeOt = 8.3 wt %) source. The results indicate that the spatial-compositional variation of the ENA basaltic rocks is likely related to differing amounts of melting of mantle sources that reflect the uniqueness of their regional accreted terranes (Carolinia and West Avalonia) and their post-accretion, pre-rift structural histories.

  9. Comparison of earthquake source spectra and attenuation in eastern North America and southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T.I.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paucity of ground-motion data in stable continental regions (SCRs) remains a key limitation when developing relations that seek to predict effects of strong ground shaking from large damaging earthquakes. It is desirable to combine data from more than one SCR to increase database size, but this raises questions as to whether the source and attenuation properties of the SCRs are equivalent. We compare recently compiled spectral-amplitude databases from small to moderate events (moment magnitudes, 2.0 ??? M ??? 5.0) in both southeastern Australia and eastern North America (ENA). Both are SCRs but are widely separated, spatially and in tectonic history. We statistically compare ground motions by plotting mean and standard deviations of spectral amplitudes for data grouped in magnitude and distance bins. These comparisons show that the source and attenuation properties of the two regions are very similar, in particular, at shorter hypocentral distances R (i.e., R < 70 km). At larger distances, regional attenuation differences are observed that may be attributed to differences in crustal structure. We conclude that it is valid to combine the Australian and ENA ground-motion datasets in the development of ground-motion prediction equations, with some limitations in frequency and distance ranges. These ground-motion relations may serve as generic functions for SCRs around the world.

  10. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  11. Phylogenetics of Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula Complex (Serpentes: Colubridae), in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L; Nuñez, Leroy P; Newman, Catherine E; Bowen, Brian W

    2017-01-24

    Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America. Studies over the last century have used morphology and color pattern to describe numerous subspecies. More recently, DNA analyses have made invaluable contributions to our understanding of their evolution and taxonomy. We use genetic and ecological methods to test previous hypotheses of distinct evolutionary lineages by examining 66 total snakes and 1) analyzing phylogeographic structure using 2 mtDNA loci and 1 nuclear locus, 2) estimating divergence dates and historical demography among lineages in a Bayesian coalescent framework, and 3) applying ecological niche modeling (ENM). Our molecular data and ENMs illustrate that 3 previously recognized subspecies in the eastern United States comprise well-supported monophyletic lineages that diverged during the Pleistocene. The geographic boundaries of these 3 lineages correspond closely to known biogeographic barriers (Florida peninsula, Appalachian Mountains, and Apalachicola River) previously identified for other plants and animals, indicating shared geographic influences on evolutionary history. We conclude that genetic, ecological, and morphological data support recognition of these 3 lineages as distinct species (Lampropeltis floridana, Lampropeltis getula, and Lampropeltis meansi).

  12. A sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary imaged beneath eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Catherine A; Fischer, Karen M; Rondenay, Stéphane

    2005-07-28

    Plate tectonic theory hinges on the concept of a relatively rigid lithosphere moving over a weaker asthenosphere, yet the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary remains poorly understood. The gradient in seismic velocity that occurs at this boundary is central to constraining the physical and chemical properties that create differences in mechanical strength between the two layers. For example, if the lithosphere is simply a thermal boundary layer that is more rigid owing to colder temperatures, mantle flow models indicate that the velocity gradient at its base would occur over tens of kilometres. In contrast, if the asthenosphere is weak owing to volatile enrichment or the presence of partial melt, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could occur over a much smaller depth range. Here we use converted seismic phases in eastern North America to image a very sharp seismic velocity gradient at the base of the lithosphere-a 3-11 per cent drop in shear-wave velocity over a depth range of 11 km or less at 90-110 km depth. Such a strong, sharp boundary cannot be reconciled with a purely thermal gradient, but could be explained by an asthenosphere that contains a few per cent partial melt or that is enriched in volatiles relative to the lithosphere.

  13. Origin of the Blue Ridge escarpment along the passive margin of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotila, J.A.; Bank, G.C.; Reiners, P.W.; Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Henika, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Ridge escarpment is a rugged landform situated within the ancient Appalachian orogen. While similar in some respects to the great escarpments along other passive margins, which have evolved by erosion following rifting, its youthful topographic expression has inspired proposals of Cenozoic tectonic rejuvenation in eastern North America. To better understand the post-orogenic and post-rift geomorphic evolution of passive margins, we have examined the origin of this landform using low-temperature thermochronometry and manipulation of topographic indices. Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track analyses along transects across the escarpment reveal a younging trend towards the coast. This pattern is consistent with other great escarpments and fits with an interpretation of having evolved by prolonged erosion, without the requirement of tectonic rejuvenation. Measured ages are also comparable specifically to those measured along other great escarpments that are as much as 100 Myr younger. This suggests that erosional mechanisms that maintain rugged escarpments in the early post-rift stages may remain active on ancient passive margins for prolonged periods. The precise erosional evolution of the escarpment is less clear, however, and several end-member models can explain the data. Our preferred model, which fits with all data, involves a significant degree of erosional escarpment retreat in the Cenozoic. Although this suggests that early onset of topographic stability is not required of passive margin evolution, more data are required to better constrain the details of the escarpment's development. ?? 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The attenuation of Fourier amplitudes for rock sites in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Gail M.; Boore, David M.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an empirical model of the decay of Fourier amplitudes for earthquakes of M 3–6 recorded on rock sites in eastern North America and discuss its implications for source parameters. Attenuation at distances from 10 to 500 km may be adequately described using a bilinear model with a geometric spreading of 1/R1.3 to a transition distance of 50 km, with a geometric spreading of 1/R0.5 at greater distances. For low frequencies and distances less than 50 km, the effective geometric spreading given by the model is perturbed using a frequency‐ and hypocentral depth‐dependent factor defined in such a way as to increase amplitudes at lower frequencies near the epicenter but leave the 1 km source amplitudes unchanged. The associated anelastic attenuation is determined for each event, with an average value being given by a regional quality factor of Q=525f 0.45. This model provides a match, on average, between the known seismic moment of events and the inferred low‐frequency spectral amplitudes at R=1  km (obtained by correcting for the attenuation model). The inferred Brune stress parameters from the high‐frequency source terms are about 600 bars (60 MPa), on average, for events of M>4.5.

  15. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  17. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while deeper reflectors are associated with the subduction of the ancient Farallon slab. A comparison of the depth of upper mantle discontinuities to changes in seismic velocity and anisotropy will further quantify the relationship to mantle flow, compositional layering, and phases changes.

  18. Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex in eastern North America at 3800 B.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D; Yarnell, Richard A

    2009-04-21

    Although geneticists and archaeologists continue to make progress world-wide in documenting the time and place of the initial domestication of a growing number of plants and animals, far less is known regarding the critically important context of coalescence of various species into distinctive sets or complexes of domesticates in each of the world's 10 or more independent centers of agricultural origin. In this article, the initial emergence of a crop complex is described for one of the best-documented of these independent centers, eastern North America (ENA). Before 4000 B.P. there is no indication of a crop complex in ENA, only isolated evidence for single indigenous domesticate species. By 3800 B.P., however, at least 5 domesticated seed-bearing plants formed a coherent complex in the river valley corridors of ENA. Accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates and reanalysis of archaeobotanical assemblages from a short occupation of the Riverton Site in Illinois documents the contemporary cultivation at 3800 B.P. of domesticated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), marshelder (Iva annua var. macrocarpa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus), and 2 cultivated varieties of chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), as well as the possible cultivation of Cucurbita pepo squash and little barley (Hordeum pusillum). Rather than marking either an abrupt developmental break or a necessary response to population-packing or compressed resource catchments, the coalescence of an initial crop complex in ENA appears to reflect an integrated expansion and enhancement of preexisting hunting and gathering economies that took place within a context of stable long-term adaptation to resource-rich river valley settings.

  19. Book Review: Evans, Arthur V. 2014. Beetles of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 560 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-13304-1 (paperback). Price: US $35.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    A book review is presented for “Beetles of Eastern North America” by Arthur V. Evans. This 560 page book was published in 2014 and treats over 1,400 species of beetles distributed in eastern North America....

  20. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  1. Alternative (G-16v2) Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.

    2016-12-01

    Introduced is the ground motion prediction equations model for the Central and Eastern North America that represents an alternative more physically justified approach to ground motion attenuation modeling then previous Graizer (2016) G-16 model. The new model has a bilinear slope of R-1 within 70 km from the fault with a slope of R-0.5 at larger distances corresponding to the geometrical spreading of body and surface waves. The new (G-16v2) model is based in part on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration (SA) and also on comparisons with the Western U.S. data and ground motion simulations. Based on data, I estimated the average slope of the distance attenuation within the 50-70 km distance from the fault to be -1.0 at most of the frequencies supporting regular geometrical spreading of body waves. Multiple inversions are performed to estimate apparent (combined intrinsic and scattering) attenuation of SA amplitudes from the NGA-East database for incorporation into the model. These estimates demonstrate a difference between seismological Q(f) and the above mentioned attenuation factor that I recommend calling QSA(f). I adjusted previously developed site correction which was based on multiple runs of representative VS30 (time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) profiles through SHAKE-type equivalent-linear codes. Site amplifications are calculated relative to the hard rock definition used in nuclear industry (VS=2800 m/s). These improvements resulted in a modest reduction in standard deviation in the new G-16v2 relative to the G-16 model. The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane Rrup, VS30, and apparent attenuation factor QSA(f). The model is applicable for the stable continental regions and covers the following range: 4.0≤M≤8.5, 0≤Rrup≤1000 km, 450≤VS30≤2800 m/s and frequencies 0.1

  2. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  3. Impacts of elevated temperature on ant species, communities and ecological roles at two temperate forests in Eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Robert [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Over the course of five years we have established a long-term array of warming chambers at Duke and Harvard Forest that simulate future conditions with regard to temperature. In these chambers, we have studied, ants, other animal taxa, fungi, bacteria and plants and their responses to the treatments. We have coupled these studies with lab experiments, large-scale observations, and models to contextualize our results. Finally, we have developed integrative models of the future distribution of species and their consequences as a result of warming in eastern North America and more generally.

  4. Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colautti, Robert I; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2011-09-01

    Evolution during biological invasion may occur over contemporary timescales, but the rate of evolutionary change may be inhibited by a lack of standing genetic variation for ecologically relevant traits and by fitness trade-offs among them. The extent to which these genetic constraints limit the evolution of local adaptation during biological invasion has rarely been examined. To investigate genetic constraints on life-history traits, we measured standing genetic variance and covariance in 20 populations of the invasive plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) sampled along a latitudinal climatic gradient in eastern North America and grown under uniform conditions in a glasshouse. Genetic variances within and among populations were significant for all traits; however, strong intercorrelations among measurements of seedling growth rate, time to reproductive maturity and adult size suggested that fitness trade-offs have constrained population divergence. Evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained from the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) and the matrix of (co)variance among population means (D), which were 79.8% (95% C.I. 77.7-82.9%) similar. These results suggest that population divergence during invasive spread of L. salicaria in eastern North America has been constrained by strong genetic correlations among life-history traits, despite large amounts of standing genetic variation for individual traits. © 2011 The Author(s).

  5. The Assembly of Eastern North America: Using Garnet Zoning to Decipher the Potomac Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, D.; Melson, W. G.

    2001-12-01

    The Sykesville Formation, the focus of this study, is in the easternmost Potomac Terrain between Roosevelt Island and Chain Bridge in the Potomac River Gorge on the Virginia side. The Potomac is one of many as yet poorly understood terranes speculatively added to the late Precambrian margin of North America. The remarkably voluminous Sykesville formation extends 125 km and is typically at least 3 km thick. Hopson (1964) recognized it as a gigantic slump deposit that grades westward into the turbidites of the Wissahickon Formation. The work of Hopson has been expanded upon in the many publications of A. A. Drake, Jr. with additional mapping in northern Virginia. The age of the Sykesville protolith is probably over 500 ma and was obducted on to the North American continent probably over 400 million years ago by collision with a deep-sea trench marginal to a mountainous continent or microcontinent. The source area for the protolith in our study area is overwhelmingly continental. Quartz veins and what appear to be metaorthoquartzite bed are common in the Sykesville. The presumed metaorthoquartzite beds was examined by cathodoluminescence. With this analysis, we discovered relict sand grains preserved in a quartz sample. This presents an enigma: the presence of a pure, mature quartz sediment interbedded in an immature feldspathic sandy slump deposit. Were there two quite different source areas feeding into the protolith? We examined garnets using electron microprobe analysis to examine the P-T history of the Sykesville. The garnets show simple zoning patterns, most clearly, as usual, in MnO. Compositional profiles suggest a single episode of metamorphism followed by retrogression, presumably during uplift and erosion after obduction. The age interval of this metamorphism is uncertain but was latest Precambrian or early Cambrian (Penobscot Orogeny). Future analysis of the chemical composition of the garnets will tell us more about the pressures and temperatures that the

  6. Revision and reclassification of Lasioglossum (Evylaeus), L. (Hemihalictus) and L. (Sphecodogastra) in eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Packer, Laurence; Dumesh, Sheila; Danforth, Bryan N

    2013-01-01

    The black species of weak-veined Lasioglossum (or Hemihalictus series) in eastern North America are revised to clarify their taxonomy and nomenclature and to facilitate identification. A subgeneric classification based upon available phylogenetic data is applied. Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) is applied more broadly than any previous usage to include many species typically classified as L. (Evylaeus). The subgenus L. (Evylaeus) is retained but applied narrowly in agreement with phylogenetic results. Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) has historically been considered monotypic but is here applied to many species of L. (Dialictus) sensu lato (equivalent to the carinaless L. (Evylaeus) of some authors). Usage of L. (Dialictus) is restricted primarily to species with metallic integument. Additional subgeneric synonymies for extralimital taxa are formalized and discussed. Descriptions are provided for each species with a synonymic list, diagnosis, and notes on taxonomy and biology. The recently revised Onagraceae-specialist species of L. (Sphecodogastra) are given abbreviated treatments. Notes on available DNA barcode data are given, with diagnostic characters supplied for closely related spe-cies. One new species is described: L. (Sphecodogastra) seillean Gibbs and Packer and the males of L. fedorense (Crawford) and L. pectinatum (Robertson) are described for the first time. The following three new synonymies are proposed: Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) sopinci (Crawford), senior subjective synonym of Evylaeus bradleyi Mitchell; Lasioglosum (Hemihalictus) macoupinense (Robertson), senior subjective synonym of Halictus divergens Lovell; and Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) inconditum (Cockerell), senior subjective synonym of Halictus tracyi Cockerell. Lasioglossum inconditum is here considered to be distinct from the Palaearctic species L. rufitarse (Zetterstedt). A lectotype is designat-ed for Halictus quebecensis Crawford. We present the first record of L. lustrans (Cockerell) and L

  7. Growth form and distribution of introduced plants in their native and non-native ranges in Eastern Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Ricklefs; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Qian

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the influence of plant traits on their ability to spread in non-native regions. Many studies addressing this issue have been based on relatively small areas or restricted taxonomic groups. Here, we analyse a large data base involving 1567 plant species introduced between Eastern Asia and North America or from elsewhere to...

  8. Excursions in Stable Carbon Isotopes at the End-Triassic Mass Extinction: Eastern North America and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE) at 201.4 million years ago is one of the five largest ecological disasters of the last 600 million years. Its cause is thought to be related to flood basalt eruptions of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). In eastern North America, non-marine deposits recording this extinction occur below the oldest basalts (1), whereas in Morocco the extinction appears to be synchronous or possibly above the oldest basalt flow (2). In marine and paralic strata of Europe, the extinction is marked by a distinct negative carbon isotopic (δ13C) excursion (CIE) (3). This CIE is also apparent in organic carbon records from eastern North America (4,5). Here we present new δ13C data from organic carbon and terrestrial plant derived n-alkanes from the Central High Atlas and Argana basins [6] of Morocco). These data also suggest that the CIE is coincident with the ETE. In the Passaic Formation of the Newark basin, the negative excursion is associated with the palynofloral extinction level and a fern spore abundance anomaly (fern spike) (7). In the Silver Ridge core (B-2) from the Hartford basin (Connecticut), the negative excursion is also associated with an equisetalian spore spike. In the Fundy basin, at Partridge Island, Nova Scotia, the negative excursion occurs at the palynofloral extinction level, below the oldest basalts [here and (5)], and in Morocco it occurs just below the oldest basalts where Triassic pollen taxa are still present [here and 6)]. One interpretation is that the CIE is synchronous globally and reflects a major anomaly in the Earth's carbon cycle (e.g., 8). However, it is also possible that this pattern is a coincidence of artifactual enrichments of 12C in depositional and early diagenetic environments cut off from the exchangeable global reservoirs, such as in eastern North American lakes (4) and possibly in the canonical shallow marine sections from the UK. Distinguishing between these two classes of hypotheses is

  9. Migratory connectivity of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus: patterns of spring re-colonization in eastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Miller

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993 articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generations. The 'single sweep' hypothesis proposes that overwintering monarchs continue to migrate northward after arriving on the Gulf coast and may reach the northern portion of the breeding range, laying eggs along the way. To examine these hypotheses, we sampled monarchs throughout the northern breeding range and combined stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to estimate natal origin with wing wear scores to differentiate between individuals born in the current vs. previous year. Similar to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that the majority of the northern breeding range was re-colonized by the first generation of monarchs (90%. We also estimated that a small number of individuals (10% originated directly from Mexico and, therefore adopted a sweep strategy. Contrary to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that 62% of monarchs sampled in the Great Lakes originated from the Central U.S., suggesting that this region is important for sustaining production in the northern breeding areas. Our results provide new evidence of re-colonization patterns in monarchs and contribute important information towards identifying productive breeding regions of this unique migratory insect.

  10. Two new species of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Zuellig, R.E.; Kirchner, R.F.; Lenat, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of the Nearctic perlid genus Perlesta, P. durfeei Kondratieff, Zuellig, and Kirchner and P. georgiae Kondratieff, Zuellig, and Lenat are described and illustrated from Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A., respectively.

  11. Resolving Global-Scale Climate Changes in Stalagmites from Eastern North America: A Focus on MIS 5 through 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, H.; Buckles, J.; Gao, Y.; Springer, G.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Hardt, B.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic and trace metal (Sr/Ca) results from a Th-230-dated stalagmite whose growth spanned MIS 5e to the MIS 3/2 boundary reveal strong linkages with the isotopic records from Greenland and the Asian Monsoon region, and geochemical/color proxies from the tropics (Cariaco Basin). While the stalagmite oxygen isotope record largely reflects precession-driven shifts in the seasonality of precipitation, the carbon isotope and Sr/Ca curves are better characterized as records of gradual change from wet to dry, punctuated by abrupt spells of aridity. The timings of the shifts in the moisture balance proxies largely coincide with well-documented shifts observed in the Greenland, Asian Monsoon, and Cariaco records---especially the timing of the DO events. This suggests that the climate of eastern North America is responsive to well-defined shifts in the amount of precipitation that are intimately linked with global-scale shifts in tropical variability, monsoonal moisture and polar instability.

  12. Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) for some earthquakes in eastern North America (ENA) and empirical MMI site corrections for towns in ENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.; Johnston, A.C.; Hopper, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) assignments for earthquakes in eastern North America (ENA) were used by Bakun et al. (submitted) to develop a model for eastern North America for estimating the location and moment magnitude M of earthquakes from MMI observations. MMI assignments for most of the earthquakes considered by Bakun et al. (submitted) are published. MMI assignments for 6 other earthquakes used by Bakun et al. (submitted) are listed in this report: November 18, 1755 near Cape Ann, Massachusetts; January 5, 1843 near Marked Tree, Arkansas; October 31, 1895 in southern Illinois; November 18, 1929 on the Grand Banks, Newfoundland; September 26, 1990 in southeast Missouri; and May 4, 1991 near Risco, Missouri. MMI empirical site corrections developed and used by Bakun et al. (submitted) are also listed in this report.

  13. Distributions of available potential and kinetic energy budget quantities associated with wintertime cyclone activity along the eastern coasts of Asia and North America

    OpenAIRE

    ZAPOTOCNY, JOHN V.

    2011-01-01

    Available potential energy and kinetic energy budget quantities are examined during a two-week period of the Global Weather Experiment (GWE) winter season (14–28 February 1979) for regions encompassing the cyclogenetically active eastern coasts of Asia and North America. Twice daily values of vertically integrated available potential energy generation, kinetic energy generation, and kinetic energy boundary flux are produced using gridded isentropic data derived from the National Meteorologica...

  14. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  15. Adjusting central and eastern North America ground-motion intensity measures between sites with different reference-rock site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000  m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760  m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760  m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760  m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.

  16. Results of the first ultralight-led sandhill crane migration in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J.W.; Lishman, W.A.; Clark, D.A.; Gee, G.F.; Ellis, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, we led 8 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) south from Ontario, Canada by ultralight aircraft to a wintering area near Warrenton, Virginia, an area without a wild population. Six others were transported south in a trailer in hopes they would return north with those that flew. The migration was 863 km long, included 14 stops, and took 21 days to complete. All 13 surviving birds were wintered together. In March 1998, the surviving 7 'aircraft-led' birds departed the wintering site. The following day, 6 of the 7 were reported on the south shore of Lake Ontario. The flock then moved around the western tip of Lake Ontario. On 5 April 1998, we used 2 aircraft to lead the birds 104 km directly east to the rearing area. The flock soon moved off the fledging grounds, continued to associate with people, and was eventually removed from the flyway. Because no wild cranes are known to fly our chosen route, this study demonstrated not only the effectiveness of ultralight aircraft to lead cranes on migration, but it also proved that cranes so led can return from their wintering site to the general vicinity of their fledging area unassisted. The birds did not follow our indirect route south but rather flew north to the latitude of the fledging area, then wandered.

  17. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The well-exposed Middle Devonian rocks of the Appalachian foreland basin (Onondaga Formation; Hamilton Group, Tully Formation, and the Genesee Group of New York State) preserve one of the most detailed records of high-order sea-level oscillation cycles for this time period in the world. Detailed examination of coeval units in distal areas of the Appalachian Basin, as well as portions of the Michigan and Illinois basins, has revealed that the pattern of high-order sea-level oscillations documented in the New York-Pennsylvania section can be positively identified in all areas of eastern North America where coeval units are preserved. The persistence of the pattern of high-order sea-level cycles across such a wide geographic area suggests that these cycles are allocyclic in nature with primary control on deposition being eustatic sea-level oscillation, as opposed to autocylic controls, such as sediment supply, which would be more local in their manifestation. There is strong evidence from studies of cyclicity and spectral analysis that these cycles are also related to Milankovitch orbital variations, with the short and long-term eccentricity cycles (100. kyr and 405. kyr) being the dominant oscillations in many settings. Relative sea-level oscillations of tens of meters are likely and raise considerable issues about the driving mechanism, given that the Middle Devonian appears to record a greenhouse phase of Phanerozoic history. These new correlations lend strong support to a revised high-resolution sea-level oscillation curve for the Middle Devonian for the eastern portion of North America. Recognized third-order sequences are: Eif-1 lower Onondaga Formation, Eif-2: upper Onondaga and Union Springs formations; Eif-Giv: Oatka Creek Formation; Giv-1: Skaneateles, Giv-2: Ludlowville, Giv-3: lower Moscow, Giv-4: upper Moscow-lower Tully, and Giv-5: middle Tully-Geneseo formations. Thus, in contrast with the widely cited eustatic curve of Johnson et al. (1985), which

  18. An assessment of the changing nature of the winter hydroclimate in eastern North America and its impacts on risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kent

    2016-04-01

    The winter hydroclimate of eastern North America is characterized by a complex and spatially varying combination of snow and rain. Much of this complexity stems from the presence of Great Lakes that are a source of heat and moisture during the winter months. Lake effect snowfall can result in heavy snowfall in highly localized regions downstream of the lakes. In addition the average mean winter temperature in the region is close to freezing and so there is enhanced sensitivity as to the phase of the precipitation. The region has warmed by 1-2.5 oC during the winter over the past 30 years and so there is concern that the character of the winter hydroclimate may be changing. Here we use reanalysis fields as well as the results of AMIP model runs, with horizontal resolutions ranging from 100 km to 16 km, to investigate the changes that have occurred in the winter hydroclimate of the region. It is shown that a horizontal resolution below ~40 km is needed to resolve the observed spatial gradients in snowfall and rainfall in the region. Over the past 30 years, the mean and 95th percentile snowfall rates in the southern part of the region have decreased by as much as 20% with an increase of a similar magnitude in both these parameters in its northwest. There has also been an increase in the mean and 95th percentile rainfall rates across much the region that exceeds 100% in the vicinity of Lake Superior, the largest and most northern of the Great Lakes. These changes are attributed to the warming that the region has experienced and are expected to continue into the future. They have and will continue to impact a number of societal functions including winter road maintenance as well as influencing the management of property risks such as flooding.

  19. Anatomy of a rift system: Triassic-Jurassic basins of eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlische, R.W. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)); Olsen, P.E. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Basins containing the early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup formed during the incipient rifting of Pangaea. The basins are characterized by the following: (1) The border fault systems (BFS) represent reactivated older faults. (2) A regionally persistent northwest-southeast to west-northeast-east-southeast extension direction reactivated northeast- to north-striking structures as predominantly normal dip-slip faults. (3) The half-grabens are lozenge-shaped basins in which subsidence-fault slip was greatest at or near the center of the BFS and decreased to zero toward either end. (4) Transverse folds in the hanging walls immediately adjacent to the BFS formed as a result of higher-frequency variations in subsidence. (5) Subsidence also decreased in a direction perpendicular to the BFS. (6) Intrabasinal faults are overwhelmingly synthetic and predominantly post-depositional. (7) Younger strata progressively onlap prerift rocks of the hanging wall block; this indicates that the basins grew both in width and length as they filled. (8) In all basins initial sedimentation was fluvial, reflecting an oversupply of sediment with respect to basin capacity. (9) Sediments were derived largely from the hanging wall block, which sloped toward the basin, and from streams that entered the basin axially; a direct footwall source was minor, owing to footwall uplift. (10) In strike-slip-dominated basins, subsidence was considerably less than in dip-slip basins, and mosaics of strike- and dip-slip faults are common.

  20. Improving herpetological surveys in eastern North America using the environmental DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; Dubois, Yohann; Normandeau, Eric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-11-01

    Among vertebrates, herpetofauna has the highest proportion of declining species. Detection of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a promising method towards significantly increasing large-scale herpetological conservation efforts. However, the integration of eDNA results within a management framework requires an evaluation of the efficiency of the method in large natural environments and the calibration of eDNA surveys with the quantitative monitoring tools currently used by conservation biologists. Towards this end, we first developed species-specific primers to detect the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) a species at risk in Canada, by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The rate of eDNA detection obtained by qPCR was also compared to the relative abundance of this species in nine rivers obtained by standardized visual surveys in the Province of Québec (Canada). Second, we developed multi-species primers to detect North American amphibian and reptile species using eDNA metabarcoding analysis. An occurrence index based on the distribution range and habitat type was compared with the eDNA metabarcoding dataset from samples collected in seven lakes and five rivers. Our results empirically support the effectiveness of eDNA metabarcoding to characterize herpetological species distributions. Moreover, detection rates provided similar results to standardized visual surveys currently used to develop conservation strategies for the wood turtle. We conclude that eDNA detection rates may provide an effective semiquantitative survey tool, provided that assay calibration and standardization is performed.

  1. Conference report for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) : wind integration in the North East : addressing wind integration issues in north eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-27

    This conference report prepared for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) contains a summary of the presentations which addressed wind integration issues facing northeastern North America. The region of northeastern North America encompasses New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. Wind generation, load and transmission issues associated with wind integration in the region were discussed, including those that inhibit the transmission of wind; actions that will improve the integration of wind; and the process that could facilitate the uptake of wind. The conference reviewed key drivers behind wind industry growth; system operator capabilities; the European experience of wind integration; technology drivers; forecasting; balancing; and transmission planning, cost allocation and regulation. Advanced grid options and wind turbine generator products designed to solve grid connection problems were reviewed with reference to tools currently being designed to improve wind power plant performance and grid compliance. Developments within various independent system operators were reviewed along with governmental transmission entities and interconnection requirements for wind power plants. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 appendices.

  2. Ground Motion Prediction Trends For Eastern North America Based on the Next Generation Attenuation East Ground Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Kutliroff, J.; Dangkua, D.

    2010-12-01

    A five-year Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) East project to develop new ground motion prediction equations for stable continental regions (SCRs), including eastern North America (ENA), has begun at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The initial effort focused on database design and collection of appropriate M>4 ENA broadband and accelerograph records to populate the database. Ongoing work has focused on adding records from smaller ENA earthquakes and from other SCRs such as Europe, Australia, and India. Currently, over 6500 horizontal and vertical component records from 60 ENA earthquakes have been collected and prepared (instrument response removed, filtering to acceptable-signal band, determining peak and spectral parameter values, quality assurance, etc.) for the database. Geologic Survey of Canada (GSC) strong motion recordings, previously not available, have also been added to the NGA East database. The additional earthquakes increase the number of ground motion recordings in the 10 - 100 km range, particularly from the 2008 M5.2 Mt. Carmel, IL event, and the 2005 M4.7 Riviere du Loup and 2010 M5.0 Val des Bois earthquakes in Quebec, Canada. The goal is to complete the ENA database and make it available in 2011 followed by a SCR database in 2012. Comparisons of ground motion observations from four recent M5 ENA earthquakes with current ENA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) suggest that current GMPEs, as a group, reasonably agree with M5 observations at short periods, particularly at distances less than 200 km. However, at one second, current GMPEs over predict M5 ground motion observations. The 2001 M7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake provides some constraint at large magnitudes, as geology and regional attenuation is analogous to ENA. Cramer and Kumar, 2003, have

  3. A review of the genus Agapetus Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) in eastern and central North America, with description of 12 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, David A.; Parker, Charles R.; Baxter, John T.; Long, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of caddisflies in the genus Agapetus Curtis in eastern and central North America are reviewed. Twelve are described as new species: Agapetus aphallus (known only from females); Agapetus baueri, Agapetus flinti, Agapetus harrisi, Agapetus hesperus, Agapetus ibis, Agapetus kirchneri, Agapetus meridionalis, Agapetus pegram, Agapetus ruiteri, Agapetus stylifer, and Agapetus tricornutus. Agapetus rossi Denning 1941 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Agapetus walkeri (Betten and Mosely 1940), new synonym. A key to males is provided, and species’ distributions are mapped.

  4. Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, Ethanol, and α-Pinene: Trap Lure Blend for Cerambycidae and Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in Pine Forests of Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Crowe, C M; Dodds, K J; Galligan, L D; de Groot, P; Hoebeke, E R; Mayfield, A E; Poland, T M; Raffa, K F; Sweeney, J D

    2015-08-01

    In 2007-2008, we examined the flight responses of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol, and α-pinene [85% (-)], and the bark beetle pheromones, racemic ipsenol and racemic ipsdienol. Experiments were conducted in mature pine stands in Canada (Ontario and New Brunswick) and the United States (Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). At each location, traps were deployed in 10 replicate blocks of four traps per block. The trap treatments were: 1) blank control; 2) ipsenol and ipsdienol; 3) ethanol and α-pinene; and 4) a quaternary blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene. Traps baited with the quaternary blend caught the greatest numbers of Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis lineata (F.) (Buprestidae). Traps baited with ethanol and α-pinene caught the greatest numbers of Arhopalus rusticus (LeConte), Asemum striatum (L.), Tetropium spp., Xylotrechus sagittatus (Germar) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis maculipennis Gory (Buprestidae) with minimal interruption by ipsenol and ipsdienol. Our results suggest that multiple-funnel traps baited with the quaternary lure blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene are effective for trapping various species of wood-boring beetles in pine forests of eastern North America, and may have utility in detection programs for adventive species in North America and overseas.

  5. The common ecotoxicology laboratory strain of Hyalella azteca is genetically distinct from most wild strains sampled in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Kaley; Soucek, David J; Giordano, Rosanna; Wetzel, Mark J; Soto-Adames, Felipe

    2013-11-01

    The amphipod Hyalella azteca is commonly used as a model for determining safe concentrations of contaminants in freshwaters. The authors sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for representatives of 38 populations of this species complex from US and Canadian toxicology research laboratories and eastern North American field sites to determine their genetic relationships. With 1 exception, all US and Canadian laboratory cultures sampled were identified as conspecific. In 22 wild populations spanning 5 US states and 1 Canadian province, the commonly occurring laboratory species was found only in northern Florida, USA. Therefore, the diversity of the H. azteca species complex detected in the wild is not accurately represented in North American laboratories, questioning the reliability of H. azteca cultures currently in use to accurately predict the responses of wild populations in ecotoxicological assays. The authors also examined the utility of different COI nucleotide fragments presently in use to determine phylogenetic relationships in this group and concluded that saturation in DNA sequences leads to inconsistent relationships between clades. Amino acid sequences for COI were not saturated and may allow a more accurate phylogeny estimate. Hyalella azteca is crucial for developing water-quality regulations; therefore, laboratories should know and standardize the strain(s) they use to confidently compare toxicity tests across laboratories and determine whether they are an appropriate surrogate for their regions.

  6. The Cryogenian intra-continental rifting of Rodinia: Evidence from the Laurentian margin in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Elizabeth; Gazel, Esteban

    2014-10-01

    The geologic history of the eastern North American (Laurentian) margin encompasses two complete Wilson cycles that brought about the assembly and subsequent disaggregation of two supercontinents, Rodinia and Pangea. In the southern and central Appalachian region, basement rocks were affected by two episodes of crustal extension separated by > 100 m.y.; a Cryogenian phase spanning the interval 765-700 Ma and an Ediacaran event at ~ 565 Ma. During the Cryogenian phase, the Mesoproterozoic continental crust was intruded by numerous A-type felsic plutons and extensional mafic dikes. At ~ 760-750 Ma a bimodal volcanic sequence erupted onto the uplifted and eroded basement. This sequence, known as the Mount Rogers Formation (MRF), comprises a bimodal basalt-rhyolite lower section and an upper section of dominantly peralkaline rhyolitic sheets. Here, we provide new geochemical evidence from the well-preserved volcanic rocks of the Cryogenian lower MRF, with the goal of elucidating the process that induced the initial stage of the break-up of Rodinia and how this affected the evolution of the eastern Laurentian margin. The geochemical compositions of the Cryogenian lavas are remarkably similar to modern continental intra-plate settings (e.g., East African Rift, Yellowstone-Snake River Plain). Geochemical, geophysical and tectonic evidence suggests that the common denominator controlling the melting processes in these settings is deep mantle plume activity. Thus, evidence from the MRF suggests that the initial phase of extension of the Laurentian margin at ~ 760-750 Ma was possibly triggered by mantle plume activity. It is possible that lithospheric weakness caused by a mantle plume that impacted Rodinia triggered the regional extension and produced the intra-continental rifting that preceded the breakup of the Laurentian margin.

  7. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T

    2016-12-15

    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades.

  8. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  9. The youngest magmatic event in Eastern North America: A window in the post rift evolution of continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.; Johnson, E. A.; Schmandt, B.

    2014-12-01

    The rifted Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) provides important clues to the long-term evolution of continental margins. An Eocene (ca. 47-48 Ma) volcanic swarm exposed in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province of Virginia and West Virginia, contains the youngest known igneous rocks in the ENAM. These magmas are bimodal in composition, and provide the only window into the most recent deep processes contributing to the post-rift evolution of this margin. We expand on the data presented in Mazza et al., 2014, with new geochemical data that further constrains the magmatic evolution of the ENAM. Using integrated radiogenic isotopic data, petrologic modeling, and regional geomorphology, we determine source domains, melting conditions, and regional implications. Modeling of the melting conditions on primitive basalts yielded an average temperature and pressure of 1412±25°C and 2.32±0.31 GPa, corresponding to a mantle potential temperature of ~1410°C, suggesting melting conditions slightly higher than ambient mantle but not as high as expected from plume activity. When compared with magmas from Atlantic hotspots, the Eocene ENAM samples share isotopic signatures with the Azores and Cape Verde. This similarity suggests the possibility of a large-scale dissemination of similar sources in the upper mantle left over from the opening of the Atlantic. Asthenosphere upwelling related to localized lithospheric delamination is a possible process that can explain the intraplate signature of these magmas that lack evidence of a thermal anomaly. This process can also explain the Cenozoic dynamic topography and rejuvenation of the Central Appalachians. New P- and S-wave tomography using data from EarthScope's USArray shows that a low-velocity anomaly persists in the upper mantle beneath the Eocene volcanic swarm, indicating that the magmatic event substantially modified regional lithospheric structure. Our geochemical and petrologic constraints will be vital for a

  10. Wing Color of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus in Eastern North America across Life Stages: Migrants Are “Redder” than Breeding and Overwintering Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies are famous among insects for their unique migration in eastern North America to overwinter sites in Mexico and their bright orange wing color, which has an aposematic function. While capturing migrating monarchs in northeast Georgia, USA, I noticed that many appeared to have unusually deep orange wings. I initiated the current study to compare wing hues (obtained using image analysis of scanned wings of migrants (captured in 2005 and 2008 to samples of breeding and overwintering monarchs. Consistent with initial observations, migrants had significantly lower orange hues (reflecting deeper, redder orange colors than breeding and overwintering monarchs. There was also a difference in hue between sexes and a relationship with wing size, such that larger monarchs had deeper, redder hues. The reasons for the color difference of migrants are not apparent, but one possibility is that the longer-lived migrant generation has denser scalation to allow for scale loss over their lifespan. Alternatively, this effect could be confined to the subpopulation of monarchs in the Southeastern United States, which may not be well represented at the Mexican overwintering sites. In any case, this discovery highlights the many questions emerging on the significance of wing color variation in this species.

  11. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  12. Spiritual and religious aspects of torture and scalping among the Indian cultures in Eastern North America, from ancient to colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiltunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago a common perception prevailed that the historic­al Native Americans were very prone to violence and warfare. Scalping and torture were seen as a specific custom attached into their ideology and sociocultural ethos. However in the 1960s a completely reversed picture started to emerge, following the course of other worldwide movements, such as ethnic rights, pan-Indianism, ecological conscience, revisionist historiography and so on. Immediately the Native American people came to be seen as the victims of the European colonialism and the Whites were the bad guys who massacred innocent women and children, either at Sand Creek or in Vietnam. Books were written in which the historians pointed out that the practice of scalping was actually not present in the Americas before the whites came. This theory drew sustenance from some early colonial accounts, especially from the Dutch and New England colonies, where it was documented that a special bounty was offered for Indian scalps. According to this idea, the practice of scalping among the Indians escalated only after this. On the other hand, the blame fell on the Iroquois tribesmen, whose cruel fighting spread terror throughout the seventeenth century, when they expanded an empire in the north eastern wilderness. This accords with those theorists who wanted to maintain a more balanced view of the diffusion of scalping and torture, agreeing that these traits were indeed present in Pre-Columbian America, but limited only to the Iroquoians of the east. Colonial American history has been rewritten every now and then. In the 1980s, and in the field of archaeology especially, a completely new set of insights have arisen. There has been a secondary burial of the myth of Noble Savage and a return of the old Wild Indian idea, but this time stripped of its cartoon stereo­typical attachments. The Indians are now seen as being like any other human beings, with their usual mixture of vices

  13. Dipleurozoa from lower silurian of north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H; Fox, S K

    1968-10-04

    In a problematical fauna discovered in Australia, 152 meters below diagnostic Lower Cambrian species, are fossilized remains belonging in the phylum Coelenterata. These jellyfish-like fossils were defined as a new class(Dipleurozoa) by Harrington and Moore because of their strong bilateral symmetry and differentiated extremities. The class was not reported elsewhere before many specimens were discovered recently in the Shawangunk (Tuscarora) formation at Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania. Three new species belonging to a new genus can be recognized, the indication being that the class ranges stratigraphically from the infra-Cambrian to at least the Lower Silurian, and geographically from Australia to eastern North America.

  14. Tree range expansion in eastern North America fails to keep pace with climate warming at northern range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittaro, Fabian; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Nock, Charles A

    2017-08-01

    Rising global temperatures are suggested to be drivers of shifts in tree species ranges. The resulting changes in community composition may negatively impact forest ecosystem function. However, long-term shifts in tree species ranges remain poorly documented. We test for shifts in the northern range limits of 16 temperate tree species in Quebec, Canada, using forest inventory data spanning three decades, 15° of longitude and 7° of latitude. Range shifts were correlated with climate warming and dispersal traits to understand potential mechanisms underlying changes. Shifts were calculated as the change in the 95th percentile of latitudinal occurrence between two inventory periods (1970-1978, 2000-2012) and for two life stages: saplings and adults. We also examined sapling and adult range offsets within each inventory, and changes in the offset through time. Tree species ranges shifted predominantly northward, although species responses varied. As expected shifts were greater for tree saplings, 0.34 km yr(-1) , than for adults, 0.13 km yr(-1) . Range limits were generally further north for adults compared to saplings, but the difference diminished through time, consistent with patterns observed for range shifts within each life stage. This suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting geographic range offsets between life stages as evidence of range shifts in the absence of temporal data. Species latitudinal velocities were on average evidence suggesting tree species are mostly limited in their capacity to track climate warming, supporting concerns that warming will negatively impact the functioning of forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Holocene climate changes in eastern Beringia (NW North America) – A systematic review of multi-proxy evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Axford, Yarrow L.; Henderson, Andrew C.G.; McKay, Nicolas P.; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Saenger, Casey; Anderson, R. Scott; Bailey, Hannah L.; Clegg, Benjamin; Gajewski, Konrad; Hu, Feng Sheng; Jones, Miriam C.; Massa, Charly; Routson, Cody C.; Werner, Al; Wooller, Matthew J.; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing climates of the past relies on a variety of evidence from a large number of sites to capture the varied features of climate and the spatial heterogeneity of climate change. This review summarizes available information from diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas), and it quantifies the primary trends of temperature- and moisture-sensitive records based in part on midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators (compiled in the recently published Arctic Holocene database, and updated here to v2.1). The composite time series from these proxy records are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies to clarify multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends in Holocene climate change. To focus the synthesis, the paleo data are used to frame specific questions that can be addressed with simulations by Earth system models to investigate the causes and dynamics of past and future climate change. This systematic review shows that, during the early Holocene (11.7–8.2 ka; 1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present (approximate mid-20th-century average), with no clear spatial pattern. Composited pollen, midge and other proxy records average out the variability and show the overall lowest summer and mean-annual temperatures across the study region during the earliest Holocene, followed by warming over the early Holocene. The sparse data available on early Holocene glaciation show that glaciers in southern Alaska were as extensive then as they were during the late Holocene. Early Holocene lake levels were low in interior Alaska, but moisture indicators show pronounced differences across the region. The highest

  16. Holocene climate changes in eastern Beringia (NW North America) - A systematic review of multi-proxy evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Axford, Yarrow L.; Henderson, Andrew C. G.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Saenger, Casey; Anderson, R. Scott; Bailey, Hannah L.; Clegg, Benjamin; Gajewski, Konrad; Hu, Feng Sheng; Jones, Miriam C.; Massa, Charly; Routson, Cody C.; Werner, Al; Wooller, Matthew J.; Yu, Zicheng

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing climates of the past relies on a variety of evidence from a large number of sites to capture the varied features of climate and the spatial heterogeneity of climate change. This review summarizes available information from diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas), and it quantifies the primary trends of temperature- and moisture-sensitive records based in part on midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators (compiled in the recently published Arctic Holocene database, and updated here to v2.1). The composite time series from these proxy records are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies to clarify multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends in Holocene climate change. To focus the synthesis, the paleo data are used to frame specific questions that can be addressed with simulations by Earth system models to investigate the causes and dynamics of past and future climate change. This systematic review shows that, during the early Holocene (11.7-8.2 ka; 1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present (approximate mid-20th-century average), with no clear spatial pattern. Composited pollen, midge and other proxy records average out the variability and show the overall lowest summer and mean-annual temperatures across the study region during the earliest Holocene, followed by warming over the early Holocene. The sparse data available on early Holocene glaciation show that glaciers in southern Alaska were as extensive then as they were during the late Holocene. Early Holocene lake levels were low in interior Alaska, but moisture indicators show pronounced differences across the region. The highest

  17. Organic composition of single and submicron particles in different regions of western North America and the eastern Pacific during INTEX-B 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Day

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single particles were collected from an aircraft platform as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B conducted over the eastern Pacific and western North America. Single particle spectra were obtained using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS. Bulk submicron particles were also collected and organic functional group and elemental concentrations were quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Single particle spectra were classified into metaclasses associated with different sources and atmospheric processing. Particles with spectra indicative of secondary organic aerosol production and combustion sources were found at several locations and a range of altitudes. At lower altitudes, particles with spectra resembling soil dust and biomass burning fingerprints were commonly observed. The types of particle spectra most commonly observed aloft were similar to those observed during a previous study over the northwestern Pacific, indicating that long-range transport may have been an important particle source. Single particle spectra provided evidence that condensation and surface-limited oxidation contributed to particle growth. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from 1 to 7 μg m−3 and averaged 2.4–4.1 μg m−3. Alkane functional groups were the largest fraction of OM, averaging 1.9–2.1 μg m−3 or 50–76% of OM, followed by alcohol functional groups (0.35–0.39 μg m−3, 9–14%. Organic and elemental concentrations are compared within and among geographical air mass regions: "Pacific" free troposphere, "Continental" free troposphere, "Seattle" metropolitan region, and the California "Central Valley". OM concentrations were highest and most variable in the Central Valley (3.5±2 μg m−3. Oxygen-to-carbon ratios were

  18. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  19. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  20. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion... Springs, Kentucky. The workers are engaged in the production of automobile parts and component parts. The... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  1. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  3. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  4. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  5. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  6. Hierarchy of sedimentary discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds from the middle Paleozoic of eastern North America: Implications for cratonic sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, P.I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Wilson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentological analyses of middle Paleozoic epeiric sea successions in North America suggest a hierarchy of discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds of increasing complexity. Simple firmgrounds and hardgrounds, which are comparatively ephemeral features, form the base of the hierarchy. Composite hardgrounds, reworked concretions, authigenic mineral crusts and monomictic intraformational conglomerates indicate more complex histories. Polymictic intraformational conglomerates, ironstones and phosphorites form the most complex discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds. Complexity of discontinuities is closely linked to depositional environments duration of sediment starvation and degree of reworking which in turn show a relationship to stratigraphic cyclicity. A model of cratonic sequence stratigraphy is generated by combining data on the complexity and lateral distribution of discontinuities in the context of facies successions. Lowstand, early transgressive and late transgressive systems tracts are representative of sea-level rise. Early and late transgressive systems tracts are separated by the maximum starvation surface (typically a polymictic intraformational conglomerate or condensed phosphorite), deposited during the peak rate of sea-level rise. Conversely the maximum flooding surface, representing the highest stand of sea level, is marked by little to no break in sedimentation. The highstand and falling stage systems tracts are deposited during relative sea-level fall. They are separated by the forced-regression surface, a thin discontinuity surface or condensed bed developed during the most rapid rate of sea-level fall. The lowest stand of sea level is marked by the sequence boundary. In subaerially exposed areas it is occasionally modified as a rockground or composite hardground.

  7. Bathymetry of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetry of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors. The image was derived from the National Geophysical Data Center?s ETOPO2 elevation data,...

  8. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = −0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely. PMID:19776062

  10. Assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna: new evidence from lizards and frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Macey, J; Schulte, James A; Strasburg, Jared L; Brisson, Jennifer A; Larson, Allan; Ananjeva, Natalia B; Wang, Yuezhao; Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Darwin first recognized the importance of episodic intercontinental dispersal in the establishment of worldwide biotic diversity. Faunal exchange across the Bering Land Bridge is a major example of such dispersal. Here, we demonstrate with mitochondrial DNA evidence that three independent dispersal events from Asia to North America are the source for almost all lizard taxa found in continental eastern North America. Two other dispersal events across Beringia account for observed diversity among North American ranid frogs, one of the most species-rich groups of frogs in eastern North America. The contribution of faunal elements from Asia via dispersal across Beringia is a dominant theme in the historical assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna. PMID:17148411

  11. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cinget

    Full Text Available The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea, a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data and 75 populations (cpDNA data was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only, but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen, indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  12. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  13. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  14. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K.R.; Peylin, P.; Chevallier, F.; Law, R.M.; Patra, P.K.; Rayner, P.J.; Roedenbeck, C.; Krol, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Inverse-estimated net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decad

  15. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  16. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  17. North America - The Energy Picture II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Servicio Público de Energía Eléctrica or LSPEE) was amended to allow private participation in generation activities. Article 3 of this Act lists...Desarrollo Urbano ), of the National Urban System (Sistema Urbano Nacional), and of the specific urban North America – The Energy Picture II

  18. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  19. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of the...

  20. Forest health conditions in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacz, Borys [USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1601 North Kent Street, RPC7-FHP, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States)], E-mail: btkacz@fs.fed.us; Moody, Ben [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castillo, Jaime Villa [Comision Nacional Forestal, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution.

  1. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  2. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae), an Eastern Asian and North American Disjunct Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua LI; Qiao-Ping XIANG

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop better insights into biogeographic patterns of eastern Asian and North American disjunct plant genera, sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (nr DNA ITS) region were used to estimate interspecific relationships of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae) and infer its biogeography based on the phylogeny. According to the phylogenetic analysis, two clades were recognized. The first clade included Thuja plicata D. Don (western North America) and T. koraiensis Nakai (northeastern Asia), and the second one contained T. occidentalis (Gord.) Carr. (Japan). The ancestral area of Thuja was inferred to be eastern Asia, and two dispersal events were responsible for the modern distribution of Thuja in North America. Both the North Atlantic land bridge and Bering land bridge were possible routes for the migration of ancestral populations to North America.

  3. First detection of bat white-nose syndrome in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne; George, Kyle; Griffin, Kathryn M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Huckabee, John R; Haman, Katherine H; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused byPseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction ofP. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation.

  4. Problems and prospects in North Eastern Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.K.; Jha, M.N.

    1989-02-01

    North eastern region, very well known as land of seven sisters, comprises of the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the minerals like oil and coal are concealed in this region in dense forests and difficult terrain. North Eastern Coalfields being directly administered by Coal India Ltd. is responsible for exploitation of coal in this region. At present all the working mines are situated in the State of Assam only. One Simsong UG project will be started this year in the State of Meghalaya and coal deposits of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are likely to be worked in Eighth Five Year Plan. In the remaining three States, i.e. Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura no occurrence of coal deposit has been found so far. 6 tabs.

  5. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  6. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L. [Centre for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Alatorre, C. [Autonomous National Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  8. Russian Olive Biology, Invasion, and Ecological Impacts in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    plantings to become naturalized in riparian areas in much of western North America. In a study of 475 stream gauge sites distributed throughout the western...the cottonwood canopy on three rivers in eastern Montana. Water requirements. Although Russian olive tends to occur in wet areas of western...and Texas , northward to the southern Canadian provinces, and from eastern California, Oregon and Washington eastward through all western and mid

  9. Wave speed structure of the eastern North American margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Covellone, B. M.; Shen, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern North American margin (ENAM) is the result of nearly a billion years of continental collision and rifting. To the west of this margin lies thick continental lithosphere of the North American craton, and to the east is oceanic lithosphere in the Atlantic. The substantial changes in lithosphere thickness at this boundary are thought to drive asthenosphere upwelling along the edge of the continent. Through iterative, full-waveform, ambient noise tomography, we observe a heterogeneous low wave speed margin along the continent in the upper mantle. Multiple low wave speed features imaged within the margin are consistent with asthenospeheric upwelling due to edge-driven convection. Also within the margin are high wave speed anomalies that maybe the remnants of eclogitic delamination of the Appalachian crustal root, which contribute to convection at the margin. Edge driven, small-scale convection keeps the margin weak and thus controls the large scale plate tectonic patterns and the crustal deformation. The imaged mantle wave speed anomalies, interpreted as edge-driven convection, correlate with and may increase the likelihood of damaging earthquakes in the eastern portion of North America.

  10. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  11. Natural enemies of the spotted lanternfly in Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, is a sporadic pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima. The native range of L. delicatula includes China, Taiwan and Vietnam but it invaded Korea in 2004, Japan in 2009, and the U. S. in 2014. In North America, it is now found in eastern Pennsylvania with...

  12. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  13. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  14. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  15. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  16. North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their influence on western North America at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Risi, Camille; Tripati, Aradhna E.

    2017-01-01

    Southwestern North America was wetter than present during the Last Glacial Maximum. The causes of increased water availability have been recently debated, and quantitative precipitation reconstructions have been underutilized in model-data comparisons. We investigate the climatological response of North Pacific atmospheric rivers to the glacial climate using model simulations and paleoclimate reconstructions. Atmospheric moisture transport due to these features shifted toward the southeast relative to modern. Enhanced southwesterly moisture delivery between Hawaii and California increased precipitation in the southwest while decreasing it in the Pacific Northwest, in agreement with reconstructions. Coupled climate models that are best able to reproduce reconstructed precipitation changes simulate decreases in sea level pressure across the eastern North Pacific and show the strongest southeastward shifts of moisture transport relative to a modern climate. Precipitation increases of ˜1 mm d-1, due largely to atmospheric rivers, are of the right magnitude to account for reconstructed pluvial conditions in parts of southwestern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  17. Phylogenetics and biogeography of eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus Pachysandra (Buxaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua JIAO; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Pachysandra is an eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus with three species, two in eastern Asia (Pachysandra axillaris and Pachysandra terminalis) and one in eastern North America (Pachysandra procumbens). Although morphological and cytological studies suggest a close affinity of Pprocumbens with P axillaris, molecular data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA regions have provided conflicting signals. In this study, we tested previous phylogenetic hypotheses using sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast ndhF gene from multiple individuals of each of the three species. We also estimated the time of divergence between eastern Asia and eastern North America. Our results support the morphological and cytological conclusion that P procumbens is more closely related to P axillaris than to P terminalis. The estimated time of divergence of P axillaris and P procumbens was 14.64-5.5 mya, consistent with estimates from many other eastern Asian-North American disjunct genera. The migration of Pachysandra populations from eastern Asia to North America might have occurred by way of the North Atlantic land bridge.

  18. Terrane Stations: intra-oceanic subduction assembled western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, K.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes, crustal blocks that were added to the margin in a series of collisions over the past 200 million years - but why? The most widely accepted explanation posits a scenario analogous to Andean subduction, with these terranes conveyed to the continental margin while the oceanic Farallon plate subducted under it. Yet purely Andean-style subduction under North America is questionable as a terrane delivery mechanism, since no comparable accretion sequence took place along the South American margin, and since North American terranes are of very varied provenance. We consider this geological question directly related to a geodynamical one: Why has it been so difficult to reconcile - even on the largest scale - the geometries and locations of slabs in the lower-mantle, as imaged by seismic tomography, with Cretaceous plate reconstructions of the North American west coast (unless anomalous mantle rheology or ad hoc shifts of absolute reference frame are invoked)? This problem was recognized soon after the discovery of the massive, lower-mantle "Farallon slabs" by Grand (1994), but has recently been aggravated by the discovery of additional, more westerly deep slabs (Sigloch et al. 2008), thanks to USArray. Not all of these slabs can be Farallon, unless very non-vertical and/or uneven slab sinking behavior is allowed for. As a joint solution, we offer a radical reinterpretation of paleogeography and test it quantitatively: The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific. The Farallon and two more plates subducted into the intra-oceanic trenches of a vast archipelago in the eastern Panthalassa (proto-Pacific) ocean, both from the east and the west. The trenches remained stationary throughout much of Jurassic and Cretaceous times, depositing the massive, near-vertical slab walls imaged in the lower mantle today. On their overriding plates, island arcs and subduction complexes

  19. North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ruibin; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10−6 m/s during February–March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February–March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a max-imum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased north-eastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.

  20. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  1. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  2. North America: US activity is unprecedented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-15

    For overall drilling activity in 1981, North America is expected to post a 20.9% increase over 1980 figures for a total of 90,347 wells. The growth is due solely to a 28.6% increase in US activity; Canada and Mexico show declines of 31.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Mid-year reports for the US included 36,776 wells, 7078 of them gas wells; of 7526 wildcats, 840 were gas-productive. The success rate for mid-year was 25.5%. The downturn in Canadian activity reflects the decrease in investments caused by the restructuring of the Canadian industry. Exploration is continuing, however, particularly in the east coast offshore region, the Beaufort Sea, and the Arctic Islands. The outlook in Mexico is highly promising: new fields are being discovered regularly in Campeche Bay, the Mesozoic region of Tabasco and Chiapas, the Sabinas Gulf region, and Chicontepec Paleocanyon. Since 1976, Petroleos Mexicanos has successfully reduced natural-gas flaring to less than 2% of production. Gas production increased by 22% in 1980, reaching 3.723 billion CF/day by December. Other drilling activity occurred in the West Indies and Caribbean Sea and parts of Central America.

  3. On cold spells in North America and storminess in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Gabriele; Caballero, Rodrigo; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the dynamical and statistical links between cold extremes over eastern North America and storminess over western Europe, with a focus on the midlatitude jet stream, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA). The analysis is performed on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 20th Century Reanalysis. The large-scale circulation associated with the cold spells corresponds to advection of cold air from the Arctic region into North America and to a very zonal and intense North Atlantic jet, shifted persistently south of its climatological location. These features of the Atlantic jet are conducive to destructive windstorms and intense precipitation over a large part of southern and continental Europe and the British Isles. The cold spells are preceded by a negative NAO and followed by a positive PNA; however, we interpret the associated circulation anomalies as being distinct from these standard modes of climate variability.

  4. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  5. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  6. Fire and amphibians in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  8. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  9. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  10. Imperiled Freshwater and Diadromous Fishes of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — List of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of North America as determined by the 2008 American Fisheries Society (AFS) Endangered Species Committee (ESC) on...

  11. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  12. Grayscale North America Shaded Relief ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale North America shaded relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid...

  13. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  14. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  15. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America. ... attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental ... Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language ...

  16. Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini Coefficient Analysis. ... yam differentiation were yam varieties and size or length and market information were ... Key word: Lorenz Curve, Gini Coefficient Analysis, Yam, Nigeria.

  17. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  18. The Hispanic Heritage of North America: Commemorating 500 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, Florida will commemorate Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage. Yet Ponce de Leon's arrival was, in several important ways, not just the beginning of Spain's presence in Florida, but in North America as a whole. Today, the historical Spanish influence on America is palpable--in culture, language, politics, and more. This year marks…

  19. Height System Unification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  20. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  1. An ecologically based approach to oak silviculture: a synthesis of 50 years of oak ecosystem research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Alejandro A. Royo; Patrick H. Brose; Todd F. Hutchinson; Martin A. Spetich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    Oak (Quercus L.) is an abundant and widely distributed genus in eastern North America. A history of periodic fire, grazing, canopy disturbance and timber harvesting has favored oak's dominance. But, changes in this regime toward much less fire or complete fire suppression, and selective cutting are causing the successional replacement of oak....

  2. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  3. Invasive range expansion by the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidberg, Louis D; Robison, Bruce H

    2007-07-31

    A unique 16-year time series of deep video surveys in Monterey Bay reveals that the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, has substantially expanded its perennial geographic range in the eastern North Pacific by invading the waters off central California. This sustained range expansion coincides with changes in climate-linked oceanographic conditions and a reduction in competing top predators. It is also coincident with a decline in the abundance of Pacific hake, the most important commercial groundfish species off western North America. Recognizing the interactive effects of multiple changes in the environment is an issue of growing concern in ocean conservation and sustainability research.

  4. 77 FR 65543 - Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 16, 2012, Energy Corporation of America and Eastern American Energy Corporation (collectively, ECA), and First ECA Midstream LLC...

  5. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  6. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-05-02

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  7. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  8. Magnesium in North America: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan

    The changing landscape of North American manufacturing in the context of global competition is impacting the market of all raw materials, including magnesium. Current automotive fuel economy legislation and pending legislation on the emissions of greenhouse gases are impacting magnesium's largest consuming industries, such as aluminum, automotive components, steel and transition metals. These industries are all considering innovative ways to efficiently incorporate the needed raw materials into their processes. The North American magnesium market differs from other regions based on maturity, supply streams, changing manufacturing capabilities and trade cases, combined with the transformation of North American manufacturing.

  9. Computer codes for birds of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Purpose of paper was to provide a more useful way to provide codes for all North American species, thus making the list useful for virtually all projects concerning...

  10. Fuyao Aims for North America Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's auto-part industry has grown powerful enough to shake the world. Most recently, the acquisition attempt by a Chinese autoglass maker on a North Americac project shocked competitors.Fuyao Glass, China's largest and the world's sixth largest autoglass maker, announced thatthey have now entered the final stage of acqtuiring the North American glass-making assets of Ford Motor Co. which has been struggling through a painful restructuring.

  11. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Primary and Extreme Characteristics of Dry or Wet Status between Asia and North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Lijuan; MA Zhuguo; ZHONG Linhao

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was used to analyze the average and extreme dry/wet states of Asia and North America from 1953 to 2003. The results indicate that the two continents underwent drying trends during this period. Compared with North America, Asia showed more severe drought trends. However, more significant and regular seasonal variation for drought was found in North America. The driest regions in Asia were located in the northern region of China, Mongolia, and eastern mid-Siberian plateau. Most regions in central North America were relatively wetter than other regions.The northern and southwestern regions of North America, as well as the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas,experienced the most drought during this period. A sharp increase of the drought area and the number of extreme drought events took place from 1997 to 2003 in both Asia and North America. Severe drought events were more likely to occur during the summer on both continents. Asia had the most extreme drought events during July, but North America reached its highest drought frequency from June to September. In Asia, a persistent increasing trend of extreme drought emerged throughout the studied period. However,a more complex evolution of drought emerged in North America: a decreasing trend appeared before the mid-1960s and an increasing trend appeared after the late 1970s. A relatively steady dry/wet status was observed between the mid-1960s and the late 1970s. The role of exceptional, extreme drought events with respect to the La Nifia event was considered during 1997-2003.

  13. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  14. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  15. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  16. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  17. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  18. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  19. The Hermit Crabs (Crustacea Decapoda, Paguridea) of Northwestern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the Paguridea (exclusive of the Lithodidae) from northwestern North America. In addition to the redescriptions of all known species, two subgenera are herein raised to generic rank and a new genus is described. Several systematic problems have been resolved, and h

  20. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  1. 76 FR 52670 - 2011 Technology Transfer Summit North America Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 2011 Technology Transfer Summit North America Conference...: The NIH Office of Technology Transfer extends invitations to attend the 2011 Technology Transfer... by the NIH Office of Technology Transfer, TTS Ltd. and regional host partners such as BIO Maryland...

  2. An Overview of CLT Research and Implementation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Tom Williamson; Philip Line; John W. van de Lindt

    2016-01-01

    Although not yet seen as common practice, building with cross laminated timber (CLT) is gaining momentum in North America. Behind the scenes of the widely publicized project initiatives such as the Wood Innovation Design Centre Building in Canada and the recent U.S. Tall Wood Building Competition, substantial research, engineering, and development has been completed or...

  3. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  5. Proceedings of the 2013 sorghum improvement conference of north america

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2013 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the International Cultural Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, from August 28-30, 2013. The meeting attracted a large group of participants from a wide spectrum of the sorghum research community, represe...

  6. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  7. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  8. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions the dissolvable from unfiltered samples the dissolved fraction (0 2 mu m) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved fraction thus these waters had a scavenging potential Crown

  9. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Surovell, Todd A.

    2009-12-01

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (≈13,800-11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000-10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant.

  10. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Forward for North American Integration by Dr. Stephen Blank, Dr. Stephanie Golob, and Dr. Guy Stanley is a Pace University, Lubin School of Business...States are “the countries that ring the Gap – Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia , the... vernacular regarding globalization, I will examine the impact of globalization on the world in terms of population, natural resources, and connectivity

  11. Economic integration in North America: Learning from the experience of the European Union for the NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de Jesús Ramírez Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we analyze, based on previous work from various authors, the degree of economic synchronization between Central and Eastern European countries and the European Union prior to the 2004 adhesion treaties. Then, we formally determine the degree of economic synchronization in North America for the nafta transitional period. In particular, we perform cointegration and common features tests for the gdps of Canada, Mexico and the US. We find that the economies of the region are highly integrated. Based on these results, and the facts identified for the European case, we discuss some possibilities for the evolution of nafta into a deeper form of economic integration.

  12. Divergent biogeography of native and introduced soil macroinvertebrates in North America north of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; William J. Mattson; Andrew J. Storer

    2008-01-01

    To improve understanding of the biogeographical consequences of species introduction, we examined whether introduced soil macroinvertebrates differ from natives in the relationship between species richness and key environmental predictors, and whether such differences affect the relationship between native and introduced species richness. For North America north of...

  13. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing... any sensitive personal information, such as an individual's Social Security Number; date of birth... Agreement'') from Service Corporation International (``SCI'') and Keystone North America Inc. (``KNA''). The...

  14. Detailed gravimetric geoid computations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Chang, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for the Eastern United States and the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-8 earth gravity model with the available 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg mean free air surface gravity observations. The short wavelength undulations were computed by applying Stokes' formula to the 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg surface data. The long wavelength undulations were provided by the GEM-8 model. The gravimetric geoid has been compared with Geoceiver derived and astrogeodetically determined geoid heights in the United States and the rms agreement is on the order of 1.5 meters. Excellent agreement in shape has been found between the detailed geoid and geoidal profiles derived from GEOS-III altimeter data in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  15. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  16. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  17. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  18. Large-Scale Antecedent Conditions Associated with 2014-2015 Winter Onset over North America and mid-Winter Storminess Along the North Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosart, L. F.; Papin, P. P.; Bentley, A. M.; Benjamin, M.; Winters, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Winter 2014-2015 was marked by the coldest November weather in 35 years east of the Rockies and record-breaking snowstorms and cold from the eastern Great Lakes to Atlantic Canada in January and February 2015. Record-breaking warmth prevailed across the Intermountain West and Rockies beneath a persistent upper-level ridge. Winter began with a series of arctic air mass surges that culminated in an epic lake-effect snowstorm occurred over western New York before Thanksgiving and was followed by a series of snow and ice storms that disrupted Thanksgiving holiday travel widely. Winter briefly abated in part of December, but returned with a vengeance between mid-January and mid-February 2015 when multiple extreme weather events that featured record-breaking monthly and seasonal snowfalls and record-breaking daily minimum temperatures were observed. This presentation will show how: (1) the recurvature and extratropical transition (ET) of Supertyphoon (STY) Nuri in the western Pacific in early November 2014, and its subsequent explosive reintensification as an extratropical cyclone (EC), disrupted the North Pacific jet stream and downstream Northern Hemisphere (NH) circulation, produced high-latitude ridging and the formation of an omega block over western North America, triggered downstream baroclinic development and the formation of a deep trough over eastern North America, and ushered in winter 2014-2015, (2) the ET/EC of STY Nuri increased subsequent week two predictability over the North Pacific and North America in association with diabatically influenced high-latitude ridge building, and (3) the amplification of the large-scale NH flow pattern beginning in January 2015 resulted in the formation of persistent high-amplitude ridges over northeastern Russia, Alaska, western North America, and the North Atlantic while deep troughs formed over the eastern North Pacific and eastern North America. This persistent amplified flow pattern supported the occurrence of frequent

  19. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  20. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  1. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Missourian) boundary in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Heckel, P.H.; DiMichele, W.A.; Blake, B.M.; Easterday, C.R.; Eble, C.F.; Elrick, S.; Gastaldo, R.A.; Greb, S.F.; Martino, R.L.; John, Nelson W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Phillips, T.L.; Rosscoe, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem groupings in the Midcontinent are recognizable in the Illinois Basin. In the Appalachian Basin, however, the grouping at the base of the Missourian is represented only by paleosols and localized coal. The immediately preceding grouping was removed very locally by paleovalley incision, as is evident at the 7-11 Mine, Columbiana County, Ohio, from which the original megafloral data were derived. At the few localities where incised paleodrainage exists, there may be a gap of ???1000 kyr, but a gap of no more than ???600 kyr occurs elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin at that level and its magnitude progressively decreases westward into the Illinois (???300 kyr) and Midcontinent (North America, it is typically more than an order of magnitude smaller than that originally proposed and is similar to the gaps inferred at sequence boundaries between cyclothems at many horizons in the Pennsylvanian of North America. Copyright ?? 2011, SEPM.

  2. Tiny pollen grains: first evidence of Saururaceae from the Late Cretaceous of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friðgeir Grímsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Saururaceae, a very small family of Piperales comprising only six species in four genera, have a relatively scanty fossil record outside of Europe. The phylogenetic relationships of the four genera to each other are resolved, with the type genus Saururus occurring in both eastern North America and East Asia. No extant species occurs in western Eurasia. The most exceptional find so far has been an inflorescence with in-situ pollen, Saururus tuckerae S.Y.Sm. & Stockey from Eocene of North America with strong affinities to extant species of Saururus. Recent dated trees suggest, however, an Eocene or younger crown age for the family. Methods Dispersed fossil pollen grains from the Campanian (82–81 Ma of North America are compared to dispersed pollen grains from the Eocene strata containing S. tuckerae, the Miocene of Europe, and extant members of the family using combined LM and SEM imaging. Results The unambiguous fossil record of the Saururaceae is pushed back into the Campanian (82–81 Ma. Comparison with re-investigated pollen from the Eocene of North America, the Miocene of Europe, and modern species of the family shows that pollen morphology in Saururaceae is highly conservative, and remained largely unchanged for the last 80 million years. Discussion Campanian pollen of Saururaceae precludes young (Eocene or younger estimates for the Saururaceae root and crown age, but is in-line with maximum age scenarios. Saururus-type pollen appear to represent the primitive pollen morphology of the family. Often overlooked because of its small size, dispersed Saururaceae pollen may provide a unique opportunity to map the geographic history of a small but old group of Piperales, and should be searched for in Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment samples.

  3. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  4. The contrasting bionomics of Culex mosquitoes in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, William K

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes in the genus Culex are the primary enzootic maintenance and bridge vectors of the North American encephalitides, now including West Nile virus. This review briefly summarizes the biology of three key vector species in western North America, Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. stigmatosoma, focusing on the long history of research done in California. Topics reviewed include population genetic structure, larval ecology, autogeny, mating behavior, host-seeking behavior, host-selection patterns, and overwintering strategies. These attributes collectively have allowed the successful exploitation of anthropogenically altered ecosystems and enabled the role of these species as maintenance and bridge vectors of arboviruses.

  5. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  6. Response of interior North America to abrupt climate oscillations in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zicheng; Wright, H. E.

    2001-02-01

    Several broad-scale climatic oscillations during the last deglaciation are well documented in regions around the North Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews empirical evidence for these deglacial climatic oscillations from non-coastal North America and discusses implications for testing climatic simulations and for understanding the cause and transmittal mechanisms. Paleoclimatic interpretation of oxygen-isotope records from several small sites in the eastern Great Lakes region indicates a classic deglacial climatic sequence that is comparable with records from Europe and Greenland. The climatic events as interpreted from Crawford Lake oxygen isotopes include the Bølling-Allerød (BOA) warming at ˜12,700 14C BP, a warm BOA at ˜12,500-10,920 14C BP, an intra-Allerød cold period shortly before 11,000 14C BP, a cold Younger Dryas (YD) climate reversal at 10,920-10,000 14C BP, the Holocene warming at 10,000 14C BP, a brief Preboreal Oscillation (PB) at 9650 14C BP, and an early-Holocene cold event at 7500 14C BP (8200 cal BP). Some of these events were also evident from changes in upland and aquatic vegetation and sediment lithology. The pronounced YD climatic reversal has been documented from pollen records along the ecotones at this time and from glacier readvances in the Great Lakes region. Along the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado, the YD event is indicated by alpine glacier advance and/or shift in timberline vegetation. In Minnesota and upper New York, early-Holocene climatic instability is also suggested by oxygen-isotope records and/or varve thickness. The regional variations in evidence for the YD and other events in North America suggest that climatic oscillations may have different expressions in paleo-records, depending on geographic location and characteristics of a particular site. The extent and magnitude of these climatic oscillations across North America suggest that these oscillations are an expression of climatic change that was probably

  7. Strangers and neighbours: cross-border banking in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. DEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with regulatory and competitive aspects of the mutual penetration by Canadian and U.S. banks of each other’s domestic markets. The authors assess the degree to which economic factors alone are responsible for the difference in growth rates between domestic and foreign banks in North America. They argue that regulation has not affected the growth of foreign banks in North America by addressing the question of reciprocity in banking regulations, before examining foreign banks in the U.S. and the manner in which they have been regulated. U.S. banks operating in Canada are then dealt with. Finally, the results of an empirical test of the proposition that the growth of cross-border banking is attributable to factors other than differential regulation is presented.

  8. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-25

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  9. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  10. Social Pedagogy in North America: historical background and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory. 

  11. Book review: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    As stated in the preface of this new guide, shorebirds are among our most engaging birds. Their ecology and behavior are the subjects of numerous ornithological studies, their identification can challenge the skills of the most serious birdwatchers, and people with a casual interest in birds are captivated by the antics of Sanderlings (Calidris alba) chasing waves along a beach. While some books provide a worldwide perspective on shorebird identification, this book is the first guide devoted solely to identifying every species occurring in North America. Its coverage is truly continental, extending from Alaska to Panama and including the West Indies.Review info: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide. By Dennis R. Paulson, 2005. ISBN: 0691102740, 384 pp.

  12. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the Southwestern North America climate system

    OpenAIRE

    FORZIERI GIOVANNI; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Feyen, Luc

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely-sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982-2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtrop...

  13. Aridland Springs in North America: Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Aridland Springs in North America: Ecology and Conservation. Lawrence E. Stevens and Vicky J. Meretsky, editors. 2008. The University of Arizona Press and the Arizona‐SonoraDesert Museum, Tucson.Pp. 406, 4 black‐and‐white photos, 28 illustrations, 38 tables, 8 maps, bibliography.$75.00 (cloth. ISBN 978‐0‐8165‐2645‐1.

  14. PAGES-Powell North America 2k database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, N.

    2014-12-01

    Syntheses of paleoclimate data in North America are essential for understanding long-term spatiotemporal variability in climate and for properly assessing risk on decadal and longer timescales. Existing reconstructions of the past 2,000 years rely almost exclusively on tree-ring records, which can underestimate low-frequency variability and rarely extend beyond the last millennium. Meanwhile, many records from the full spectrum of paleoclimate archives are available and hold the potential of enhancing our understanding of past climate across North America over the past 2000 years. The second phase of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) North America 2k project began in 2014, with a primary goal of assembling these disparate paleoclimate records into a unified database. This effort is currently supported by the USGS Powell Center together with PAGES. Its success requires grassroots support from the community of researchers developing and interpreting paleoclimatic evidence relevant to the past 2000 years. Most likely, fewer than half of the published records appropriate for this database are publicly archived, and far fewer include the data needed to quantify geochronologic uncertainty, or to concisely describe how best to interpret the data in context of a large-scale paleoclimatic synthesis. The current version of the database includes records that (1) have been published in a peer-reviewed journal (including evidence of the record's relationship to climate), (2) cover a substantial portion of the past 2000 yr (>300 yr for annual records, >500 yr for lower frequency records) at relatively high resolution (identify and assimilate relevant records that have not yet been included. The goal is to develop a comprehensive and open-access resource that will serve the diverse community interested in the climate of the Common Era in North America.

  15. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurath, G.; Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323...... influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture....

  16. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  17. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Population structure and dispersal routes of an invasive parasite, Fascioloides magna, in North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová, Ludmila; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Minárik, Gabriel; Štefka, Jan; Mikulíček, Peter; Pálková, Lenka; Pybus, Margo

    2016-10-13

    Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) is an important liver parasite of a wide range of free-living and domestic ruminants; it represents a remarkable species due to its large spatial distribution, invasive character, and potential to colonize new territories. The present study provides patterns of population genetic structure and admixture in F. magna across all enzootic regions in North America and natural foci in Europe, and infers migratory routes of the parasite on both continents. In total, 432 individuals from five North American enzootic regions and three European foci were analysed by 11 microsatellite loci. Genetic data were evaluated by several statistical approaches: (i) the population genetic structure of F. magna was inferred using program STRUCTURE; (ii) the genetic interrelationships between populations were analysed by PRINCIPAL COORDINATES ANALYSIS; and (iii) historical dispersal routes in North America and recent invasion routes in Europe were explored using MIGRATE. The analysis of dispersal routes of the parasite in North America revealed west-east and south-north lineages that partially overlapped in the central part of the continent, where different host populations historically met. The exact origin of European populations of F. magna and their potential translocation routes were determined. Flukes from the first European focus, Italy, were related to F. magna from northern Pacific coast, while parasites from the Czech focus originated from south-eastern USA, particularly South Carolina. The Danube floodplain forests (third and still expanding focus) did not display relationship with any North American population; instead the Czech origin of the Danube population was indicated. A serial dilution of genetic diversity along the dispersion route across central and eastern Europe was observed. The results of microsatellite analyses were compared to previously acquired outputs from mitochondrial haplotype data and correlated with past human

  19. Geomorphic Expression of Abrupt Climate Change in Southwestern North America at the Glacial Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger Y.; Allen, Bruce D.; Menking, Kirsten M.

    2002-05-01

    Eolian and subaqueous landforms composed of gypsum sand provide geomorphic evidence for a wet episode at the termination of glacial climate in southwestern North America. Drying of pluvial Lake Estancia, central New Mexico, occurred after ca. 12,000 14C yr B.P. Thereafter, eolian landforms on the old lake floor, constructed of gypsum sand, were overridden by rising lake water, modified by subaqueous processes, and organized into beach ridges along the lake's eastern shore. Preservation of preexisting eolian landforms in the shallow lake suggests abupt changes in lake level and climate. Available radiocarbon ages suggest that the final highstand recorded by beach ridges may have developed during the Younger Dryas (YD) stade. The beach ridges provide information about lake surface area, which was 45% of the lake area reached during the maximum highstands of the late Pleistocene. A similar proportional response has been reported for YD climate changes outside the North Atlantic region.

  20. The changing hail threat over North America in response to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimelow, Julian C.; Burrows, William R.; Hanesiak, John M.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is anticipated to increase severe thunderstorm potential in North America, but the resulting changes in associated convective hazards are not well known. Here, using a novel modelling approach, we investigate the spatiotemporal changes in hail frequency and size between the present (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070). Although fewer hail days are expected over most areas in the future, an increase in the mean hail size is projected, with fewer small hail events and a shift toward a more frequent occurrence of larger hail. This leads to an anticipated increase in hail damage potential over most southern regions in spring, retreating to the higher latitudes (that is, north of 50° N) and the Rocky Mountains in the summer. In contrast, a dramatic decrease in hail frequency and damage potential is predicted over eastern and southeastern regions in spring and summer due to a significant increase in melting that mitigates gains in hail size from increased buoyancy.

  1. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.

    1987-01-01

    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  2. Clinical characteristics of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities extending beyond a single epicardial vessel in the absence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Aim: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics of TC in North America. Materials and Methods: We identified 10 patients who met the Mayo Clinic criteria for TC using our Electronic Medical Records. We also conducted a systematic review of case series of TC that were done in North America by searching the MEDLINE database. We identified 11 case series that met our eligibility criteria. Results: Our systematic review included 620 patients. Chest pain and ST segment elevation were the cardinal features of this syndrome, but the prevalence was lower than in the European and Asian cohort (50% and 39% as compared with 80% and 70%, respectively. Classic precipitating emotional or physical stress was described in > 80% of patients. Cardiac biomarkers were found to be elevated in >90% of our patients. Conclusions : TC is a worldwide problem and clinical presentation appears to be similar in North American, European, and Asian countries. However, fewer patients in our cohort presented with typical chest pain and electrocardiography (ECG changes, which might suggest ethnic variations in the syndrome or perhaps a more aggressive diagnostic approach in North American countries.

  3. Standing and Travelling Wave Contributions to the Persistent Ridge-Trough Over North America During Winter 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Meyer, O.; Kushner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The winter season over North America during 2013/14 was dominated by a persistent ridge-trough that brought warm and dry conditions to the southwestern U.S., and markedly cold temperatures to central and eastern North America [Wang et al., 2014; Hartmann, 2015]. In addition, several cold air outbreaks occurred during the winter season, the strongest of which was around 7 January 2014 and led to minimum daily temperature records being set at many weather stations including Atlanta, Austin, Chicago and New York [Screen et al., in press]. This study uses a novel decomposition of wave variability into standing and travelling components [Watt-Meyer and Kushner, 2015] to diagnose the anomalous circulation of the 2013/14 winter season. This spectral decomposition is an improvement on previous methods because it explicitly accounts for the covariance between standing and travelling waves, and because the real-space components of the signal can be easily reconstructed. An index representing the ridge-trough dipole is computed using mid-tropospheric heights and shown to be well correlated with surface temperatures over central and eastern North America. The contributions to this dipole index from standing waves, westward travelling waves, and eastward travelling waves are calculated. The analysis demonstrates that the cold air outbreak of 7 January 2014 was driven by a synoptic wave of record breaking amplitude intensifying a persistent background amplification of the typical ridge-trough structure seen during North American winter.

  4. Thermal state of permafrost in North America: A contribution to the international polar year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S.L.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Lewkowicz, A.G.; Burn, C.R.; Allard, M.; Clow, G.D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Throop, J.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot of the thermal state of permafrost in northern North America during the International Polar Year (IPY) was developed using ground temperature data collected from 350 boreholes. More than half these were established during IPY to enhance the network in sparsely monitored regions. The measurement sites span a diverse range of ecoclimatic and geological conditions across the continent and are at various elevations within the Cordillera. The ground temperatures within the discontinuous permafrost zone are generally above -3°C, and range down to -15°C in the continuous zone. Ground temperature envelopes vary according to substrate, with shallow depths of zero annual amplitude for peat and mineral soils, and much greater depths for bedrock. New monitoring sites in the mountains of southern and central Yukon suggest that permafrost may be limited in extent. In concert with regional air temperatures, permafrost has generally been warming across North America for the past several decades, as indicated by measurements from the western Arctic since the 1970s and from parts of eastern Canada since the early 1990s. The rates of ground warming have been variable, but are generally greater north of the treeline. Latent heat effects in the southern discontinuous zone dominate the permafrost thermal regime close to 0°C and allow permafrost to persist under a warming climate. Consequently, the spatial diversity of permafrost thermal conditions is decreasing over time.

  5. Palinspastic restoration of NAVDat and implications for the origin of magmatism in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Oskin, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous palinspastic restoration of deformation and volcanism illuminates relationships between magmatism and tectonics in western North America. Using ArcGIS, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, navdat.geongrid.org) using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). From these data sets we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, composition, and migration of Cenozoic volcanism from 36 Ma to present. These relationships are shown in a series of palinspastic maps as well as animations that highlight migrating extension and volcanism with time. Western North America is grouped into eight different regions with distinct relationships between strain and volcanism to evaluate competing hypotheses regarding the relationship of extension to continental magmatism. A first-order observation from this study is that magmatism throughout the Basin and Range appears to be primarily driven by plate boundary effects, notably subducting and foundering slabs as well as slab windows. Exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern border of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension-related asthenospheric upwelling along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range Province commenced during a magmatic lull. More broadly, with the exception of the Rio Grande rift we find that pulses of magmatism lag the onset of extension. These observations largely contradict the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension.

  6. How migratory thrushes conquered northern North America: a comparative phylogeography approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M. Topp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Five species of migratory thrushes (Turdidae occupy a transcontinental distribution across northern North America. They have largely overlapping breeding ranges, relatively similar ecological niches, and mutualistic relationships with northern woodland communities as insectivores and seed-dispersing frugivores. As an assemblage of ecologically similar species, and given other vertebrate studies, we predicted a shared pattern of genetic divergence among these species between their eastern and western populations, and also that the timing of the coalescent events might be similar and coincident with historical glacial events. To determine how these five lineages effectively established transcontinental distributions, we used mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to assess genetic structure and lineage coalescence from populations on each side of the continent. Two general patterns occur. Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus guttatus and C. ustulatus have relatively deep divergences between eastern and western phylogroups, probably reflecting shared historic vicariance. The Veery (C. fuscescens, Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus, and American Robin (Turdus migratorius have relatively shallow divergences between eastern and western populations. However, coalescent and approximate Bayesian computational analyses indicated that among all species as many as five transcontinental divergence events occurred. Divergence within both Hermit and Swainson’s thrushes resembled the divergence between Gray-cheeked Thrushes and Veeries and probably occurred during a similar time period. Despite these species’ ecological similarities, the assemblage exhibits heterogeneity at the species level in how they came to occupy transcontinental northern North America but two general continental patterns at an among-species organizational level, likely related to lineage age.

  7. North America carbon dioxide sources and sinks: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Anthony W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    North America is both a source and sink of atmospheric CO2. Sources, predominately fossil-fuel combustion in the United States along with contributions from deforestation in Mexico, add CO2 to the atmosphere. Most North America ecosystems, particularly regrowing forests in the United States, are sinks for atmospheric CO2. CO2 is removed from the atmosphere in photosynthesis, converted into biomass and stored as carbon in vegetation, soil and wood products. Fossil-fuel emissions dominate the North American source-sink balance. North America is a net source of atmospheric CO2 with ecosystem sinks balancing approximately 35% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from North America.

  8. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Joseph A. [U.S. Department of Energy; Jackman, Jennifer [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Li, Naiyi [Ford Motor Company; Osborne, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation; Powell, Bob R. [General Motors Corporation; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  9. Invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into two postglacial tundras: North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent; Dózsa-Farkas, Klára

    2006-01-01

    that of potential source regions indicating either strong selection or varied dispersal ability. It appears that the Archipelago is influenced mainly from North America and North-eastern Greenland from Europe while the specialized fauna of the ancient Beringian tundra is of minor importance. The two alternative...... scenarios: (a) survival of a prepleistocene fauna in protected refugia within the area or (b) a postglacial re-invasion from outside are discussed, but the available data do not discriminate between these two possibilities. A total of 24 terrestrial enchytraeid taxa are recorded of which 22 are identified...

  10. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Adephaga of America, north of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated.One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838, one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911 for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911, Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919, are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5 are established.The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1, a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2, a list of Geadephaga species

  11. Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America's winter bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princé, Karine; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Much of the recent changes in North American climate have occurred during the winter months, and as result, overwintering birds represent important sentinels of anthropogenic climate change. While there is mounting evidence that bird populations are responding to a warming climate (e.g., poleward shifts) questions remain as to whether these species-specific responses are resulting in community-wide changes. Here, we test the hypothesis that a changing winter climate should favor the formation of winter bird communities dominated by warm-adapted species. To do this, we quantified changes in community composition using a functional index--the Community Temperature Index (CTI)--which measures the balance between low- and high-temperature dwelling species in a community. Using data from Project FeederWatch, an international citizen science program, we quantified spatiotemporal changes in winter bird communities (n = 38 bird species) across eastern North America and tested the influence of changes in winter minimum temperature over a 22-year period. We implemented a jackknife analysis to identify those species most influential in driving changes at the community level and the population dynamics (e.g., extinction or colonization) responsible for these community changes. Since 1990, we found that the winter bird community structure has changed with communities increasingly composed of warm-adapted species. This reshuffling of winter bird communities was strongest in southerly latitudes and driven primarily by local increases in abundance and regional patterns of colonization by southerly birds. CTI tracked patterns of changing winter temperature at different temporal scales ranging from 1 to 35 years. We conclude that a shifting winter climate has provided an opportunity for smaller, southerly distributed species to colonize new regions and promote the formation of unique winter bird assemblages throughout eastern North America.

  12. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  13. Renewable energy in North America: Moving toward a richer mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobey, Cathy

    2010-09-15

    A follow-up to our January study with Economist Intelligence Unit, Renewable energy in North America. The update will further our call to action for a concerted group effort by energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government. 1. Introduction - State of the industry, progress made to replace carbon-based fossil fuels with alternative energy - Barriers - Pressure from public and government 2. Recent progress - Examine existing government incentive programs - International commitments - Examine the role of energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government 3. Call to Action - Creating an environment that encourages both supply and demand of renewable energy.

  14. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (US))

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a survey of whole body counting (WBC) programs at 75 nuclear facilities in North America. The survey was a supplement to an initial survey performed in 1980. Data obtained from the study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. This article presents the results of the 1984 survey in five areas: types of WBC systems, WBC spectral analysis software, protocol for performing WBCs, quality assurance programs, and technical bases for WBC programs.

  15. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Michelsen, O.

    2003-12-01

    This paper provides a review of recent high-resolution and conventional seismic investigations in the eastern Danish North Sea and destribes their implications for the development of the eastern North Sea Basin. The results tomprise detailed timestructure maps of four major unconformities in the eastern Danish North Sea: the Top Chalk surface (mid-Paleogene), near top Oligocene, the mid-Miocene unconformity, and base Quatemary. The maps show that the eastem Danish North Sea has been affected by fauldng and salt diapirism throughout the Cenozoic. Carbonate mounds, erosional valleys and pockmark- or karstlike struttures were identitied at the top of the Upper Cretaceous-Danian Chalk Group. Strike-parallel erosional features and depositional geometries observed at near top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity indicate that these major sequence boundarics tan be attributed to large-scale lateral changes in sediment supply directions. Increases in sediment flux to the southeastern North Sea at the Eocene/Oligocene transition and in the post-Middle Miocene appear to correlate with similar events world wide and with long term {delta} {sup 18} O increases, indicating forting by global factors, i.e. eustasy and climate. Stratal geometries observed on the seismic data indicate that the socalled `Neogene uplift' of the Bastern Danish North Sea may have been hundreds of metres less than previously suggested. lt is argued that late Cenozoic uplift of the basin margin and of mountain peaks in southern Norway may have been caused entirely by isostatic uplift of the trust in response to accelerated late Cenozoic denudation and dissection of topography created in the Paleogene. The late Cenozoic periods of accelerated denudation and incision rates were most likely driven by climatic deterioration and long term eustatic lowering rather than active late Cenozoic tectonics, the cause of which is conjectural. A series of shallow thrust struttures and an associated system

  16. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Butler...

  17. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeon, Lauriane; Burke, Ariane; Higham, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present), i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP). In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the “Beringian standstill hypothesis”, which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period. PMID:28060931

  18. New digital data base helps to map North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Pilkington, Mark; Cuevas, Alejandro; Urrutia, Jaime

    A new effort is underway to compile an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly data base and map for the North American continent by 2002. This program is a joint effort by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales de Mexico (CRM). An integrated, readily accessible, modern digital data base of magnetic anomaly data spanning North America will be a powerful tool for evaluating the structure, geologic processes, and tectonic evolution of the continent, and may also be used to help resolve societal and scientific issues that span national boundaries. Maps derived from the digital data base will provide a view of continentalscale trends not available in individual data sets, help link widely separated areas of out-crop, and unify disparate geologic studies.

  19. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  20. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  1. Range expansion by Passer montanus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.L.; Roberts, C.P.; Allen, Craig R.; Brown, M.B.; Moulton, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passer montanus became established in a small area of central North America following its introduction in 1870. P. montanus underwent minimal range expansion in the first 100 years following introduction. However, the North American population of P. montanus is now growing in size and expanding in geographic distribution, having expanded approximately 125 km to the north by 1970. We quantify the distance of spread by P. montanus from its introduction site in the greater St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois, USA area, using distributional (presence) data from the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count surveys for the period of 1951 to 2014. Linear regressions of the average annual range center of P. montanus confirmed significant shifts to the north at a rate of 3.3 km/year (P < 0.001) km/year. Linear regressions of the linear and angular distance of range center indicates significant northern movement (change in angle of mean range center; P < 0.001) since 1951. Our results quantify the extent of a northward range expansion, and suggesting a probable spread of this species northward.

  2. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Stroud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC (www.onehealthcommission.org/ and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/ and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results: A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions: It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities.

  3. Geochemistry of eastern North American CAMP diabase dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, S.; Marzoli, A.; Bertrand, H.; Reisberg, L. C.; Chiaradia, M.; Bellieni, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Piedmont area of the Appalachians and the coastal plains of eastern North America (ENA) were intruded between 202 and 195 Ma[1,2] by swarms of diabase (dolerite) dykes and a few sills of the Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Different trends are observed for the dykes, from NW (more frequent in the South), to N-S and NE, thus a radial pattern and a coeval emplacement driven by the bulging effect of a mantle plume were initially inferred[3]. Conversely, based on field data, an age progression can be defined from NW- to N- and NE-oriented dykes, supporting a diachronous northward rift-to-drift transition during Pangaea break-up. New geochemical data on 74 ENA dykes suggest a dominant lithospheric mantle source for these magmatic suite. A deep enriched mantle source is further discarded by the crystallization temperatures (ca.1350°C) calculated[4] for high-Fo (up to Fo89) olivines, which do not reflect very hot (i.e. mantle-plume) potential mantle temperatures. Incompatible trace element contents are fairly homogeneous and generally low, e.g. (La/Yb)Ch (0.54-2.39), typical of melts derived from a quite depleted shallow (spinel) mantle-source. However, isotopic compositions of ENA dykes display a considerable spread in initial isotopic signatures, do not show correlation with incompatible trace elements, and are independent of the orientation and age of the dykes, i.e. 87Sr/86Sr200Ma (0.7043-0.7088), ɛNd200Ma (-6.67-+2.42) and 206Pb/204Pb200Ma (17.46-18.61). Pb isotopic compositions plot above the NHRL, at positive Δ7/4 (10-17) and Δ8/4 (19-73), calling for an enriched ancient component in the mantle source. Unradiogenic 187Os/188Os200Ma ratios (0.127-0.144) argue for negligible amounts of crustal contamination and, coupled with the large range of Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, suggest generation from a strongly heterogeneous mantle source, probably metasomatized lithosphere. Lithospheric mantle underlying the Appalachian orogen may have undergone

  4. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  5. Total variation denoising of interseismic deformation in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. L.; Meade, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic observations of interseismic deformation provide constraints on microplate rotations, earthquake cycle processes, and slip partitioning across the Pacific-North America plate boundary. These measurements may be interpreted using block models, in which the upper crust is divided into microplates bounded by mapped faults. The number and geometry of microplates are typically defined with boundaries representing a limited sub-set of the large number of potentially seismogenic faults. An alternative approach is to include all possible faults in a dense array of microplates, and then deterministically estimate the boundaries at which strain is localized. This is possible with a regularization technique called total variation denoising (TVDN), which simultaneously minimizes of the l2-norm of the data residuals and l1-norm of the variation in the estimated state vector. Applied to three-dimensional spherical block models, TVDN reduces the total variation between estimated rotation vectors, creating groups of microplates that rotate together as larger blocks, and therefore localizing fault slip on the boundaries of these larger blocks. Here we develop a block model comprised of hundreds of microplates based on detailed fault maps, and deterministically identify the kinematically most important faults in western North America using TVDN regularization.

  6. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  7. Mental Health Problems in Primary Care: Progress in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Magruder

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the last decade has acknowledged that primary care plays a pivotal role in the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this paper is to review major accomplishments, emerging trends, and continuing gaps concerning mental health problems in primary care in North America. Methods: Literature from North America was reviewed and synthesized. Results: Major accomplishments include: the development and adoption of a number of clinical guidelines specifically for mental health conditions in primary care, the acceptance of the chronic care model as a framework for treating depression in primary care, and the clear adoption of pharmacologic approaches as the predominant mode for treating depression and anxiety. Emerging trends include: the use of non-physician facilitators as care managers in the treatment of depression in primary care, increasing use of technology in the assessment and treatment of mental health conditions in primary care, and dissemination and implementation of integrated mental health treatment approaches. Lingering issues include: the difficulty in moving beyond problem identification and initiation of treatment to sustaining evidence-based treatments, agreement on a common metric to evaluate outcomes, and the stigma still associated with mental illness. Conclusion: Though there now exists a solid and growing evidence base for the delivery of mental health services in primary care, there are still significant challenges which must be overcome in order to make further advances.

  8. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  9. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  10. North America's Midcontinent Rift: when Rift MET Lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Bollmann, T. A.; Wolin, E.; Zhang, H.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Ola, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; Alequabi, G.; Waite, G. P.; Blavascunas, E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Flesch, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.; Moucha, R.; Brown, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rifts are segmented linear depressions, filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks, that form by extension and often evolve into plate boundaries. Flood basalts, a class of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), are broad regions of extensive volcanism due to sublithospheric processes. Typical rifts are not filled with flood basalts, and typical flood basalts are not associated with significant crustal extension and faulting. North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is an unusual combination. Its 3000-km length formed as part of the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian NE South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established, but contains an enormous volume of igneous rocks. MCR volcanics are significantly thicker than other flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift geometry but a LIP's magma volume. Structural modeling of seismic reflection data shows an initial rift phase where flood basalts filled a fault-controlled extending basin, and a postrift phase where volcanics and sediments were deposited in a thermally subsiding basin without associated faulting. The crust thinned during rifting and rethickened during the postrift phase and later compression, yielding the present thicker crust. The coincidence of a rift and LIP yielded the world's largest deposit of native copper. This combination arose when a new rift associated with continental breakup interacted with a mantle plume or anomalously hot or fertile upper mantle. Integration of diverse data types and models will give insight into questions including how the magma source was related to the rifting, how their interaction operated over a long period of rapid plate motion, why the lithospheric mantle below the MCR differs only slightly from its surroundings, how and why extension, volcanism, and compression varied along the rift arms, and how successful seafloor spreading ended the rift phase. Papers

  11. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam and Aizawl (Mizoram. Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif­ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60% followed by pet (29.16% and stray dogs (17.75%.Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. 

  12. REVIEW: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel (eds. 2013. Monastic and Lay Traditions of North-Eastern Tibet. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies.

  13. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  14. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  15. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, pAmerica have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  16. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01

    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was established.Eight soil profiles

  17. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01


    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was

  18. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  19. Effects of warming conditions in eastern North American forests on red-backed salamander morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James P; Karraker, Nancy E

    2006-06-01

    Several studies have reported climate-associated changes in phenotypically plastic traits of amphibians, yet it remains unknown whether amphibians can manifest an evolutionary response to global climate change at the rate and magnitude that it is occurring. To assess this issue, we examined temporal change in the morphology of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), a small, abundant woodland salamander distributed widely in eastern North America with two distinct morphotypes: striped individuals associated with cooler microclimates and unstriped individuals associated with warmer microclimates. We compiled morph frequencies for 50,960 individual salamanders from 558 sites as recorded in the published literature and in unpublished field notes of herpetologists between 1908 and 2004. We observed that striping probability increased with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation and decreased (from 80% to 74% range wide) with time. The combined forces of regional climate warming and, particularly, forest disturbance have evidently been sufficient to cause morphological evolution in this amphibian over the last century.

  20. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  1. Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Duane; Stiller, Mathias; Heintzman, Peter D.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Soares, André E. R.; Meyer, Matthias; Hall, Elizabeth; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Arnold, Lee J.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of bison in North America marks one of the most successful large-mammal dispersals from Asia within the last million years, yet the timing and nature of this event remain poorly determined. Here, we used a combined paleontological and paleogenomic approach to provide a robust timeline for the entry and subsequent evolution of bison within North America. We characterized two fossil-rich localities in Canada’s Yukon and identified the oldest well-constrained bison fossil in North America, a 130,000-y-old steppe bison, Bison cf. priscus. We extracted and sequenced mitochondrial genomes from both this bison and from the remains of a recently discovered, ˜120,000-y-old giant long-horned bison, Bison latifrons, from Snowmass, Colorado. We analyzed these and 44 other bison mitogenomes with ages that span the Late Pleistocene, and identified two waves of bison dispersal into North America from Asia, the earliest of which occurred ˜195-135 thousand y ago and preceded the morphological diversification of North American bison, and the second of which occurred during the Late Pleistocene, ˜45-21 thousand y ago. This chronological arc establishes that bison first entered North America during the sea level lowstand accompanying marine isotope stage 6, rejecting earlier records of bison in North America. After their invasion, bison rapidly colonized North America during the last interglaciation, spreading from Alaska through continental North America; they have been continuously resident since then.

  2. Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, D.; Woodward, R. L.; Snieder, R. K.

    1996-07-01

    A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the tectonically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After

  3. Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, D.; Woodward, R.L.; Snieder, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the technically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After

  4. The Eastern Dimension of America’s New European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    President Vacldv Klaus has been one of the most consistent critics of Visegrdd, at one point viewing it as a Western reconstruction of Eastern Europe that...People in Need. Former President Vaclav Havel used his global stature to campaign internationally against oppressive regimes, but the government itself...was underpinned by the moral authority of President Vaclav Havel. Havel was a strong proponent of NATO enlargement and the inclusion of all post

  5. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  6. Fishers, farms, and forests in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Pamela A; Bowman, Jeff; Pond, Bruce A

    2008-07-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) has recently recovered from historic extirpations across much of its geographic range. There are at least five explanations for the recovery of the fisher, including changes in the amount of habitat, the suitability of habitat, trapping pressure, societal attitudes toward predators, and climate. We evaluated a recovering fisher population in Ontario to test two conditions we viewed as necessary to support the hypothesis that fisher populations have increased due to an increase in the amount of forested land. First, we tested whether the amount of forested land has increased. Second, we tested whether contemporary fisher abundance (and therefore habitat quality) was related to the amount of forest. Topographic maps showed that the proportion of forested land in the study area had increased by 1.9% per decade since 1934 and 3.3% per decade since 1959, likely as a result of land conversion from agricultural uses. Overall the proportion of the study area that was forested increased from 29% to 40% during 1934 to 1995. Census data from the region indicated that there had been a decline in the amount of land area being farmed during the last 50 years. Recent livetrapping data showed that fisher abundance was positively related to the proportion of landscapes that were forested. Based on our results, we could not reject the hypothesis that an increase in the amount of forested land has contributed to the recovery of fisher populations.

  7. Climate Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Renik, B.; Maenza-Gmeich, T.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-latitude forest ecosystems have been proposed as a "missing sink" today. The role of soils (including wetlands) in this proposed sink is a very important unknown. In order to make estimates of future climate change effects on carbon storage, we can examine past wetland carbon sequestration. How did past climate change affect net wetland carbon storage? We present long-term data from existing wetland sites used for paleoclimate reconstruction to assess the net carbon storage in wetland over the last 15000 years. During times of colder and wetter climate, many mid-latitude sites show increases in carbon storage, while past warmer, drier climates produced decreases in storage. Comparison among bog, fen, swamp, and tidal marsh are demonstrated for the Hudson Valley region.

  8. Mechanisms for synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 in North America, South America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Baker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 produced by interactions between weather and surface fluxes are investigated mechanistically and quantitatively in midlatitude and tropical regions using continuous in-situ CO2 observations in North America, South America and Europe and forward chemical transport model simulations with the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model. Frontal CO2 climatologies show consistently strong, characteristic frontal CO2 signals throughout the midlatitudes of North America and Europe. Transitions between synoptically identifiable CO2 air masses or transient spikes along the frontal boundary typically characterize these signals. One case study of a summer cold front shows CO2 gradients organizing with deformational flow along weather fronts, producing strong and spatially coherent variations. In order to differentiate physical and biological controls on synoptic variations in midlatitudes and a site in Amazonia, a boundary layer budget equation is constructed to break down boundary layer CO2 tendencies into components driven by advection, moist convection, and surface fluxes. This analysis suggests that, in midlatitudes, advection is dominant throughout the year and responsible for 60–70% of day-to-day variations on average, with moist convection contributing less than 5%. At a site in Amazonia, vertical mixing, in particular coupling between convective transport and surface CO2 flux, is most important, with advection responsible for 26% of variations, moist convection 32% and surface flux 42%. Transport model sensitivity experiments agree with budget analysis. These results imply the existence of a recharge-discharge mechanism in Amazonia important for controlling synoptic variations of boundary layer CO2, and that forward and inverse simulations should take care to represent moist convective transport. Due to the scarcity of tropical observations at the time of this study, results in Amazonia are not generalized for

  9. Low prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in urban and migratory Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Taft, Stephen J.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Evans, David L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a digestive tract disease caused by ingestion of the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. This disease can be a significant source of mortality. No deaths of nestlings could be attributed to trichomoniasis in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) breeding in urban and rural environs in Wisconsin, North Dakota, and British Columbia. We detected T. gallinae in four (5.2%) of 77 nestling Cooper's Hawks during 2006 and 2007 among 42 urban nests on new study areas in southeast Wisconsin and eastern North Dakota/western Minnesota. All four infected young fledged. We did not detect T. gallinae in 52 breeding adult Cooper's Hawks on two urban study sites, nor in 28 migrant hatching year (n  =  24) and adult (n  =  4) Cooper's Hawks at Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve, Duluth, Minnesota in 2006–2007. Overall, we detected T. gallinae in only 2.5% of 157 Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America. These results suggest a low prevalence of T. gallinae in Cooper's Hawks in the northern part of this hawk's breeding range.

  10. The timing of kimberlite magmatism in North America: implications for global kimberlite genesis and diamond exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, L. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Creaser, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Based on a compilation of more than 100 kimberlite age determinations, four broad kimberlite emplacement patterns can be recognized in North America: (1) a northeast Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea province (Labrador, Québec), (2) an eastern Jurassic province (Ontario, Québec, New York, Pennsylvania), (3) a Cretaceous central corridor (Nunavut, Saskatchewan, central USA), and (4) a western mixed (Cambrian-Eocene) Type 3 kimberlite province (Alberta, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Colorado/Wyoming). Ten new U-Pb perovskite/mantle zircon and Rb-Sr phlogopite age determinations are reported here for kimberlites from the Slave and Wyoming cratons of western North America. Within the Type 3 Slave craton, at least four kimberlite age domains exist: I-a southwestern Siluro-Ordovician domain (˜450 Ma), II-a SE Cambrian domain (˜540 Ma), III-a central Tertiary/Cretaceous domain (48-74 Ma) and IV-a northern mixed domain consisting of Jurassic and Permian kimberlite fields. New U-Pb perovskite results for the 614.5±2.1 Ma Chicken Park and 408.4±2.6 Ma Iron Mountain kimberlites in the State Line field in Colorado and Wyoming confirm the existence of at least two periods of pre-Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in the Wyoming craton. A compilation of robust kimberlite emplacement ages from North America, southern Africa and Russia indicates that a high proportion of known kimberlites are Cenozoic/Mesozoic. We conclude that a majority of these kimberlites were generated during enhanced mantle plume activity associated with the rifting and eventual breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Within this prolific period of kimberlite activity, there is a good correlation between North America and Yakutia for three distinct short-duration (˜10 my) periods of kimberlite magmatism at 48-60, 95-105 and 150-160 Ma. In contrast, Cenozoic/Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in southern Africa is dominated by a continuum of activity between 70-95 and 105-120 Ma with additional less

  11. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... for subsistence purposes Quantitative ethno-botanical research in different forest types have identified thousands of different ways of using palms for food, construction, tool-making, etc. Although most palms are used by the person harvesting them, many are sold on local markets as fruits, fiber, tools...

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada.

  13. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  14. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Troyer, Ryan M.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  15. Dung of Mammuthus in the arid Southwest, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Davis, Owen K.; Martin, Paul S.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of a unique organic deposit in a dry cave on the Colorado Plateau, southern Utah, permits the first comparison of the physical characteristics and the diet of the dung of the extinct mammoths from the arid Southwest, North America, with that of mammoths from Siberia and northern China, the only other known locations of such remains. The deposit buried beneath sand and rockfall is composed primarily of mammoth dung, estimated at over 300 m 3. Radiocarbon dates on dung boluses indicate that the mammoths frequented the cave between approximately 14,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (the range of ages at 2σ). The desiccated boluses, measuring approximately 230 × 170 × 85 mm, are nearly identical in size to dung from extant elephants. The largest contents in the dung are stalks measuring 60 × 4.5 mm. Grasses and sedges dominated the diet, although woody species were commonly eaten.

  16. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A; Troyer, Ryan M; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D

    2003-04-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  17. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Emry, Robert J.

    1996-06-01

    The transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene epoch, occurring approximately 47 to 30 million years ago, was the most dramatic episode of climatic and biotic change since the demise of the dinosaurs. The mild tropical climates of the Paleocene and early Eocene were replaced by modern climatic conditions and extremes, including glacial ice in Antarctica. The first part of this book summarizes the latest information in the dating and correlation of the strata of late middle Eocene through early Oligocene age in North America. The second part reviews almost all the important terrestrial reptiles and mammals found near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in the White River Chronofauna--from the turtles, snakes and lizards to the common rodents, carnivores, oreodonts and deer of the Badlands. This is the first comprehensive treatment of these topics in over sixty years, and will be invaluable to vertebrate paleontologists, geologists, mammalogists and evolutionary biologists.

  18. The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. C.; Maehr, David S.; Noss, Reed F.; Larkin, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Grizzly bear restoration and recovery is a controversial, highly politicized process. By 1959, when the Craigheads began their pioneering work on Yellowstone grizzly bears, the species had been reduced to a remnant of its historic range. Prior to the colonization of North America by Europeans, the grizzly lived in relatively pristine habitats with aboriginal Native Americans. As civilization expanded, humans changed the face of the landscape, converting grizzly bear habitat to farms and ranches. People killed grizzlies to protect livestock and eliminate a perceived threat to human safety. In concert, habitat loss and direct human-caused mortality had effectively eliminated the grizzly from 95 percent of its historic range in the conterminous United States by the 1920s (Servheen 1989). Grizzly bear numbers had been reduced nearly 98 percent by 1975 when the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (USFWS 1993).

  19. 77 FR 24762 - Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    .... Refer to Hyundai Motor Company (74 FR 9125, March 2, 209); Ford Motor Company (73 FR 11462, March 3, 2008); Mazda North America Operations (73 FR 11464, March 3, 2008); Ford Motor Company (73 FR 63051... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for...

  20. 76 FR 35249 - Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America, et al; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... COMMISSION Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America, et al; Notice of Application June 10, 2011... Section 17(b) of the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America (``Allianz Life'') and Allianz Life Insurance Company of New York (``Allianz...

  1. 76 FR 7590 - Bruss North America Russell Springs, Kentucky; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America Russell Springs, Kentucky; Notice of Revised... workers of Bruss North America, Russell Springs, Kentucky (subject firm), regarding their application for... Springs, Kentucky, who are engaged in employment related to the production of automobile parts...

  2. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  3. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  4. Elytral macular forms of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella septempunctata L. is a widespread Palearctic species that has been introduced several times into North America within the last century. It is generally considered monomorphic with seven elytral maculae in North America. In this paper, we document variation in elytral color patterns of C...

  5. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura M; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Filipino female in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Frazee, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been described in Southeast Asia, but has only recently begun to emerge in North America. The hypermucoviscous strain of K. pneumoniae is a particularly virulent strain known to cause devastatingly invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Here we present the first known case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae in North America.

  7. Cross-continental patterns in the timing of southward Peregrine Falcon migration in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worcester, R.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the timing of southward migration of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) across North America, based on passage data compiled by the Hawk Migration Association of North America, supplemented with two other similar datasets collected by individual observers at sites in western Canada. Th

  8. 76 FR 12410 - BMW of North America, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) \\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG, Munich, Germany, has determined that certain BMW vehicles equipped with ``run- flat'' tires do not fully...

  9. 78 FR 46595 - Accreditation of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation of SGS North America, Inc., as a commercial laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant..., 2013. DATES: Effective Dates: The accreditation of SGS North America, Inc., as commercial...

  10. A GPS estimate of relative motion between North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Mao, Ailin

    GPS velocity data are used to estimate the Euler vector describing rigid body motion of North America relative to South America. Assuming the boundary between the North and South American plates is located near the Fifteen Twenty fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic, the Euler vector predicts extension across the Royal Trough up to 1 mm/yr, and convergence across the Barracuda Ridge at about 2 mm/yr, in agreement with geological estimates averaged over tens of millions of years. Further west, convergence between North and South America at rates up to 8 mm/yr may contribute to deformation of the Caribbean plate along its southwest boundary with South America.

  11. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  12. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  13. Missourian (early Late Pennsylvanian) climate in Midcontinent North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutter, S.R.; Heckel, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    The abrupt decrease in mineable coals from Desmoinesian to Missourian rocks in Midcontinent North America has been related by several lines of evidence to the probability that Missourian climate became at least seasonally drier than Desmoinesian climate. This represents a transition from the equatorial Desmoinesian rainforest climate to the arid Permian climate, as North America moved northward from the equator. This change is reflected in the progression of evaporites from western Colorado in the Desmoinesian to Kansas in the Permian. Direct climatic evidence from soils in two Missourian shales deposited at low stands of sea-level includes caliche horizons, incompletely leached mixed-layer clays. Less direct climatic evidence includes the greater proportion of marine limestone deposited at intermediate sea-level stands in the Missourian than in the Desmoinesian part of the sequence, in conjunction with the greater abundance and thickness of oolite and shore-line facies in Missourian limestones than in Desmoinesian counterparts. This probably reflects increasing dryness of the climate, which would have led to decreased detrital influx and increased salinity as rainfall and runoff diminished. Indirect climatic evidence in offshore black phosphatic shales deposited at highest sea-level stands involves possible seasonality in organic and phosphatic laminations, related to periodicity of upwelling in the tropical trade-wide belt under the strong monsoonal influence of Pangaea. Mid-continent Missourian climates probably ranged from tropical monsoon to tropical savanna or hot steppe, all having wet-dry seasonality. The coincident extinctions of conodont, brachiopod, and other marine genera as well as the loss of swamp lycopods at the end of the Desmoinesian suggest the possibility that a greater than usual drop in sea level affected both realms at this time, while the climate was becoming drier. 91 references.

  14. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations...... in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L-1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which...... are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we...

  15. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  16. Range-wide determinants of plague distribution in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sean P; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L; Enscore, Russell E; Peterson, A Townsend

    2010-10-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host-plague associations (the "Host Niche Hypothesis"), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the "Plague Niche Hypothesis"). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The "plague niche" is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species.

  17. Range-wide Determinants of Plague Distribution in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sean P.; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L.; Enscore, Russell E.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host–plague associations (the “Host Niche Hypothesis”), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the “Plague Niche Hypothesis”). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The “plague niche” is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species. PMID:20889857

  18. Alpine ice core records from Pacific North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; Pettit, E.

    2006-12-01

    Climate in the northeast Pacific shows significant multi-decadal and longer timescale variability, yet the instrumental record in western North America is relatively short. Paleoclimate proxy data, therefore, are essential to understanding climate variability in this region. A number of promising proxy-based reconstructions have been published recently, but additional constraints are needed. Ice core records are particularly useful for these reconstructions because they provide both high-resolution proxy data (such as δ18O and ion concentrations, which reflect large scale circulation changes) and direct measures of snow accumulation. Furthermore, at high altitude sites where ablation rates are small, snow accumulation is a highly reliable measure of total precipitation. At Mt. Logan, St. Elias Range, Yukon Territory, annual accumulation is significantly correlated with large scale climate indices such as the Aleutian Low pressure index. Perhaps more importantly, annual layer thickness in the Mt. Logan core is demonstrably reliable as an indicator of wintertime accumulation extremes not just at the site, but over a fairly large geographic area. Similar records have also been obtained at Mt. Churchill-Bona (AK) and Eclipse Dome (YT), also in the Wrangell/St. Elias range. A sufficiently complete spatial network of cores could in principle be used to develop a robust estimate of past winter precipitation variability across western Canada and Alaska. Mt. Waddington, British Columbia Coast Range, is one of the most promising sites for an ice core at temperate latitudes in North America. Mt. Waddington's location is highly complementary to the Wrangell/St. Elias sites: precipitation, temperature and geopotential height anomalies all tend to be opposite in sign in the two geographic regions. An accumulation record from Waddington, therefore, has considerable potential for refining reconstructions of precipitation and large scale circulation across the region. In July 2006

  19. Nested-grid simulation of mercury over North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new high-resolution (1/2° latitude by 2/3° longitude nested-grid mercury (Hg simulation over North America employing the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Emissions, chemistry, deposition, and meteorology are self-consistent between the global and nested domains. Compared to the global model (4° latitude by 5° longitude, the nested model shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial and temporal variability of Hg wet deposition over North America observed by the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN in 2008–2009. The nested simulation resolves features such as land/ocean contrast and higher deposition due to orographic precipitation, and predicts more efficient convective rain scavenging of Hg over the southeast United States. However, the nested model overestimates Hg wet deposition over the Ohio River Valley region (ORV by 27%. We modify anthropogenic emission speciation profiles in the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI to account for the rapid in-plume reduction of reactive to elemental Hg (IPR simulation. This leads to a decrease in the model bias to +3% over the ORV region. Over the contiguous US, the correlation coefficient (r between MDN observations and our IPR simulation increases from 0.63 to 0.78. The IPR nested simulation generally reproduces the seasonal cycle in surface concentrations of speciated Hg from the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet and Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Network (CAMNet. In the IPR simulation, annual mean reactive gaseous and particulate-bound Hg are within 80% and 10% of observations, respectively. In contrast, the simulation with unmodified anthropogenic Hg speciation profiles overestimates these observations by factors of 2 to 4. The nested model shows improved skill at capturing the horizontal variability of Hg observed over California during the ARCTAS aircraft campaign. We find that North American anthropogenic emissions account for 10–22% of Hg wet

  20. Palinspastic restoration of NAVDat and its implications for the origins of magmatism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.

    2008-12-01

    Simultaneous palinspastic restoration of deformation and volcanism illuminates relationships between magmatism and tectonics in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, navdat.geongrid.org) using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward-deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. These relationships are shown in a series of palinspastic maps as well as an animation highlighting migrating extension and volcanism with time. We group western North America into 8 different regions with distinct relationships between strain and volcanism. In the northern Basin and Range, southern Arizona and Rio Grande rift areas, a peak in andesitic compositions reflects arc volcanism that preceded significant extension by 5-10 m.y. In the northern Basin and Range, southwestward migration of volcanism in conjunction with westward expansion of the continental margin strongly supports the contention that extension was driven by slab rollback. Southern Arizona and the Colorado River extensional corridor (CEC) have a remarkably similar migration of extension and volcanism that occurred ~10 m.y. later than in the northern Basin and Range. The migration of volcanism from southern Arizona to the CEC and Mojave Desert has been argued to reflect northwestward migration of the volcanic arc from 30 to 15 Ma. However, we note that by 20 Ma both the CEC and the Mojave region directly overlie the slab window in the Farallon plate. In this region extension peaks with or immediately after volcanism and suggests thermal failure of the lithosphere above a growing slab window. At the latitude of Death Valley there is a strong

  1. Impact of millennial-scale Holocene climate variability on eastern North American terrestrial ecosystems: Pollen-based climatic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Korejwo, D.A.; Meyers, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present paleoclimatic evidence for a series of Holocene millennial-scale cool intervals in eastern North America that occurred every ???1400 years and lasted ???300-500 years, based on pollen data from Chesapeake Bay in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cool events are indicated by significant decreases in pine pollen, which we interpret as representing decreases in January temperatures of between 0.2??and 2??C. These temperature decreases include excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1300-1600 AD) and the 8 ka cold event. The timing of the pine minima is correlated with a series of quasi-periodic cold intervals documented by various proxies in Greenland, North Atlantic, and Alaskan cores and with solar minima interpreted from cosmogenic isotope records. These events may represent changes in circumpolar vortex size and configuration in response to intervals of decreased solar activity, which altered jet stream patterns to enhance meridional circulation over eastern North America. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A full holocene tephrochronology for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region: Applications from Kamchatka to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim; Pendea, I. Florin; Zelenin, Egor; Bourgeois, Joanne; Pinegina, Tatiana; Kozhurin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    Geochemically fingerprinted widespread tephra layers serve as excellent marker horizons which can directly link and synchronize disparate sedimentary archives and be used for dating various deposits related to climate shifts, faulting events, tsunami, and human occupation. In addition, tephras represent records of explosive volcanic activity and permit assessment of regional ashfall hazard. In this paper we report a detailed Holocene tephrochronological model developed for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region of eastern Kamchatka (NW Pacific) based on ∼2800 new electron microprobe analyses of single glass shards from tephra samples collected in the area as well as on previously published data. Tephra ages are modeled based on a compilation of 223 14C dates, including published dates for Shiveluch proximal tephra sequence and regional marker tephras; new AMS 14C dates; and modeled calibrated ages from the Krutoberegovo key site. The main source volcanoes for tephra in the region are Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi located 60-100 km to the west. In addition, local tephra sequences contain two tephras from the Plosky volcanic massif and three regional marker tephras from Ksudach and Avachinsky volcanoes located in the Eastern volcanic front of Kamchatka. This tephrochronological framework contributes to the combined history of environmental change, tectonic events, and volcanic impact in the study area and farther afield. This study is another step in the construction of the Kamchatka-wide Holocene tephrochronological framework under the same methodological umbrella. Our dataset provides a research reference for tephra and cryptotephra studies in the northwest Pacific, the Bering Sea, and North America.

  3. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment..., including on-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  4. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including... Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Assistance on September 3, 2010, applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI...

  5. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom... Doing Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood, CA...

  6. Magnitude and Carbon Consequences of Forest Management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (carbon source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (carbon sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “carbon relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest management in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to

  7. Status of woodland caribou in western north America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Janet Edmonds

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of current population size and trends of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in seven jurisdictions in western North America shows a wide range of situations. A total maximum population estimate of woodland caribou west of the Ontario/Manitoba border is 61 090. Of 44 herds or populations described in this review: 14 are stable; two are stable to slightly decreasing; four are decreasing; four are increasing; and 22 are of unknown status. Caribou are classified as a threatened species in Alberta and as an endangered species in Washington/Idaho. The decline of caribou in North America following settlement (Bergerud, 1974 has continued along the southern edge of woodland caribou distribution. Direct loss of habitat to logging, mines and dams continued throughout the I960s, 1970s and 1980s. The secondary effects of these habitat changes, (i.e. increased roads leading to increased hunting and poaching, and increased early succession habitat leading to increased alternate prey/predator densities has led in some cases to the total loss or decreased size of local herds. Three ecotypes of woodland caribou are described and their relative distribution delineated. These ecotypes live under different environmental conditions and require different inventory and management approaches. Woodland caribou herds in northern B.C., Yukon and N.W.T. generally are of good numbers and viable (stable or increasing, and management primarily is directed at regulating human harvest and natural predation to prevent, herd declines. Land use activities such as logging or energy development are not extensive. Managers in southern caribou ranges stress the need for a better understanding of caribou population stability within mixed prey/predator regimes; how habitat changes (eg. through logging affect these regimes; and how to develop effective land use guidelines for resource extraction that can sustian caribou populations and maintain resource industries

  8. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  9. Eastern tropical North Pacific coral radiocarbon reveals North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Sara C.; Ferguson, Julie; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Southon, John R.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuations in oceanic circulation and upwelling associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) are the largest source of salinity and nutrient concentration variability across the Pacific basin. Recent observations suggest NPGO-like variability is intensifying, but longer, "pre-instrumental" records are required to improve our understanding of NPGO amplitude and phase change. Here, using measurements of coral skeletal chemistry from San Benedicto Island in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), we assess this region's suitability for reconstructing NPGO behavior. We find that coral geochemical proxy measurements of ETNP salinity and dissolved inorganic carbon radiocarbon (Δ14C) content reflect NPGO-driven gyre circulation and regional coastal upwelling. These results provide the basis for reconstructing NPGO-related ocean conditions hundreds of years prior to the modern observational record.

  10. Velocity variations and uncertainty from transdimensional P-wave tomography of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Scott; Lekić, Vedran

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution models of seismic velocity variations constructed using body-wave tomography inform the study of the origin, fate and thermochemical state of mantle domains. In order to reliably relate these variations to material properties including temperature, composition and volatile content, we must accurately retrieve both the patterns and amplitudes of variations and quantify the uncertainty associated with the estimates of each. For these reasons, we image the mantle beneath North America with P-wave traveltimes from USArray using a novel method for 3-D probabilistic body-wave tomography. The method uses a Transdimensional Hierarchical Bayesian framework with a reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm in order to generate an ensemble of possible velocity models. We analyse this ensemble solution to obtain the posterior probability distribution of velocities, thereby yielding error bars and enabling rigorous hypothesis testing. Overall, we determine that the average uncertainty (1σ) of compressional wave velocity estimates beneath North America is ˜0.25 per cent dVP/VP, increasing with proximity to complex structure and decreasing with depth. The addition of USArray data reduces the uncertainty beneath the Eastern US by over 50 per cent in the upper mantle and 25-40 per cent below the transition zone and ˜30 per cent throughout the mantle beneath the Western US. In the absence of damping and smoothing, we recover amplitudes of variations 10-80 per cent higher than a standard inversion approach. Accounting for differences in data coverage, we infer that the length scale of heterogeneity is ˜50 per cent longer at shallow depths beneath the continental platform than beneath tectonically active regions. We illustrate the model trade-off analysis for the Cascadia slab and the New Madrid Seismic Zone, where we find that smearing due to the limitations of the illumination is relatively minor.

  11. Climatic Impact of the Bølling-Allerød over Eastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim Catunda, M. C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Strikis, N. M.; Mulitza, S.; Cruz, F. W., Sr.; Vuille, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    The last deglaciation was marked by large scale and rapid changes in rainfall over the tropics. Previous studies have correlated pulses of increased terrigenous input off semi arid northeastern South America with abrupt cold events in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. However, deglacial climate changes in other areas of South America are still not resolved. Here we reconstruct deglacial (23-11.5 cal ka BP) continental conditions over eastern Brazil based on (i) Ti/Ca of a radiocarbon dated marine sediment core as a proxy for Doce River (draining eastern Brazil) terrigenous input, and (ii) δ18O of a suite of U-Th dated stalagmites from eastern Brazil. Our marine core was recovered from 1100 m water depth on the tropical Brazilian continental slope, while our stalagmites come from Lapa Sem Fim cave. Both the Doce River and Lapa Sem Fim cave are located in the highly populated and economically active eastern Brazil, where most of the rainfall is related to the activity of the South America Monsoon System (SAMS). The Ti/Ca record is relatively stable showing high proportions of Ti in relationship to Ca throughout the deglacial, with a major excursion towards lower values indicating a decrease in terrigenous input synchronous to the Bølling-Allerød. Interestingly, speleothem δ18O also record this major excursion as less negative values. Together, our results suggest a major decrease in precipitation likely related to a weakening of the SAMS. We further compared our results with the output of the SYNTRACE run of CCSM3 fully coupled climate model with transient forcing for the last deglaciation. Geochemical records and model output show a very good coupling and suggest that the eastern Brazil experienced the driest period of the whole last deglaciation during the Bølling-Allerød and this dry spell was indeed related to a decreased SAMS intensity.

  12. Projected changes to surface wind characteristics and extremes over North America in CRCM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the tendency of wind speed and direction have significant implications for long-term water cycle, air pollution, arid and semiarid environments, fire activity, and wind energy production. Furthermore, changes in wind extremes have direct impacts on buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, power lines, and trees. This study evaluates projected changes to wind speed characteristics (i.e., seasonal and annual mean, seasonal and diurnal cycles, directional distribution, and extreme events) for the future 2071-2100 period, with respect to the current 1981-2010 period over North America, using four different simulations from the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) with two driving GCMs under RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The CRCM5 simulates the climatology of mean sea level pressure gradient and associated wind direction over North America well when compared to ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The CRCM5 also reproduces properly the spatial distributions of observed seasonal and annual mean wind speeds obtained from 611 meteorological stations across North America. The CRCM5 simulations generally suggest an increase in future mean wind speed for northern and eastern parts of Canada, due to a decrease of future mean sea level pressure and more intense low pressure air circulation systems already situated in those regions such as Aleutian and Icelandic Lows. Projected changes to annual maximum wind speed show more spatial variability compared to seasonal and annual mean wind speed as extreme wind speed is influenced more by regional-scale features associated with instantaneous surface temperature and air pressure gradients. The CRCM5 simulations suggest some increases in the future 50-year return levels of wind speed, mainly due to changes in the inter-annual variability of annual maximum wind speed. However, the projected changes vary in spatial pattern with the driving GCM fields and emission scenarios

  13. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  14. Neurospora in temperate forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, David J; Powell, Amy J; Dettman, Jeremy R; Saenz, Gregory S; Barton, Magdalen M; Hiltz, Megan D; Dvorachek, William H; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Natvig, Donald O

    2004-01-01

    The fungal genus Neurospora has a distinguished history as a laboratory model in genetics and biochemistry. The most recent milestone in this history has been the sequencing of the genome of the best known species, N. crassa. The hope and promise of a complete genome sequence is a full understanding of the biology of the organism. Full understanding cannot be achieved, however, in the absence of fundamental knowledge of natural history. We report that species of Neurospora, heretofore thought to occur mainly in moist tropical and subtropical regions, are common primary colonizers of trees and shrubs killed by forest fires in western North America, in regions that are often cold and dry. Surveys in 36 forest-fire sites from New Mexico to Alaska yielded more than 500 cultures, 95% of which were the rarely collected N. discreta. Initial characterization of genotypes both within a site and on a single tree showed diversity consistent with sexual reproduction of N. discreta. These discoveries fill important gaps in knowledge of the distribution of members of the genus on both large and small spatial scales and provide the framework for future studies in new regions and microhabitats. The overall result is that population biology and genetics now can be combined, placing the genus Neurospora in a unique position to expand its role in experimental biology as a useful model organism for ecology, population genetics and evolution.

  15. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisahak, Samrawit F; Beagley, Jessica; Hambleton, Ian R; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2014-02-01

    The North America and Caribbean (NAC) Region faces a high burden of diabetes. In 2013, the number of children (aged 0-14 years) with type 1 diabetes was 108,600, with 16.7 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 children. Furthermore, there were 36,755,500 individuals with diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes) in adults (20-79 years), and an additional 44,277,700 individuals had impaired glucose tolerance. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults was 9.6%; the second highest among the seven Regions of the International Diabetes Federation. This estimate is expected to grow to 9.9% by 2035. There was some heterogeneity in the estimates within the Region with the age-adjusted prevalence for the USA estimated at 9.2%, 7.9% for Canada, 12.6% for Mexico, and 9.6% for the Caribbean islands. Mortality due to diabetes in the NAC Region is not limited to older age groups, with 37.6% of deaths occurring in people under the age of 60. The economic impact was also enormous, with healthcare expenditure due to diabetes estimated at 263.2 billion USD for 2013 - the highest of all IDF Regions. Diabetes threatens the public health and economies of countries in the NAC Region, and efforts in prevention and management must be intensified in order to surmount this growing problem.

  16. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  17. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  18. Arctic shorebirds in North America: a decade of monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    Each year shorebirds from North and South America migrate thousands of miles to spend the summer in the Arctic. There they feed in shoreline marshes and estuaries along some of the most productive and pristine coasts anywhere. With so much available food they are able to reproduce almost explosively; and as winter approaches, they retreat south along with their offspring, to return to the Arctic the following spring. This remarkable pattern of movement and activity has been the object of intensive study by an international team of ornithologists who have spent a decade counting, surveying, and observing these shorebirds. In this important synthetic work, they address multiple questions about these migratory bird populations. How many birds occupy Arctic ecosystems each summer? How long do visiting shorebirds linger before heading south? How fecund are these birds? Where exactly do they migrate and where exactly do they return? Are their populations growing or shrinking? The results of this study are crucial for better understanding how environmental policies will influence Arctic habitats as well as the far-ranging winter habitats used by migratory shorebirds.

  19. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  20. A study of ayahuasca use in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachel; Gurel, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-one subjects who used ayahuasca at least once in North America answered a lengthy set of open-ended questions and completed the 81-item After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. An additional 50 ayahuasca users were interviewed in person. The data for this study represent ayahuasca experience based on more than 2,267 ceremonies. A comparison group of 46 people attending a Catholic spiritual retreat weekend also completed the After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. A factor analysis of this questionnaire yielded three factors: Joy in Life, Relationship to the Sacred and Toxic Feelings. Although the ayahuasca users had significantly higher scores on the first two factors, the two groups had modest mean differences indicating a similar response to two very different spiritual experiences. This key finding strongly supports the view that ayahuasca users are engaged in an authentic process as spiritual in nature as that of the retreatants. The qualitative data revealed that ayahuasca users reduced their alcohol intake, ate healthier diets, enjoyed improved mood and greater self-acceptance and felt more loving and compassionate in their relationships. Seventy-four percent of the ayahuasca users said they had a relationship with and received ongoing guidance and support from the spirit of ayahuasca.

  1. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  2. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  3. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  4. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  5. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Brunke; Stephen Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will b...

  6. Phylogeographic analyses of Phragmites australis in China: Native distribution and habitat preference of the haplotype that invaded North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Xing AN; Qian WANG; Ji YANG; Jian-Quan LIU

    2012-01-01

    Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan clonal species,but one haplotype from Eurasia has become highly invasive in North America.This article describes an investigation of the phylogeographic composition of 77 populations from China,based on the sequencing of two chloroplast non-coding DNA regions.A total of 11 haplotypes were detected,based on the sequence alignments of two chloroplast DNA fragments from 421 sampled individuals.Six of these haplotypes were completely new,and did not correspond to any of this species' 27 previously known haplotypes.The invasive haplotype M and haplotypes O and P were shown to occur frequently.Haplotype O is widely distributed across all regions and probably represents the primitive haplotype of this species.In contrast,P is mainly distributed in the humid eastern and northeastern regions of China,whereas M is more frequent in western and northwestern China— arid habitats with low precipitation.Between eastern and northeastern and western and northwestern regions,there was distinct genetic differentiation; the former region has a higher genetic diversity than the latter.The high occurrence of haplotype M in western China suggests that it prefers more arid habitats.These findings shed new light on the native distribution,adaptation,and habitat preference of haplotype M,which invaded North America.

  7. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood.

    We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  8. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  9. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  10. 77 FR 47430 - Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... 19 CFR 151.13, SGS North America, Inc., 2800 Loop 197 South, Texas City, TX 77592, has been approved to gauge petroleum, petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  11. Color North America Shaded Relief – 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North America Shaded Relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid spacing...

  12. 77 FR 16892 - BMW of North America, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Petition Grant. SUMMARY: BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) \\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG, Munich, Germany, has... that a spare tire was available when, in fact, ``run flat'' tires were installed in lieu of the spare...

  13. Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; SAUTTER, MARI; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel; Meier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts causes human infections in North America. Risks often are unrecognized. Education alone cannot prevent suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenatal screening can facilitate prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  14. Notes on Clavarioid fungi—IX. Addendum to Clavulinopsis in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper constitutes an addendum to a previous paper by the author on the genus Clavulinopsis in North America. One new species is described, Clavulinopsis subaustralis Petersen, and one new combination made, Clavulinopsis laeticolor f. coccineo-basalis (Joss.) Petersen.

  15. The Dakoticancridae (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Late Cretaceous of North America and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, G.A.; Feldmann, R.M.; Vega, F.

    1998-01-01

    The podotrematous crab family Dakoticancridae includes four genera: Dakoticancer Rathbun, Tetracarcinus Weller, Avitelmessus Rathbun, and Seorsus Bishop, all known solely from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Lathelicocarcinus Bishop, originally referred to the family, must be reassigned. Fine

  16. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Microsatellite DNA Data; Pacific Coast of North America, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains genetic information collected from eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations along the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to Baha...

  17. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Bathymetry of North America 200506 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetry of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors. The image was derived from the National Geophysical Data Center's ETOPO2 elevation data,...

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  19. [Simulation in healthcare in North America: update and evolution after two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, S; Jaffrelot, M; Naik, V N; Brien, S; Granry, J-C

    2014-05-01

    Update on simulation-based education and its evolution in North America. Main articles including those published within the last five years and indexed in Medline, and unpublished data from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada have been analyzed. After a review of historical development of simulation in North America, this article draw the place of simulation in healthcare, for medical education, research and assessment. Funding and accreditation of simulation centres are also discussed. Simulation is fully integrated in healthcare in North America and represents one of the main elements for healthcare professional education. Simulation is also a symbol of excellence for health and teaching institutions. The evolution of simulation in North America is likely to inform the future of simulation in France. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1949-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks file contains the six-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all...

  1. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Filipino Female in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been described in Southeast Asia, but has only recently begun to emerge in North America. The hypermucoviscous strain of K. pneumoniae is a particularly virulent strain known to cause devastatingly invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Here we present the first known case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae in North America. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:165–168.

  2. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  3. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jacob; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael T.; Alpers, Charles N.; Hall, Britt D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eckley, Chris S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for > 16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3 ± 6.5 μg kg− 1) and canal (28.6 ± 6.9 μg kg− 1) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7 ± 4.6 μg kg− 1) and estuarine (23.6 ± 5.6 μg kg− 1) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8 ± 2.2 μg kg− 1) and forested (32.0 ± 2.7 μg kg− 1) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9 ± 1.7 μg kg− 1), rangeland (25.5 ± 1.5 μg kg− 1), agriculture (23.4 ± 2.0 μg kg− 1), and urban (22.7 ± 2.1 μg kg− 1) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55 ± 0.05 μg kg− 1) and canals (0.54 ± 0.11 μg kg− 1), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22 ± 0.03 μg kg− 1). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n > 100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (> 6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r2 = 0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land

  4. Surface constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of the Farallon-Pacific-North America plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.

    2009-05-01

    Extension and volcanism are two surface derived data sets used to infer mantle processes back in time. We integrate two new large GIS-based datasets to create palinspastic restorations of extension and volcanism allowing us to readdress the relationship between plate-boundary deformation, intra-plate extension and magmatism in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, navdat.geongrid.org) using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward- deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. A first order conclusion from this study is that magmatism, throughout the Basin and Range, is primarily driven by plate boundary effects. The plate boundary effects include subduction and rollback of the Farallon plate, creation and expansion of slab windows as the Pacific plate intercepts the North American plate and re-establishment of the ancestral Cascade arc along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada at ˜ 15 Ma. Notable exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern boarder of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension related asthenospheric upwelling that accompanied a thinning lithosphere along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range province commenced during a remarkably amagmatic period. These observations largely contradicts the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension

  5. DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jenkins, Dennis L; Götherstrom, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The timing of the first human migration into the Americas and its relation to the appearance of the Clovis technological complex in North America ca. 11-10.8 thousand radiocarbon years before present ((14)C ka B.P.) remains contentious. We establish that humans were present at Paisley 5 Mile Point...... accepted dates for the Clovis-complex....

  6. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  7. Knowledge exchange for climate adaptation planning in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science

  8. Internal variability of a dynamically downscaled climate over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Bessac, Julie; Kotamarthi, Rao; Constantinescu, Emil; Drewniak, Beth

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the internal variability (IV) of a regional climate model, and considers the impacts of horizontal resolution and spectral nudging on the IV. A 16-member simulation ensemble was conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting model for three model configurations. Ensemble members included simulations at spatial resolutions of 50 and 12 km without spectral nudging and simulations at a spatial resolution of 12 km with spectral nudging. All the simulations were generated over the same domain, which covered much of North America. The degree of IV was measured as the spread between the individual members of the ensemble during the integration period. The IV of the 12 km simulation with spectral nudging was also compared with a future climate change simulation projected by the same model configuration. The variables investigated focus on precipitation and near-surface air temperature. While the IVs show a clear annual cycle with larger values in summer and smaller values in winter, the seasonal IV is smaller for a 50-km spatial resolution than for a 12-km resolution when nudging is not applied. Applying a nudging technique to the 12-km simulation reduces the IV by a factor of two, and produces smaller IV than the simulation at 50 km without nudging. Applying a nudging technique also changes the geographic distributions of IV in all examined variables. The IV is much smaller than the inter-annual variability at seasonal scales for regionally averaged temperature and precipitation. The IV is also smaller than the projected changes in air-temperature for the mid- and late twenty-first century. However, the IV is larger than the projected changes in precipitation for the mid- and late twenty-first century.

  9. Land-atmosphere coupling over North America in CRCM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Martynov, A.; Jeong, D. I.; Verseghy, D.; Winger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Land-atmosphere coupling and its impact on extreme precipitation and temperature events over North America are studied using the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two 30 year long simulations, spanning the 1981-2010 period, with and without land-atmosphere coupling, have been performed with CRCM5, driven by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis at the boundaries. In the coupled simulation, the soil moisture interacts freely with the atmosphere at each time step, while in the uncoupled simulation, soil moisture is replaced with its climatological value computed from the coupled simulation, thus suppressing the soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. Analyses of the coupled and uncoupled simulations, for the summer period, show strong soil moisture-temperature coupling over the Great Plains, consistent with previous studies. The maxima of soil moisture-precipitation coupling is more spread out and covers the semiarid regions of the western U.S. and parts of the Great Plains. However, the strength of soil moisture-precipitation coupling is found to be generally weaker than that of soil moisture-temperature coupling. The study clearly indicates that land-atmosphere coupling increases the interannual variability of the seasonal mean daily maximum temperature in the Great Plains. Land-atmosphere coupling is found to significantly modulate selected temperature extremes such as the number of hot days, frequency, and maximum duration of hot spells over the Great Plains. Results also suggest additional hot spots, where soil moisture modulates extreme events. These hot spots are located in the southeast U.S. for the hot days/hot spells and in the semiarid regions of the western U.S. for extreme wet spells. This study thus demonstrates that climatologically wet/dry regions can become hot spots of land-atmosphere coupling when the soil moisture decreases/increases to an intermediate transitional level

  10. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Mowat

    Full Text Available Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  11. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C; Schwarz, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  12. Prevalence and diversity of allergic rhinitis in regions of the world beyond Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, C H; Lee, B W; Potter, P C; Maspero, J F; Cingi, C; Lopatin, A; Saffer, M; Xu, G; Walters, R D

    2012-02-01

    There is comparatively little information in the public domain on the diversity in prevalence and triggers/factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western-Europe and North America. To review the prevalence and the sensitizing agents/triggers and factors associated with AR/C in several countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Australia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Turkey. Articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were assessed and selected for further review, following an extensive literature search using the Medline database. This review demonstrated that prevalence of AR and AR/C in these regions has predominantly been investigated in children; with studies indicating wide inter- and intra-regional variations ranging from 2.9% AR and 3.8% AR/C in 10-18-years-old children from one region in Turkey to 54.1% AR and 39.2% AR/C in 13-14-years-old children in one region in Nigeria. Moreover, the prevalence of AR and AR/C has increased markedly over the last decade particularly in some of the more affluent African countries, China-Taiwan and several Middle East countries, likely as a consequence of improved living standards leading to increased exposure to multiple traditional and non-traditional sensitizing agents and risk factors similar to those noted in western-Europe and North America. Our findings suggest that the greater diversity in prevalence of AR or AR/C in populations in these regions is in contrast to the lower diversity of AR or AR/C in the 'western populations (USA and Europe), which tend to be more uniform. This review provides a comprehensive database of the important allergens and triggers which are likely to influence the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these diverse regions, where the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing and its adverse impact on the quality of life of affected individuals is increasingly recognised. © 2011 Blackwell

  13. Shallow Cumulus Variability at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Kollias, P.; Ghate, V. P.; Luke, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus clouds play a critical role in modulating the radiative and hydrological budget of the lower troposphere. These clouds, which are ubiquitous in regions of large-scale subsidence over the oceans, tend to be misrepresented in global climate models. Island-based, long-term, high-resolution ground-based observations can provide valuable insights on the factors controlling their macroscopic and microphysical properties and subsequenlty assist in model evaluation and guidance. Previous studies, limited to fair-weather cumuli over land, revealed that their fractional coverage is only weakly correlated with several parameters; the best ones being complex dynamical characteristics of the subcloud layer (vertical velocity skewness and eddy coherence). Other studies noted a relationship between cumuli depth and their propensity to precipitate. The current study will expand on such analysis by performing detail characterization of the full spectrum of shallow cumulus fields from non-precipitating to precipitating in the context of the large-scale forcing (i.e. thermodynamic structure and subsidence rates). Two years of ground-based remote sensing observations collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site are used to document macroscopic (cloud depth, cord length, cover), microphysical (liquid water path, cloud base rain rate) and dynamical (cloud base mass flux, eddy dissipation rate) cumuli properties. The observed variability in shallow cumulus is examined in relation to the variability of the large-scale environment as captured by the humidity profile, the magnitude of the low-level horizontal winds and near-surface aerosol conditions.

  14. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quandt, Sara A., E-mail: squandt@wfubmc.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Talton, Jennifer W. [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Whalley, Lara E. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Galvan, Leonardo [North Carolina Farmworkers Project, Benson, NC (United States); Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chen, Haiying [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Pharr, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Isom, Scott [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Arcury, Thomas A. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations ({mu}g/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  15. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  16. Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Oberhauser, Karen; Drum, Ryan G.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Altizer, Sonia; Taylor, Orley R.; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Darius J.; Semmens, Brice X.; Erickson, Richard A.; Libby, Kaitlin; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids). While climatic factors, principally breeding season temperature, were important determinants of annual variation in abundance, our results indicated strong negative relationships between population size and habitat loss variables, principally glyphosate use, but also weaker negative effects from the loss of overwinter forest and breeding season use of neonicotinoids. Further declines in population size because of glyphosate application are not expected. Thus, if remaining threats to habitat are mitigated we expect climate-induced stochastic variation of the eastern migratory population of monarch butterfly around a relatively stationary population size.

  17. Thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Joseph A.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Repetski, John E.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the oil and gas in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of eastern North America is thought to be derived from Devonian shale that is within these basins (for example, Milici and others, 2003; Swezey, 2002, 2008, 2009; Swezey and others, 2005, 2007). As the Devonian strata were buried by younger sediments, the Devonian shale was subjected to great temperature and pressure, and in some areas the shale crossed a thermal maturity threshold and began to generate oil. With increasing burial (increasing temperature and pressure), some of this oil-generating shale crossed another thermal maturity threshold and began to generate natural gas. Knowledge of the thermal maturity of the Devonian shale is therefore useful for predicting the occurrence and the spatial distribution of oil and gas within these three basins. This publication presents a thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. The map shows outlines of the three basins (dashed black lines) and an outline of Devonian shale (solid black lines). The basin outlines are compiled from Thomas and others (1989) and Swezey (2008, 2009). The outline of Devonian shale is a compilation from Freeman (1978), Thomas and others (1989), de Witt and others (1993), Dart (1995), Nicholson and others (2004), Dicken and others (2005a,b), and Stoeser and others (2005).

  18. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. D. Amiro; A. G. Barr; J. G. Barr; T. A. Black; R. Bracho; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included standreplacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon...

  19. 75 FR 28297 - Sychip, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sychip, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North... Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the... Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA). Since January 1, 2010, workers separated from employment at...

  20. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  1. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in Northwestern North America, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Krebs; K. Kielland; J.P Bryant; M. O' Donoghue; F. Doyle; C. McIntyre; D. DiFolco; N. Berg; S. Carriere; R. Boonstra; S. Boutin; A. J. Kenney; D. G. Reid; K. Bodony; J. Putera; H. K. Timm; T. Burke.

    2013-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) fluctuate in 9–10 year cycles throughout much of their North American range. Regional synchrony has been assumed to be the rule for these cycles, so that hare populations in virtually all of northwestern North America have been assumed to be in phase. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on...

  2. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  3. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  4. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  5. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  6. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  7. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.

    2009-01-01

    and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...... water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...

  8. Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian

    2011-01-01

    A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.

  9. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African

  10. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  11. Projected changes to rain-on-snow events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) events have significant impacts on cold region ecosystems and water-related natural hazards, and therefore it is very important to assess how this hydro-meteorological phenomenon will evolve in a changing climate. This study evaluates the changes in ROS characteristics (i.e., frequency, amounts, and runoff) for the future 2041-2070 period with respect to the current 1976-2005 period over North America using six simulations, based on two Canadian RCMs, driven by two driving GCMs for RCP4.5 and 8.5 emission pathways. Projected changes to extreme runoff caused by the changes of the ROS characteristics are also evaluated. All simulations suggest general increases in ROS days in late autumn, winter, and early spring periods for most Canadian regions and northwestern USA for the future period, due to an increase in rain days in a warmer climate. Increases in the future ROS amounts are projected mainly due to an increase in ROS days, although increases in precipitation intensity also contributes to the future increases. Future ROS runoff is expected to increase more than future ROS amounts during snowmelt months as ROS events usually enhance runoff, given the land state and asociated reduced soil infiltration rate and also due to the faster snowmelt rate occuring during these events. The simulations also show that ROS events usually lead to extreme runoff over most of Canada and north-western and -central USA in the January-May snowmelt months for the current period and these show no significant changes in the future climate. However, the future ROS to total runoff ratio will significantly decrease for western and eastern Canada as well as north-western USA for these months, due to an overall increase of the fraction of direct snowmelt and rainfall generated runoff in a warmer climate. These results indicate the difficulties of flood risk and water resource managements in the future, particularly in Canada and north-western and -central USA, requiring

  12. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BATRACHOSPERMUM MACROSPORUM (BATRACHOSPERMALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Morgan L; Cameron Hodge, J; Necchi, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Phylogeographic trends in Batrachospermum macrosporum Mont. were investigated using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes (cox2-3). A total of 11 stream segments were sampled with seven in the coastal plain of North America and four in tropical areas of South America. Fifteen thalli were sampled from seven streams, 14 thalli from two streams, and eight thalli from two streams. There were 16 haplotypes detected using 149 individuals. Of the eight haplotypes from locations in North America, all were 334 base pairs (bp) in length, and of those from South America, five were 344 bp, and three were 348 bp. Two individual networks were produced: one for the haplotypes from North America and another for those from South America, and these could not be joined due to the large number of base pair differences. This split between haplotypes from North and South America was confirmed with sequence data of the rbcL gene. There was very little genetic variation among the haplotypes from the North American locations, leading us to hypothesize that these are fairly recent colonization events along the coastal plain. In contrast, there was high variation among haplotypes from South America, and it would appear that the Amazon serves as a center of diversity. We detected considerable variation in haplotypes among streams, but frequently, a single haplotype in an individual stream segment, which is consistent with data from previous studies of other batrachospermalean taxa, may suggest a single colonization event per stream.

  13. Characteristics of High-Impact Long-Duration Freezing Rain Events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Christopher; Gyakum, John; Atallah, Eyad

    2017-04-01

    While even short periods of freezing rain can be hazardous, the most severe economic and public health impacts tend to occur when it persists for many hours. Predicting the precise and often fragile temperature stratification necessary for freezing rain to persist remains an important forecast challenge. To better elucidate the conditions responsible for the most severe impacts, we concentrate on surface observations of long-duration (6 or more hours) freezing rain events over North America from 1979-2015. Furthermore, we analyze cases in which multiple stations observe long-duration events simultaneously. Following these cases over successive days allows us to generate maps of freezing rain "tracks" which are then categorized by their geographic distributions. We then analyze the conditions that lead to the occurrence of freezing rain for each of these categories. The climatology of long-duration freezing rain events is largely controlled by a combination of synoptic patterns and local terrain effects, which help to maintain or replenish cold air at the surface. As with freezing rain in general, long-duration events occur most frequently from southeastern Canada into the northeastern United States, with a maximum in the St. Lawrence River Valley of Quebec. An examination of the longest-duration events at each station shows a broader geographic distribution, with local maxima in the frequency of 18+ h events over Oklahoma and surrounding states in the South Central United States (SCUS) - a region with relatively low annual freezing rain frequencies. Classification of individual events shows us that in many instances, the SCUS and northeastern North America are impacted by long-duration freezing rain during the same cases. Indeed, the category responsible for the greatest number of freezing rain observations over the largest area is one which begins in the SCUS (often Texas or Oklahoma), with freezing rain occurring over a broad southwest-northeast swath (2-3000 km

  14. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13–11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8–7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13–11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  15. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.

    2015-08-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13-11, 8-7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13-11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8-7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13-11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  16. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle-late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous.

  17. The 11/25/88, M=6 Saguenay Earthquake near Chicoutimi, Quebec: Evidence for anisotropic wave propagation in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S. E.; Jacob, K. H.; Friberg, P. A.

    1989-07-01

    On November 25, 1988, a magnitude 6 earthquake occurred in the province of Quebec, Canada. This earthquake triggered nine digital strong motion instruments in New York and Maine at epicentral distances of 200 to 820 km which were installed as part of an effort by the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) to study ground motions and wave propagation in eastern North America. We calculate Q(f) at discrete frequencies from 0.6 to 26 Hz, assuming that geometrical spreading causes a l/r0.5 decay in spectral amplitudes. Of the nine stations, four are in the Adirondack Mountains in New York and three are in eastern Maine. If we calculate Q(f) for these two clusters of stations separately, we obtain higher values for the Adirondack stations. The Quebec-Adirondack path is along the strike of the predominant structural trends in northeastern North America, in the Grenville Province crust, while the Quebec-Maine path is at high angle to the structural grain and crosses the boundary between the Grenville and the Appalachian provinces. We thus have instrumental data in support of earlier observations based on contours of intensity from historic earthquakes: Seismic wave propagation in northeastern North America is more efficient along the predominantly NE-SW striking geological trends. We address possible biases due to site effects.

  18. Metallogeny of the midcontinent rift system of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, S.W.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift system of North America is one of the world's major continental rifts and hosts a variety of mineral deposits. The rocks and mineral deposits of this 2000 km long rift are exposed only in the Lake Superior region. In the Lake Superior region, the rift cuts across Precambrian basement terranes ranging in age from ??? 1850 Ma to more than 3500 Ma. Where exposed, the rift consists of widespread tholeiitic basalt flows with local interlayered rhyolite and clastic sedimentary rocks. Beneath the center of Lake Superior the volcanic and sedimentary rocks are more than 30 km deep as shown by recent seismic reflection profiles. This region hosts two major classes of mineral deposits, magmatic and hydrothermal. All important mineral production in this region has come from hydrothermal deposits. Rift-related hydrothermal deposits include four main types: (1) native copper deposits in basalts and interflow sediments; (2) sediment-hosted copper sulfide and native copper; (3) copper sulfide veins and lodes hosted by rift-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks; and (4) polymetallic (five-element) veins in the surrounding Archean country rocks. The scarcity of sulfur within the rift rocks resulted in the formation of very large deposits of native metals. Where hydrothermal sulfides occur (i.e., shale-hosted copper sulfides), the source of sulfur was local sedimentary rocks. Magmatic deposits have locally supported exploration and minor production, but most are subeconomic presently. These deposits occur in intrusions exposed near the margins of the rift and include CuNiPGE and TiFe (V) in the Duluth Complex, U-REE-Nb in small carbonatites, and breccia pipes resulting from local hydrothermal activity around small felsic intrusions. Mineralization associated with some magmatic bodies resulted from the concentration of incompatible elements during fractional crystallization. Most of the sulfide deposits in intrusions, however, contain sulfur derived from

  19. Distributional changes in the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in North America from 1967 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Duarte, Alberto; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of shifts in bird distributions in response to climate change provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the processes that influence species persistence. We used data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to document changes in the distributional limits of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) from 1967 to 2008. We used logistic regression to model presence probability (p) as a function of longitude, latitude, and year. We modeled a linear trend in logit(p) through time with slope and intercept modeled as a double Fourier series of longitude and latitude. We found that the western Burrowing Owl has experienced an intriguing southward shift in the northern half of its breeding range, contrary to what is predicted by most species niche models and what has been observed for many other species in North America. The breeding range of the Burrowing Owl has been shrinking near its northern, western, and eastern edges. Our model detected the population declines that were observed in California and eastern Washington, in locations where maps based on route-specific estimating equations had predicted significant population increases. We suggest that the northern boundary of the breeding distribution of the western Burrowing Owl has contracted southward and the southern boundary of the species' breeding distribution has expanded southward into areas of northern Mexico that were formerly used only by wintering migrants.

  20. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    - and sequence stratigraphy. The dinocyst zonation and the foraminifer zonation of the Danish Miocene (based upon analysis of the same boreholes) were independently calibrated with the established nannoplankton zonation. This correlation revealed a mismatch generally corresponding to one nannoplankton zone...... for the Achomosphaera andalousiensis Zone. Neogene biostratigraphy in the North Sea Basin has been problematic due to the periodically limited connection between the North Sea Basin and the North Atlantic Ocean, especially with respect to stratigraphy based on foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. Many...

  1. New species of Rhyacodrilus (Annelida: Clitellata: Rhyacodrilinae) of North America, with re-description of R. sodalis (Eisen, 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.

    2013-01-01

    Six new Nearctic species of the aquatic oligochaete genus Rhyacodrilus (Annelida, Clitellata, Rhyacodrilinae), are de-scribed, five (R. saelonae sp. n., R. quileuticus sp. n., R. clio sp. n., R. alcyoneus sp. n. and R. longichaeta sp. n.) from western and one (R. propiporus sp. n.) from eastern North America. The taxonomy of the most common Rhyacodrilus species reported in the Nearctic region has been based largely on chaetal characters, which has generated certain confu-sion. The new species give a new perspective on the genus Rhyacodrilus in North America, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously expected. The description of R. longichaeta sp. n. questions the taxonomic status of R. montana (Brinkhurst), which is here regarded as species inquirenda. The taxonomic status of R. sodalis (Eisen) is discussed based on characters of the reproductive system, the existing Lake Tahoe neotype series is invalidated, and a neotype is described from Eisen's type locality. Based on the discussion of the characters of the genus Rhyacodrilus, the genus Stochidrilus Martínez-Ansemil et al. is proposed as a junior synonym of that genus. The presence of the widely reported species R. coccineus has not been confirmed in the study collections, although the species requires a sound revision. A key to the species bearing hair chaetae is provided, based mainly on features of the reproductive system.

  2. Campanian Climatic Change: Isotopic Evidence from Far East, North America, North Atlantic and Western Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimatic settings have been reconstructed for the Campanian using original oxygenisotopic analyses of well-preserved molluskan and foraminifera shells from Russian Far East,Hokkaido, USA, Belgium and some DSDP holes (95, 98, 102, 390A, and 392A) in North Atlantic. Early Early Campanian climatic optimum has been recognized from data on high bottom shelf water paleotemperatures in middle latitudes of both the western circum-Pacific (to 24.2℃) and the eastern circum-Pacific (to 26.4℃) areas and high bottom shallow water paleotemperatures in high latitudes of the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), which agrees with the data on the Campanian Barykovskaya flora in high latitudes (Golovneva and Herman, 1998) and Jonker flora and its equivalents in middle latitudes. Judging from the data on comparatively high bottom shallow water paleotemperature values in high latitudes, South Alaska (19.4℃) and the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), we also expect Latest Campanian temperature maximum, which has not been confirmed, however, for low and middle latitudes by neither of isotopic nor paleobotanic data now. Main climatic tendency during the Campanian (with the exception of Latest Campanian) has been learned from isotopic composition of Campanian aragonitic ammonoid shells from the Hokkaido-South Sakhalin (Krilyon) marine basin.In contrary to Huber's et al. (2002) assumption, we expect warm greenhouse conditions during the most part of the Campanian.

  3. Ecology of the macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum Michx. (Hornleaf riverweed), a widespread foundation species of eastern North American rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James; Freeman, Mary C.

    2017-01-01

    Podostemum ceratophyllum, commonly called Hornleaf Riverweed, occurs in mid-order montane and piedmont rivers of eastern North America, where the plant grows submerged and attached to rocks and stable substrates in swift, aerated water. Multiple studies, mostly conducted in the southern portions of the plant’s range, have shown that Podostemum can variously influence benthic communities in flowing waters. However, a synthetic review of the biology and ecology of the plant is needed to inform conservation, particularly because P. ceratophyllum is reported to be in decline in much of its range, for mostly unknown reasons. We have thus summarized the literature showing that Podostemum provides substantial habitat for invertebrates and fish, may be consumed by invertebrates, turtles, and other vertebrates, removes and sequesters dissolved elements (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, etc.) from the water column, and contributes organic matter to the detrital pool. Podostemum may be tolerant to some forms of pollution but appears vulnerable to sedimentation, epiphytic over-growth, and hydrologic changes that result in desiccation, and possibly increased herbivory pressure. Much remains unknown about Podostemum, including aspects of morphological variation, seed dispersal, and tolerance to changes in temperature and water chemistry. Nonetheless, Podostemum may be considered a foundation species, whose loss from eastern North American rivers is likely to affect higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes.

  4. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  5. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  6. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  7. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 strains present in North America are described here for the first time. Different from serotype 13 strains described in Europe, North America strains are biotype I and antigenically related to both, serotypes 13 and 10. Chemical and structural...... and structurally identical with that of the reference strain of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10. The O-PS was characterized as a homopolymer of 1,2 linked β-d-galactofuranosyl residues, a structure unrelated to that of the O-PS produced by the reference strain of serotype 13. Strains from Canada and United States....... pleuropneumoniae serotype 10....

  8. Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns.

  9. Sommelier Suggestions: The Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Inspires a Content Collection Worth Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Timothy J; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2017-05-01

    The 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Program inspires a Content Collection of Arthroscopy journal articles worthy of review. A foundation of a credible podium presentation is the published medical literature. Your Editors thus suggest recent publications that seem particularly relevant in the context of the 2017 annual meeting. Consider these articles as one would a suggestion for a good glass of wine to complement a delicious meal. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns.

  11. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    and chikungunya virus among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms (fever, headache, rash, vomit, and joint pain) in three communities with distinct ecologies of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross sectional studies were conducted among 1100 participants (aged 2-70 years) presenting with malaria....... Further analyses revealed that headache and joint pain were significantly associated with chikungunya IgM seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In north-eastern Tanzania, mainly chikungunya virus appears to be actively circulating in the population. Continuous surveillance is needed to determine the contribution...

  12. [Detection of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants of north-eastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, S A; Januszkiewicz, A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants in North Eastern Poland 1765 persons from Białystok, Lomza and Suwałki voivodships were examined. Among them 1101 persons were from high-risk of exposition to ticks group (forest workers, people living close to forests). 418 (23.68%) persons from group of 1765 had antibodies against B.b. There was no difference of incidence of antibodies against B.b. in high-risk group and the others. The results show that North Eastern Poland is the endemic region of occurrence of B.b.

  13. Climate Change in Northwestern North America Over the Last Three Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.; Holdsworth, G.; Alverson, K.

    2004-05-01

    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate datasets restricts the study of variability that exists in the climate system. This is particularly true regarding the atmosphere where high quality spatially dense data exists only since the late 1940s. With this data, the Pacific North America pattern (PNA) has been identified as one of the dominant modes of variability in the atmosphere. Over this period the PNA has been related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), a mode of climate variability that has been shown to influence marine productivity in the North Pacific as well as modulating the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in North America. Here we present an updated 301-year ice core record from Mount Logan in northwestern North America that shows a statistically significant and accelerating positive trend in snow accumulation from the middle of the 19th century. A manifestation of this trend has been a warming over northwestern North America that, for much of the 20th century, has been associated with secular changes in the PNA and PDO.

  14. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Impact of the Desert dust on the summer monsoon system over Southwestern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem for 15 years (1995–2009. During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (−0.90 W m−2 at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m−2 in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA forcing (−0.50 W m−2 over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day−1 over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to ~40 % over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New~Mexico-Texas regions. This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the mega-drought conditions projected for the future.

  16. Continental-scale convection-permitting modeling of the current and future climate of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Rasmussen, Roy; Barlage, Mike; Newman, Andrew J.; Prein, Andreas F.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Liang; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Eidhammer, Trude; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Kurkute, Sopan; Li, Yanping; Thompson, Gregory; Yates, David

    2016-08-01

    Orographic precipitation and snowpack provide a vital water resource for the western U.S., while convective precipitation accounts for a significant part of annual precipitation in the eastern U.S. As a result, water managers are keenly interested in their fate under climate change. However, previous studies of water cycle changes in the U.S. have been conducted with climate models of relatively coarse resolution, leading to potential misrepresentation of key physical processes. This paper presents results from a high-resolution climate change simulation that permits convection and resolves mesoscale orography at 4-km grid spacing over much of North America using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two 13-year simulations were performed, consisting of a retrospective simulation (October 2000-September 2013) with initial and boundary conditions from ERA-interim and a future climate sensitivity simulation with modified reanalysis-derived initial and boundary conditions through adding the CMIP5 ensemble-mean high-end emission scenario climate change. The retrospective simulation is evaluated by validating against Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) and an ensemble of gridded observational datasets. It shows overall good performance capturing the annual/seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and surface temperature climatology except for a summer dry and warm bias in the central U.S. In particular, the WRF seasonal precipitation agrees with SNOTEL observations within a few percent over the mountain ranges, providing confidence in the model's estimation of western U.S. seasonal snowfall and snowpack. The future climate simulation forced with warmer and moister perturbed boundary conditions enhances annual and winter-spring-fall seasonal precipitation over most of the contiguous United States (CONUS), but suppresses summertime precipitation in the central U.S. The WRF-downscaled climate change simulations provide a high-resolution dataset (i.e., High-Resolution CONUS

  17. Unusual forest growth decline in boreal North America covaries with the retreat of Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Guo, Xiao Jing; De Jong, Rogier; Kinnard, Christophe; Bernier, Pierre; Raulier, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The 20th century was a pivotal period at high northern latitudes as it marked the onset of rapid climatic warming brought on by major anthropogenic changes in global atmospheric composition. In parallel, Arctic sea ice extent has been decreasing over the period of available satellite data records. Here, we document how these changes influenced vegetation productivity in adjacent eastern boreal North America. To do this, we used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, model simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and tree-ring width measurements covering the last 300 years. Climatic and proxy-climatic data sets were used to explore the relationships between vegetation productivity and Arctic sea ice concentration and extent, and temperatures. Results indicate that an unusually large number of black spruce (Picea mariana) trees entered into a period of growth decline during the late-20th century (62% of sampled trees; n = 724 cross sections of age >70 years). This finding is coherent with evidence encoded in NDVI and simulated NPP data. Analyses of climatic and vegetation productivity relationships indicate that the influence of recent climatic changes in the studied forests has been via the enhanced moisture stress (i.e. greater water demands) and autotrophic respiration amplified by the declining sea ice concentration in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. The recent decline strongly contrasts with other growth reduction events that occurred during the 19th century, which were associated with cooling and high sea ice severity. The recent decline of vegetation productivity is the first one to occur under circumstances related to excess heat in a 300-year period, and further culminates with an intensifying wildfire regime in the region. Our results concur with observations from other forest ecosystems about intensifying temperature-driven drought stress and tree mortality with ongoing climatic changes.

  18. Reconstructing the Mid-Tertiary Southwestern North America Cordilleran Crust: Crustal Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. C.; Zandt, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Gilbert, H. J.; Hacker, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    The deployment of EarthScope USArray stations provides researchers with unprecedented quantities and coverage of publicly available seismic data that can be combined with other techniques to better understand the tectonic evolution of western North America. We utilize the receiver function method to map the crustal thickness and investigate the occurrence and orientation of lower crustal anisotropy for the southwestern U.S. Using the tectonic reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005), we then reconstruct the location and orientation of the anisotropy back to 36 Ma. We have completed the reconstruction for central and southern California, and found a dominant SW-NE oriented trend that we interpret as a fossilized fabric within underplated schists created from top-to-southwest sense of shear that existed along the length of coastal California during pre-transform, early-Tertiary subduction. Initial results from the Basin and Range show a generally consistent E-W anisotropy trend within the northern and central Basin and Range, orthogonal to modern faulting and mountain ranges. Within this area there is a correlation of generally stronger crustal anisotropy and thinner crust in the eastern Basin and Range. In the southern Basin and Range we observe more scatter in our anisotropy results, with a majority of stations exhibiting either a SW-NE or NNW-SSE orientation. Despite the variability in results, most anisotropy orientations appear to be orthogonal to nearby mountain ranges. These observations suggest that Tertiary extension in the Basin and Range is producing a lower crustal zone of anisotropy throughout the province. We are currently working to expand on these results by integrating elasticity tensors calculated from electron-backscatter diffraction measurements of samples of lower crustal rocks from the southwestern U.S.

  19. Separation of Variable Culex territans Specimens from Other Culex (Neoculex) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Mosq...banded larvae) that would key to Cx. boharti or Cx. reevesi in Bohart and Washino (1978) and Cx. boharti in Darsie and Ward (1981). Variation in the...not given (Bohart and Washino 1978), 5 to 6 (Wood et al. 1979) and usually less than 7 ( Darsie and Ward 1981). MATERIALS AND METHODS We assume

  20. Clonal expansion of the Pseudogymnoascus destructans genotype in North America is accompanied by significant variation in phenotypic expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Khankhet

    Full Text Available Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease that threatens populations of several North American bat species. The fungal disease was first observed in 2006 and has since caused the death of nearly six million bats. The disease, commonly known as white-nose syndrome, is characterized by a cutaneous infection with P. destructans causing erosions and ulcers in the skin of nose, ears and/or wings of bats. Previous studies based on sequences from eight loci have found that isolates of P. destructans from bats in the US all belong to one multilocus genotype. Using the same multilocus sequence typing method, we found that isolates from eastern and central Canada also had the same genotype as those from the US, consistent with the clonal expansion of P. destructans into Canada. However, our PCR fingerprinting revealed that among the 112 North American isolates we analyzed, three, all from Canada, showed minor genetic variation. Furthermore, we found significant variations among isolates in mycelial growth rate; the production of mycelial exudates; and pigment production and diffusion into agar media. These phenotypic differences were influenced by culture medium and incubation temperature, indicating significant variation in environmental condition--dependent phenotypic expression among isolates of the clonal P. destructans genotype in North America.

  1. Comparison of dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, X Q; Guo, L

    2010-05-01

    Different educational and professional developments within the dental field create different sets of missions, norms, and practices regarding dental diseases and their appropriate treatment. This review has addressed differences in dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America. Many factors influence the choice of model and it is very difficult to predict which model will become predominant. However, there is growing sentiment that the independent faculty model in North America is logical and superior to the model, which 'integrates' dental and medical education in mainland China. Many North America dental schools place a high priority on preclinical and clinical training in the curriculum in order to expose students to patient oral health needs and systemic dental problems much earlier than in mainland China. North America dental schools promote and embrace students self-learning skills by the use of PBL, CRL, and TRAD education methodologies and new e-based technologies and approaches whereby students learn rather than are taught. In mainland China, the traditional lecture-based format is still employed in the majority of dental schools; however, strategies to enhance students self-learning skills is increasingly utilised in most well-known Chinese dental schools. The Chinese dental education model, which treats dentistry as a sub-specialty of medicine, has brought about fundamental differences, with the dentist functioning essentially as a stomatologist. For example, China has built up a large oral and maxillofacial surgery society, and craniofacial surgery is performed to a much broader extent by Chinese dentists than by most North American counterparts. In North America, dentists engage in full-time work, attend continuing training/education programmes, belong to an association, gain legal status, and construct a code of ethics emphasising the quality of care delivered to the public. Currently, continuing dental

  2. A new density model of the upper mantle of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the density structure of the North America upper mantle based on the integrative analysis of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust from the observed field to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. We use a new crustal model, which is based on nearly all existing seismic determinations including the most recent. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (-50 to -400 mgal) beneath western NA and the adjacent oceanic region, and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mgal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of NA into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. In the same way we estimate the residual topography, which represents the part of the surface topography not- (or over-) compensated by the crustal structure. We invert these fields jointly with seismic tomography data to image density distribution within the crust and upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the fact that the residual gravity and residual topography are controlled by the same factors but in a different way, e.g. depending on depth. In the final stage we separate the effect of mantle temperature variations, which is estimated from seismic tomography models constrained by geothermal modelling. Some features of the composition density distribution, which are invisible in the seismic tomography data, are for the first time detected in the upper mantle. The strongest positive anomaly is co-incident with the Gulf of Mexico, and indicates possibly a high-density eclogite layer that has caused subsidence in the Gulf. Two linear positive anomalies are also seen: one with a NE-SW trend in the eastern USA roughly coincident with the Appalachians, and a second with a NW-SE trend beneath the states of Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado. These anomalies are interpreted as due either to: (1) the presence of remnants of

  3. Wildfires, mountain pine beetle and large-scale climate in Northern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Research on the interactions between biosphere and atmosphere and ocean/atmosphere dynamics, concretely on the coupling between ecological processes and large-scale climate, is presented in two studies in Northern North America: the occurrence of large lightning wildfires and the forest area affected by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB). In both cases, large-scale climatic patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) operate as low and low and high frequency frameworks, respectively, that control the occurrence, duration and spatial correlation over large areas of key local weather variables which affect specific ecological processes. Warm PDO phases tend to produce persistent (more than 10 days long) positive mid-troposphere anomalies (blocking highs) over western Canada and Alaska. Likewise, positive (negative) AO configurations increase the frequency of blocking highs at mid (high) latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Under these conditions, lack of precipitation and prevailing warm air meridional flow rapidly dry fuel over large areas and increase fire hazard. The spatiotemporal patterns of occurrence of large lightning wildfire in Canada and Alaska for 1959-1999 were largely explained by the action and possible interaction of AO and PDO, the AO being more influential over Eastern Canada, the PDO over Western Canada and Alaska. Changes in the dynamics of the PDO are linked to the occurrence of cold winter temperatures in British Columbia (BC), Western Canada. Reduced frequency of cold events during warm PDO winters is consistent with a northward-displaced polar jet stream inhibiting the outflow of cold Arctic air over BC. Likewise, the AO influences the occurrence of winter cold spells in the area. PDO, and to a lesser degree AO, were strongly related to MPB synchrony in BC during 1959-2002, operating through the control of the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  5. 75 FR 51846 - BlueScope Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through... wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Buttler... as follows: All workers of BlueScope Buildings North America, including workers whose unemployment...

  6. 75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and... U.S.C. 824e (2005), concerning the justness and reasonableness of Shell Energy North America (US), LP's market- based rate authority in the Central and Southwest balancing authority area. Shell...

  7. 76 FR 55082 - Re-Accreditation and Re-Approval of SGS North America, Inc. as a Commercial Gauger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Security. ACTION: Notice of re-approval of SGS North America, Inc., Baytown, Texas, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, SGS North America, Inc., Baytown, Texas 78408, has been re-approved to gauge petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable...

  8. 76 FR 13662 - Pass & Seymour/Legrand a Subsidiary of Legrand North America; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pass & Seymour/Legrand a Subsidiary of Legrand North America..., 2010, applicable to workers of Pass & Seymour/Legrand, a subsidiary of Legrand North America, including...-W-73,934 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Pass & Seymour/Legrand, a subsidiary of...

  9. 76 FR 16447 - Lafarge North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Lafarge, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77668). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Lafarge North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Lafarge, Including On..., applicable to workers of Lafarge North America, Inc., a subsidiary of Lafarge, Seattle, Washington....

  10. 77 FR 52393 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Standard; BMW of North America, LLC AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... full the BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) petition for exemption of the Carline 4 vehicle line in... parts-marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard (49 CFR part 541). BMW...

  11. 77 FR 37956 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG; Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG; Receipt... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: BMW of North America, LLC,\\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG,\\2\\ has determined that certain model year 2012 BMW X6M SAV multipurpose passenger vehicles...

  12. 78 FR 21189 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Standard; BMW of North America, LLC AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... full the BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) petition for exemption of the X4 vehicle line in accordance...-marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard (49 CFR part 541). BMW requested...

  13. 77 FR 63415 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: BMW North America, LLC,\\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG. (collectively referred to as BMW) \\2\\ has determined that certain model year 2012 BMW X3 SAV...

  14. 78 FR 43964 - BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, a Subsidiary of BMW AG, Grant of... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Grant of petition. SUMMARY: BMW of North America, LLC \\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG.\\2\\ has determined that certain model year (MY) 2012 BMW X6M SAV multipurpose passenger vehicles...

  15. 76 FR 51468 - BMW of North America, LLC, a subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, a subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Receipt of Petition for Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: BMW of North America, LLC,\\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG.\\2\\ (collectively referred to as ``BMW'') has determined that...

  16. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  17. 76 FR 77021 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency... Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are... single unit Westinghouse three-loop pressurized water reactor located in Wake and Chatham Counties,...

  18. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are the owners of...

  19. The Spanish Borderlands of North America: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historiographic overview of the North American Spanish borderlands, focusing on changes and various topics, such as defending or attacking missionaries. Addresses what teachers can do who are in search of a point of entry into the borderlands literature. (CMK)

  20. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Muratori; Marco Lenzi; Francesco B. Bianchi; Albert J. Czaja; Luigi Muratori; Georgios Pappas; Silvana Maccariello; Fabio Cassani; Alessandro Granito; Rodolfo Ferrari; Vilma Mantovani

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts.METHODS: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3,DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls.RESULTS: B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs43%,P= 0.01) and in controls (16% vs34%, P= 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs35%, P= 0.01).CONCLUSION: HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for ATH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  1. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  2. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new magnetic satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Mandea, M.; Hulot, G.

    2002-01-01

    A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Ørsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies, associated...

  3. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new satellite magnetometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Langlais, B.; Olsen, Nils

    2002-01-01

    [1] A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Orsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies...

  4. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of t...

  5. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  6. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF COMMON LOON GENETIC STRUCTURE IN NORTH AMERICA BASED ON FIVE MICROSATELLITE LOCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study seeks to determine fine-scale genetic structure of Common Loon breeding populations in order to link wintering birds with their breeding regions. Common Loons are large piscivorous birds that breed in lakes of northern North America and Iceland. Loons are highly phil...

  7. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  8. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  9. Validation of Western North America Models based on finite-frequency and ray theory imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porritt, Robert W. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Higdon, David Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rowe, Charlotte Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Allen, Richard M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We validate seismic models developed for western North America with a focus on effect of imaging methods on data fit. We use the DNA09 models for which our collaborators provide models built with both the body-­wave FF approach and the RT approach, when the data selection, processing and reference models are the same.

  10. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    White pine blister rust disease, caused by the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola, has severely disrupted five-needled pine ecosystems in North America. A 100-year effort to manage this disease was predicated in part on the premise that the pathogen utilizes only species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) as...

  11. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  12. Standards and Guidelines of the Reading Recovery [TM] Council of North America. Third Edition: Fall 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This booklet outlines the Reading Recovery Council of North America's (RRCNA) standards and guidelines for those who are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of effective Reading Recovery and/or "Descubriendo La Lectura" sites. The standards are deemed essential for assuring quality services to children and effective…

  13. EXPANSION OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INTO TIDAL WETLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA. (U915648)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites expansion into tidal wetlands of North America is most extensive along the northern and middle Atlantic coasts, but over 80% of the US coastal wetland area occurs along the Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coasts and may be susceptible to ongoing expansio...

  14. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Scott V. Ollinger; Steve Frolking; George C. Hurtt; David Y. Hollinger; Kenneth J. Davis; Yude Pan; Xiaoyang Zhang; Feng Deng; Jiquan Chen; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Bevery E. Law; M. Altaf Arain; Ankur R. Desai; Andrew D. Richardson; Ge Sun; Brian Amiro; Hank Margolis; Lianhong Gu; Russell L. Scott; Peter D. Blanken; Andrew E. Suyker

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale...

  15. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  16.  Climate change may trigger broad shifts in North America's Pacific Coastal rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick A. DellaSala; Patric Brandt; Marni   Koopman; Jessica Leonard; Claude Meisch; Patrick Herzog; Paul Alaback; Michael I. Goldstein; Sarah Jovan; Andy MacKinnon; Henrik von Wehrden

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses significant threats to Pacific coastal rainforests of North America. Land managers currently lack a coordinated climate change adaptation approach with which to prepare the region's globally outstanding biodiversity for accelerating change. We provided analyses intended to inform coordinated adaptation for eight focal rainforest tree species...

  17. Stephanospora michoacanensis (Stephanosporaceae, Agaricales), a novel sequestrate truffle from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero; Ivone Baez-Alvarado; Victor M. Gomez-Reyes; Michael Castellano

    2015-01-01

    Stephanospora michoacanensis is presented as a new species from North America. This angiocarpic species is recognized by its yellowcream peridial surface color, and broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, spiny or crested, inamyloid spores with a distinct, complete or nearly complete corona at its base. Stephanospora michoacanensis is similar to S. caroticolor, but S....

  18. Global warming and stress complexes in forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Jeremy J. Littell

    2009-01-01

    A warmer climate in western North America will likely affect forests directly through soil moisture stress and indirectly through increased extent and severity of disturbances. We propose that stress complexes, combinations of biotic and abiotic stresses, compromise the vigor and ultimate sustainability of forest ecosystems. Across...

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes for Forests and Grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities have substantially elevated the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) onto terrestrial ecosystems of North America. Some of this N can stimulate carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but the fertilization effect of added N can be diminished by e...

  20. Adult Literacy and Basic Education in Europe and North America: From Recognition to Provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limage, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Examines the growth of recognition of adult illiteracy in Western Europe and North America since the early 1970s. Discusses the invisibility of the problem, types of illiteracy identified in schools, importance of literacy across the curriculum, links between illiteracy and poverty, and involvement of international organizations. Contains 36…

  1. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  2. Population genetic structure of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Boose; Steven Harrison; Suzette Clement; Susan E. Meyer

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic variation in the ascomycete pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda cultured from seeds of the invasive grass Bromus tectorum in the Intermountain West of North America. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genome in 417 monoconidial cultures collected from 20 sites in Washington, Idaho, Utah and Colorado,...

  3. 76 FR 25761 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... engineers employed by the company to enable these individuals to continue test-driving commercial motor... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo... from the requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) sought by Volvo Trucks North America...

  4. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... the company to enable this individual to continue test-driving commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) submitted by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on...

  5. 78 FR 48909 - SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's final decision expanding the recognition...

  6. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  7. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  8. The genera Macroxyela Kirby and Megaxyela Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Smith; Nathan M. Schiff

    1998-01-01

    Five species of Megaxyela, including Megaxyela alisonae, n. sp., and two species of Macroxyela occur in North America. Macroxyela bicolor MacGillivray is a new synonym of Macroxyela ferruginea (Say). The species are keyed, described, and illustrated, and biological information is summarized. Hosts include hickory, pecan, and elm.

  9. The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Huber; Gary A.P. Gibson; Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Michael Gates

    2008-01-01

    A key is given to the five described extant species of Mymaromella. Two new species, Mymaromella pala Huber & Gibson, sp. n. and M. palella Huber & Gibson, sp. n. (Mymarommatoidea: Mymarommatidae), are described as the first species of the family from North America. Psocoptera (Insecta) are proposed as...

  10. Local and regional diversity in Streptomyces species causing common scab in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common scab of potato and other tuber/root crops, caused by a complex of soil bacteria in the genus Streptomyces, is one of the most important potato diseases in North America. Knowledge of the pathogen is fundamental to understanding and alleviating plant disease. To learn what species are found in...

  11. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  12. Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Rebecca McLain; Susan Alexander; Luis Villarreal-Ruiz; Shannon Berch; Tricia L. Wurtz; Catherine G. Parks; Erika McFarlane; Blaze Baker; Randy Molina; Jane E. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Morels are prized edible mushrooms that fruit, sometimes prolifically, in many forest types throughout western North America. They are collected for personal consumption and commercially harvested as valuable special (nontimber) forest products. Large gaps remain, however, in our knowledge about their taxonomy, biology, ecology, cultivation, safety, and how to manage...

  13. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  14. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a...

  15. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five...

  16. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  17. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  18. Proceedings of the 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the Hilton Garden Inn, Manhattan, KS from September 1-3, 2015. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry including sorghum research community fr...

  19. Cucullia umbratica (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a new European noctuid in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Handfield

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a noctuid new for North America, Cucullia umbratica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is reported from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada. A male and a female from the Islands are illustrated as well as specimens of the superficially similar species Cucullia intermedia Speyer, 1870. The male genitalia of both species are illustrated.

  20. Discovery of the oldest record of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Charophyta) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Kenneth G; Sleith, Robin S

    2017-06-27

    Studies of the colonization and spread of invasive species improves our understanding of key concepts in population biology as well as informs control and prevention efforts. The characean green alga Nitellopsis obtusa (starry stonewort) is rare in its native Eurasian range but listed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as an aggressive invasive in North America. First documented in North America in 1978 from New York, United States, it has since been reported from numerous inland lakes from Minnesota to Vermont, and from Lake Ontario and inland lakes in southern Ontario, Canada. While the ecological impacts of N. obtusa are not clearly understood in its invasive range, initial results show negative environmental effects. We have discovered a liquid-preserved herbarium specimen that predates the 1978 records by at least 4 years, and is the first confirmed record of N. obtusa in Québec. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher T; Yawetz, Sigal; Lyons, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Powassan virus almost exclusively causes encephalitis, but cases are rare, sporadic, and restricted to portions of North America and Russia. Chikungunya virus has spread widely across the world, causing millions of infections. Encephalitis is a rare manifestation of illness but is more common and severe in neonates and older adults. Zika virus has recently spread through much of the Americas and has been associated mostly with microcephaly and other congenital neurologic complications. Encephalitis occurring in infected adults has also been recently reported. This review will discuss the neuropathogenesis of these viruses, their transmission and geographic distribution, the spectrum of their neurologic manifestations, and the appropriate method of diagnosis.

  2. On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTOLFO G.M. ARAUJO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

  3. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  4. On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Astolfo G M

    2015-01-01

    Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT) theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

  5. Regional warming chnages fish species richness in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional warming causes changes in local communities due to species extinctions and latitudinal range shifts. We show that the species richness of fish in 3 regional seas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean has changed over time (1997 to 2008), and we relate this to higher water temperatures and the

  6. Mithun : The pride animal of north-eastern hilly region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Shisode

    Full Text Available Mithun, the pride animal called as ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ of north-eastern hilly region of India and tropical rain forest of China. The animal plays an important role in the day to day socio-economic life of the local tribal population. Mithun (Bos frontalis is a rear species of livestock and is found in the north-eastern region of our country like Arunachal Pradesh (75 per cent of the total population, Nagaland (60 per cent, Manipur (0.8 per cent andMizoram (0.1 per cent having total population 0.25 million according to census 2003 and also very meager in Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The animal has got good potential for production of quality meat, milk and leather. Mithun is the ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ and is one of the domesticated animals from the North-eastern hilly region and mainly found in tropical rain forest of North-eastern hilly region. Very meager population is found inMyanmar, Bhutan and China. There are four defined mithun strains depending up on the geographical areas namely Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram strains, respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 480-481

  7. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  8. Pollinators of the invasive plant, yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), in north-eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Robbin Thorp; Karen Erickson

    2009-01-01

    The potential pollinators of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) were surveyed at six sites in north-eastern Oregon, USA, between May and September from 2000 to 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the species composition and relative abundance of the insects that visited yellow starthistle throughout the flowering season and...

  9. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, WJ

    2000-01-01

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases, th

  10. Data on the macromycetes flora of the North-Eastern Ploand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longin Olesiński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The list of 352 macromycetes (Asco- and Basidiomycetes collected in the North-Eastern Poland is given. It is the first part of mycofloristic investigation in this region conducted in the years 1964-1997 by latter author, and 1981-1982, by former autor.;

  11. A hidden early source of information on north-eastern Brazilian zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some hitherto overlooked paragraphs on the north-eastern Brazilian fauna hid- den in a historiographic account of Count Johan Maurits' govenorship (1637-1644), published by Caspar van Baerle (Barlaeus) in 1647, a year before the publication of Marcgrave & Piso's famous Historia

  12. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M;

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomeg...

  13. Crustal magmatism and lithospheric geothermal state of western North America and their implications for a magnetic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The western North American lithosphere experienced extensive magmatism and large-scale crustal deformation due to the interactions between the Farallon and North American plates. To further understand such subduction-related dynamic processes, we characterize crustal structure, magmatism and lithospheric thermal state of western North America based on various data processing and interpretation of gravimetric, magnetic and surface heat flow data. A fractal exponent of 2.5 for the 3D magnetization model is used in the Curie-point depth inversion. Curie depths are mostly small to the north of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain hotspot track, including the Steens Mountain and McDermitt caldera that are the incipient eruption locations of the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone hotspot track. To the south of the Yellowstone hotspot track, larger Curie depths are found in the Great Basin. The distinct Curie depths across the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain hotspot track can be attributed to subduction-related magmatism induced by edge flow around fractured slabs. Curie depths confirm that the Great Valley ophiolite is underlain by the Sierra Nevada batholith, which can extend further west to the California Coast Range. The Curie depths, thermal lithospheric thickness and surface heat flow together define the western edge of the North American craton near the Roberts Mountains Thrust (RMT). To the east of the RMT, large Curie depths, large thermal lithospheric thickness, and low thermal gradient are found. From the differences between Curie-point and Moho depth, we argue that the uppermost mantle in the oceanic region is serpentinized. The low temperature gradients beneath the eastern Great Basin, Montana and Wyoming permit magnetic uppermost mantle, either by serpentinization/metasomatism or in-situ magnetization, which can contribute to long-wavelength and low-amplitude magnetic anomalies and thereby large Curie-point depths.

  14. High-Resolution Imaging of the Mantle Flow Field Beneath Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouch, M. J.; West, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an improved understanding the nature of deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle and its relationship to the mantle flow field beneath western North America. We utilize broadband data from regional and portable seismic arrays, including EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array and the ~120 stations of the High Lava Plains seismic array to image seismic anisotropy in the crust and mantle to constrain deformation in the crust, mantle lithosphere, and asthenosphere across the region. Regional shear wave splitting parameters show clear variations with geologic terrane. In the Pacific Northwest, splitting times are large (2.25+ sec) and fast directions are ~E-W with limited variability. Beneath the southern Basin and Range/Colorado Plateau region, splitting times are also large (~1.75+ sec) and fast directions are oriented ~NE-SW (similar to absolute plate motion). Stations near the San Andreas fault exhibit more variability between measurements at individual stations, but regionally exhibit a general rotation toward NW-SE for stations closer to the fault. Analyses from a dense array across the fault near Parkfield exhibit fast direction variations of ~30 degrees over ~15 km, indicating that uppermost crustal structure plays a significant role in some regions. Away from the Pacific-North American plate boundary, and sandwiched between broad regions of simple (i.e., regionally similar fast directions) and strong (i.e., large splitting times) azimuthal anisotropy, stations within the Great Basin exhibit significant complexity. Fast directions show a clear rotation from E-W in the northern Great Basin, to N-S in the eastern Great Basin, to NE-SW in the southeastern Great Basin. Splitting times reduce dramatically, approaching zero within the central Great Basin. At many stations within the Great Basin, particularly those that have been in operation for many years, we observe backazimuthal variations in splitting parameters that

  15. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2 as Observed from In-Situ Measurements over North America during NASA Field Campaigns (2004-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Vay, Stephanie A.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Kichul; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, G. W.; Vadrevu, Krishna P.; Czech, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale measurements were made over the eastern United States (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America (INTEX-NA), summer 2004); Mexico (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO), March 2006); the eastern North Pacific and Alaska (INTEX-B May 2006); and the Canadian Arctic (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), spring and summer 2008). For these field campaigns, instrumentation for the in situ measurement of CO2 was integrated on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft providing high-resolution (1 second) data traceable to the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale. These observations provide unique and definitive data sets via their intermediate-scale coverage and frequent vertical profiles (0.1 - 12 km) for examining the variability CO2 exhibits above the Earth s surface. A bottom-up anthropogenic CO2 emissions inventory (1deg 1deg) and processing methodology has also been developed for North America in support of these airborne science missions. In this presentation, the spatio-temporal distributions of CO2 and CO column values derived from the campaign measurements will be examined in conjunction with the emissions inventory and transport histories to aid in the interpretation of the CO2 observations.

  16. A magmatic probe linking mantle temperature and dynamic topography beneath western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.; Fitton, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The region in western North America encompassing the Basin and Range Province, Snake River Plain and Colorado Plateau lies at an elevation 2 km higher than cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with variations in lithospheric thickness: Mexico, and inverse modeling of river profiles all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two distinct phases. USArray seismic tomographic models have imaged low velocity material beneath most of western North America, including a ring-shaped anomaly around the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows an overall increase in volume at 40 Ma as well as a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signature at 5 Ma. To investigate the relationship between seismic imaging and basaltic magmatism, we have analyzed >260 samples from volcanic centers across western North America for major and trace elements using ICP-MS and XRF. For asthenospheric samples, we observe a strong correlation between slow velocity anomalies and both location and composition of basalts. Using a combination of petrology, forward and inverse modeling of major and rare earth elements, integrated with results from tomographic models, we determine depth of melting and melt fraction. We explore the possibility that volatiles, source composition and/or temperature cause magmatism and uplift of this region. Thus, we use a variety of methods to constrain lithospheric thickness and mantle potential temperature. A dynamic topographic model of progressive lithospheric erosion over an anomalously hot upper mantle could account for regional uplift together with the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America.

  17. Historical atmospheric mercury emissions and depositions in North America compared to mercury accumulations in sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Allegrini, Ivo; Keeler, Gerald J.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Rossmann, Ronald; Robbins, John A.

    Gold and silver production in North America (included United States, Canada and Mexico) released a large amount of mercury to the atmosphere until well into this century when mercury (Hg) amalgamation was replaced by cyanide concentration. Since then, emissions from industries have been the dominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric Hg in North America as a whole. Past Hg emissions from gold and silver extractions in North America during the 1800s do not show a clear evidence of atmospheric deposition occurred at the coring sites considered in this study. Estimated atmospheric emissions of Hg in North America peaked in 1879 (at about 1708 t yr -1) and 1920 (at about 940 t yr -1), primarily due to Hg emissions from gold and silver mining. After the Great Economic Depression (1929) Hg emissions peaked again in the 1947 (274 t yr -1), in 1970 (325 t yr -1) and in 1989 (330 t yr -1) as result of increased Hg emissions from industrial sources, though improvements in the emissions control technology in United States and Canada have been substantial. Estimates of total atmospheric deposition fluxes of Hg to water and terrestrial receptors were in the range of 14.3-19.8 μg m -2 yr -1 in North America as a whole, and averaged 135 μg m -2 yr -1 (global background + local emissions) in the Great Lakes. These values were in good agreement with recent estimates reported in literature. The comparison of atmospheric Hg deposition fluxes with Hg accumulation rates in sediment cores suggests that atmospheric deposition was the major source of Hg entering the lakes system at coring sites, however, important contributions to Lake Ontario sediment cores sites from 1940 to 1970 were likely originated from local point sources (i.e. direct discharges).

  18. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P.; Herrera, Rene J.; Woodward, Scott R.; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S.; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo–Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11–13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo–Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4–7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non–Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic. PMID:23940335

  19. Lithosphere-asthenosphere system in shield areas of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pierri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous papers surface dispersion data have been combined with the results of deep seismic refraction data to derive a regionalization of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system and to investigate the presence of significant heterogeneity down to depths of 350 km along two profiles in the North European Fennoscandian area; a regionalized upper mantle model for the whole area down to more than 400 km is given as cross sections. We have extended that approach to North America. The older part of the shield shows lid thickness up to more than 100 km with, if any, weak shear velocity contrast to the underlying layer. The surrounding areas are characterized by a thinner lid; a stronger low-velocity zone to lid contrast may be found in peripheral areas. A map of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system has been derived, permitting a better regional resolution of the shear-wave velocity distribution with depth beneath different regions of North America. The correlation between the lithosphere-asthenosphere system structure and other geophysical data is commented as well as the results for North America and those obtained for the corresponding North European area, in order to outline the geophysical characteristics of shield areas that might give useful constraints for the geodynamic behaviour of the plates to which they belong.

  20. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  1. The role of emergency medicine physicians in trauma care in North America: evolution of a specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Michael D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMP in the care of trauma patients in North America has evolved since the advent of the specialty in the late 1980's. The evolution of this role in the context of the overall demands of the specialty and accreditation requirements of North American trauma centers will be discussed. Limited available data published in the literature examining the role of EMP's in trauma care will be reviewed with respect to its implications for an expanded role for EMPs in trauma care. Two training models currently in the early stages of development have been proposed to address needs for increased manpower in trauma and the critical care of trauma patients. The available information regarding these models will be reviewed along with the implications for improving the care of trauma patients in both Europe and North America.

  2. Fruits of icacinaceae (tribe iodeae) from the late paleocene of Western north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Manchester, Steven R; Devore, Melanie L

    2008-07-01

    The Icacinaceae occur pantropically today, but are well represented by fossil fruits of the warm Early Middle Eocene, when tropical plants that currently occupy low latitudes were more widely distributed in higher latitudes. Members of this family are first known in the Late Cretaceous; however, fossil fruits of tribe Iodeae are quite rare before the Eocene. In this paper we describe the first formally recognized Late Paleocene icacinaceous taxa from western North America. We name two new species of Icacinicarya based on anatomically preserved fruits and establish a new genus, Icacinicaryites, for impressions with a strong similarity to Icacinicarya that lack anatomical preservation. These new records from the Almont/Beicegel Creek flora in North Dakota and several localities in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana complement records known from the Early Eocene of England and document an increased diversity of Iodeae and related forms in the Paleogene of western North America.

  3. Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M.; Barber, Mathew J.; Rand, Kristin A.; Song, Shiya; Roman, Theodore; Battat, Erin; Elyashiv, Eyal; Guturu, Harendra; Hong, Eurie L.; Chahine, Kenneth G.; Ball, Catherine A.

    2017-02-01

    Despite strides in characterizing human history from genetic polymorphism data, progress in identifying genetic signatures of recent demography has been limited. Here we identify very recent fine-scale population structure in North America from a network of over 500 million genetic (identity-by-descent, IBD) connections among 770,000 genotyped individuals of US origin. We detect densely connected clusters within the network and annotate these clusters using a database of over 20 million genealogical records. Recent population patterns captured by IBD clustering include immigrants such as Scandinavians and French Canadians; groups with continental admixture such as Puerto Ricans; settlers such as the Amish and Appalachians who experienced geographic or cultural isolation; and broad historical trends, including reduced north-south gene flow. Our results yield a detailed historical portrait of North America after European settlement and support substantial genetic heterogeneity in the United States beyond that uncovered by previous studies.

  4. Cones, Seeds, and Foliage of Tetraclinis Salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Western North America: A Geographic Extension of the European Tertiary Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvacek; Manchester; Schorn

    2000-03-01

    The cupressaceous genus Tetraclinis is recognized from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America on the basis of co-occurring seed cones, seeds, and foliage branches. Morphological and anatomical comparisons with the two previously recognized European Tertiary species indicate that the North American specimens are morphologically inseparable from Tetraclinis salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek. The North American taxon is treated as a new variety, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. praedecurrens (Knowlton) comb. et stat. nov., and is distinguished from the European representatives, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. salicornioides, by slight anatomical differences in the leaf epidermis. Although cones and seeds of the fossil species are closely similar to those of extant Tetraclinis articulata, the foliage is more "spreading," composed of flattened segments with fused facial and lateral leaves that are apparently adaptive for a more mesic climate. The recognition of T. salicornioides in western North America along with the absence of Tetraclinis in the fossil and recent flora of eastern Asia provide evidence for communication of the species across the North Atlantic during the early or middle Tertiary.

  5. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  6. Automated multimode phase speed measurements for high-resolution regional-scale tomography: application to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, Göran

    2010-12-01

    , the automated method allows us to construct reliable multimode phase speed maps. The current data set of ray paths is significantly biased towards the western half of North America, resulting in non-uniform horizontal resolution across the continent. This issue will be resolved by the future migration of the USArray stations to cover the central and eastern United States. The new automated method can be a useful tool for high-resolution mapping of regional 3-D shear wave structure including possible anisotropy.

  7. Why Don’t They Participate? A Self-Study of Chinese Graduate Students’ Classroom:Involvement in North America

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    China is now the world’s largest source of international students. In terms of learning performance, Chinese graduate students studying in North America exhibit distinct differences from students who are born and raised in North America. Conflicting cultural values compel Chinese students to reconcile East-West cultures, and put an onus on North American instructors to implement culturally-sensitive pedagogy. Employing the theoretic framework of yin-yang theory, this paper examines Chin...

  8. Why Don’t They Participate? A Self-Study of Chinese Graduate Students’ Classroom:Involvement in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlei Lu; Wenchun Han

    2010-01-01

    China is now the world’s largest source of international students. In terms of learning performance, Chinese graduate students studying in North America exhibit distinct differences from students who are born and raised in North America. Conflicting cultural values compel Chinese students to reconcile East-West cultures, and put an onus on North American instructors to implement culturally-sensitive pedagogy. Employing the theoretic framework of yin-yang theory, this paper examines Chin...

  9. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  10. A digital reference collection for aquatic macroinvertebrates of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Ford, Morgan A; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates are a key component of freshwater ecosystems, and understanding aquatic invertebrate taxonomy is a cornerstone of freshwater science. Physical reference collections of expertly identified voucher specimens are the ‘gold-standard’ used to confirm specimen identifications. However, most biologists lack access to such collections, which themselves tend to be highly regionalized and somewhat limited in terms of taxonomic scope. The North American Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Digital Reference Collection (NAAMDRC; https://sciencebase.usgs.gov/naamdrc) was developed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) to overcome these limitations of physical collections. NAAMDRC provides users with public-domain, high-quality digital photographs to help verify specimen identifications.

  11. Babesia microti: prevalence in wild rodents and Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Mazury Lakes District of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siński, Edward; Bajer, Anna; Welc, Renata; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-05-01

    Infections of Babesia microti (Apicomplexa, Piroplasmida), a common erythroparasitic protozoon of Holarctic rodents, are not widely acknowledged in Poland. The presence of this parasite in various species of wild rodents has been well documented throughout the northern temperate zone of North America, Europe, and Eurasia. However, human babesiosis attributable to infection with B. microti has been reported only from the north-eastern and upper midwestern United States and Japan. We recently carried out an epizootiological survey investigating the prevalence of B. microti both in the tick Ixodes ricinus and in wild rodents in North-Eastern Poland. Blood samples were collected from a total of 483 animals comprising three species: Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, and Microtus oeconomus trapped at Urwitałt near Mikołajki in the Mazury Lakes District. Questing adult I. ricinus ticks were collected in the study sites by blanket dragging of vegetation in heterogeneous, deciduous woodland, and, in addition, rodents were carefully examined for feeding larvae and nymphs. Altogether, B. microti was detected in 9 out of 1513 I. ricinus ticks (0.6%) examined by PCR. This included 163 adults (92 females and 71 males), 50 nymphs, and 1300 larvae 3%, 8%, and 0% of which were PCR-positive, respectively. Of 85 A. flavicollis, 374 M. arvalis and 24 M. oeconomus, 1%, 12.8%, and 42% were parasitaemic, respectively, as determined by microscopic examination of blood smears stained with Giemsa. B. microti DNA, extracted from 53 M. arvalis and 5 M. oeconomus and examined by nested PCR, targeting a piroplasm-specific portion of the 18S ribosomal DNA, revealed 72% and 40%, respectively, to be PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed that all PCR-positive samples had rDNA sequences identical (100% homology) to that of the Munich B. microti strain isolated from Mus musculus. The results of this study indicate that the B. microti commonly encountered among Microtus spp. rodents is

  12. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-02

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  13. The Role of Soil Water and Land Feedbacks in Decadal Drought in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, S.; Chikamoto, Y.; Noone, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Western North America is susceptible to severe impacts of megadroughts, as evidenced by tree-core or lake sediment records. Future predictions suggest that this region will become more arid, with further consequences for water resources. Understanding the mechanisms of drought variability and persistence in western North America is critical for the eventual development of effective forecasting methods. The ocean is expected to be the main source of decadal memory in the system as the atmosphere varies on a much shorter timescale. The ocean's role in driving the low-frequency variability of the system is potentially predictable. However, low-frequency precipitation anomalies in western North America can occur in the absence of ocean feedbacks. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the north Pacific Ocean only account for around 20 per cent of the low-frequency winter precipitation in California in the CMIP5 historical runs. This is not sufficient to use the skill of global coupled models in predicting ocean conditions ahead of time to successfully forecast the possibility of long-term drought in western North America. Megadroughts therefore may be generated by unpredictable atmospheric noise, or persisted by other sources of low-frequency variability such as land processes and feedbacks. Snowpack in western North America is a crucial water resource for the surrounding communities, storing the winter precipitation for use later in the year. Likewise, soil moisture integrates the precipitation signal; the time scale depends on the depth and characteristics of the soil. Water storage and related variables are more predictable on longer timescales than precipitation, as measured by anomaly correlation for hindcasts compared to a 'perfect model' control run with CESM1.0.3. The importance of antecedent land conditions in persisting megadroughts in western North America is explored with ensemble simulations of CESM1.0.3, where the atmosphere is perturbed at the initiation

  14. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Quantifying River Widths of North America from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    River width is a fundamental predictor variable in many hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical models, yet current large-scale models rely on theoretical hydraulic geometry relationships that do not fully capture natural variability in river form. Here we present the first high-resolution dataset of long-term mean width of North American rivers wider than 30 m. The dataset contains 7.93 million georeferenced width measurements derived from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery that were acquired when rivers were most likely to be at mean discharge. We built the dataset by developing an automated procedure that selects and downloads raw imagery, creates cloud-free normalized difference water index images, histogram balances and mosaics them together, and produces a water mask using a dynamic water-land threshold technique. We then visually inspected and corrected the mask for errors and used RivWidth software to calculate river width at each river centerline pixel. We validated our dataset using >1000 United States Geological Survey and Water Survey of Canada in situ gauge station measurements. Error analysis shows a robust relationship between the remotely sensed widths and in situ gauge measurements with an r 2 = 0.86 (Spearman's = 0.81) and a mean absolute error of 27.5 m. We find that North American river widths lie on logarithmic frequency curve with some notable exceptions at widths SWOT) satellite mission.

  16. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  17. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Pemberton, Trevor J; Laurent, Romain; Kemp, Brian M; Gonzalez-Oliver, Angelica; Gorodezky, Clara; Hughes, Cris E; Shattuck, Milena R; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Harry, Harold; William, Theresa; Worl, Rosita; Cybulski, Jerome S; Rosenberg, Noah A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2014-08-01

    The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  18. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Verdu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  19. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  20. Distribution of Xiphinema americanum and Related Species in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T

    1993-09-01

    All species of the Xiphinema americanum-group and their synonyms are listed. The North American species reported are listed by state or province. Among these species, X. rivesi has the most widely reported distribution. Six species (X. diffusum, X. floridae, X. laevistriatum, X. luci, X. shell, and X. tarjanense) have been reported from only Florida. The reports of X. pachtaicum, X. sheri, and X. luci did not include morphometrics and need to be confirmed; X. brevicolle from California was identified before Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo described 15 new species in 1979 and similarly needs to be confirmed. Because of the proliferation of species in this group, reports of X. americanum (sensu stricto) before 1979 are questionable. Extraction techniques for longidorids are discussed.

  1. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  2. Colonization history and introduction dynamics of capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae) in north america: isozymes and quantitative traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuffer; Hurka

    1999-10-01

    Multilocus isozyme genotypic composition for aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was studied for Capsella in the source continent, Europe (9000 plants from 593 populations), and in the colonized continent, North America (2700 plants from 88 populations). North America was depauperate in the number of genotypes (by approximately 50%), but in terms of frequencies, a few genotypes were common and shared by both continents. Although some, very rare, genotypes were, however, unique for North America, our data provided no evidence to indicate that the introduced gene pools were reconstructed on a multilocus genetic basis after introduction. Instead, they argued for a considerable number of independent introduction events. Geographical distribution patterns of multilocus genotypes in Europe and North America were pronounced and enabled us to trace the colonization history of Californian Capsella back to Spanish ancestral populations and those of temperate North America back to temperate European gene pools. A random-block field experiment with 14 Californian populations from different climatic regions revealed that variation patterns of quantitative traits reflect ecotypic variation, and the ecological amplitude of Capsella in North America is similar to that in Europe, which can be traced back to the introduction of preadapted genotypes. It appears that certain multilocus isozyme genotypes are associated with certain ecotypes. The variable European gene pool of Capsella was essentially introduced into North America without major genetic changes.

  3. Rock Art at the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary in Eastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Walter A.; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most investigations regarding the First Americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370±40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7±0.8 ka BP to 9.9±0.7 ka BP. Conclusions These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension. PMID:22384187

  4. The first Late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; Smith, Krister T.; Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalia; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    To date, the terrestrial faunal record of the North American late Eocene has been recovered from its subtropical and temperate regions. We report the first late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America, in southern Mexico. Fossil specimens were collected from mudstones that crop out in the Municipality of Santiago Yolomécatl, in northwestern Oaxaca. Previously published K-Ar ages of 32.9 ± 0.9 and 35.7 ± 1.0 Ma in overlain nearby volcanic rocks and biostratigraphy of these new localities suggests a Chadronian mammal age for this new local fauna. The assemblage is composed by two turtle taxa, Rhineura, two caniform taxa, a sciurid, a jimomyid rodent, a geomyine rodent, Gregorymys, Leptochoerus, Perchoerus probus, Merycoidodon, a protoceratid, Poebrotherium, Nanotragulus, Miohippus assinoboiensis, a chalicotherid, a tapiroid, cf. Amynodontopsis, Trigonias and the hymenopteran ichnofossils Celliforma curvata and Fictovichnus sciuttoi. The records of these taxa in northwestern Oaxaca greatly expand southerly their former geographic distribution in North America. The records of the geomorph rodents and Nanotragulus extend their former known biochronological range to the late Eocene. The hymenopteran ichnofossils in the localities suggest the presence of a bare soil after periodic waterlogging, under a sub-humid to sub-arid climate. This new local fauna represents the first glimpse of Eocene vertebrate and invertebrate terrestrial life from tropical North America.

  5. Mammuthus Population Dynamics in Late Pleistocene North America: Divergence, Phylogeography and Introgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik ePoinar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After evolving in Africa at the close of the Miocene, mammoths (Mammuthus sp. spread through much of the northern hemisphere, diversifying morphologically as they entered various habitats. Paleontologically, these morphs are conventionally recognized as species. In Pleistocene North America alone, several mammoth species have been recognized, inhabiting environments as different as cold tundra-steppe in the north and the arid grasslands or temperate savanna-parklands of the south. Yet mammoth phylogeographic studies have overwhelmingly focused on permafrost-preserved remains of only one of these species, Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth. Here we challenge this bias by performing a geographically and taxonomically wide survey of mammoth genetic diversity across North America. Using a targeted enrichment technique, we sequenced 67 complete mitochondrial genomes from non-primigenius specimens representing M. columbi (Columbian mammoth, M. jeffersonii (Jeffersonian mammoth, and M. exilis (pygmy mammoth, including specimens from contexts not generally associated with good DNA preservation. While we uncovered clear phylogeographic structure in mammoth matrilines, their phylogeny as recovered from mitochondrial DNA is not compatible with existing systematic interpretations of their paleontological record. Instead, our results strongly suggest that various nominal mammoth species interbred, perhaps extensively. We hypothesize that at least two distinct stages of interbreeding between conventional paleontological species are likely responsible for this pattern – one between Siberian woolly mammoths and resident American populations that introduced woolly mammoth phenotypes to the continent, and another between ecomorphologically distinct populations of woolly and Columbian mammoths in North America south of the ice.

  6. The Megophthalmidia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae of North America including eight new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kerr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Megophthalmidia Dziedzicki is a small leiine genus (Mycetophilidae with seven species described from the Neotropics and ten species from the Palearctic region. Two species of Megophthalmidia have been reported for North America. Recent collecting of Mycetophilidae in California and Arizona, however, shows current North American diversity of Megophthalmidia is at least on par to other regions of the world. Eight new species of Megophthalmidia are described here, increasing the number of Nearctic Megophthalmidia species to nine. Included is a particularly atypical member of the genus, M. saskia sp. n., which expands the genus concept of Megophthalmidia. Of the two species previously recorded for North America, only one actually belongs in the genus. Megophthalmidia occidentalis Johannsen, is fully described and illustrated. The other named species, M. marceda (Sherman is illustrated and transferred to the genus Ectrepesthoneura Enderlein. A lectotype is designated for this species. A key to the species of Megophthalmidia of North America is provided. The biology of these flies is not yet known. Three of the new Megophthalmidia species – M. lenimenta, M. misericordia, and M. radiata – are only known to occur within small protected areas within the California State Park and UC Natural Reserve systems.

  7. An update to the adventive aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) of America north of Mexico, with notes on intercepted species

    Science.gov (United States)

    An update to the list of adventive aphids in North America north of Mexico is provided , including the location and date of first discovery, biogeographic origin, and economically important North American hosts for 24 previously unrecorded species. Additionally, we discuss aphids intercepted at Uni...

  8. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  9. A research on consumer satisfaction and shopping patterns of households in the North Eastern Savo region

    OpenAIRE

    Taavitsainen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis deals with shopping patterns of consumers and their satisfaction with local supply of goods in the North Eastern Savo region in Finland. The thesis was conducted as a follow-up research to the original research made by a student of the University of Eastern Finland in 2009-2010. The theoretical part of the thesis consists of two main topics: purchase behavior of consumers and development of online shopping. The empirical part is based on a survey, conducted among consum...

  10. Population trends of grassland birds in North America are linked to the prevalence of an agricultural epizootic in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph J; Koslowsky, Hannah M

    2011-03-22

    Globalization of trade has dramatic socioeconomic effects, and, intuitively, significant ecological effects should follow. However, few quantitative examples exist of the interrelationship of globalization, socioeconomics, and ecological patterns. We present a striking illustration of a cascade in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; "mad cow disease") outbreaks in Europe exerted pressure on global beef markets, subsequently affecting North American hayfields and grassland bird populations. We examined competing models, which linked the prevalence of BSE in five focal countries, volume of beef exports to those countries from North America, and the amount of hayfield harvested and the abundance of grassland birds in North America. We found that (i) imports from North America increased 1 y after BSE outbreaks; (ii) probably because fewer cattle remained, the hay harvest in North America was reduced 2 y after the outbreak; (iii) the reduced hay harvest yielded a positive response in grassland bird populations 3 y after the outbreak.

  11. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2016-07-01

    To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months' follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program.

  12. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  13. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  14. Managing Current Complexity: Critical Energy Infrastructure Failures in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin MacDonald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper applies the competing theories of High Reliability Organizations (HRO and Normal Accidents Theory (NAT, two competing views of risk management in highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, in analyzing the 1998 Ice Storm and the 2003 Blackout to examine vulnerabilities in North America’s critical energy infrastructure (CEI. Inferences are then made by highlighting the similarities and differences in the two cases, which are then used to draw lessons for public managers regarding the protection of CEIs.

     

    As CEIs are highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, failures stemming from complex and uncertain risks are inevitable. There is an increasingly low tolerance for failure in energy infrastructure because society’s critical infrastructures have become increasingly interdependent. Public managers must regulate CEIs in order to ensure an emphasis is placed on safety and security while also finding ways to reduce unnecessary complexities. It is through the adoption of such measures that public managers will aid in minimizing the cascading effects of inevitable failures.

     

  15. Risk management of offshore wind activities in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.J. [Det Norske Veritas, Katy, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Offshore wind energy projects present inherently different risks than onshore wind developments. However, many offshore industries are mature and have evolved risk management techniques and tools. This PowerPoint presentation discussed the techniques and tools that are being applied to European offshore wind projects in order to help the North American offshore wind industry incorporate the techniques into the development process. The Government of the Netherlands is currently using spatial analysis tools to determine the potential impact of wind power plants on shipping, fishing, and other competing activities. The tools are being used to identify areas with favourable conditions. Quantitative and qualitative risk evaluations are being used to determine complex issues related to harbour access and navigational safety, as the coastline of the Netherlands is among the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Navigation risk assessments are used to demonstrate the impacts of procedural changes on resulting structural and security risks. Datasets are compiled with geographic information system (GIS) maps. Marine accident risk calculation software (MARCS) is used to determine risks related to collisions as well as to quantify mitigation measures. Software tools have been developed to combine task and schedule elements with cost, performance, probability, and potential consequences. A project certification process was outlined, and conceptual design plans were presented. Details of the offshore wind safety joint industry project (JIP) were also provided. tabs., figs.

  16. The industrial applications of shape memory alloys in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Schetky D, L. [Memry Corp., Brookfield, CT (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Literature in the recent past on shape memory effect alloys dwelt principally on the physical metallurgy, crystallography and kinetics of the shape memory phenomenon. By contrast, we now have books and conference proceedings devoted to the engineering aspects of SMAs, their technology and application. The dominant role SMAs now play in the field of medical and orthodontic devices is well documented and will be reviewed by others in this conference. In this paper we will discuss the commercial applications for shape memory alloy devices in the North American market; applications which are in many cases also produced in European countries and Japan. The early success of shape memory alloy couplings for joining tubing and pipe in the late 1960's was not followed by other large volume applications until the advent of shape memory eyeglass frames, brassiere underwires and cellular phone antennas. Many other applications have now evolved into mature markets and these will be reviewed. In addition to the many commercial applications cited, there are a number of other fields in which shape memory alloys are destined to play a major role; these include smart materials and adaptive structures, MEMS devices, infrastructure systems and electrical power generation and distribution. These applications are being developed with private and government funding and will also be briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  18. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  19. Selection of motors for end customer use and installation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, J. [Baldor Electric Co., Fort Smith, AR (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper will discuss the challenge of equipment builders wishing to export machinery to the North American market where NEMA standards are preferred. Although IEC motors and reducers are available in North America, end users prefer motors and gear reducers with NEMA characteristics and efficiency levels. Replacement IEC motors and gearmotors are available in North America, however they are not as readily available from distributors as NEMA motors. End users also favor separate C-face gear reducers rather than integral gearmotors. Use of readily available NEMA motors reduces plant downtime and cost when a motor fails. There is also a perception that NEMA motors are more robust and provide more temporary overload capability than IEC motors. NEMA premium registered efficiency levels tested using IEEE 112 and CSA 390 test methods are also favored by North American end users. Because of differences in test methods, IEEE and CSA efficiencies cannot be compared with IEC efficiencies due to the differences in test methods. The energy policy act defines the test methods and minimum efficiencies for motors sold in the United States. Motors with metric dimensions 1 - 200 HP must meet EPAct requirements. There is a market for NEMA motors outside of the United States for those manufacturers building equipment for use in the North American market. (orig.)

  20. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring.