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Sample records for eastern japan sea

  1. Crustal architecture of the eastern margin of Japan Sea: back-arc basin opening and contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2012-12-01

    Although large earthquakes such as the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M 7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M 7.8), and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake (M 7.8) have caused large amounts of damage to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, a substantial number of seismic studies have been conducted for the seismogenic zone on the Pacific Ocean side of Japan. In addition, the detail of the source fault model for the eastern margin of the Japan Sea is not well defined for all cases. This highlights the need for further studies to investigate seismic imaging. Therefore, we have collaborated with other Japanese research institutions for a project titled "Priority Investigations of Strain Concentration Areas" (which is funded by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, Japan). This project has conducted seismic surveys from 2009 to 2012 using the deep-sea research vessel, Kairei, from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. There is a strain concentration area in the eastern part of the survey area (Okamura et al., 1995). The western part of the survey area includes the Yamato Basin and Japan Basin. It is very important to study the crustal structure in the seismotectonic studies of the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. We conducted a marine seismic survey by using a multichannel seismic (MCS) system and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Seismic data were acquired along 42 lines with a total length of approximately 9,000 km. The following results were obtained from seismic imaging. On the basis of the results of the MCS imaging, active reverse faults and folds were observed in the margin of the Toyama Trough; however, the sedimentary layers in the trough were flat. In the sedimentary layers and crusts of the Sado Ridge, Mogami Trough, and source area of the 1964 Niigata earthquake located north of the Sado Island, greater deformation was observed. The deformation weakened toward the Yamato

  2. Modeling of the branches of the Tsushima Warm Current in the eastern Japan sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Ito, Toshimichi; Hirose, Naoki; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Takikawa, Tetsutaro

    2009-01-01

    The branches of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) are realistically reproduced using a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Simulated structures of the First Branch and the Second Branch of the TWC (FBTWC and SBTWC) in the eastern Japan Sea are mainly addressed in this study, being compared with measurement in the period September-October 2000. This is the first numerical experiment so far in which the OGCM is laterally exerted by real volume transports measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) through the Tsushima Straits and the Tsugaru Strait. In addition, sea level variation measured by tide-stations along the Japanese coast as well as satellite altimeters is assimilated into the OGCM through a sequential data assimilation method. It is demonstrated that the assimilation of sea level variation at the coastal tide-stations is useful in reproducing oceanic conditions in the nearshore region. We also examine the seasonal variation of the branches of the TWC in the eastern Japan Sea in 2000. It is suggested as a consequence that the FBTWC is continuous along northwestern Honshu Island in summertime, while it degenerates along the coast between the Sado Strait and the Oga Peninsula in other seasons. On the other hand, a mainstream of the SBTWC exists with meanders and eddies in the offshore region deeper than 1000 m to the north of the Sado Island throughout the year. (author)

  3. Study of dissolved oxygen content in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in water were analyzed based on long-term observations (2006-2013) in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). It was found that the monthly average DO concentrations at the bottom of the strait were significantly lower in summer than the average annual long-term data. The minimum DO contents were recorded during four months, from July to October. It was shown that the DO content in water depended on changes in current directions in the strait: lower DO contents resulted from hypoxic water inflow, mostly from Amur Bay.

  4. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  5. Environmental changes of the last 30,000 years in the gas hydrate area of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, A.F.M.; Sugai, T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwanoha Campus, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Natural Environmental Studies; Takeuchi, E.; Nagasaka, A.; Hiruta, A.; Ishizaki, O.; Matsumoto, R. [Tokyo Univ., Hongo Campus, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science

    2008-07-01

    The Japan Sea is a semi-isolated marginal sea with an average depth of 1350 metres and a maximum water depth of approximately 3700 metres in the northern basin. This paper presented a study that inferred the age and the nature of the environmental events of the last 30 thousand years using geochemical and sedimentary records from piston cores collected on the gas hydrates bearing-sediments of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea, south of Sado Islands. Interbedded dark gray thinly laminates and dark brown to gray bioturbated units are common throughout the quaternary sediments of the Japan Sea. They have been explained in terms of glacio-eustatic sea-level change. Active methane venting and gas hydrates have also been recognized, which are widely distributed just beneath the sea floor in the Joetsu Basin, in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. In order to identify the nature of the organic matter present in the study area and to make a correlation with samples collected in the Pacific Ocean, the study utilized total organic carbon contents and carbon isotopic composition of the gas hydrates bearing-sediments. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, these data were used to apply sequence stratigraphy concepts to locate the holocene/pleistocene boundary and to identify key stratigraphic surfaces, and also to recognize methane flux variations and sulfate-methane interfaces. The paper discussed total organic carbon in the Holocene/Pleistocene boundaries; nature of the organic matter and terrestrial versus marine phytoplankton production; and terrigenous material input. Sulfate oxidation of methane was also discussed. It was concluded that the correlation between the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean was possible using piston cores. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Quantitative estimation of massive gas hydrate in gas chimney structures, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, from the physical property anomalies obtained by LWD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Two dedicated LWD (Logging While Drilling) cruises, GR14 and HR15, were conducted in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the gas chimney structures, which are characterized by the columnar acoustic blanking below the topographic mound and/or pockmarks in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drillings were carried out generally in and around gas chimney structures which are in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas, eastern margin of Japan Sea, during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION (sonic) were applied during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR15. The presence of thick highly-anomalous intervals within the LWD data at site J24L suggests the development of massive gas hydrate within Off-Joetsu, by very high resistivity ( 10,000 Ωm), high Vp ( 3,700 m/s) and Vs (370-1,839 m/s), high neutron porosity ( 1.2), low natural gamma ray intensity ( 0 API), low neutron gamma density ( 0.8 g/cm3), low NMR porosity ( 0.0), low permeability (10-2-10-4 mD), low formation neutron sigma (26-28). The extreme physical properties intervals suggest the development of the almost pure hydrate. Because of the clear contrast between pure hydrate and seawater saturated fine sediments, the hydrate amount can be estimated quantitatively based on the assumptions as the two component system of pure hydrate and the monotonous seawater saturated fine sediments. This study was conducted as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  7. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  8. Growth of gas hydrate mounds and gas chimneys of the eastern margin of Japan Sea as revealed by MBES, SSS and SBP of AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Satoh, M.; Hiromatsu, M.; Tomaru, H.; Machiyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of PC, ROV and SCS surveys to study the origin and evolution of gas hydrate systems along the eastern margin of Japan Sea have identified a number of shallow GH accumulations on the mounds, 300m to 500m in diameter and 30m to 40m high, on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll in Joetsu basin with the WD of 880m to 1200m (Matsumoto et al., 2005; 2009). All of the hydrate mounds develop on gas chimneys as recognized by seismic profiles, and some are associated with gigantic methane plumes, 600m to 700m high. Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES), Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP) of AUV Urashima have revealed ultra-high resolution topographic features and subsurface structures of the mounds and adjacent areas during the JAMSTEC YK10-08 cruise, July 2010. AUV Urashima ran over the spur and knoll at 50m to 80m above seafloor at a cruising speed of 2.4 knots. MBES and SSS mosaics demonstrate two types of mounds. One is a low swell with smooth surface and weak reflectance, while the other is characterized by rough and uneven topographic features with strong SSS images due to incrustation by methane-induced carbonate concretions and gas hydrates. SBP provides clear stratigraphic and structural relations down to 50mbsf to 80mbsf and recognizes three stratigraphic units as I: upper massive unit (5-10m thick), II: middle evenly bedded unit (15-25m thick) and III: lower slightly bedded unit (> 15-25m thick). Gas chimneys grow up toward the seafloor through Units III, II, and I. When the ceiling of gas chimney stays within Unit III or II, the mound above the chimney is either low swell or nearly flat, while the swell grows up higher when the ceiling reaches to Unit I or the seafloor. Eventually, the ceiling breaks through the seafloor and protrudes to form GH mound up to 40m to 50m high, and then start to decay probably due to mechanical collapse and chemical dissolution of gas hydrates. The ceiling of gas chimneys is often represented by high amplitude, uneven

  9. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  10. Formation rate of water masses in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Ito, Toshimichi; Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Water masses in the subsurface and the intermediate layer are actively formed due to strong winter convection in the Japan Sea. It is probable that some fraction of pollution is carried into the layer below the sea surface together with these water masses, so it is important to estimate the formation rate and turnover time of water masses to study the fate of pollutants. The present study estimates the annual formation rate and the turnover time of water masses using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model and a particle chasing method. The total annual formation rate of water masses below the sea surface amounted to about 3.53±0.55 Sv in the Japan Sea. Regarding representative intermediate water masses, the annual formation rate of the Upper portion of the Japan Sea Proper Water (UJSPW) and the Japan Sea Intermediate Water (JSIW) were estimated to be about 0.38±0.11 and 1.43±0.16 Sv, respectively, although there was little evidence of the formation of deeper water masses below a depth of about 1500 m in a numerical experiment. An estimate of turnover time shows that the UJSPW and the JSIW circulate in the intermediate layer of the Japan Sea with timescales of about 22.1 and 2.2 years, respectively. (author)

  11. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Yanagi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  12. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  13. Balance of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyama, Teppei; Ito, Toshimichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Concentration data of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu between 1960 and 2002 were examined to estimate the balance of anthropogenic radionuclides in water of the Japan Sea. Until 1960s, they had accumulated mainly in the upper layer of the Japan Sea. After that, the amount of the radionuclides decreased as a result of termination of global fallout and exchange of surface water. The trend turned into increase since 1980s and the amounts will continue to increase for a while. (author)

  14. Study on tsunami due to offshore earthquakes for Korea coast. Literature survey and numerical simulation on earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Masafumi; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Inoue, Daiei; Choi, Weon-Hack; Kang, Keum-Seok

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, there has been a concern on tsumami risks for the Nuclear Power Plants since the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake tsunami. The maximum run-up height reached 4 m to north of the Ulchin nuclear power plant site. The east coast of Korea was also attacked by a few meters high tsunami generated by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. Both source areas of them were in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which remains another tsunami potential. Therefore it is necessary to study tsunami risks for coast of Korea by means of geological investigation and numerical simulation. Historical records of earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea were re-compiled to evaluate tsunami potential. A database of marine active faults in the Japan Sea was compiled to decide a regional potential of tsunami. Many developed reverse faults are found in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. The authors have found no historical earthquake in the East China Sea which caused tunami observed at coast of Korea. Therefore five fault models were determined on the basis of the analysis results of historical records and recent research results of fault parameter and tunami. Tsunami heights were estimated by numerical simulation of nonlinear dispersion wave theory. The results of the simulations indicate that the tsunami heights in these cases are less than 0.25 m along the coast of Korea, and the tsunami risk by these assumed faults does not lead to severe impact. It is concluded that tsunami occurred in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea leads the most significant impact to Korea consequently. (author)

  15. Modelling travel and residence times in the eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Hartnett, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Sea, which lies between 51 deg. N-56 deg. N and 2 deg. 50'W-7 deg. W, provides a sheltered environment to exploit valuable fisheries resource. Anthropogenic activity is a real threat to its water quality. The majority of freshwater input down rivers flows into the eastern Irish Sea. The structure of the water circulation was not well understood during the planning of Sellafield nuclear plant outfall site in the eastern Irish Sea. A three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model was applied to the Irish Sea to simulate both barotropic and baroclinic circulation within the region. High accuracy was achieved with regard to the prediction of both tidal circulation and surface and nearbed water temperatures across the region. The model properly represented the Western Irish Sea Gyre, induced by thermal stratification and not known during planning Sellafield. Passive tracer simulations based on the developed hydrodynamic model were used to deliver residence times of the eastern Irish Sea region for various times of the year as well as travel times from the Sellafield outfall site to various locations within the Irish Sea. The results indicate a strong seasonal variability of travel times from Sellafield to the examined locations. Travel time to the Clyde Sea is the shortest for the autumnal tracer release (90 days); it takes almost a year for the tracer to arrive at the same location if it is released in January. Travel times from Sellafield to Dublin Bay fall within the range of 180-360 days. The average residence time of the entire eastern Irish Sea is around 7 months. The areas surrounding the Isle of Man are initially flushed due to a predominant northward flow; a backwater is formed in Liverpool Bay. Thus, elevated tracer concentrations are predicted in Liverpool Bay in the case of accidental spills at the Sellafield outfall site

  16. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan - A stable isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Todd W.; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-01-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ 15 N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes.

  17. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan--a stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-10-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ(15)N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ(15)N and δ(13)C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  19. Artificial radioactivity in the sea near Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y; Kameda, K

    1955-01-01

    Sea water collected around the Bikini Atoll from July to September 1954, was analyzed for total radioactivity by adding 2 g solid NH/sub 4/Cl, 1 ml of an aqueous solution of Ferric alum (86.3 g/l), and 1 ml of BaCl/sub 2/ solution (17.8 g/l) to 1 l of H/sub 2/O heated to 60 to 70 while being stirred. NH/sub 4/OH was added until the solution was faintly pink to phenolphthalein. After 2-min boiling the precipitate settled on standing for several hours at room temperature before being filtered on a filter disk lain above a glass filter. Counting rates of 2.1 +- 1.6 to 140.8 +- 6.8 counts/min/l were obtained.

  20. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Zooplankton in an abnormally high sea surface temperature (33.1 to 33.8 degrees C) and alternate bands of slick formation were studied in the Eastern Arabian Sea during 26 and 29 April 1981. The phenomenon which may be due to intense diurnal heating...

  1. Sea truth validation of sea WiFS ocean colour sensor in the coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.

    In this paper we report bio-optical measurements made during an ocean colour validation cruise SK 149C in November 1999 of the research vessel Sagar Kanya in the coastal waters of the Eastern Arabian Sea. The chlorophyll concentration...

  2. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Sea of Japan from 19930101 to 19930630 (NODC Accession 9300173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature data in this accession was collected in Sea of Japan. Data in this accession was collected over a six month period from thermistor. The...

  3. Convective Systems Over the Japan Sea: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Yoshizaki, Masanori; Shie, Chung-Lin; Kato, Teryuki

    2002-01-01

    Wintertime observations of MCSs (Mesoscale Convective Systems) over the Sea of Japan - 2001 (WMO-01) were collected from January 12 to February 1, 2001. One of the major objectives is to better understand and forecast snow systems and accompanying disturbances and the associated key physical processes involved in the formation and development of these disturbances. Multiple observation platforms (e.g., upper-air soundings, Doppler radar, wind profilers, radiometers, etc.) during WMO-01 provided a first attempt at investigating the detailed characteristics of convective storms and air pattern changes associated with winter storms over the Sea of Japan region. WMO-01 also provided estimates of the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). The vertical integrals of Q1 and Q2 are equal to the surface precipitation rates. The horizontal and vertical adjective components of Q1 and Q2 can be used as large-scale forcing for the Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model is a CRM (typically run with a 1-km grid size). The GCE model has sophisticated microphysics and allows explicit interactions between clouds, radiation, and surface processes. It will be used to understand and quantify precipitation processes associated with wintertime convective systems over the Sea of Japan (using data collected during the WMO-01). This is the first cloud-resolving model used to simulate precipitation processes in this particular region. The GCE model-simulated WMO-01 results will also be compared to other GCE model-simulated weather systems that developed during other field campaigns (i.e., South China Sea, west Pacific warm pool region, eastern Atlantic region and central USA).

  4. Currents in the Eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste is discharged from the nuclear re-processing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Its movement away from the discharge point is determined by the Irish Sea's dynamics, both for the soluble compounds and for those compounds which become attached to the sediment. Near Sellafield the tidal currents are weak and parallel to the shore, becoming stronger east/west to the north and south of the Isle of Man. Wind driven currents near Sellafield are predominantly north-westward, strongest near the coast, and oppose the other low frequency currents. Hence, the soluble effluent will initially be dispersed parallel to the shore by the weak tidal currents, moving episodically, southeastward during weak winds and northwestward during storms. Eventually it will leave the Irish Sea, flowing northward through the North Channel. (author)

  5. Henricia djakonovi sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Echinasteridae): a new sea star species from the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichvarkhin, Anton

    2017-01-01

    A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape of skeletal plates, and life coloration, which distinguishes them from the other Henricia species inhabiting the Sea of Japan. Nevertheless, these species can be distinguished by their abactinal spines: in both species, they are short and barrel-like, but the new species is the only Henricia species in Russian waters of the Pacific that possesses such spines with a massive, smooth, bullet-like tip. The spines in H. pseudoleviuscula are crowned with a variable number of well-developed thorns. About half (new species are oval, not crescent-shaped as in H. pseudoleviuscula .

  6. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... of these fisheries are not likely to cause the eastern DPS to become in danger of extinction in the... coastal habitats is likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lion to become in danger of extinction... likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lions to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable...

  7. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  8. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  9. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  10. Volcanism and Tectonics of the Central Deep Basin, Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelikov, E. P.; Emelyanova, T. A.; Pugachev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on the geomorphic structure, tectonic setting, and volcanism of the volcanoes and volcanic ridges in the deep Central Basin of the Sea of Japan. The ridges rise 500-600 m above the acoustic basement of the basin. These ridges were formed on fragments of thinned continental crust along deep faults submeridionally crossing the Central Basin and the adjacent continental part of the Primorye. The morphostructures of the basin began to submerge below sea level in the Middle Miocene and reached their contemporary positions in the Pliocene. Volcanism in the Central Basin occurred mostly in the Middle Miocene-Pliocene and formed marginal-sea basaltoids with OIB (ocean island basalt) geochemical signatures indicating the lower-mantle plume origin of these rocks. The OIB signatures of basaltoids tend to be expressed better in the eastern part of the Central Basin, where juvenile oceanic crust has developed. The genesis of this crust is probably related to rising and melting of the Pacific superplume apophyse.

  11. Indian Ocean dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M.M.

    –378, 2016 www.ocean-sci.net/12/369/2016/ doi:10.5194/os-12-369-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea T. R. Anoop1, V. Sanil Kumar1, P. R. Shanas1,2, J. Glejin1, and M. M. Amrutha1... are available on the website of the Japanese Agency of Marine–Earth Science and Technology (www.jamstec.go.jp). The tropical IO displays strong inter-annual climate vari- ability associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the IOD (Murtugudde et...

  12. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A dinocyst zonation for the Neogene succession in the eastern part of the North Sea Basin (Denmark) is presented. The zonation is based on an extensive database comprising data from more than fifty onshore and offshore boreholes and about twenty five outcrops. Most of the nineteen dinocyst zones......, of the Lower Miocene, and of the Upper Miocene and Pliocene successions. The previous zonation of the onshore Danish Middle Miocene is reconsidered and partly redefined. The zonation is correlated with other biostratigraphic subdivisions of the Neogene succession in the Danish region in addition to litho...

  13. Japan Sea expeditions for studies on water circulation and transport processes of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Ito, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    The Japan Sea expeditions at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA from October 1, 2005, former JAERI: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute until September 30, 2005) were started on its participation in the first and second Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions in 1994 and 1995 to investigate the situation on marine pollution due to radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea and other seas around Japan. After the joint expeditions, JAEA continued to conduct the Japan Sea expeditions not only to monitor the impacts of radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea, but also to investigate water circulation and the migration behavior of radionuclides in the Japan Sea. Taking account of some difficulties and constraints due to the political boundaries in the Japan Sea, the expeditions were carried out, separating the sea into two regions; one is the Japanese exclusive economical zone (EEZ) and the other is the Russian EEZ. The data of observations and measurements obtained in the two regions were analyzed together. The program of the Japan Sea expeditions included large-volume seawater sampling at different depths and seabed sediment sampling for measurements of representative anthropogenic radionuclides. To investigate the migration behavior of the radionuclides more in detail, associated oceanographic observations were also implemented; CTD/MBS (conductivity-temperature-depth meter with multi-bottle sampler) casts, analysis of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, deployment and recovery of mooring systems with current meters and sediment traps, and so on. Additional seawater samples were taken with CTD/MBS for further analysis on land. This report summarizes the results of the Japan Sea expeditions (Phase 1) conducted and/or jointed by JAEA from 1994 to 2002. First the report explains oceanographic features of the Japan Sea, main expeditions in the past and the summarized results of the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions. Then the report gives an outline of the

  14. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  15. Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.

  16. Seawater movement in the Japan Sea inferred from 14C measurement in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Togawa, Orihiko; Amano, Hikaru; Aramaki, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    Research Group for Environmental Science, JAEA has carried out oceanographic observations in the Japan Sea since 1997 to clarify the biogeochemical cycle in the Japan Sea. More than 3,000 seawater samples for measurement of radiocarbon were collected during the observations, and radiocarbon in the seawater samples was measured at AMS facility in JAEA Mutsu. In this paper, formation and circulation of water mass in the northern Japan Sea were discussed using analysis of radiocarbon and hydrographic data (e.g. salinity, temperature, nutrients). (author)

  17. Deep Nitrate Deficit Observed in the Highly Oxygenated East/Japan Sea and Its Possible Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Nam Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence of denitrification on the continental slopes of the Ulleung Basin (UB and the Eastern Japan Basin (EJB near the Tatar Strait (TtS in the East/Japan Sea (EJS, despite its high water column dissolved oxygen concentrations. Some nutrient concentration data deviate significantly from the fitted regression line of nitrate (N vs. phosphate (P in deep waters, indicating a loss of nitrate in the region. The EJS has a lower N/P ratio (ca. 12.4 below 300 dbar than a traditional Redfield ratio (16. The N/P ratio and oxygen concentration are substantially lower at several locations whose depths are close to the sediment-water interface, near TtS (500 - 1100 dbar and in UB (1100 - 2200 dbar. The decreased nitrate concentration is smaller than the expected nitrate level (a low N/P ratio of < 12.4, and a secondary nitrite peak near the bottom of these two regions: taken collectively, both indicate the presence of denitrification in the bottom layer. It is speculated that active re-mineralization and denitrification may occur simultaneously along the rich organic matter bottom layer on the slope environment. Denitrification rates are estimated at ~3 - 33 μmol N m-2 d-1. Current estimates do not support the previous idea of basin-wide denitrification in EJS, although the N/P ratio is low like in other hypoxic/anoxic seas. A better understanding of the denitrification process is necessary for predicting future changes of nitrogen cycle in the well-oxygenated EJS considering the decadal-scale physical and biogeochemical changes that have occurred.

  18. Nuclear risk reduction study. The effect of sea salt aerosols in the Japan sea coast facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    All of 15 nuclear power plants in Fukui Prefecture are located in the Japan Sea Coast. Corrosion is strongly influenced by material and environmental factors. We installed the salt damage experimental yard at Awara sea coast in March, 2006. We are doing the open air test, sheltered test without filter and with filter. The carbon steel standard specimen were exposed under three kinds of test conditions mentioned above. The corrosivity of the open air test specimens was higher than it of Miyako Island, Okinawa. The corrosivity of carbon steel of winter was higher than it of summer. The measurement of chloride deposition rate was done by the dry gauze method. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average velocity of the wind was found. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average rainfall was a little complicate. It means the chloride deposition rate has maximum value at a certain rainfall amount. No other clear relation was found. (author)

  19. Historical Tsunami Records on Russian Island, the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Ganzey, K. S.; Kharlamov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we provide data evidencing tsunamis on Russian Island over the last 700 years. Reconstructions are developed based on the analyses of peat bog sections on the coast of Spokoynaya Bay, including layers of tsunami sands. Ancient beach sands under peat were deposited during the final phase of transgression of the Medieval Warm Period. We used data on diatoms and benthic foraminifers to identify the marine origin of the sands. The grain size compositions of the tsunami deposits were used to determine the sources of material carried by the tsunamis. The chronology of historical tsunamis was determined based on the radiocarbon dating of the underlying organic deposits. There was a stated difference between the deposition environments during tsunamis and large storms during the Goni (2015) and Lionrock (2016) typhoons. Tsunami deposits from 1983 and 1993 were found in the upper part of the sections. The inundation of the 1993 tsunami did not exceed 20 m or a height of 0.5 m a.m.s.l. (0.3 above high tide). The more intensive tsunami of 1983 had a run-up of 0.65 m a.m.s.l. and penetrated inland from the shoreline up to 40 m. Sand layer of tsunami 1940 extend in land up to 50 m from the present shoreline. Evidence of six tsunamis was elicited from the peat bog sections, the deposits of which are located 60 m from the modern coastal line. The deposits of strong historic tsunamis in the Japan Sea region in 1833, 1741, 1614 (or 1644), 1448, the XIV-XV century and 1341 were also identified on Russian Island. Their run-ups and inundation distances were also determined. The strong historic tsunamis appeared to be more intensive than those of the XX century, and considering the sea level drop during the Little Ice Age, the inundation distances were as large as 250 m.

  20. Historical Tsunami Records on Russian Island, the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Ganzey, K. S.; Kharlamov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we provide data evidencing tsunamis on Russian Island over the last 700 years. Reconstructions are developed based on the analyses of peat bog sections on the coast of Spokoynaya Bay, including layers of tsunami sands. Ancient beach sands under peat were deposited during the final phase of transgression of the Medieval Warm Period. We used data on diatoms and benthic foraminifers to identify the marine origin of the sands. The grain size compositions of the tsunami deposits were used to determine the sources of material carried by the tsunamis. The chronology of historical tsunamis was determined based on the radiocarbon dating of the underlying organic deposits. There was a stated difference between the deposition environments during tsunamis and large storms during the Goni (2015) and Lionrock (2016) typhoons. Tsunami deposits from 1983 and 1993 were found in the upper part of the sections. The inundation of the 1993 tsunami did not exceed 20 m or a height of 0.5 m a.m.s.l. (0.3 above high tide). The more intensive tsunami of 1983 had a run-up of 0.65 m a.m.s.l. and penetrated inland from the shoreline up to 40 m. Sand layer of tsunami 1940 extend in land up to 50 m from the present shoreline. Evidence of six tsunamis was elicited from the peat bog sections, the deposits of which are located 60 m from the modern coastal line. The deposits of strong historic tsunamis in the Japan Sea region in 1833, 1741, 1614 (or 1644), 1448, the XIV-XV century and 1341 were also identified on Russian Island. Their run-ups and inundation distances were also determined. The strong historic tsunamis appeared to be more intensive than those of the XX century, and considering the sea level drop during the Little Ice Age, the inundation distances were as large as 250 m.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  2. The estimation of turnover time in the Japan Sea bottom water by 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Togawa, Orihiko; Minakawa, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Japan Sea is sensitive for the environment such a global warming. To understand the oceanic circulation in the Japan Sea, we estimated a turnover time and a potential formation rate of the Japan Sea bottom water (JSBW) using an oceanographic tracer of 129 I. The turnover time of JSBW was calculated based on the increased concentration during the nuclear era. The turnover time was estimated to be 180 - 210 years. The potential formation rate of JSBW is calculated based on the existence of the anthropogenic 129 I in the JSBW. The potential formation rate of JSBW is estimated to be (3.6-4.1) x 10 12 m 3 /y which is consistent with another estimation and is about quarter of that of the upper Japan Sea proper water. (author)

  3. The "OSHORO MARU" cruise 21 to the Southern Sea of Japan, January 1967 (NODC Accession 7101334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and other data were collected using net, bottle casts, and other instruments from OSHORO MARU in the Sea of Japan. Data were collected from 11...

  4. Strontium isotopic ratios of Tertiary volcanic rocks of northeastern Honshu, Japan: implication for the spreading of the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Hajime; Konda, Tadashi.

    1986-01-01

    Strontium isotopic ratios of sixty-seven Tertiary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, Japan, were determined for the purpose of examining the genesis among the volcanic rocks. Two distince suites of volcanic rocks occur in the northeastern Honshu; the rocks older than 16 Ma (Monzen-Daijima Stege) of predominantly intermediate composition and the rocks younger than 16 Ma (Nishikurosawa-Funakawa Stege) with bimodal suite of mafic and felsic composition. Initial values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Teriary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, lie in the range from 0.7033 to 0.7068. High ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios are observed for the rocks older than 16 Ma from the Japan Sea side (H zone). It is noteworthy that the rocks younger than 16 Ma show significantly lower ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios in the Dewa Hill, Japan Sea coast and North Akita areas in the northeastern Honshu (L zone). The rocks younger than 16 Ma from the L zone can also be interpreted as having been originated as a mantle-diapir associated with the spreading of the Japan Sea basin. If the basaltic magma was formed from the diapir, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio would be close to the range from 0.7033 to 0.7037 as the low-Sr isotopic ratio zone (L zone) in the northeastern Honshu, Japan. (author)

  5. Present status of marine environmental radioactivity survey in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, H.

    1994-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency has been conducting some Marine Environmental Radioactivity Surveys around Japan in cooperation with the relevant organizations (Maritime Safety Agency, Japan Meteorological Agency, Fishery Agency, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and Marine Ecology Research Institute). Several artificial radionuclides have been detected but the main origin is supposed to be fall-out. The level trend of marine environmental radioactivity has no anomalies excepting the effect of Chernobyl Accident. The data summarized here are as follows. 1. Marine Environmental Survey of Fisheries near the Nuclear Power Stations, 2. Past Data of Marine Environmental Radioactivity around Japan (Apr. 1982 - Mar. 1991), 3. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (spring, 1993), 4. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (autumn, 1993). In addition, JAPAN-KOREA-RUSSIA JOINT EXPEDITION in the Sea of Japan will start in the middle of March. We are expecting to get valuable data through the EXPEDITION. (J.P.N.)

  6. Organic Matter Contents and Paleoproductivity Variation Within Late Pleistocene Japan Sea/East Sea Sediments: Results from IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic and organic matter concentrations as well as the stable isotopes of nitrogen and organic carbon are presented for continuous sedimentary sequences collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 in the Japan Sea/East Sea in 2013. During major glacioeustatic sea level changes, the paleoceanographic conditions within the Japan Sea/East Sea widely vary due to the shallow, narrow straights connecting the sea to surrounding waters limiting an influx of oceanic currents. During glacial sea level low-stands the sea can be nearly isolated, creating a highly-stratified water column and hypoxic to anoxic bottom water conditions. Meanwhile during sea level high-stands, the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) flows into the sea bringing warmer, nutrient-rich inputs, leading to vertical mixing and oxic conditions. This study aims to better understand the role of orbital cycling within the organic matter and stable isotope contents of these Late Pleistocene sediments. A total of 192 samples were analyzed each for %CaCO3, %TOC, δ13C, %N, and δ15N from two Expedition 346 sampling sites (U1426 and U1427) during the last 430,000 years and statistical analyses were completed using wavelet and time series analyses. Carbonate concentration ranges from 0-44.3%, total organic carbon 0.2 to 6.4%, δ13C -25.8 to -19.6‰, %N 0.04 to 0.4%, and δ15N 3.8 to 13.1‰. These results are well correlated with b* color values of the sediment and generally show increased productivity during interglacial periods, likely through increased vertical mixing and deepwater ventilation, when compared to glacial periods within the Japan Sea/East Sea when the sea may be partially isolated.

  7. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

    2013-12-01

    reference, the conventional AO index is shown by the gray line. (b) a 5-day running mean WP index, (c) area-averaged Surface Air Temperature anomalies in Japan, (d) Air Temperature anomalies, (e) heat flux anomalies, and (f) Sea Surface Temperature anomalies. The boxed area on the Sea of Japan indicates the area in which the (d)-(f) indexes were calculated.

  8. Autumn CO2 chemistry in the Japan Sea and the impact of discharges from the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Enyo, Kazutaka; Saito, Shu

    2016-08-01

    We made comprehensive surface water CO2 chemistry observations in the Japan Sea during each autumn from 2010 to 2014. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water, 312-329 μatm, was 10-30 μatm lower in the Japan Sea than in the same latitude range of the western North Pacific adjacent to Japan. According to the sensitivity analysis of pCO2, the lower pCO2 in the Japan Sea was primarily attributable to a large seasonal decrease of pCO2 associated with strong cooling in autumn, particularly in the northern Japan Sea. In contrast, the lower pCO2 in relatively warm, freshwater in the southern Japan Sea was attributable to not only the thermodynamic effect of the temperature changes but also high total alkalinity. This alkalinity had its origin in Changjiang River and was transported by Changjiang diluted water (CDW) which seasonally runs into the Japan Sea from the East China Sea. The input of total alkalinity through CDW also elevated the saturation state of calcium carbonate minerals and mitigated the effects of anthropogenic ocean acidification, at least during autumn. These biogeochemical impacts of CDW in the Japan Sea last until November, although the inflow from the East China Sea to the Japan Sea almost ceases by the end of September. The long duration of the high saturation state of calcium carbonate benefits calcareous marine organisms.

  9. Temperature and water density data from meteorological sensors in the Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea from KODC, 01 January 1923 to 31 December 2001 (NODC Accession 0000914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and water density data were collected using meteorological sensors from coastal stations in the Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea. Data were submitted by the...

  10. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  11. Nutrient Limitation in Surface Waters of the Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea: an Enrichment Microcosm Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsiola, A.; Pitta, P.; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Pete, R.; Magiopoulos, I.; Mara, P.; Psarra, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mostajir, B.

    2015-01-01

    groups of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic (pico-, nano-, and micro-) plankton using a microcosm experiment during stratified water column conditions in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Microcosms were enriched with N and P (either solely

  12. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  13. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  14. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  15. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (EMA-BASIS) Zooplankton data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  16. Ecology and distribution of recent planktonic foraminifera in eastern part of Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Kutty, M.K.

    Thirty species of living planktonic foraminifera have been studied from 97 plankton tows collected from the eastern Arabian Sea with an accent on their ecological and distributional aspects. Species density is higher with less dominance in the deep...

  17. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2010 Eastern Bering Sea Juvenile Survey - 1MF10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected on this cruise included the following: We conducted a juvenile fish and benthic fish prey survery in the eastern Bering Sea (61 3-meter beam trawls,...

  18. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M; Mohanraju, R.; Madhupratap, M

    Numerical abundance and composition of microzooplankton in the upper 200 m were studied from the central and eastern Arabian Sea during three seasons. Protozoans, comprising of ciliates (loricates and aloricates), flagellates and sarcodines were...

  19. Obsolete - AFSC/RACE/Eco-FOCI: 2010 Eastern Bering Sea Juvenile Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected on this cruise included the following: We conducted a juvenile fish and benthic fish prey survery in the eastern Bering Sea (61 3-meter beam trawls,...

  20. Characteristics of long-period swells measured in the near shore regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Amrutha, M.M.; Singh, J.

    Measured wave data covering two years simultaneously at 3 locations along the eastern Arabian Sea reveals the presence of long-period (peak wave period > 18 s) low-amplitude waves (significant wave height < 1 m) and the characteristics...

  1. Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Measurements of dissolved aluminium (Al) in surface microlayer (SML) samples from the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest (summer) and northwast (winter) monsoon periods have revealed much higher concentrations (23-657 nmol kg sup(-1)) than...

  2. Skate Bathyraja spp. egg predation in the eastern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, G R

    2009-01-01

    Predation on skate eggs by snails was examined for three skate species at seven nursery sites in three regions (north, middle and south) of the eastern Bering Sea. Mean predation levels were 6.46% for the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera, 2.65% for the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica and 22.25% for the Bering skate Bathyraja interrupta. Predation levels were significantly higher at the middle and north sites than the south sites for all species combined. Predation levels decreased with increasing egg-case densities at all nursery sites, and the highest predation levels occurred where egg-case densities were very low. Predated egg-case density increased with increasing snail densities across all nursery sites examined. The Oregon triton Fusitriton oregonensis was the most abundant snail species at all nursery sites and displayed ability to drill holes in the egg case of B. parmifera. Holes left by predatory snails in egg cases of B. parmifera were significantly larger, and of different shape at the middle site compared to the south site. Holes in B. parmifera were also significantly larger than those in egg cases of B. interrupta across all sites examined. Egg cases of B. aleutica possess surface spines that cover the egg case and may inhibit predation by snails at a greater rate than that of the B. parmifera and B. interrupta, which have a smoother egg-case surface.

  3. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami; Öztürk, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  4. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  5. The physiological adaptations and toxin profiles of the toxic Alexandrium fundyense on the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuike, Masafumi; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Imai, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Abundant cyst distributions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense (previous A. tamarense north American clade) were recently observed on the north Chukchi Sea shelf and on the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that A. fundyense is both highly adapted to the local environments in the high latitude areas and might cause toxin contamination of plankton feeders. However, little is known about the physiological characteristics and toxin profiles of A. fundyense in these areas, which are characterized by low water temperatures, weak sunlight, and more or less permanent ice cover during winter. To clarify the physiological characteristics of A. fundyense, the effects of water temperature and light intensity on the vegetative growth and toxin profiles of this species were examined using A. fundyense strains isolated from one sediment sample collected from each area. Using the same sediments samples, seasonal changes of the cyst germination in different water temperatures were investigated. Vegetative cells grew at temperatures as low as 5°C and survived at 1°C under relatively low light intensity. They also grew at moderate water temperatures (10-15°C). Their cysts could germinate at low temperatures (1°C) and have an endogenous dormancy period from late summer to early spring, and warmer water temperatures (5-15°C) increased germination success. These physiological characteristics suggest that A. fundyense in the Chukchi Sea and eastern Bering Sea is adapted to the environments of high latitude areas. In addition, the results suggest that in the study areas A. fundyense has the potential to germinate and grow when water temperatures increase. Cellular toxin amounts of A. fundyense strains from the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea were ranged from 7.2 to 38.2 fmol cell -1 . These toxin amounts are comparable with A. fundyense strains isolated from other areas where PSP toxin contamination of bivalves occurs. The dominant toxin of the strains isolated

  6. Corals, Canyons, and Conservation: Science Based Fisheries Management Decisions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve A. MacLean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When making science matter for conservation, marine conservation practitioners, and managers must be prepared to make the appropriate decision based on the results of the best available science used to inform it. For nearly a decade, many stakeholders encouraged the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to enact protections for deep-sea corals in several canyons in the Eastern Bering Sea slope. In 2014, at the request of the Council, the National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center conducted a strip-transect survey along the Eastern Bering Sea slope to validate the results of a model predicting the occurrence of deep-sea coral habitat. More than 250,000 photos were analyzed to estimate coral, sponge, and sea whip abundance, distribution, height, and vulnerability to anthropogenic damage. The results of the survey confirmed that coral habitat and occurrence was concentrated around Pribilof Canyon and the adjacent slope. The results also confirmed that the densities of corals in the Eastern Bering Sea were low, even where they occurred. After reviewing the best available scientific information, the Council concluded that there is no scientific evidence to suggest that deep-sea corals in the Eastern Bering Sea slope or canyons are at risk from commercial fisheries under the current management structure, and that special protections for deep-sea corals were not warranted.

  7. Eddy Mediated Nutrient Pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachaparambil, M.; Moolakkal Antony, R.; B R, S.; V N, S.; N, C.; M, S.

    2016-02-01

    A Cold Core Eddy (CCE) mediated nutrient pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) is explained based on in situ measurments during March 2013 onboard FORV Sagar Sampada which was not reported earlier in the area. Samples for physical, chemical and biological parameters were collected in 5 stations along the diameter of the eddy and following standard protocols. The core of the CCE is identified at 21°20.38'N; 66°30.68'E with a diameter of 120Km. Earlier studies explaining the process and the forcing mechanism of the particular eddy records that, the eddy is short term (1-3 months) and is regular during the season. Surface waters were well oxygenated (>4.8 ml L-1) in the core. Surface value of nutrients viz., Nitrate, Nitrite, Silicate and phosphate in the core regions was 0.9µM, 0.01 µM, 0.5 µM and 0.7 µM respectively indicating upwelling in the core. Spring intermonsoon (SIM) is generally termed as a transition period between the active winter and summer seasons and as per earlier studies, high biological production and the regularly occurring Noctilica bloom is supported by the nutrient loading due to convective mixing during winter as well as regenerated production. However, present observations shows that, nutrient pumping due to the upwelling associated with the CCE also contributes for sustaining high biological production and are evident in the Chl a and mesozooplankton biovolume which records values of 4.35mg/m3 and 1.09ml/m3 respectively in the core. An intense Noctiluca blooms observed in the western flank of the eddy (Chl a 13.25 mg/m3; cell density 5.8×106 cells/litre), where Nitrate concentration records 1.04µM explains the role of such mesoscale processes in the sustenance of the HAB events. While eastern flank of the CCE showed typical open ocean condition of the season showing Nitrate 0.08µM; Chl a 0.23mg/m3; and phytoplankton cell density as 421 cells/litre. Keywords: Cold core eddy, nutrients, NEAS, SIM, biological production

  8. Migration of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) Wintering in Japan Using Satellite Tracking: Identification of the Eastern Palearctic Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Doko, Tomoko; Fujita, Go; Hijikata, Naoya; Tokita, Ken-Ichi; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Kan; Hiraoka, Emiko; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Migration through the Eastern Palearctic (EP) flyway by tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) has not been thoroughly documented. We satellite-tracked the migration of 16 tundra swans that winter in Japan. The objectives of this study were 1) to show the migration pattern of the EP flyway of tundra swans; 2) to compare this pattern with the migration pattern of whooper swans; and 3) to identify stopover sites that are important for these swans' conservation. Tundra swans were captured at Kutcharo Lake, Hokkaido, in 2009-2012 and satellite-tracked. A new method called the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method" was developed. Based on median, the spring migration began on 18 April and ended on 27 May. Autumn migration began on 9 September and ended on 2 November. The median duration of the spring and autumn migrations were 48 and 50 days, respectively. The mean duration at one stopover site was 5.5 days and 6.8 days for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The number of stopover sites was 3.0 and 2.5 for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The mean travel distances for the spring and autumn migrations were 6471 and 6331 km, respectively. Seven migration routes passing Sakhalin, the Amur River, and/or Kamchatka were identified. There were 15, 32, and eight wintering, stopover, and breeding sites, respectively. The migration routes and staging areas of tundra swans partially overlap with those of whooper swans, whose migration patterns have been previously documented. The migration patterns of these two swan species that winter in Japan confirm the importance of the Amur River, Udyl' Lake, Shchastya Bay, Aniva Bay, zaliv Chayvo Lake, zal Piltun Lake, zaliv Baykal Lake, Kolyma River, Buyunda River, Sen-kyuyel' Lake, and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk.

  9. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  10. The oil spill modelling in the Sea of Japan: application to the tanker 'Nakhodka' 1997 incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Hirose, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997 the Russian tanker 'NAKHODKA' spilled into the Sea of Japan about 5000 tons of heavy fuel oil type C. Most of it reached the coast of Japan and damaged the environment. This incident forced the development of the operational system for the prediction of oil spills in the Sea of Japan. As a part of this system the model for oil spill modelling is presented. The modelled climatological sea currents were used in these simulators, generated by the three-dimensional primitive ocean circulation model with 10-minute horizontal resolution and 19 vertical levels. The model was forced by climatological atmospheric winds and heat fluxes. The wind currents in the upper sea layer were estimated by the wind data of ECMWF with 6 hours time and 0.5625-degree spatial resolution. The vertical structure of the total currents was interpolated using both wind driven currents and the climatological model currents data at the model levels. The oil spill was modelled with the particle tracking techniques. The model included the advection by currents, random diffusion, the buoyancy effect and the parameterisation of oil evaporation, biodegradation and beaching. For the deep sea the parameterisation of diffusion depends from the stratification, taken from the ocean circulation model output. The results demonstrated the defined relation with the observed propagation of the oil along the coast of Japan and highlighted the most important directions for the model development. The main is the realisation of the model for the real-time simulations and forecasts of the ocean currents with the fine resolution in the upper layer of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  11. Nitrogen fixation rates in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Bardhan, P.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences bloom of the diazotroph Trichodesmium during certain times of the year when optimal sea surface temperature and oligotrophic condition favour their growth. We measured nitrogen fixation rates in the euphotic zone during...

  12. Estimation of total amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshimichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kawamura, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the total amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides, consisting of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu, in the Japan Sea for the first time based on experimental data on their concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment. The radionuclide inventories in seawater and seabed sediment at each sampling site varied depending on the water depth, with total inventories for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu in the range of 0.52-2.8 kBq m -2 , 0.64-4.1 kBq m -2 , and 27-122 Bq m -2 , respectively. Based on the relationship between the inventories and the water depths, the total amounts in the Japan Sea were estimated to be about 1.2±0.4 PBq for 90 Sr, 1.8±0.7 PBq for 137 Cs, and 69±14 TBq for 239+240 Pu, respectively; the amount ratio, 90 Sr: 137 Cs: 239+240 Pu, was 1.0:1.6:0.059. The amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the Japan Sea were in balance with those supplied from global fallout, whereas the amount of 239+240 Pu exceeded that supplied by fallout by nearly 40%. These results suggest a preferential accumulation of the plutonium isotopes. The data used in this study were obtained through a wide-area research project, named the 'Japan Sea expeditions (phase I),' covering the Japanese and Russian exclusive economic zones. (author)

  13. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  14. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI's activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Noriaki.

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI's activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  15. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  16. Current status of sea transport of nuclear fuel materials and LLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Along with the basic policy of the nuclear fuel cycle of Japan, many fuel cycle facilities have been already constructed in Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture, such as the uranium enrichment plant, the low level waste disposal center and the receiving pool of the spent nuclear fuels for reprocessing. These facilities belong to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. (JNFL). Domestic sea transport of the spent nuclear fuels (SF) has been carried out since 1977 to the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, and the first sea transport of the SF to the fuel cycle facility in Rokkasho-Mura was done in Oct, 1998 using a new exclusive ship 'Rokuei-Maru'. Sea transport of the low level radioactive wastes (LLW) has been carried out since 1992 to the Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center, and about 130,000 LLW drams were transported from the nuclear power plant sites. These sea transport have demonstrated the safety of the transport of the nuclear fuel cycle materials. It is hoped that the safe sea transport of the nuclear fuel materials will contribute to the more progress of the nuclear fuel cycle activities of Japan. (author)

  17. Re-initiation of bottom water formation in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Tae; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun; Rho, TaeKeun; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Tongsup; Park, Kyung-Ae; Lobanov, Vyacheslav; Kaplunenko, Dmitry; Tishchenko, Pavel; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2018-01-25

    The East Sea (Japan Sea), a small marginal sea in the northwestern Pacific, is ventilated deeply down to the bottom and sensitive to changing surface conditions. Addressing the response of this marginal sea to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric forcing would be helpful for better understanding present and future environmental changes in oceans at the global and regional scales. Here, we present an analysis of observations revealing a slowdown of the long-term deepening in water boundaries associated with changes of water formation rate. Our results indicate that bottom (central) water formation has been enhanced (reduced) with more (less) oxygen supply to the bottom (central) layer since the 2000s. This paper presents a new projection that allows a three-layered deep structure, which retains bottom water, at least until 2040, contrasting previous results. This projection considers recent increase of slope convections mainly due to the salt supply via air-sea freshwater exchange and sea ice formation and decrease of open-ocean convections evidenced by reduced mixed layer depth in the northern East Sea, resulting in more bottom water and less central water formations. Such vigorous changes in water formation and ventilation provide certain implications on future climate changes.

  18. Permeability of sediment cores from methane hydrate deposit in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and absolute permeability are key parameters for gas production from methane-hydrate-bearing sandy sediments. Effective and/or absolute permeability have been measured using methane-hydrate-bearing sandy cores and clayey and silty cores recovered from Daini Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. Liquid-nitrogen-immersed cores were prepared by rapid depressurization of pressure cores recovered by a pressure coring system referred to as the Hybrid PCS. Cores were shaped cylindrically on a lathe with spraying of liquid nitrogen to prevent hydrate dissociation. Permeability was measured by a flooding test or a pressure relaxation method under near in-situ pressure and temperature conditions. Measured effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments is less than tens of md, which are order of magnitude less than absolute permeability. Absolute permeability of clayey cores is approximately tens of μd, which would perform a sealing function as cap rocks. Permeability reduction due to a swelling effect was observed for a silty core during flooding test of pure water mimicking hydrate-dissociation-water. Swelling effect may cause production formation damage especially at a later stage of gas production from methane hydrate deposits. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  19. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  20. Forecasters Handbook for Japan and Adjacent Sea Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    marginal seas by the Tsushima (Korea) Strait, and La Perouse ( Soya ) and Tartar straits respectively. Only the Tsushima (Korea) Strait has a sill depth...northward along the west side of Hokkaido and then splits. One branch turns eastward through the Soya ( La Perouse) Strait and returns southward as the...islands of Honshu and Hokkaido, the Soya ( La Perouse) Strait between Hokkaido and Sakhalin Island, and the Tartar Strait between Sakhalin Island and

  1. Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2016-06-30

    Information on the abundance and diversity of Red Sea elasmobranchs is notoriously scarce, even though sharks are among the most profitable fisheries of the region. Effective conservation would ideally entail baselines on pristine conditions, yet no such data is available for the Red Sea. To collect distribution and abundance data on Red Sea elasmobranchs, we conducted a dedicated longline and Baited Remote Underwater Video system (BRUVs) sampling program along the entire Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia over the course of two years. Both survey techniques were opportunistically employed at central and southern Saudi Arabian (SA) Red Sea reef systems. In addition, BRUVs were employed in the northern SA Red Sea and at selected reef systems in Sudan. Shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for BRUVs and longline surveys were compared to published data from non-Red Sea reef systems. This comparison revealed CPUE estimates several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the SA Red Sea compared to other reef systems around the world. Catch per unit effort values of BRUVs on Sudanese reefs on the contrary were within the range of estimates from various locations where sharks are considered common. We argue that decades of heavy fishing pressure on Red Sea marine resources has significantly altered the community structure of SA Red Sea reefs. There is an urgent need to establish effective management strategies for species of highest conservation concern. Our results have the potential to be used as a baseline, if such management strategies were to be established. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato, a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans. A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of B. mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers.

  3. Phylogeography of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Sea of Japan: Paleogeographical signatures of cryptic regional divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshitake; Sakuma, Kay; Fujii, Tetsuo; Kojima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings of genetic breaks within apparently continuous marine populations challenge the traditional vicariance paradigm in population genetics. Such "invisible" boundaries are sometimes associated with potential geographic barriers that have forced divergence of an ancestral population, habitat discontinuities, biogeographic disjunctions due to environmental gradients, or a combination of these factors. To explore the factors that influence the genetic population structure of apparently continuous populations along the Sea of Japan, the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus was examined. We sampled a total of 300 individuals of H. japonicus from the coast of Japan, and obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene. The sequences from 19 local populations were clustered into five groups (Northwestern Pacific, Northern, Central, Southern Sea of Japan, and East China Sea) based on a spatial genetic mixture analysis and a minimum-spanning network. AMOVA and pairwise Fst tests further supported the significant divergence of the five groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relationship among the haplotypes of H. japonicus and outgroups, which inferred the northward range expansion of the species. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis inferred the early-to middle-Pleistocene divergence of the populations. Among the five clusters, the Central Sea of Japan showed the highest values for genetic diversity indices indicating the existence of a relatively stable and large population there. The hypothesis is also supported by Bayesian Skyline Plots that showed sudden population expansion for all the clusters except for Central Sea of Japan. The present study shows genetic boundaries between the Sea of Japan and the neighboring seas, probably due to geographic isolation during the Pleistocene glacial periods. We further found divergence between the populations along the apparently continuous coast of the Sea of Japan. Historical changes in the

  4. Origins of Phosphorus and Nitrogen in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; 柳, 哲雄; 田中, 剛

    2013-01-01

    Origins of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, using the unit response function method. About 58 % of TP and TN in the Seto Inland Sea were found to have originated from the open ocean, 9 % of TP and 14 % of TN originate from rivers, 33 % of TP and 29 % of TN originate from bottom sediments. We consequently suggest that it would be very difficult to prevent the occurrence of red tides and oxygen deficient water masses in the Seto Inla...

  5. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  6. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  7. Biogeochemical relationships between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter and picoplankton activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meador, Travis B.; Gogou, Alexandra; Spyres, Georgina; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Psarra, Stella; Yokokawa, Taichi; De Corte, Daniele; Zervakis, Vassilis; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    We targeted the warm, subsurface waters of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) to investigate processes that are linked to the chemical composition and cycling of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in seawater. The apparent respiration of semi-labile DOC accounted for 27 +/- 18% of oxygen consumption in

  8. Differential growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Spatial variations in abundance and growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus L. were examined across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea, off the west coast of Denmark. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential advantage for sprat larvae of residing in the vicinity of a tidal front...

  9. Swath bathymetric investigation of the seamounts located in the Laxmi Basin, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sudhakar, T.; Nair, R.R.

    Multibeam (hydrosweep) swath bathymetric investigations revealed the presence of a NNW trending linear seamount chain along the axial part of the Laxmi Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, between 15~'N, 70~'15'E and 17~'20'N, 69~'E. This chain...

  10. Controls on organic carbon distribution in sediments from the eastern Arabian Sea margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.; Raju, S.V.

    Sediment cores from the upper continental slope of the eastern Arabian Sea have high organic carbon (OC), CaCO sub(3), and sand content at the top. The values decrease with increasing depth in the Holocene and Upper Pleistocene. Topographic highs...

  11. Variations in swells along Eastern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Sanjiv, P.C.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.; AshokKumar, K.; Dora, G.U.; Gowthaman, R.

    A study was carried out to find the variation in wave characteristics along the eastern Arabian Sea and the influence of swells in the nearshore waves at 3 locations during summer monsoon in 2010. Percentage of swells in the measured waves was 75...

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in shallow waters along the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    We studied the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011 and 2012. Measured directional wave data at two shallow water locations and re-analysis datasets (ERA-Interim) at 0.751 intervals at four...

  13. Circumstantial Evidence of Possible Hot Spot Activity Outside Rhodes, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Miliaresis, George

    2014-01-01

    Zouzias Dimitrios, St Seymour Karen, Miliaresis George, Vamvoukakis Costas (2008). Circumstantial Evidence of Possible Hot Spot Activity Outside Rhodes, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. 3rd International Conference on the Geology of the Tethys (8-11 January, 2008, South Valley University - Aswan). [Abstract in Program

  14. Shipboard measurements of nitrogen dioxide, nitrous acid, nitric acid and ozone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Smolík, Jiří; Eleftheriadis, K.; Bryant, C.; Colbeck, I.; Lazaridis, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 117-125 ISSN 1567-7230 Grant - others:5th FP Commission of the EC(XE) EVK2-CT-1999-0052 SUB-AERO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : reactive nitrogen species * ozone * Eastern Mediterranean Sea Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  16. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  17. Seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chanhyung; Park, Jae-Hun; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Young Ho; Seo, Seongbong; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, Hong Sik; Lee, Jae Hak; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea was investigated using 25 month long output from a real-time ocean forecasting system. The z coordinate eddy-resolving high-resolution numerical model, called the RIAM ocean model, incorporates data assimilation that nudges temperature and salinity fields together with volume transport through the Korea Strait to produce realistic oceanic currents and stratification. In addition to atmospheric forcing, it includes tidal forcing of 16 major components along open boundaries. The model generates energetic semidiurnal internal tides around the northern entrance of the Korea Strait. Energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic (internal) tides varies seasonally with maxima in September (ranging 0.48-0.52 GW) and minima in March (ranging 0.11-0.16 GW). This seasonal variation is induced by the seasonality in stratification near the southwestern East/Japan Sea. The propagation distance of the internal tides is associated with generation intensity and wavelength. From late summer to early winter, the semidiurnal internal tides travel relatively far from the generation region due to stratification changes; its energy dissipates less as a result of longer wavelengths. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variation of internal-tide-induced mixing due to the seasonality in the generation, propagation, and dissipation of internal tides should be considered for a more realistic simulation of water masses and circulation in models of the East/Japan Sea.

  18. DDT residues in fishes from the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; SenGupta, R.

    degrees E) were obtained from the commercial jetty within 2 h of landing while those from the open sea (16 degrees 30'N 69 degrees E-19 degrees 30'N 67 degrees E) such as Tylosurus sp. (longtom), Coryphaena hippurus (dolphin fish), Loligo sp. (squid...

  19. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  20. Distribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the Eastern Adriatic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantić, D.; Šestanović, S.; Vrdoljak, A.; Šolić, M.; Kušpilić, G.; Ninčević Gladan, Ž.; Koblížek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 134-141 ISSN 0141-1136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs * Adriatic sea * Picoplankton Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  1. Urban-rural difference in the acceptance of mass health examination in north-eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nakatsuka, H; Watanabe, T; Hisamichi, S; Shimizu, H; Fujisaku, S; Ichinowatari, Y; Konno, J; Kuroda, S; Hirai, J

    1989-05-01

    Over 40,000 residents (less than or equal to 40 years of age) in a city (Sendai; the city group), a town (Shiroishi; the town group) and two villages (Wakuya and Tajiri; the village group) in Miyagi prefecture in north-eastern Japan responded in a questionnaire survey on their attitude towards mass health examinations (i.e., whether they underwent in the previous year and if so where) on 4 items of blood pressure measurement, chest x-ray examination and screening tests for stomach and cervical cancer. The coverage rates were about 70% on an average both for blood pressure measurement and for chest x-ray examination, whereas the rates for cancer screening were between 30-40%. As for the opportunity of the former two examinations, the workplace mass examination played a large role in the case of the city and town groups (especially among men but not women) in addition to visit to clinics, in contrast to the case of the village group in which people depended much on regional mass examination service. The trend was essentially reproducible in stomach cancer screening although the over-all coverage rate was low, whereas women in the three groups almost exclusively utilized clinics for cervical cancer screening with one exception that the mobile unit service appeared to be equally accepted in the village group.

  2. Unmanned aerial survey of fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5-1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost.

  3. Seismomagnetic models for earthquakes in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ishikawa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismomagnetic changes accompanied by four damaging earthquakes are explained by the piezomagnetic effect observed in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan. Most of the data were obtained by repeat surveys. Although these data suffered electric railway noise, significant magnetic changes were detected at points close to earthquake faults. Coseismic changes can be well interpreted by piezomagnetic models in the case of the 1978 Near Izu-Oshima (M 7.0 and the 1980 East Off Izu Peninsula (M 6.7 earthquakes. A large total intensity change up to 5 nT was observed at a survey point almost above the epicenter of the 1976 Kawazu (M 5.4 earthquake. This change is not explained by a single fault model; a 2-segment fault is suggested. Remarkable precursory and coseismic changes in the total force intensity were observed at KWZ station along with the 1978 Higashi-Izu (M 4.9 earthquake. KWZ station is located very close to a buried subsidiary fault of the M 7.0 Near Izu-Oshima earthquake, which moved aseismically at the time of the M 7.0 quake. The precursory magnetic change to the M 4.9 quake is ascribed to aseismic faulting of this buried fault, while the coseismic rebound to enlargement of the slipping surface at the time of M 4.9 quake. This implies that we observed the formation process of the earthquake nucleation zone via the magnetic field.

  4. Radioactive Cs distribution of paddy field ecosystems in eastern part of Nihonmatsu, Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Izumi; Aoyama, Hikaru; Watai, Chie; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Hayashidani, Hideki; Gomi, Takashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive elements including "1"3"7Cs were analyzed in various animals such as aquatic invertebrates, insects, amphibian and reptilian collected from paddy ecosystems of eastern part of Nihonmatsu-City and from nearby towns, Fukushima, Japan in 2013. In addition, two frog species from Fuchu-City, Tokyo were also analyzed as control animals. In the analyzed wild animals inhabiting paddy ecosystems, highest concentrations were observed in whole body of tadpoles that is a larva of frog depending on their habitat's levels. After metamorphosis of frogs, radiocesium concentrations decreased in subadult frogs due to non-eating and excretion during metamorphosis. Inter-species differences were suggested between species living in paddy throughout the year and forest species that accumulates radiocesium with high levels. Sexual difference of radiocesium concentrations in bodies of freshwater gastropod Cipangopaludina chinensis laeta and crustacean Procambarus clarkia were observed. In case of both invertebrates, radiocesium concentrations in the male were higher than those in female. The concentrations of radiocesium in the bodies of amphibians (frogs and newts) might be affected by habitat's levels directly. This finding suggests that bioaccumulation of radiocesium depends on limited narrow environments. Therefore, evaluations of bioconcentration and biomagnification are required to consider the species-specific ecological characteristics depending on geographical features such as local predator-prey relationships and mobility capability (range of migration) of each population of animal. (author)

  5. Simulation of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Fayman, P. A.; Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The eddy-resolved ocean circulation model RIAMOM (Lee et al., 2003) is used to analyze seasonal variability of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea. The model domain is a vast area including the northern Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea and adjacent region in the Pacific Ocean. A numerical experiment with a horizontal 1/18° resolution has been carried out under realistic meteorological conditions from the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis with restoring of surface temperature and salinity. The simulated seasonal variability of both the current system and mesoscale eddy dynamics in the Tatar Strait is in a good agreement with temperature and salinity distributions of oceanographic observation data collected during various seasons and years. Two general circulation regimes in the Strait have been found. The circulation regime changes from summer to winter due to seasonal change of the North Asian Monsoon. On a synoptic time scale, the similar change of the circulation regime occurs due to change of the southeastern wind to the northwestern one when the meteorological situation with an anticyclone over the Okhotsk Sea changes to that with a strong cyclone. The Lagrangian maps illustrate seasonal changes in direction of the main currents and in polarity and location of mesoscale eddies in the Strait.

  6. Atmospheric Simulations Using OGCM-Assimilation SST: Influence of the Wintertime Japan Sea on Monthly Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto Naoki Hirose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature data for the Japan Sea obtained from ocean data assimilation modeling is applied to atmospheric simulations of monthly precipitation for January 2005. Because the volume of flow of the Tsushima Warm Current was large during the winter season, the sea surface temperature (SST and coastal precipitation were higher in comparison with those in 2003. In order to evaluate influence of SST on monthly precipitation, we use surface temperatures of the Japan Sea in 2003 and 2005 for comparative simulations of precipitation for January 2005. The precipitation in experiment C (using cool SST data in 2003 is smaller than that in experiment W (using warm SST data in 2005 in a large part of the sea area, since the small evaporation results from the low SST over the upstream area of northwesterly winter monsoon. In the domain of 33.67 - 45.82°N and 125.89 - 142.9°E, the averaged evaporation and precipitation in experiment C are 10% and 13% smaller than those in experiment W, respectively. About half of the difference between the precipitations observed for January 2003 and 2005 in a heavy snow area is equal to the difference between the two simulations. Our results show that the mesoscale SST difference between 2003 and 2005 is related to the local difference of monthly precipitation.

  7. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  8. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  9. Growth Rate Potential of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Warmer and Cooler Years on the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V. Farley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatially explicit bioenergetics model was used to predict juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka growth rate potential (GRP on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with cooler and warmer spring sea surface temperatures (SSTs. Annual averages of juvenile sockeye salmon GRP were generally lower among years with cooler SSTs and generally higher in offshore than nearshore regions of the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with warmer SSTs. Juvenile sockeye salmon distribution was significantly (P<.05 related to GRP and their prey densities were positively related to spring SST (P<.05. Juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was more sensitive to changes in prey density and observed SSTs during years when spring SSTs were warmer (2002, 2003, and 2005. Our results suggest that the pelagic productivity on the eastern Bering Sea shelf was higher during years with warmer spring SSTs and highlight the importance of bottom-up control on the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem.

  10. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  11. Biogeochemical significance of eddies of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.

    upon the gradients in nutrients and phytoplankton initially present and on the intrinsic biological reaction rates. Thus, phytoplankton with a rapid growth rate will benefit from arriving within a patch of nutrient-rich water, possibly at the cost... carbon removal in the sea: The continental connection, – In: Upwelling systems: Evolution Since the early Miocene, C. P. Summerhayes et al. eds., Geological Society of London Special Publication 64: 167-176. [17] Joseph, T., Shaiju, P., Laluraj, C...

  12. Flow Patterns in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis; Kachel, Nancy; Ladd, Carol; Woodgate, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    From 2010 to 2015, moorings were deployed on the northern Chukchi Sea at nine sites. Deployment duration varied from 5 years at a site off Icy Cape to 1 year at a site north of Hanna Shoal. In addition, 39 satellite-tracked drifters (drogue depth 25-30 m) were deployed in the region during 2012-2015. The goals of this manuscript are to describe currents in the Chukchi Sea and their relationship to ice and winds. The north-south pressure gradient results in, on average, a northward flow over the Chukchi shelf, which is modified by local winds. The volume transport near Icy Cape (˜0.4 Sv) was ˜40% of flow through Bering Strait and varied seasonally, accounting for >50% of summer and ˜20% of winter transport in Bering Strait. Current direction was strongly influenced by bathymetry, with northward flow through the Central Channel and eastward flow south of Hanna Shoal. The latter joined the coastal flow exiting the shelf via Barrow Canyon. Drifter trajectories indicated the transit from Bering Strait to the mouth of Barrow Canyon took ˜90 days during the ice-free season. Most (˜70%) of the drifters turned westward at the mouth of Barrow Canyon and continued westward in the Chukchi Slope Current. This slope flow was largely confined to the upper 300 m, and although it existed year-round, it was strongest in spring and summer. Drifter trajectories indicated that the Chukchi Slope Current extends as far west as the mouth of Herald Canyon. The remaining ˜30% of the drifters turned eastward or were intercepted by sea ice.

  13. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  14. Glaciotectonic deformations in the Jammerbugt and glaciodynamic development in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stig A. Schack; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    –Early Weichselian Skærumhede Group, indicating a Saalian age of the glaciotectonic deformation. The balancing of the thrust fault structures shows that the thrust sheets in the tailing end of the complex had their source in the Skagerrak sea. The hole caused by displacement contributed to formation of the Skagerrak......The Quaternary geology in the eastern part of the North Sea is characterized by large-scale glaciotectonic complexes. The northernmost complex is the Jammerbugt Glaciotectonic Complex here addressed, which occupies an area of more than 300km2. It was recently recognized during an investigation...... of conventional seismic profiles located about 10km offshore the west coast of northern Denmark. The deformed bedrock includes the main part of the Cretaceous Chalk Group in the North Sea. In the northern part of the complex the detachment surface is situated in Lower Cretaceous greensand about 400m below sea...

  15. Multi-model ensemble combinations of the water budget in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, S.; Hirose, N.; Usui, N.; Miyazawa, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The water balance of East/Japan Sea is determined mainly by inflow and outflow through the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. However, the volume transports measured at three straits remain quantitatively unbalanced. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate physically consistent circulation in East/Japan Sea by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.42 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  16. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  17. Fungal community in sclerotia of Japanese Beech forest soils in north eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathia Amasya, Anzilni; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2014-05-01

    Sclerotia are resting structures of ectomycorrhizal fungi and appear as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as desiccation. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and the 14C ages of sclerotia from A horizons of volcanic ash soils may range from modern until ca. 100~1,200 yr B.P. Most sclerotia-forming fungal species are known to be host-specific plant pathogens and therefore their abundance may indicate the presence of their host plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal communities in sclerotia with an interest in describing the existing or may have previously existed host plant community. To investigate fungal community inside of sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from Fagus crenata forest soil in north eastern Japan. The rDNA ITS regions were then amplified by the PCR using primer pair ITS-1F/ITS-4. Aliquots of the amplified DNA were digested with restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III, and HhaI to obtain ITS-RFLPs. To obtain the fungal community profiles a quenching fluorescence primer was used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to monitor the PCR amplification and then used for T-RFLP. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis from the sclerotia was Ascomycota: Arthrinium arundinis, which has been reported to be one of the soil fungal species responsible for bamboo degradation and a pathogen for many species belonging to Poaceae family.

  18. Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, R; Muraleedharan, K.R; Martin, G.D.; Sabu, P.; Gerson, V.J.; Dineshkumar, P.K.; Nair, S.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Nair, K.K.C.

    and adjoining southeastern Arabian Sea. Curr Sci 96:364–375 Jyothibabu R, Madhu NV, Jayalakshmi KV, Balachandran KK, Shiyas CA, Martin GD, Nair KKC (2006) Impact of freshwater influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters... ARTICLE Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat Rejomon George • K. R. Muraleedharan • G. D. Martin • P. Sabu • Vijay John Gerson • P. K. Dineshkumar • S. M. Nair • N. Chandramohanakumar • K. K. C. Nair...

  19. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... influencede.g. Miocene deposition and controlled the generation of second order faults. The latter detached along the top Chalk Group due to the topography generated during faulting, i.e. they are second order detachment surfaces. We conclude that the regional tectonic significance of the Cenozoic structures...

  20. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  1. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  2. Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen profile data from MULTIPLE SHIPS in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: (NODC Accession 9400176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin as part of Mediterranean Ocean Circulation project. Data...

  3. Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock on the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf (DY1407, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) conducted an acoustic-trawl (AT) stock assessment survey on the eastern Bering Sea...

  4. Variation of paleo-productivity and terrigenous input in the eastern Arabian Sea during the past 100 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ishfaq, A.M.; Pattan, J.N.; Matta, V.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    A 4.1m long sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea is studied using multiple geochemical proxies to understand the variation of productivity and terrigenous matter supply during the past 100 ka. The temporal variation in element concentration...

  5. Census of biodiversity in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. GEROVASILEIOU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific information on the biodiversity of marine caves in the eastern Mediterranean is limited, especially when considering the extensively studied caves of the north-western and central Mediterranean. Aiming to enhance current knowledge regarding cave communities, this study represents a first assessment of the marine cave biota of the eastern Mediterranean, as this has been defined by the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Information retrieved from an extensive overview of relevant scientific documents was combined with original data recorded from 23 marine caves of the north-eastern Mediterranean. Our results report a total of 520 taxa recorded in eastern Mediterranean marine caves to date, the majority of which are sponges, polychaetes, rhodophytes, bivalves, fishes, and gastropods. These include several protected, endemic, and alien species. However, not all taxonomic groups have been equally studied among different areas and future studies are expected to raise the number of endemic and alien species. The overall observed trend is that the reported species number is generally related to sampling effort and scientific expertise. The most well-studied marine cave communities of the eastern Mediterranean are those of the Aegean Sea (especially its northern sector, which presented the highest number of species, followed by those of the Levantine. Furthermore, our research in Aegean caves revealed numerous new records for the marine cave fauna of the eastern basin, while several species are reported for the first time in the marine cave habitat. The critical need for further scientific research, monitoring, and conservation of this unique ecosystem was highlighted by (i the presence of certain species endemic to the eastern Mediterranean coupled with a high proportion of alien species, especially in the Levantine, and (ii the marine cave habitat availability in isolated insular areas of the eastern Mediterranean.

  6. Interannual SST Variability in the Japan/East Sea and Relationship with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Soya Strait (SS), and Tartar Strait (TTS). (b) Regional geography. Interannual SST Variability in the Japan/East Sea 117 200 interruptions due to...caused by differential seasonal forcing. During the summer strong solar radiation penetrates into the entire Longitude(oE) La tit ud e( o N ) 50 50 100...1988.6 1988.8 1989 1989.2 1989.4 1989.6 1989.8 1990 1990.2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Time(year) Te m pe ra tu re (o C ) Longitude(oE) La tit ud e( o N ) (a) 5

  7. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  8. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224 Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224 Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228 Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228 Ra/ 226 Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228 Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224 Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224 Ra and 228 Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232 Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Formation of Barents Sea Branch Water in the north-eastern Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar S. Lien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barents Sea throughflow accounts for approximately half of the Atlantic Water advection to the Arctic Ocean, while the other half flows through Fram Strait. Within the Barents Sea, the Atlantic Water undergoes considerable modifications before entering the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Trough. While the inflow area in the south-western Barents Sea is regularly monitored, oceanographic data from the outflow area to the north-east are very scarce. Here, we use conductivity, temperature and depth data from August/September 2008 to describe in detail the water masses present in the downstream area of the Barents Sea, their spatial distribution and transformations. Both Cold Deep Water, formed locally through winter convection and ice-freezing processes, and Atlantic Water, modified mainly through atmospheric cooling, contribute directly to the Barents Sea Branch Water. As a consequence, it consists of a dense core characterized by a temperature and salinity maximum associated with the Atlantic Water, in addition to the colder, less saline and less dense core commonly referred to as the Barents Sea Branch Water core. The denser core likely constitutes a substantial part of the total flow, and it is more saline and considerably denser than the Fram Strait branch as observed within the St. Anna Trough. Despite the recent warming of the Barents Sea, the Barents Sea Branch Water is denser than observed in the 1990s, and the bottom water observed in the St. Anna Trough matches the potential density at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Viscoelastic crustal deformation by magmatic intrusion: A case study in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Wright, Tim J.; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Geodetic signals observed at volcanoes, particularly their temporal patterns, have required us to make the correlation between the surface displacement and magmatic process at depth in terms of viscoelastic crustal rheology. Here we use a parallelized 3-D finite element model to examine the response of the linear Maxwell viscoelastic crust and mantle to the inflation of a sill in order to show the characteristics of a long-term volcano deformation. In the model, an oblate-spheroidal sill is instantaneously or gradually inflated in a two-layered medium that consists of an elastic layer underlain by a viscoelastic layer. Our numerical experiments show that syn-inflation surface uplift is followed by post-inflation surface subsidence as the viscoelastic substrate relaxes. For gradual inflation events, the magnitude of inflation-induced uplift is reduced by the relaxation, through which the volume of a magma inferred by matching the prediction of an elastic model with observed surface uplift could be underestimated. For a given crustal viscosity, sill depth is the principal factor controlling subsidence caused by viscoelastic relaxation. The subsidence rate is highest when the inflation occurs at the boundary between the elastic and the viscoelastic layers. The mantle viscosity has an insignificant impact unless the depth of the inflation is greater than a half the crustal thickness. We apply the viscoelastic model to the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, where the surface has slowly subsided over a period of approximately three years following about a two-year period of inflation. The emplacement of a magmatic sill is constrained to occur at a depth of 4.5 km, which is significantly shallower than the geophysically imaged large-scale magma chamber. The geodetically detected deformation in the caldera reflects the small-scale emplacement of a magma that ascended from the deeper chamber, but not the

  11. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  12. Earthquake Scenario-Based Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean and Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Özel, Nurcan Meral

    2015-12-01

    We identified a set of tsunami scenario input parameters in a 0.5° × 0.5° uniformly gridded area in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean (both for shallow- and intermediate-depth earthquakes) and Black Seas (only shallow earthquakes) and calculated tsunami scenarios using the SWAN-Joint Research Centre (SWAN-JRC) code ( Mader 2004; Annunziato 2007) with 2-arcmin resolution bathymetry data for the range of 6.5—Mwmax with an Mw increment of 0.1 at each grid in order to realize a comprehensive analysis of tsunami wave heights from earthquakes originating in the region. We defined characteristic earthquake source parameters from a compiled set of sources such as existing moment tensor catalogues and various reference studies, together with the Mwmax assigned in the literature, where possible. Results from 2,415 scenarios show that in the Eastern Mediterranean and its connected seas (Aegean and Black Sea), shallow earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6.5 may result in coastal wave heights of 0.5 m, whereas the same wave height would be expected only from intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.0 . The distribution of maximum wave heights calculated indicate that tsunami wave heights up to 1 m could be expected in the northern Aegean, whereas in the Black Sea, Cyprus, Levantine coasts, northern Libya, eastern Sicily, southern Italy, and western Greece, up to 3-m wave height could be possible. Crete, the southern Aegean, and the area between northeast Libya and Alexandria (Egypt) is prone to maximum tsunami wave heights of >3 m. Considering that calculations are performed at a minimum bathymetry depth of 20 m, these wave heights may, according to Green's Law, be amplified by a factor of 2 at the coastline. The study can provide a basis for detailed tsunami hazard studies in the region.

  13. Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate earthquake source parameters are essential for any tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation, including early warning systems. Complex tectonic setting makes the a priori accurate assumptions of earthquake source parameters difficult and characterization of the faulting type is a challenge. Information on tsunamigenic sources is of crucial importance in the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas, especially considering the short arrival times and lack of offshore sea-level measurements. In addition, the scientific community have had to abandon the paradigm of a ''maximum earthquake'' predictable from simple tectonic parameters (Ruff and Kanamori, 1980) in the wake of the 2004 Sumatra event (Okal, 2010) and one of the lessons learnt from the 2011 Tohoku event was that tsunami hazard maps may need to be prepared for infrequent gigantic earthquakes as well as more frequent smaller-sized earthquakes (Satake, 2011). We have initiated an extensive modeling study to perform a deterministic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas. Characteristic earthquake source parameters (strike, dip, rake, depth, Mwmax) at each 0.5° x 0.5° size bin for 0-40 km depth (total of 310 bins) and for 40-100 km depth (total of 92 bins) in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea region (30°N-48°N and 22°E-44°E) have been assigned from the harmonization of the available databases and previous studies. These parameters have been used as input parameters for the deterministic tsunami hazard modeling. Nested Tsunami simulations of 6h duration with a coarse (2 arc-min) grid resolution have been simulated at EC-JRC premises for Black Sea and Eastern and Central Mediterranean (30°N-41.5°N and 8°E-37°E) for each source defined using shallow water finite-difference SWAN code (Mader, 2004) for the magnitude range of 6.5 - Mwmax defined for that bin with a Mw increment of 0.1. Results show that not only the earthquakes resembling the

  14. Deterministic Tectonic Origin Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate earthquake source parameters are essential for any tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation, including early warning systems. Complex tectonic setting makes the a priori accurate assumptions of earthquake source parameters difficult and characterization of the faulting type is a challenge. Information on tsunamigenic sources is of crucial importance in the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas, especially considering the short arrival times and lack of offshore sea-level measurements. In addition, the scientific community have had to abandon the paradigm of a ''maximum earthquake'' predictable from simple tectonic parameters (Ruff and Kanamori, 1980) in the wake of the 2004 Sumatra event (Okal, 2010) and one of the lessons learnt from the 2011 Tohoku event was that tsunami hazard maps may need to be prepared for infrequent gigantic earthquakes as well as more frequent smaller-sized earthquakes (Satake, 2011). We have initiated an extensive modeling study to perform a deterministic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean and its Connected Seas. Characteristic earthquake source parameters (strike, dip, rake, depth, Mwmax) at each 0.5° x 0.5° size bin for 0-40 km depth (total of 310 bins) and for 40-100 km depth (total of 92 bins) in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea region (30°N-48°N and 22°E-44°E) have been assigned from the harmonization of the available databases and previous studies. These parameters have been used as input parameters for the deterministic tsunami hazard modeling. Nested Tsunami simulations of 6h duration with a coarse (2 arc-min) and medium (1 arc-min) grid resolution have been simulated at EC-JRC premises for Black Sea and Eastern and Central Mediterranean (30°N-41.5°N and 8°E-37°E) for each source defined using shallow water finite-difference SWAN code (Mader, 2004) for the magnitude range of 6.5 - Mwmax defined for that bin with a Mw increment of 0.1. Results show that not only the

  15. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S–10°N; 35°E–50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March–April–May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October–November–December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950–2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950–2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  16. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  17. Diet compositions and trophic guild structure of the eastern Chukchi Sea demersal fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, George A.; Buckley, Troy W.; Danielson, Seth L.

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are an important link in Arctic marine food webs, connecting production of lower trophic levels to apex predators. We analyzed 1773 stomach samples from 39 fish species collected during a bottom trawl survey of the eastern Chukchi Sea in the summer of 2012. We used hierarchical cluster analysis of diet dissimilarities on 21 of the most well sampled species to identify four distinct trophic guilds: gammarid amphipod consumers, benthic invertebrate generalists, fish and shrimp consumers, and zooplankton consumers. The trophic guilds reflect dominant prey types in predator diets. We used constrained analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to determine if variation within the composite guild diets could be explained by a suite of non-diet variables. All CAP models explained a significant proportion of the variance in the diet matrices, ranging from 7% to 25% of the total variation. Explanatory variables tested included latitude, longitude, predator length, depth, and water mass. These results indicate a trophic guild structure is present amongst the demersal fish community during summer in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Regular monitoring of the food habits of the demersal fish community will be required to improve our understanding of the spatial, temporal, and interannual variation in diet composition, and to improve our ability to identify and predict the impacts of climate change and commercial development on the structure and functioning of the Chukchi Sea ecosystem.

  18. Identification of new deep sea sinuous channels in the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ravi; Pandey, D K; Ramesh, Prerna; Clift, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea channel systems are recognized in most submarine fans worldwide as well as in the geological record. The Indus Fan is the second largest modern submarine fan, having a well-developed active canyon and deep sea channel system. Previous studies from the upper Indus Fan have reported several active channel systems. In the present study, deep sea channel systems were identified within the middle Indus Fan using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data. Prominent morphological features within the survey block include the Raman Seamount and Laxmi Ridge. The origin of the newly discovered channels in the middle fan has been inferred using medium resolution satellite bathymetry data. Interpretation of new data shows that the highly sinuous deep sea channel systems also extend to the east of Laxmi Ridge, as well as to the west of Laxmi Ridge, as previously reported. A decrease in sinuosity southward can be attributed to the morphological constraints imposed by the elevated features. These findings have significance in determining the pathways for active sediment transport systems, as well as their source characterization. The geometry suggests a series of punctuated avulsion events leading to the present array of disconnected channels. Such channels have affected the Laxmi Basin since the Pliocene and are responsible for reworking older fan sediments, resulting in loss of the original erosional signature supplied from the river mouth. This implies that distal fan sediments have experienced significant signal shredding and may not represent the erosion and weathering conditions within the onshore basin at the time of sedimentation.

  19. Carbon budget in the eastern and central Arabian Sea: An Indian JGOFS synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Swathi, P.S.; DileepKumar, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Madhupratap, M.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sarin, M.M.; Gauns, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; DeSousa, S.N.

    of its unique monsoon-driven, dynamic, and complex biogeochemistry. The JGOFS (India) I HydfOsphcric-!\\tlllosphcri<: Research Center. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. 2CS1R Centre ti.1r 'Aathcmutical 'Aodeling and Computer Simulation, Banr,alore-: India... while it was between 161 and 203 mg m J in SWM (M. Ciauns et aI., Mierozooplankton playa major role in the food web dynamics of the Arabian Sea, submitted to ,Marine Ecologt, Progress Series, 2002) (hereinafter referred to as Gauns et aI., submitted...

  20. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  1. 137 Caesium distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Recent changes and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papucci, C.; Delfanti, R.

    1999-01-01

    A series of sampling campaigns were carried out in the eastern Mediterranean in the period 1995-1997, to examine the relationship between the distribution of 137Cs in the water column and water mass circulation. 137Cs concentration in the surface water ranges between 3.3 and 4.0 mBq/l all over the area, indicating that the input due to the Chernobyl accident has been transferred to deep water layers by convection processes. In fact, in the vertical profiles, relative maxima are observed in the intermediate (4 mBq/l) and deep waters (∼2.5 mBq/l) formed after the Chernobyl accident. A clear Chernobyl signal also traces the new deep waters formed in the Aegean Sea that, exiting from the Cretan Arc Straits, since 1991 are spreading in the bottom layer of the eastern Mediterranean. The changes in 137Cs vertical profiles related to the new thermohaline circulation of the intermediate and deep waters of the eastern Mediterranean are being monitored at a deep station in the western Ionian Sea. The 1997 profile shows a decrease in 137Cs concentration both in the Levantine intermediate water and in the eastern Mediterranean deep water with respect to 1996. The decrease in Levantine intermediate water is likely due to seasonal/interannual variability, while the changes in the deep layer are related to the spreading westward into the Ionian of the new Aegean dense water. Along the path towards the western Mediterranean, 137Cs content in the Levantine intermediate water decreases from ∼4 mBq/l in the W-Ionian Sea to ∼2 mBq/l at the western sill of the Sicily Straits, due to mixing with underlying water, with lower caesium content, near the Malta Sill. Time-series measurements at the western sill of the Sicily Straits show that, while 137Cs concentration in the surface water entering the eastern Mediterranean remained constant (∼3.5 mBq/l) in the period 1993-1997, its level in the Levantine intermediate water leaving the basin decreased from 3.5 to 2.0 mBq/l

  2. Recently studied sedimentary records from the eastern Arabian Sea: Implications to Holocene monsoonal variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agnihotri, R.; Kurian, S.

    stream_size 72460 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Earth_Sci_India_1_258.pdf.txt stream_source_info Earth_Sci_India_1_258.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Agnihotri http://www....earthscienceindia.info/Agnihotri.htm 1 of 14 10/15/2008 9:41 AM Earth Science India Vol.1 (IV), October, 2008, pp. 258-287 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/ Recently studied sedimentary records from the eastern Arabian Sea: Implications to Holocene monsoonal variability Rajesh...

  3. Maturity and Fecundity of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The maturity and fecundity of Squalus acanthias spiny dogfish sampled from the south-eastern Black Sea were studied. Age and length at 50% maturity were 10.49 years and 87.57 cm for males, and 11.99 years and 102.97 cm for females, respectively. Mean biennial fecundity was 19.4 eggs and 12.9 pups. A linear relationship between fecundities and length was found: Fe = 0.09 x TLp + 2.12 (r = 0.5) for pups and Fo = 0.27 x TLp - 21.59 (r = 0.7) for eggs.

  4. Barium as a productivity proxy in continental margin sediments: A study from the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrakashBabu, C.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Schnetger, B.; Boettcher, M.E.

    that Ba is almost entirely involved in the deep regeneration cycle like the nutrient silica (Chan et al., 1977). The accumulation of both Ba and opal implies the possibility of barite formation in microenviron- ments of decaying remains of siliceous....M.A., Pant, A., Sawant, S., Gauns, M., Ma- tondkar, S.G.P., Mohanraju, R., 1996. Phytoplankton pro- duction and chlorophyll distribution in the eastern and cen- tral Arabian Sea in 1994^1995. Curr. Sci. 71, 857^862. Bishop, J.K.B., 1988. The barite-opal...

  5. Development of SPEEDI-MP and its application to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko

    2004-01-01

    A software system SPEEDI-MP is being developed to resolve the environmental problems by simulating the behavior of pollutants in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment. Verification of oceanic dispersion prediction codes on the system was carried out to assess the migration behavior of the released 241 Am from a hypothetically sunken nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea. (author)

  6. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1991-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127.

  7. Addressing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea Region. An Overview of Economic Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.; Kambu, A.

    2005-11-01

    The health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption are of increasing concern to countries in the Pan-Japan Sea region, where economic growth has led to increased energy consumption in recent years. Economic instruments like green taxes and emissions-trading schemes represent important tools to help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, Japan, South Korea and Russia. Over the past several years, OECD countries have made progress in the use of economic instruments to reduce atmospheric air pollution. In Europe, new environmental taxes have been used most extensively, while in the United States market creation and emissions-trading schemes are more common. In the Pan-Japan Sea region, there has been considerable experience with pollution charge and levy systems, including the longstanding Japanese sulfur levy and the Russian and Chinese pollution charge systems. Generally, tax and emissions-trading systems are only beginning to emerge in the region although China has been experimenting with SOx emissions-trading schemes for several years now and South Korea and Japan have already begun experimenting with CO2 emissions-trading schemes. Only Japan has seriously looked at a carbon tax to curb GHG emissions among the four countries while direct subsidies for cleaner technologies have been adopted in the different Pan-Japan Sea countries. The costs and benefits of different economic instruments like taxes, charges, emissions-trading schemes and subsidies vary from case to case because they all have to be financially feasible, rest on informed and competent public institutions and perform effectively in local market and economic conditions. On top of all these is the fact that their overall success depends on their political acceptability. Given the experience of Pan-Japan Sea countries with economic instruments so far vis-a-vis the lessons learned in OECD countries and the nature of current and emerging pollution problems in Pan-Japan

  8. Mesoscale Eddies Control the Timing of Spring Phytoplankton Blooms: A Case Study in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maúre, E. R.; Ishizaka, J.; Sukigara, C.; Mino, Y.; Aiki, H.; Matsuno, T.; Tomita, H.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite Chlorophyll a (CHL) data were used to investigate the influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies (AEs) and cyclonic eddies (CEs) on the timing of spring phytoplankton bloom initiation around the Yamato Basin (133-139°E and 35-39.5°N) in the Japan Sea, for the period 2002-2011. The results showed significant differences between AEs and CEs in the timing and initiation mechanism of the spring phytoplankton bloom. Blooms were initiated earlier in CEs which were characterized by shallow mixed-layer depths (mixed-layer depth. Conversely, blooms appeared in the AEs despite deeper mixed-layer depth (> 100 m) but close to the commencement of positive Q0. This suggests that the relaxation of turbulent mixing is crucial for the bloom initiation in AEs.

  9. Lagrangian study of transport of subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2018-05-01

    The southward near-surface transport of transformed subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea is simulated and analyzed based on altimeter data from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2017. Computing Lagrangian indicators for a large number of synthetic particles, advected by the AVISO velocity field, we find preferred transport pathways across the Subpolar Front. The southward transport occurs mainly in the central part of the frontal zone due to suitable dispositions of mesoscale eddies promoting propagation of subarctic water to the south. It is documented with the help of Lagrangian origin and L-maps and verified by the tracks of available drifters. The transport of transformed subarctic water to the south is compared with the transport of transformed subtropical water to the north simulated by Prants et al. (Nonlinear Process Geophys 24(1):89-99, 2017c).

  10. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  11. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of increased toxic Alexandrium tamarense dinoflagellate blooms in the eastern Bering Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuike, Masafumi; Saito, Rui; Fujiwara, Amane; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Shiga, Naonobu; Hirawake, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Imai, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence. Inter-annual field surveys were conducted to detect A. tamarense cells and environmental factors, such as nutrients, salinity, chlorophyll a, and water temperature, along a transect line on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013. A. tamarense vegetative cells were detected during every sampling year, and their quantities varied greatly from year to year. The maximum cell densities of A. tamarense observed during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were much higher than the Paralytic shellfish poisoning warning levels, which are greater than 100-1,000 cells L-1, in other subarctic areas. Lower quantities of the species occurred during the summers of 2009, 2012, and 2013. A significant positive correlation between A. tamarense quantity and water temperature and significant negative correlations between A. tamarense quantity and nutrient concentrations (of phosphate, silicate, and nitrite and nitrate) were detected in every sampling period. The surface- and bottom-water temperatures varied significantly from year to year, suggesting that water temperatures, which have been known to affect the cell growth and cyst germination of A. tamarense, might have affected the cells' quantities in the eastern Bering Sea each summer. Thus, an increase in the Bering Sea shelf's water temperature during the summer will increase the

  13. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides in the pan-Japan sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Abe, T.; Murata, Y.M.; Manikandan, N.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    By the use of ultra low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory (OUL), it became possible to detect extremely low levels of environmental radionuclides. In this study, we tried to measure high resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides at three monitoring points, i.e., 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL 40m asl) in Nomi City as the regular monitoring point, 2) Hegura Island Located 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to investigate the influence of Asian continent or mainland of Japan, and 3) Shishiku Plateau (640m asl) located about 8 km from LLRL to know vertical difference. Pb-210 and Be-7 were measured nondestructively by ultra low background gamma spectrometry at OUL, Po-210 by alpha spectrometry using Si detectors after the chemical treatment. Various interesting results on the concentrations and variation patterns of airborne radionuclides were obtained, particularly, during drastic meteorological changes such as the passage of typhoon, snow fall and so on. We have been analyzing the influence of the arrival of yellow sand occurred in this spring. (author)

  14. Temperature, salinity, nutrients and other profile data from bottle, XBT, and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, and other Sea areas by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 01 January 1965 to 31 December 2002 (NODC Accession 0000972)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle, XBT, and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, and other Sea areas from 01 January...

  15. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  16. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  18. The History of Research and Development Islands Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Kosolapov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the discovery, research and development of the islands of Russian pioneers in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan from the middle of the XIX century. The paper used in scientific papers and journalistic materials researchers Islands Peter the Great Bay, unpublished sources: Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, Primorsky Region State Archives, Archives of Primorsky regional department of the All-Russian public organization "Russian Geographical Society" Society for the Study of the Amur region. The methodological basis of the work was the principle of historicism and objectivity, allowed to consider the issue of research and development of the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great on a broad documentary basis in the process of development in the specific historical conditions. The history of hydrographic discoveries of natural and geographical studies. It touches upon the issues concerning the construction of Vladivostok fortress. In the periodical press materials recreated pages agricultural and industrial development of the islands. Examples of business entrepreneurs first edge (A.D. Startsev, M.I. Jankowski, O.V. Lindgolm. The Toponymic notes link the island territories with the names of their discoverers, explorers, industrialists. The authors conclude that the historical conditionality of development of the islands is linked mainly with the military interests of Russia on its southeastern edge, using the resources of the sea and the unique natural conditions suitable for the development of agricultural, industrial, recreation and tourism.

  19. Modelling of circulation and dispersion of radioactive pollutants in the Japan sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetina, M.; Rajar, R.; Povinec, P.

    2000-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste was deposited in the Japan Sea, at a depth of about 3 000 m by the former Soviet Union. Research was carried out to determine to what extent the surface waters could be contaminated by possible leakage from the dumped containers. A three-dimensional, non-linear, baro-clinic model was used to determine the circulation and pollutant dispersion. The computations were carried out in the diagnostic mode, taking into account data on winter and summer temperature and salinity distribution. Thermohaline forcing due to strong temperatures and salinity gradients is the main forcing factor influencing the bottom circulation. Wind forcing and the inflow/outflow surface currents were also taken into account. The simulated velocity fields show relatively good agreement with observed surface currents and with some measurements of bottom currents. The simulated hydrodynamic field is in visibly closer agreement with the observed surface circulation when topographic stress is taken into account. After the release of radionuclides at the sea bottom, the first very small contamination would reach the surface layers after 3 years. The maximum concentrations of about 10 -3 Bq m -3 would be attained after 30 years. But everywhere the predicted radionuclide concentrations would be about two orders of magnitude smaller than the background values, caused by global fallout from nuclear weapons tests. Therefore, it will be impossible to determine the effect of leakage of wastes from the dumping sites over the present background levels. (authors)

  20. Seasonal variation of radon daughters concentrations in the atmosphere and in precipitation at the Japanese coast of the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Okabe, S.; Aoki, M.

    1988-01-01

    The atmospheric radon daughters concentration at Fukui in the Japanese coastal region of the Sea of Japan shows a seasonal variation whose high values appear in summer and low values in winter. On the other hand, the radon daughters concentration in precipitation at Fukui and that in the maritime atmosphere over the Sea of Japan are high in winter and low in summer. It is concluded from these phenomena that the greater part of the continental radon and its daughters are transported by seasonal winds from Siberia and China to Japan across the Sea of Japan in winter. However, when the air masses approach the shore, the cumulonimbus grows and the heavy snowfall scavenges out the radon daughters from the air masses in large quantities at the Japanese coastal region of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  1. Submarine canyons as coral and sponge habitat on the eastern Bering Sea slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons have been shown to positively influence pelagic and benthic biodiversity and ecosystem function. In the eastern Bering Sea, several immense canyons lie under the highly productive “green belt” along the continental slope. Two of these, Pribilof and Zhemchug canyons, are the focus of current conservation interest. We used a maximum entropy modeling approach to evaluate the importance of these two canyons, as well as canyons in general, as habitat for gorgonian (alcyonacean corals, pennatulacean corals, and sponges, in an area comprising most of the eastern Bering Sea slope and outer shelf. These invertebrates create physical structure that is a preferred habitat for many mobile species, including commercially important fish and invertebrates. We show that Pribilof canyon is a hotspot of structure-forming invertebrate habitat, containing over 50% of estimated high-quality gorgonian habitat and 45% of sponge habitat, despite making up only 1.7% of the total study area. The amount of quality habitat for gorgonians and sponges varied in other canyons, but canyons overall contained more high-quality habitat for structure-forming invertebrates compared to other slope areas. Bottom trawling effort was not well correlated with habitat quality for structure-forming invertebrates, and bottom-contact fishing effort in general, including longlining and trawling, was not particularly concentrated in the canyons examined. These results suggest that if conserving gorgonian coral habitat is a management goal, canyons, particularly Pribilof Canyon, may be a prime location to do this without excessive impact on fisheries.

  2. Flatfish recruitment response to decadal climatic variability and ocean conditions in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderbuer, T. K.; Hollowed, A. B.; Ingraham, W. J.; Spencer, P. D.; Conners, M. E.; Bond, N. A.; Walters, G. E.

    2002-10-01

    This paper provides a retrospective analysis of the relationship of physical oceanography and biology and recruitment of three Eastern Bering Sea flatfish stocks: flathead sole ( Hippoglossoides elassodon), northern rock sole ( Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and arrowtooth flounder ( Atheresthes stomias) for the period 1978-1996. Temporal trends in flatfish production in the Eastern Bering Sea are consistent with the hypothesis that decadal scale climate variability influences marine survival during the early life history period. Density-dependence (spawning stock size) is statistically significant in a Ricker model of flatfish recruitment, which includes environmental terms. Wind-driven advection of flatfish larvae to favorable nursery grounds was also found to coincide with years of above-average recruitment through the use of an ocean surface current simulation model (OSCURS). Ocean forcing of Bristol Bay surface waters during springtime was mostly shoreward (eastward) during the 1980s and seaward (westerly) during the 1990s, corresponding with periods of good and poor recruitment. Distance from shore and water depth at the endpoint of 90-day drift periods (estimated time of settlement) were also found to correspond with flatfish productivity.

  3. Coastal Sea Level along the North Eastern Atlantic Shelf from Delay Doppler Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Benveniste, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Gravelle, M.; Dinardo, S.; Uebbing, B.; Scharroo, R.; Kusche, J.; Kern, M.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry data of the CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions processed with Delay Doppler methodology (DDA) provide improved coastal sea level measurements up to 2-4 km from coast, thanks to an along-track resolution of about 300m and a higher signal to noise ratio. We investigate the 10 Kilometre stripe along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf from Lisbon to Bergen to detect the possible impacts in sea level change studies of this enhanced dataset. We consider SAR CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 altimetry products from the ESA GPOD processor and in-house reduced SAR altimetry (RDSAR) products. Improved processing includes in RDSAR the application of enhanced retrackers for the RDSAR waveform. Improved processing in SAR includes modification both in the generation of SAR waveforms, (as Hamming weighting window on the burst data prior to the azimuth FFT, zero-padding prior to the range FFT, doubling of the extension for the radar range swath) and in the SAMOSA2 retracker. Data cover the full lifetime of CryoSat-2 (6 years) and Sentinel-3 (1 year). Conventional altimetry are from the sea level CCI database. First we analyse the impact of these SAR altimeter data on the sea level trend and on the estimation of vertical motion from the altimeter minus tide gauge differences. VLM along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf is generally small compared to the North-Western Atlantic Coast VLM, with a smaller signal to noise ratio. Second we investigate impact on the coastal mean sea level surface and the mean dynamic topography. We evaluate a mean surface from the new altimeter data to be combined to state of the art geoid models to derive the mean dynamic topography. We compare the results to existing oceanographic and geodetic mean dynamic topography solutions, both on grid and pointwise at the tide gauge stations. This study is supported by ESA through the Sea Level CCI and the GOCE++DYCOT projects

  4. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  6. Radiocesium distribution on sea sediment and in benthic organisms in the north-east Japan coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shiduho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawaward, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648 (Japan); Sawada, Hideki [National Resarch Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Fisheries Research Agency, 7620-7, Hasaki, Kamisu-shi, Ibaraki, 314-0408 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials, especially radiocesium, were discharged into the western North Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Although radiocesium concentrations in sea water had quickly diminished via water mixing processes, significant amount still existed on sea floors near Fukushima Prefecture. To assess present distributions and/or spatio-temporal variations of sea sediment radiocesium and its potential affection to benthic ecosystems, we had conducted 5'x5' 2-D observation of sea sediment radiocesium concentrations repeatedly from Feb. 2012 to Jul. 2013. Off Fukushima Prefecture, the higher concentration area of radioactive cesium was often observed in the south area from the FDNPP and a north-south high value band was tended to be along the isobaths around 100 m where the concentration values up to thousands Bq/kg-dry order were observed. The concentrations generally decreased eastward from the high concentration band. At many surveyed positions, the vertical profiles of the radiocesium concentrations in sea sediment showed an exponentially decreasing in deeper layer. The influence of the FDNPP was suggested to generally reach up to 10 cm depth from sediment-surface. A negative correlation was found between the radiocesium concentration and median grain size of the sediment, suggesting that the adsorption capability of sediment for cesium associated with grain size possibly has a large contribution to the formation process of the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration. In contrast to the land sediment, Chemical reaching experiment results showed that the radiocesium concentration in the organic component of bottom sediment has higher value than that of bulk sediment, suggesting that non-exchangeable adsorption cite of mineral component of marine sediments had already occupied by stable cesium (~2 nM in

  7. Assessment of microphysical and chemical factors of aerosols over seas of the Russian Artic Eastern Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobokova, Liudmila; Polkin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The newly observed kickoff of the Northern Route development drew serious attention to state of the Arctic Resource environment. Occurring climatic and environmental changes are more sensitively seen in polar areas in particular. Air environment control allows for making prognostic assessments which are required for planning hazardous environmental impacts preventive actions. In August - September 2013, RV «Professor Khlustin» Northern Sea Route expeditionary voyage took place. En-route aerosol sampling was done over the surface of the Beringov, Chukotka and Eastern-Siberia seas (till the town of Pevek). The purpose of sampling was to assess spatio-temporal variability of optic, microphysical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles of the surface layer within different areas adjacent to the Northern Sea Route. Aerosol test made use of automated mobile unit consisting of photoelectric particles counter AZ-10, aetalometr MDA-02, aspirator on NBM-1.2 pump chassis, and the impactor. This set of equipment allows for doing measurements of number concentration, dispersed composition of aerosols within sizes d=0.3-10 mkm, mass concentration of submicron sized aerosol, and filter-conveyed aerosols sampling. Filter-conveyed aerosols sampling was done using method accepted by EMEP and EANET monitoring networks. The impactor channel was upgraded to separate particles bigger than 1 mkm in size, and the fine grain fraction settled down on it. Reverse 5-day and 10-day trajectories of air mass transfer executed at heights of 10, 1500 and 3500 m were analyzed. The heights were selected by considerations that 3000 m is the height which characterizes air mass trend in the lower troposphere. 1500 m is the upper border of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the sampling was done in the Earth's surface layer at less than 10 m. Minimum values of the bespoken microphysical characteristics are better characteristic of higher latitudes where there are no man induced sources of

  8. Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Dylmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three marine sediment cores distributed along the Norwegian (MD95-2011, Barents Sea (JM09-KA11-GC, and Svalbard (HH11-134-BC continental margins have been investigated in order to reconstruct changes in the poleward flow of Atlantic waters (AW and in the nature of upper surface water masses within the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yr. These reconstructions are based on a limited set of coccolith proxies: the abundance ratio between Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus, an index of Atlantic vs. Polar/Arctic surface water masses; and Gephyrocapsa muellerae, a drifted coccolith species from the temperate North Atlantic, whose abundance changes are related to variations in the strength of the North Atlantic Current. The entire investigated area, from 66 to 77° N, was affected by an overall increase in AW flow from 3000 cal yr BP (before present to the present. The long-term modulation of westerlies' strength and location, which are essentially driven by the dominant mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, is thought to explain the observed dynamics of poleward AW flow. The same mechanism also reconciles the recorded opposite zonal shifts in the location of the Arctic front between the area off western Norway and the western Barents Sea–eastern Fram Strait region. The Little Ice Age (LIA was governed by deteriorating conditions, with Arctic/Polar waters dominating in the surface off western Svalbard and western Barents Sea, possibly associated with both severe sea ice conditions and a strongly reduced AW strength. A sudden short pulse of resumed high WSC (West Spitsbergen Current flow interrupted this cold spell in eastern Fram Strait from 330 to 410 cal yr BP. Our dataset not only confirms the high amplitude warming of surface waters at the turn of the 19th century off western Svalbard, it also shows that such a warming was primarily induced by an excess flow of AW which stands as unprecedented over the last 3000 yr.

  9. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  10. The relationship between volatile halocarbons and phytoplankton pigments during a Trichodesmium bloom in the coastal eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roy, R.; Pratihary, A.; Narvenkar, G.; Mochemadkar, S.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    and 5 th April 2007 during regular visits to the Candolim Time Series (CaTS) station G3 located in the eastern Arabian Sea off Goa, India (Figure 1a). In order to investigate the phenomenon in detail and to extend the observations further offshore.... Chemosphere 45, 371-377. 14 Figure Captions Figure 1. a) Sampling locations in the eastern Arabian Sea off Goa; b) picture showing patchy Trichodesmium bloom observed at CaTS station G3. April. Figure 2. MODIS satellite observations from (showing...

  11. Metabolite Profiling of Triterpene Glycosides of the Far Eastern Sea Cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix and Their Distribution in Various Body Components Using LC-ESI QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Roman S; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Dolmatov, Igor Yu; Stonik, Valentin A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S

    2017-10-02

    The Far Eastern sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix is an inhabitant of shallow waters of the south part of the Sea of Japan. This animal is an interesting and rich source of triterpene glycosides with unique chemical structures and various biological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate composition and distribution in various body components of triterpene glycosides of the sea cucumber E. fraudatrix . We applied LC-ESI MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry) of whole body extract and extracts of various body components for metabolic profiling and structure elucidation of triterpene glycosides from the E. fraudatrix . Totally, 54 compounds, including 26 sulfated, 18 non-sulfated and 10 disulfated glycosides were detected and described. Triterpene glycosides from the body walls, gonads, aquapharyngeal bulbs, guts and respiratory trees were extracted separately and the distributions of the detected compounds in various body components were analyzed. Series of new glycosides with unusual structural features were described in E. fraudatrix , which allow clarifying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Comparison of the triterpene glycosides contents from the five different body components revealed that the profiles of triterpene glycosides were qualitatively similar, and only some quantitative variabilities for minor compounds were observed.

  12. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GARCIA-SANZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  14. New deep-sea free-living marine nematodes from the Sea of Japan: the genera Siphonolaimus and Halichoanolaimus (Nematoda: Chromadorea) with keys to species identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia; Trebukhova, Yulia; Pavlyuk, Olga

    2015-01-16

    In deep-sea sediments from the Sea of Japan, two new species, Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp. n. and Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n., were found and described. Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n. is characterized by having short anterior sensillae, body length of 3670-4500 μm, buccal cavity with axial spear, and length of the spicules. Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp.n is characterized by the number of amphideal rings, long spicules, five precloacal supplements and by having a long cylindrical part of the tail. Keys to species level are provided. 

  15. Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pujo-Pay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry along an East-West transect of 3000 km across the Mediterranean Sea during summer 2008 (BOUM cruise. During this period of strong stratification, the distribution of nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and phosphorus (DOP were examined to produce a detailed spatial and vertically extended description of the elemental stoichiometry of the Mediterranean Sea. Surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the thickness of this depleted layer increased towards the East from about 10 m in the Gulf of Lion to more than 100 m in the Levantine basin, with the phosphacline deepening to a greater extent than that for corresponding nitracline and thermocline depths. We used the minimum oxygen concentration through the water column in combination with 2 fixed concentrations of dissolved oxygen to distinguish an intermediate layer (Mineralization Layer; ML from surface (Biogenic Layer; BL, and deep layers (DL. Whilst each layer was represented by different water masses, this approach allowed us to propose a schematic box-plot representation of the biogeochemical functioning of the two Mediterranean basins. Despite the increasing oligotrophic nature and the degree of P-depletion along the West to East gradient strong similarities were encountered between eastern and western ecosystems. Within the BL, the C:N:P ratios in all pools largely exceeded the Redfield ratios, but surprisingly, the nitrate vs. phosphate ratios in the ML and DL tended towards the canonical Redfield values in both basins. A change in particulate matter composition has been identified by a C increase relative to N and P along the whole water column in the western basin and between BL and ML in the eastern one. Our data showed a noticeable stability of the DOC:DON ratio (12–13 throughout the Mediterranean Sea. This is in good agreement with a P-limitation of

  16. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  17. Sea-Floor geology and character of Eastern Rhode Island Sound West of Gay Head, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Irwin, B.J.; Schaer, J.D.; Forrest, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 102 square kilometers of sea floor in eastern Rhode Island Sound west of Gay Head, Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11922, these acoustic data and the sea-floor stations subsequently occupied to verify them (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, windfarms and fisheries) along the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. Most of the sea floor in the study area has an undulating to faintly rippled appearance and is composed of bioturbated muddy sand, reflecting processes associated with sediment sorting and reworking. Shallower areas are composed of rippled sand and, where small fields of megaripples are present, indicate sedimentary environments characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport. Boulders and gravel were found on the floors of scour depressions and on top of an isolated bathymetric high where erosion has removed the Holocene marine sediments and exposed the underlying relict lag deposits of Pleistocene drift. The numerous scour depressions, which formed during storm-driven events, result in the juxtaposition of sea-floor areas with contrasting sedimentary environments and distinct gravel, sand, and muddy sand textures. This textural heterogeneity in turn creates a complex patchwork of habitats. Our observations of local variations in community structure suggest that this small-scale textural heterogeneity adds dramatically to the sound-wide benthic biological diversity.

  18. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  19. Comparison of ERA-Interim waves with buoy data in the eastern Arabian Sea during high waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.

    at two locations in eastern Arabian Sea One location is a deep water location and another one is a shallow water location The comparison of significant wave height (SWH) between ERA dataset and buoy data at both the locations shows good correlation...

  20. Wave hindcast studies using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III - comparison with measured nearshore buoy data off Karwar, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Sandhya, K.G.; Nair, T.M.B; Rathod, J.L.

    Waves in the nearshore waters (~15 m water-depth) of eastern Arabian Sea were simulated using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III (WW3) for the year 2014. The sensitivity of the numerical wave model WW3 towards different source term (ST) packages...

  1. On an upwelling front, propagation of upwelling and vertical velocity in the eastern Arabian sea during monsoon, 1987

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    A coastal upwelling front parallel to the coast and identifiable upto a depth of 75 m was observed between 12.5 and 16 degrees N along the eastern Arabian Sea in September, 1987 from closely spaced digital BT data. With a north-south slope...

  2. Early- to late-Holocene contrast in productivity, OMZ intensity and calcite dissolution in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Godad, S.P.; Naidu, P.D.; Tiwari, M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    ) Concentrations and burial fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon on the eastern margins of the Arabian Sea. Marine Geology 178: 95-112. Böning P, and Bard E (2009) Millennial/centennial-scale thermocline ventilation changes in the Indian Ocean as reflected...

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in provenance of Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments: Implications for Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Djuly, T.; de Graaf, S.; Sakes, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) is the last remnant of the Tethys Ocean that has been subducted to the north since the Jurassic. Subduction has led to the formation of multiple island arcs in the EMS region where the Aeolian and Aegean arcs are currently active. The EMS is surrounded by

  4. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  5. Methane-related authigenic carbonates of the eastern Mediterranean Sea mud volcanoes and their possible relation to gas hydrate destabilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aloisi, G; Pierre, C; Rouchy, J.-M.; Foucher, J.P.; Woodside, J.M.; MEDINAUT scientific party, NN

    2000-01-01

    Nautile submersible investigations of mud volcanoes and brine seep areas of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MEDINAUT cruise in November 1998 discovered extensive areas of authigenic carbonate crusts associated with methane emissions. Carbonate crusts form pavements, round slabs and circular

  6. Gouge marks on deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean: Caused by Cuvier’s beaked whales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; David, L; Frantzis, A.; Hooker, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Enigmatic seafloor gouge marks at depths of 1700-2100 m have been observed from submersible during geological survey work studying mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The marks consist of a central groove (about 10 cm deep and 1-2 m long), superimposed on a broader bowl-shaped depression

  7. Spatial patterns of bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in relation to water masses in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, Taichi; De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the variation of bacterial activity and community composition between and within specific water masses, samples were collected throughout the water column at 5 stations in the eastern Mediterranean Sea corresponding to the regions of the northern Aegean, mid-Aegean, western Cretan,

  8. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  9. Intense Undular Bores on the Autumn Pycnocline of Shelf Waters of the Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Novotryasov, V. V.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.; Permyakov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of field observations of an internal undular bore that were performed in a coastal zone of constant depth in the Sea of Japan are presented. A hydrodynamic model of undular bores is discussed according to which the recorded disturbances of the water medium are an experimental prototype of strongly nonlinear (intense) internal undular bores on the pycnocline of shelf waters of Peter the Great Bay with an intensity close to the limit.

  10. Nutrient Limitation in Surface Waters of the Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea: an Enrichment Microcosm Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsiola, A.

    2015-12-01

    The growth rates of planktonic microbes in the pelagic zone of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are nutrient limited, but the type of limitation is still uncertain. During this study, we investigated the occurrence of N and P limitation among different groups of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic (pico-, nano-, and micro-) plankton using a microcosm experiment during stratified water column conditions in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Microcosms were enriched with N and P (either solely or simultaneously), and the PO4 turnover time, prokaryotic heterotrophic activity, primary production, and the abundance of the different microbial components were measured. Flow cytometric and molecular fingerprint analyses showed that different heterotrophic prokaryotic groups were limited by different nutrients; total heterotrophic prokaryotic growth was limited by P, but only when both N and P were added, changes in community structure and cell size were detected. Phytoplankton were N and P co-limited, with autotrophic pico-eukaryotes being the exception as they increased even when only P was added after a 2-day time lag. The populations of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were highly competitive with each other; Prochlorococcus abundance increased during the first 2 days of P addition but kept increasing only when both N and P were added, whereas Synechococcus exhibited higher pigment content and increased in abundance 3 days after simultaneous N and P additions. Dinoflagellates also showed opportunistic behavior at simultaneous N and P additions, in contrast to diatoms and coccolithophores, which diminished in all incubations. High DNA content viruses, selective grazing, and the exhaustion of N sources probably controlled the populations of diatoms and coccolithophores.

  11. LATE PLIOCENE-HOLOCENE DEBRIS FLOW DEPOSITS IN THE IONIAN SEA (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI ALOISI DE LARDEREL

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread coring of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin has outlined the existence of a systematic relation between lithology of debris flow deposits and physiographic setting. Whilst the topographic highs are characterized by pelagic sedimentation, the basin floors are alternatively subject to pelagic sedimentation and re-sedimentation pro cesses. Amongst the latters, turbidity flows and debris flows are the most common transport mechanisms.In this paper we present the study of the debris flow pro cess in the Ionian Sea using visual description of cores, grain size, carbonate content and smear slide analysis carried out on gravity and piston cores recovered over the past 20 years. A distinction has been made between debris flow deposits originating from the continental margins (North Africa and Malta Escarpment and those emplaced in the small basins amidst the Calabrian and Mediterranean ridges "Cobblestone Topography". As a result of the difference in setting, the former debris flow deposits include a great variety of lithologies and ages whilst the latter involve the pelagic sediments forming the typical Eastern Mediterranean Plio-Quaternary succession. A detailed study of clast and matrix structures makes it possible to describe the flows in terms of existing classifications of sediment gravity flows and to assume a clast support mechanism. Finally, biostratigraphy coupled with the presence of widespread marker beds enabled us to estimate the age of emplacement of the deposits and to hypothesize a triggering mechanism for flow initiation. Three flows are strictly related to the pelagic turbidite named homogenite, triggered by the explosive eruption of the Santorini volcano (Minoan eruption and therefore have an estimated age of 3,500 BP. The other deposits have ages ranging from 9,000 BP to about 70,000 BP and were originated by debris flows triggered by events such as earthquakes and glacial low sea level stands.    

  12. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  13. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  14. Establishment of database for Japan Sea parameters on marine environment and radioactivity (JASPER). Volume 2. Radiocarbon and oceanographic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Togawa, Orihiko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Minakawa, Masayuki; Aramaki, Takafumi; Senjyu, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    The database for the Japan Sea Parameters on Marine Environment and Radionuclides (JASPER) has been established by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as a product of the Japan Sea Expeditions. By the previous volume of the database, data for representative anthropogenic radionuclides (strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239, 240) were opened to public. And now, data for radiocarbon and fundamental oceanographic properties (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen) including nutrients (silicate, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite) are released as the second volume of the database. At the beginning of this report (chapter 1), backgrounds, objectives and brief overview of this report are given as an introduction. Then, specifications of this database and methodology in obtaining the concentration data are described in chapter 2. The data stored in the database are presented in tabular and figure forms in chapter 3. Finally, chapter 4 is assigned concluding remarks. In the second version of database, 20,292 data records are stored in the database including 2,695 data for temperature, 2,883 data for salinity, 2,109 data for dissolved oxygen, 11,051 data for the nutrients, and 1,660 data for radiocarbon. The database will be a strong tool for the continuous monitoring for contamination by anthropogenic radionuclides, studies on biogeochemical cycle, and development/validation of models for numerical simulations in the sea. (author)

  15. Tectonic superposition of the Kurosegawa Terrane upon the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt in eastern Shikoku, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Isozaki, Yukio; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1990-01-01

    Weakly metamorphosed pre-Cenozoic accretionary complex in the northern part of the Chichibu Belt in Kamikatsu Town, eastern Shikoku, consists of two distinct geologic units; the Northern Unit and Southern Unit. The Northern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites and basic tuff with allochthonous blocks of chert and limestone, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the glaucophane schist facies. The Southern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites with allochthonous blocks of sandstone, limestone, massive green rocks, and chert, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. The Southern Unit tectonically overlies the Northern Univ by the south-dipping Jiganji Fault. K-Ar ages were dated for the recrystallized white micas from 11 samples of pelites and basic tuff in the Northern Unit, and from 6 samples of pelites in the Southern Unit. The K-Ar ages of the samples from the Northern Unit range in 129-112 Ma, and those from the Southern Unit in 225-194 Ma. In terms of metamorphic ages, the Northern Unit and Southern Unit are referred to the constituents of the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, and to those of the Kurosegawa Terrane, respectively. Thus, tectonic superposition of these two units in the study area suggests that the Kurosegawa Terrane occurs in a higher structural position over the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in eastern Shikoku. (author)

  16. Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) Characterization of Methane Gas Hydrate-Bearing Pressure Cores Collected from the Methane Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W. F.; Santamarina, J. C.; Dai, S.; Winters, W. J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Nagao, J.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Mason, D. H.; Bergeron, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure cores obtained at the Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, the site of the methane hydrate production test completed by the Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21) project in March 2013, were recovered from ~300 meters beneath the sea floor at close to in situ pressure. Cores were subsequently stored at ~20 MPa and ~5°C, which maintained hydrate in the cores within stability conditions. Pressure core physical properties were measured at 10 MPa and ~6°C, also within the methane hydrate stability field, using the IPTC and other Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs). Discrete IPTC measurements were carried out in strata ranging from silty sands to clayey silts within the turbidite sequences recovered in the cores. As expected, hydrate saturations were greatest in more permeable coarser-grained layers. Key results include: 1) Where hydrate saturation exceeded 40% in sandy sediments, the gas hydrate binds sediment grains within the matrix. The pressure core analyses yielded nearly in situ mechanical properties despite the absence of effective stress in the IPTC. 2) In adjacent fine-grained sediment (hydrate saturation < 15%), hydrate did not significantly bind the sediment. IPTC results in these locations were consistent with the zero effective-stress limit of comparable measurements made in PCCT devices that are designed to restore the specimen's in situ effective stress. In sand-rich intervals with high gas hydrate saturations, the measured compressional and shear wave velocities suggest that hydrate acts as a homogeneously-distributed, load-bearing member of the bulk sediment. The sands with high gas hydrate saturations were prone to fracturing (brittle failure) during insertion of the cone penetrometer and electrical conductivity probes. Authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for permitting this work to be disclosed at the 2014 Fall AGU meeting.

  17. Rapid Response of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Microbial Communities to Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Woo, Hannah L.; Ning, Daliang; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2017-07-18

    Deep marine oil spills like the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) in the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to drastically impact marine systems. Crude oil contamination in marine systems remains a concern, especially for countries around the Mediterranean Sea with off shore oil production. The goal of this study was to investigate the response of indigenous microbial communities to crude oil in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea (E. Med.) water column and to minimize potential bias associated with storage and shifts in microbial community structure from sample storage. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was combined with GeoChip metagenomic analysis to monitor the microbial community changes to the crude oil and dispersant in on-ship microcosms set up immediately after water collection. After 3 days of incubation at 14 °C, the microbial communities from two different water depths: 824 m and 1210 m became dominated by well-known oil degrading bacteria. The archaeal population and the overall microbial community diversity drastically decreased. Similarly, GeoChip metagenomic analysis revealed a tremendous enrichment of genes related to oil biodegradation, which was consistent with the results from the DWH oil spill. These results highlight a rapid microbial adaption to oil contamination in the deep E. Med., and indicate strong oil biodegradation potentia

  18. Climatology of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last glacial cycle reconstructed from paired measurement of foraminiferal delta sup(18)O and Mg/Ca

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Mahesh, B.S.; Burr, G.; Chodankar, A

    Paired measurements of Mg/Ca and delta sup(18)O of Globigerenoides sacculifer from an Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) sediment core indicate that sea-surface temperature (SST) varied within 2 degrees C and sea-surface salinity within 2 psu during the last...

  19. Atmospheric variables, nutrients, pH, salinity, and temperature collected by bottle and from meteorological stations in the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea from 01 July 1952 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric variables, nutrients, pH, salinity, and temperature data were collected using bottle casts in the Sea of Japan from 01 July 1952 to 31 December 1998....

  20. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  1. Evidence of increased toxic Alexandrium tamarense dinoflagellate blooms in the eastern Bering Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Natsuike

    Full Text Available The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence. Inter-annual field surveys were conducted to detect A. tamarense cells and environmental factors, such as nutrients, salinity, chlorophyll a, and water temperature, along a transect line on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013. A. tamarense vegetative cells were detected during every sampling year, and their quantities varied greatly from year to year. The maximum cell densities of A. tamarense observed during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were much higher than the Paralytic shellfish poisoning warning levels, which are greater than 100-1,000 cells L-1, in other subarctic areas. Lower quantities of the species occurred during the summers of 2009, 2012, and 2013. A significant positive correlation between A. tamarense quantity and water temperature and significant negative correlations between A. tamarense quantity and nutrient concentrations (of phosphate, silicate, and nitrite and nitrate were detected in every sampling period. The surface- and bottom-water temperatures varied significantly from year to year, suggesting that water temperatures, which have been known to affect the cell growth and cyst germination of A. tamarense, might have affected the cells' quantities in the eastern Bering Sea each summer. Thus, an increase in the Bering Sea shelf's water temperature during the summer will

  2. Development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the Seto Island Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, K.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    By optimally combined ocean models with observation data, numerical oceanic reanalysis and forecast systems allow us to predict the ocean more precisely. In general, data assimilation is exploited to prepare the initial condition for the forecast. This technique has widely been employed in atmospheric prediction, whereas oceanic prediction lags behind weather forecast. Accurate oceanic prediction systems have been demanded for operational purposes such as for fisheries, vessel navigation, marine construction, offshore platform management, marine monitoring, etc. In particular, in crowded harbors and estuaries including the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, data assimilation has seldom been adapted because data from satellites and Argo floats essential to successful oceanic predictions is desperately limited. In addition, although static data assimilation, typically three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR), is computationally cheap and statistically optimal, but is not physically balanced. For instance, 3DVAR is known to modify velocity and density fields merely mathematically, yet it does not adequately consider quasi-geostrophic balance, which is generally true in most cases. In the present study, we develop a 3DVAR system for Regional Oceanic Modeling Systems (ROMS) and apply to the high-resolution SIS model in a double nested configuration (Kosako et al., 2015). The SIS is the largest estuary in Japan with a number of autonomous in-situ monitoring of vertical profiles of temperature and salinity, tens of tidal gages, along with continuous surface current measurement using HF radars. We first present a theoretical framework of the 3DVAR algorithm by considering geostrophic and thermal-wind balance to find plausible relationships among physical variables to avoid undesirable modifications. Subsequently, the developed 3DVAR is coupled with the SIS ROMS model to compare the model outcomes against some observation data. The 3DVAR ROMS model for the SIS

  3. Contrasting records of sea-level change in the eastern and western North Atlantic during the last 300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Saher, M. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Scaife, R. G.; Brain, M. J.; Cahill, N.

    2014-02-01

    We present a new 300-year sea-level reconstruction from a salt marsh on the Isle of Wight (central English Channel, UK) that we compare to other salt-marsh and long tide-gauge records to examine spatial and temporal variability in sea-level change in the North Atlantic. Our new reconstruction identifies an overall rise in relative sea level (RSL) of c. 0.30 m since the start of the eighteenth century at a rate of 0.9±0.3 mm yr. Error-in-variables changepoint analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant deviation from a constant rate within the dataset. The reconstruction is broadly comparable to other tide-gauge and salt-marsh records from the European Atlantic, demonstrating coherence in sea level in this region over the last 150-300 years. In contrast, we identify significant differences in the rate and timing of RSL with records from the east coast of North America. The absence of a strong late 19th/early 20th century RSL acceleration contrasts with that recorded in salt marsh sediments along the eastern USA coastline, in particular in a well-dated and precise sea-level reconstruction from North Carolina. This suggests that this part of the North Carolina sea level record represents a regionally specific sea level acceleration. This is significant because the North Carolina record has been used as if it were globally representative within semi-empirical parameterisations of past and future sea-level change. We conclude that regional-scale differences of sea-level change highlight the value of using several, regionally representative RSL records when calibrating and testing semi-empirical models of sea level against palaeo-records. This is because by using records that potentially over-estimate sea-level rise in the past such models risk over-estimating sea-level rise in the future.

  4. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  5. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  6. Resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Nagakubo, S.; Nakamizu, M.; Yokoi, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology and Research Center

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the methane hydrate (MH) in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan as a potential natural gas resource. The resource assessment of MH was determined from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) exploratory test wells Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) campaigns were launched at 16 sites, coring at 4 sites and wirelogging at 2 sites. This study used high resolution 2D/3D seismic data and introduced a new concept for the MH concentrated zone and applied it to resource assessment. MH bearing layers in the survey area were classified into 2 categories, notably MH concentrated zones and MH bearing layers other than relatively thin, low saturated MH layers. The total amount of methane gas in place was estimated to be 40 tcf as Pmean value (10 tcf as P90, 82 tcf as P10). More than 10 prospective MH concentrated zones were extracted. They were characterized by high resistivity well logs, strong seismic reflectors, high p-wave interval velocity and turbidite deposits delineated by sedimentary facies analysis. The total gas in place for MH concentrated zones was estimated to be 20 tcf (half of the total amount) as Pmean value. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the net-to-gross ratio and methane pore saturation have higher sensitivity than other parameters. As such, they are important for further detail analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Teleconnection between sea ice in the Barents Sea in June and the Silk Road, Pacific-Japan and East Asian rainfall patterns in August

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengping; Gao, Yongqi; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Huijun; Li, Fei

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to previous studies that have tended to focus on the influence of the total Arctic sea-ice cover on the East Asian summer tripole rainfall pattern, the present study identifies the Barents Sea as the key region where the June sea-ice variability exerts the most significant impacts on the East Asian August tripole rainfall pattern, and explores the teleconnection mechanisms involved. The results reveal that a reduction in June sea ice excites anomalous upward air motion due to strong near-surface thermal forcing, which further triggers a meridional overturning wave-like pattern extending to midlatitudes. Anomalous downward motion therefore forms over the Caspian Sea, which in turn induces zonally oriented overturning circulation along the subtropical jet stream, exhibiting the east-west Rossby wave train known as the Silk Road pattern. It is suggested that the Bonin high, a subtropical anticyclone predominant near South Korea, shows a significant anomaly due to the eastward extension of the Silk Road pattern to East Asia. As a possible descending branch of the Hadley cell, the Bonin high anomaly ultimately triggers a meridional overturning, establishing the Pacific-Japan pattern. This in turn induces an anomalous anticyclone and cyclone pair over East Asia, and a tripole vertical convection anomaly meridionally oriented over East Asia. Consequently, a tripole rainfall anomaly pattern is observed over East Asia. Results from numerical experiments using version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model support the interpretation of this chain of events.

  8. Evidence for eddy formation in the eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, John G.; Johnson, Donald R.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal formation of a large (500-800 km diameter) anticyclonic eddy in the upper 300-400 m of the eastern Arabian Sea during the northest monsoon period (December-April) is indicated fom hydrographic and satellite altimetry sea level observations, as well as from numerical model experiments. The center of the eddy circulation is approximately 10 deg N, 70 deg E, just to the west of the north-south Laccadive Island chain. In this paper the eddy is called the Laccadive High (LH). In some ways it is like a mirrorlike counterpart to the Great Whirl that develops during the southwest monsoon of the Somali coast (western Arabian Sea). The LH occurs at the same latitude but on the opposite side of the basin during the reversed monsoon. It is different from the Great Whirl, however, in its formation process, its intensity, and its decay. The hydrographic data obtained from surveys all during a single season give sufficiently close station spacing to allow reasonable contouring of the geopotential surfaces and of the properties within and around the LH region with minimum time aliasing. The Geostat altimeter record extends over 4 years, during which the seasonal variability of the LH indicates a dynamic relief of approximately 15-20 cm, which is in good agreement with the hydrographics observations. The altimetry time series also suggests a westward translation of the LH by January with a subsequent dissipation in midbasin. The model used is a wind-forced three-layer primitive equation model which depicts a LH agreement with the timing, position, and amplitude of both the hydrographic and altimetric measurements. The numerical simulation includes a passive tracer located in the Western Bay of Bengal; the western advection of the tracer around the south coasts of Sri Lanka and India in December and January is consistent with the appearance of low-salinity water observed to extend into the Arabian Sea during this period. The modeling studies suggest that both local and

  9. Tectonostratigraphy of the Southern Part of Papua and Arafura Sea, Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti H. Harahap

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.145Sedimentary history and stratigraphy of the Papua and Arafura Sea areas, eastern Indonesia, are gained from surface geological mapping combined with published data from oil companies. Development of some sedimentary units demonstrates that the tectonism have influenced sedimentation of such units comprising a succession of Phanerozoic rocks developing in a stable continental margin. The succession underlain by Cambrian-Silurian-Devonian metamorphic rocks consists of Tuaba, Kariem, Awitagoh, and Kemum Formation, and Modio Dolomite (Pre-Rift Phase. These rocks having been intruded by Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids and Carboniferous granite, are unconformably overlain by Late Carboniferous to Cretaceous siliciclastic-rich units comprising Aifam Group and Tipuma Formation (syn-Rift Phase and Kembelangan Group (Mesozoic Passive Margin Post-Rift. The Aifam Group is separated by a regionally continuous boundary on its top contact from the Triassic-Early Jurassic Tipuma Formation, which filled the block-faulted rift valley subbasins of continentally deposited red beds in the breakup stage. Regionally, developed erosion surfaces of the breakup unconformity have separated these red beds from generally transgressive post-breakup deposits of the Jurassic to Cretaceous marine sediments of the Kembelangan Group. Beach to shallow marine-glauconitic sandstone and shale of the group pass upward into shelf mudstone. Relative sea level fall related to the tectonic stability of the area led to the development of Eocene to Late Miocene platform carbonates of the New Guinea Limestone Supergroup which occurred in the entire island of Papua and the southern of Arafura that overlie these non-carbonate units (Tertiary passive margin. It is separated from the siliciclastic-rich packages by the Tertiary - Pre-Tertiary boundary. The sea level fluctuation within the group was also recorded during the formation of thin, discontinuous

  10. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  11. Molecular genotyping of anisakis larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and endoscopic evidence for preferential penetration of normal over atrophic mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Arai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. METHODS: In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s. (99%, and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005. Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-31.8. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae.

  12. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  13. Georesistivity structure in the central part of North-Eastern Japan Arc; Tohoku chiho chubu chiiki no denki dendodo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Kawakami, N. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueshima, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Honkura, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-13

    MT measurement of transects was made in the central part of North-Eastern Japan Arc to clarify tectonics of subduction zones. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D resistivity structures are observed in surface layers, and zones shallower and deeper than a Conrad surface, respectively. A main structure direction is S-N or NNE-SSW. Ishinomaki-Chokai tectonic line and low- resistivity zones due to Quaternary volcanos (Naruko, Onikobe) exist in a backbone range region. Resistivity is 100{Omega}{center_dot}m or less by Bostick Inversion except Mesozoic and Palaeozoic layers in the southern Kitakami mountainous region, resulting in a good agreement with previous results in a north transect. Resistivity is several {Omega}{center_dot}m and depth is several km around Shinjo basin and in surface layers of Kitakami River region. The backbone range region shows complex resistivity structures because of volcanic activity and wide-area hot water activity. High-resistivity layers correspond to stable Mesozoic and Palaeozoic land layers. Seismic velocity increases in the low-resistivity zone. Earthquake generally occurs at the boundary between resistivity structures. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  15. 14C ages for the ejecta from Kutcharo and Mashu calderas, eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Ito, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Eruption ages of the ejecta from Kutcharo and Mashu calderas were systematically determined by 14 C dating. 16 charred samples were newly obtained from the Mashu and Nakashumbetsu Tephra Formations around the calderas and dated by AMS and β-counting methods. Examined units are Ma-d, Ma-e, Ma-f, Ma-j, Ma-k, Ma-l and Ml-a in the Mashu ejecta and 6 Nakashumbetsu tephra layers including Kutcharo Pumice Flow Deposit I (KpI), which is the youngest caldera-forming product from Kutcharo caldera. Results of the 14 C dating range from 3,660 ±40 yBP to 36,080±1,300 yBP, and are consistent with the tephrostratigraphy. Calendar age for KpI was newly calculated at almost 40 ka and this age shows there was about 70,000 years recurrence interval between KpI and KpIV caldera-forming eruptions. Mashu caldera has appeared on the eastern part of Kutcharo caldera immediately after the KpI eruption, and calendar age for its main caldera-forming eruption were determined at ca. BC 5,600. (author)

  16. Geology and uranium mineralization in the eastern part of the Kani Basin, Gifu, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    1989-01-01

    The Misano and Utozaka uranium deposits in the eastern part of the Kani Basin are within Miocene nonmarine sediments which unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments and Cretaceous-Paleogene granites. These deposits are classified as sandstone type deposits structurally controlled by palaeo-channel structures formed on the pre-Miocene basement rocks. The host rock is the Kani lignite-bearing formation which is the lowermost sequence of the Kani Group. The age of the formation was estimated to be 20-19 Ma by fission track dating. The mineralized host sediments consist of conglomerates, arkosic, tuffaceous and carbonaceous sandstones. Although no primary uranium mineral was identified to date, it is considered that uranium is present in uranous form. The mineralization was strongly controlled by a fault structure within the basement granites as well as the channel structure formed on the basement rocks, especially on the granites. The enriched ore zone of the Misano deposit distributes within the basal part of the Kani lignite-bearing formation above the basement fault structure and in the palaeo-channel downward from the fault structure. The basement granites were also mineralized along the fault structure. Groundwater leached uranium form the basement granites, and migrated along the fault structure to the host sediments to form the deposite. (Kako, I.)

  17. Concentrations of 99Tc and 137Cs in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Iyogi, T.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sekine, T.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now under the active test using actual spent nuclear fuels. Since the plant will release small amount of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater nearby the plant will possibly increase in future. Since it is important to get background concentration levels of 99 Tc and 137 Cs in marine products from the ocean nearby the plant for assessing the effect to the concentration levels by the plant, the nuclides in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan (Aomori, Hokkaido and Iwate) were observed. Concentrations of 99 Tc in the kelps were lower than those reported for other non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii) in Aomori, and the same level to the reported value of Hizikia fusiformis in Kyushu. 99 Tc concentrations in the urchin ovaries were lower than the detection limit of our method, and concentrations of 137 Cs in them were similar to these in the kelps. It suggested that 99 Tc is not concentrated in sea urchin ovaries. This work was supported by a grant from Aomori prefecture, Japan. (author)

  18. Tracers confirm downward mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea upper waters associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Roether

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced vertical mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upper waters, which are supplied from the Eastern Mediterranean. The downward transfer is particularly evident between 1987 and 1997. Later on, information partly rests on increasing tritium-3He ages; here we correct the observed 3He for contributions released from the ocean floor. The Tyrrhenian tracer distributions are fully compatible with data upstream of the Sicily Strait and in the Western Mediterranean. The tracer data show that mixing reached to the bottom and confirm a cyclonic nature of the deep water circulation in the Tyrrhenian. They furthermore indicate that horizontal homogenization of the deep waters occurs on a time scale of roughly 5 years. Various features point to a reduced impact of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW in the Tyrrhenian during the enhanced-mixing period. This is an important finding because it implies less upward mixing of WMDW, which has been named a major process to enable the WMDW to leave the Mediterranean via the Gibraltar Strait. On the other hand, the TDW outflow for several years represented a major influx of enhanced salinity and density waters into the deep-water range of the Western Mediterranean.

  19. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  20. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.W.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO 2 in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO 2 released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  1. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.W. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO{sub 2} in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO{sub 2} released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  2. Collective dose estimates by the marine food pathway from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, O.; Povinec, P.P.; Pettersson, H.B.L.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA-MEL has been engaged in an assessment programme related to radioactive waste dumping by the former USSR and other countries in the western North Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. This paper focuses on the Sea of Japan and on estimation of collective doses from liquid radioactive wastes. The results from the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions are summarized, and collective doses for the Japanese population by the marine food pathway are estimated from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan and compared with those from global fallout and natural radionuclides. The collective effective dose equivalents by the annual intake of marine products caught in each year show a maximum a few years after the disposals. The total dose from all radionuclides reaches a maximum of 0.8 man Sv in 1990. Approximately 90% of the dose derives from 137Cs, most of which is due to consumption of fish. The total dose from liquid radioactive wastes is approximately 5% of that from global fallout, the contribution of which is below 0.1% of that of natural 210Po

  3. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  4. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  5. The diet and feeding ecology of Conger conger (L. 1758 in the deep waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelagic taxa. The high vacuity index and the low stomach and intestine fullness indicated that the feeding intensity of the species in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea was quite low. C. conger feeding strategy was characterised by specialisation in various resource items. A between-phenotype contribution to niche width was observed for some prey categories. European Conger eel feeding specialisation seemed to be an adaptation to a food-scarce environment, as typified in deep-water habitats

  6. Surface faulting along the inland Itozawa normal fault (eastern Japan) and relation to the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toda, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake ruptured ~500 km length of the Japan Trench along the coast of eastern Japan and significantly impacted the stress regime within the crust. The resulting change in seismicity over the Japan mainland was exhibited by the 11 April 2011 Mw 6.6 Iwaki earthquake that ruptured the Itozawa and Yunodake faults. Trending NNW and NW, respectively, these 70-80° W-dipping faults bound the Iwaki basin of Neogene age and have been reactivated simultaneously both along 15-km-long sections. Here, we present initial results from a paleoseismic excavation performed across the Itozawa fault within the Tsunagi Valley at the northern third of the observed surface rupture. At the Tsunagi site, the rupture affects a rice paddy, which provides an ideally horizontal initial state to collect detailed and accurate measurements. The surface break is composed of a continuous 30-to-40-cm-wide purely extensional crack that separates the uplifted block from a gently dipping 1-to-2-m-wide strip affected by right-stepping en-echelon cracks and locally bounded by a ~0.1-m-high reverse scarplet. Total station across-fault topographic profiles indicate the pre-earthquake ground surface was vertically deformed by ~0.6 m while direct field examinations reveal that well-defined rice paddy limits have been left-laterally offset by ~0.1 m. The 12-m-long, 3.5-m-deep trench exposes the 30-to-40-cm-thick cultivated soil overlaying a 1-m-thick red to yellow silt unit, a 2-m-thick alluvial gravel unit and a basal 0.1-1-m-thick organic-rich silt unit. Deformation associated to the 2011 rupture illustrates down-dip movement along a near-vertical fault with a well-expressed bending moment at the surface and generalized warping. On the north wall, the intermediate gravel unit displays a deformation pattern similar to granular flow with only minor discrete faulting and no splay to be continuously followed from the main fault to the surface. On the south wall, warping

  7. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on catches...

  8. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: Chlorophyll: variability in spring chlorophyll concentrations and zooplankotn on the eastern Bering Sea shelf - cruise Healy 07-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under NSF Grant # ARC-0722448 ("BEST: Impacts of Sea-ice on the Hydrographic Structure, Nutrients, and Mesozooplankton over the Eastern...

  9. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part III - Studies on nutrient fraction and stoichiometric relationship in the Northern and the Eastern Basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen compounds have been divided into 'reserved' andoxidative fractions based on their relationships with apparent oxygen utilization in the northern and the north-eastern basins of the Arabian Sea.Two oxygen minima...

  10. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service Annual Eastern Bering Sea Summer Bottom Trawl Surveys 1975 - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the annual NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the eastern Bering Sea continental...

  11. Fog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of fog water were collected at Baengnyeong Island (BYI in the Yellow Sea during the summer of 2014. The most abundant chemical species in the fog water were NH4+ (mean of 2220 µM, NO3− (1260 µM, SO4−2 (730 µM, and Na+ (551 µM, with substantial contributions from other species consistent with marine and biomass burning influence on some dates. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.48 and 5.00, with a mean of 3.94, intermediate within pH values of fog/cloud water reported previously in Southeast Asia. Back trajectories (72 h showed that high relative humidity ( >  80 % was encountered upwind of the sampling site by all but one of the sampled air masses, and that the fog composition at BYI can be impacted by several different source regions, including the Sea of Japan, southeastern China, northeastern China, and the East China Sea. Sulfur in the collected fog was highly oxidized: low S(IV concentrations were measured (mean of 2.36 µM in contrast to SO4−2 and in contrast to fog/cloud S(IV concentrations from pollutant source regions; organosulfate species were also observed and were most likely formed through aging of mainly biogenic volatile organic compounds. Low-molecular-mass organic acids were major contributors to total organic carbon (TOC; 36–69 %, comprising a fraction of TOC at the upper end of that seen in fogs and clouds in other polluted environments. Large contributions were observed from not only acetic and formic acids but also oxalic, succinic, maleic, and other organic acids that can be produced in aqueous atmospheric organic processing (AAOP reactions. These samples of East Asian fog water containing highly oxidized components represent fog downwind of pollutant sources and can provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. In particular, these samples demonstrate the result of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols and

  12. Fog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A. J.; Lee, T.; Park, T.; Choi, J.; Seo, S. J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of fog water were collected at Baengnyeong Island (BYI) in the Yellow Sea during the summer of 2014. The most abundant chemical species in the fog water were NH4+ (mean of 2220 µM), NO3- (1260 µM), SO4-2 (730 µM), and Na+ (551 µM), with substantial contributions from other species consistent with marine and biomass burning influence on some dates. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.48 and 5.00, with a mean of 3.94, intermediate within pH values of fog/cloud water reported previously in Southeast Asia. Back trajectories (72 h) showed that high relative humidity ( > 80 %) was encountered upwind of the sampling site by all but one of the sampled air masses, and that the fog composition at BYI can be impacted by several different source regions, including the Sea of Japan, southeastern China, northeastern China, and the East China Sea. Sulfur in the collected fog was highly oxidized: low S(IV) concentrations were measured (mean of 2.36 µM) in contrast to SO4-2 and in contrast to fog/cloud S(IV) concentrations from pollutant source regions; organosulfate species were also observed and were most likely formed through aging of mainly biogenic volatile organic compounds. Low-molecular-mass organic acids were major contributors to total organic carbon (TOC; 36-69 %), comprising a fraction of TOC at the upper end of that seen in fogs and clouds in other polluted environments. Large contributions were observed from not only acetic and formic acids but also oxalic, succinic, maleic, and other organic acids that can be produced in aqueous atmospheric organic processing (AAOP) reactions. These samples of East Asian fog water containing highly oxidized components represent fog downwind of pollutant sources and can provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. In particular, these samples demonstrate the result of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols and fogs.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  14. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Baltic Sea, part II. Biological evidence of population mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Boje, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in parallel. Genetic markers suggested the existence of different genetic populations in the transition area. Growth backcalculation with otoliths resulted in significant although limited differences in growth rates between North Sea and Skagerrak, indicating weak differentiation or important mixing......A multi-disciplinary study was conducted to clarify stock identity and connectivity patterns in the populations of European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat transition area between the Eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Five independent biological studies were carried out...... constitute a large share of the catches in this area. The mixing of different populations within a management area has implications for stock assessment and management. Choice must be made to either lump or split the populations, and the feasibility and constraints of both options are discussed. The outcomes...

  15. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  16. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  17. Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the eastern Mediterranean Sea: overview and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Storelli, A.; D'Addabbo, R.; Marano, C.; Bruno, R.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Se) in different organs and tissues (liver, kidney, muscle tissue, spleen, heart, lung, and fat tissue) of loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta from eastern Mediterranean Sea were determined. The highest levels of mercury and cadmium were found in liver (Hg: 0.43 μg g -1 wet weight; Cd: 3.36 μg g -1 wet weight) and kidney (Hg: 0.16 μg g -1 wet weight; Cd: 8.35 μg g -1 wet weight). For lead the overall concentrations were low and often below the limit of detection. Copper and selenium tended to be higher in liver than in other tissues and organs, while for zinc the concentrations were quite homogenous in the different organs and tissues, except fat tissue (64.7 μg g -1 wet weight) which showed a higher accumulation of this element. For iron the greatest concentrations were observed in liver (409 μg g -1 wet weight) and spleen (221 μg g -1 wet weight). - Cadmium concentrations in samples from turtles may be high enough to affect their health

  18. Biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes in brown forest soil on the eastern coast of the aegean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Shirokikh, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The taxonomic and functional structures of the actinomycetal complex in the litter and upper horizon of the brown forest soil was studied in a Pinus brutia var. pendulifolia forest on the eastern coast of the Aegean Sea. The complex of actinomycetes included representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera and oligosporus forms. Streptomycetes predominated (73.8%) in the soil, and micromonospores (66.7%) were dominants in the litter. Thirty isolates of ten Streptomyces species from five series and three sections prevailed. In the upper soil horizon, species of the Helvolo-Flavus Helvolus section predominated (48%); the S. felleus species occurred most frequently. Among the isolated cultures, the S. globisporus and S. sindenensis species capable to produce antitumor antibiotics were found. The testing of the antimicrobial activity of the natural isolates showed that five strains inhibit the growth of pathogenic Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Acremonium sp., and Bipolaris sorokiniana fungi. When testing the effect of streptomycetes on the production of cellulases, a high-efficient strain belonging to the S. noboritoensis species was revealed. All the streptomycetes isolated from the brown forest soil produced auxins at the rate of 7.8 to 19.7 μg of indole acetic acid/mL of the liquid medium in the presence of 200 mg/L of tryptophan. Twelve isolates of streptomycetes were transferred to the collection of biotechnologically promising cultures for studying their properties.

  19. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected in 1980 in the eastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Mann, Dennis M.; May, Steven D.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 2,652 km of 24-channel seismic-reflection data in early September, 1980, over the continental shelf in the eastern Chukchi Sea (Fig. 1). The profiles were collected on the USGS Research Vessel S.P. Lee. The seismic energy source consisted of a tuned array of five airguns with a total volume of 1213 cubic inches of air compressed to approximately 1900 psi. The recording system consisted of a 24-channel, 2400 meter long streamer with a group interval of 100 m, and a GUS (Global Universal Science) model 4200 digital recording instrument. Shots were fired every 50 meters. Navigational control for the survey was provided by a Magnavox integrated navigation system using transit satellites and doppler-sonar augmented by Loran C (Rho-Rho). A 2-millisecond sampling rate was used in the field; the data were later desampled to 4-milliseconds during the demultiplexing process. 8 seconds data length was recorded. Processing was done at the USGS Pacific Marine Geology Multichannel Processing Center in Menlo Park, California, in the sequence: editing-demultiplexing, velocity analysis, CDP stacking, deconvolution-filtering, and plotting on an electrostatic plotter. Plate 1 is a trackline chart showing shotpoint navigation.

  20. Relationship of spontaneous pneumothorax cases seen in Eastern Black Sea region with meteorological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa Esat; Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-08-01

    The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012. Wind velocity was observed to be less in the days of having spontaneous pneumothorax than in the days of having no spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difference was found statistically significant ( P = 0.026). The people of our region whose active lifestyle is reflected in their working life, social life, and even in their folk dances usually take a rest in the days of slower wind speed. We think that this state of resting leads to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  1. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  2. Movement Ecology of the Reef Manta Ray Manta alfredi in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Braun, Camrin D.

    2013-07-01

    Many well-studied elasmobranch populations have recently exhibited significant decline. The limited data related to fisheries and sightings for many unstudied or poorly understood populations indicate that these are also suffering. Directed fisheries and more cryptic threats such as entanglement and vessel strike represent significant risk to mobulid rays, arguably one of the most vulnerable elasmobranch groups. Very little information currently exists describing the basic ecology of manta rays or quantifying anthropogenic threats and impacts; however, recent efforts have drastically improved the body of knowledge available for these species, including oceanographic influences on movement, seasonal migration, and mating behaviors. Nevertheless, Red Sea mantas remain completely enigmatic. In this thesis, Chapter 1 details results from tagging 18 reef manta rays Manta alfredi in the eastern Red Sea using satellite and acoustic tag technology and demonstrates that mantas occupy areas with high human traffic. The combined satellite and acoustic techniques define both regional movements and ‘hotspots’ of habitat use where there is significant potential for manta-human interaction. I also present opportunistic sighting data that corroborate anthropogenic impacts on this population. Chapter 2 explores the vertical component of the nine satellite tags that were deployed on Manta alfredi as described in the previous chapter. Seven tags returned adequate data for analysis. Three of the seven were physically recovered yielding full archival datasets of depth, temperature, and light levels every 10-15 seconds for over 2.6 5 million cumulative data points. Mantas frequented the upper 10 m during the day and occupied deeper water through nocturnal periods. Individuals also exhibited deep diving behavior as deep as 432 m, extending the known depth range of the species. An investigation of 76 high-resolution deep dives suggests gliding is a significant behavioral component of

  3. Main Introduction Way of Indo-Pacific and Red Sea Originated Benthic Foraminifers to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin MERİÇ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the alien foraminifers recorded in the eastern Mediterranean are Indo-Pacific originated and entered the Mediterranean via Suez Canal. In this study, current literature on the alien benthic foraminiferal fauna of the eastern Mediterranean was reviewed and the main dispersal pathways are determined. Distribution patterns of the alien species suggests that most of the species are introduced via Suez Canal and expand their range of distributions in a counter-clockwise manner by the general surface currents of the eastern Mediterranean. However, not all, but some of the species have also been dispersed westwards along the North African coast and reached central Mediterranean. Locally abundant records of Euthymonacha polita (Chapman, Coscinospira acicularis (Batsch and Amphistegina lobifera in the Aegean Sea indicates that Suez Canal may not be the only vector for the Indo-Pacific species to enter eastern Mediterranean and submarine springs help these thermophilic species to form establish populations in cool waters of the northern Aegean and the Sea of Marmara

  4. Miocene to recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Seamounts; eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranshaw, Jennifer

    This thesis is focused on the Messinian to Recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Mountains and surrounding environs in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is based on processing of high-resolution seismic reflection data and the interpretation and mapping of seismic reflection profiles collected from this area during the 2001 and 2007 research cruises. The data show that the greater Anaximander Mountains region experienced a short interval of tectonic quiescence during the Messinian when a thin evaporite unit was deposited across a major erosional surface. This phase of limited tectonic activity ended in the latest Miocene and was replaced by an erosional phase. Major unconformities in the area are interpreted to develop during the desiccation of the eastern Mediterranean associated with the so-called Messinian salinity crisis. During the early Pliocene, the region experienced an increase in tectonic activity, dominated by transpression. Small amounts of growth observed in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments suggested that the tectonic activity remained low during the early Pliocene-Quaternary. However, the extensive growth strata wedges developed in older sediments indicate a period of accelerated tectonic activity during the mid-late Pliocene-Quaternary. This study suggests that the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto ) and the Anaximenes Mountain developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of a crustal-scale thick-skinned linked imbricate thrust fan. The development of back thrusts in both mountains heightened the seafloor morphology of these submarine mountains and brought Eocene-Oligocene sediments into the core of these mountains. The Sim Erinc Plateau represents a 30-40 km wide transpressional fault zone developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary. In this region the corrugated seafloor morphology observed in the multibeam bathymetry map is the reflection of high-angle faults. It is speculated that this transpressional fault zone

  5. Aerosol direct effect on solar radiation over the eastern Mediterranean Sea based on AVHRR satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakaki, Paraskevi; Papadimas, Christos D.; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Fotiadi, Aggeliki; Matsoukas, Christos; Stackhouse, Paul; Kanakidou, Maria; Vardavas, Ilias M.

    2017-04-01

    Despite the improved scientific understanding of the direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation (direct radiative effect, DRE) improvements are necessary, for example regarding the accuracy of the magnitude of estimated DREs and their spatial and temporal variability. This variability cannot be ensured by in-situ surface and airborne measurements, while it is also relatively difficult to capture through satellite observations. This becomes even more difficult when complete spatial coverage of extended areas is required, especially concerning areas that host various aerosol types with variable physico-chemical and optical aerosol properties. Better assessments of aerosol DREs are necessary, relying on aerosol optical properties with high spatial and temporal variation. The present study aims to provide a refined, along these lines, assessment of aerosol DREs over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea, which is a key area for aerosol studies. Daily DREs are computed for 1˚ x1˚ latitude-longitude grids with the FORTH detailed spectral radiation transfer model (RTM) using input data for various atmospheric and surface parameters, such as clouds, water vapor, ozone and surface albedo, taken from the NASA-Langley Global Earth Observing System (GEOS) database. The model spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter are taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set and the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) version 2 of Advanced Very High resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) AOD dataset which is available over oceans at 0.63 microns and at 0.1˚ x0.1˚ . The aerosol DREs are computed at the surface, the top-of-atmosphere and within the atmosphere, over the period 1985-1995. Preliminary model results for the period 1990-1993 reveal a significant spatial and temporal variability of DREs over the EM Sea, for example larger values over the Aegean and Black Seas, surrounded by land areas with significant anthropogenic aerosol sources, and over the

  6. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  7. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  8. Analyses of Sea Surface Height, Bottom Pressure and Acoustic Travel Time in the Japan/East Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Yongsheng

    2006-01-01

    ...) was deployed in the southwestern JES for two years, from June 1999 to July 2001. The PIESs recorded hourly vertical acoustic travel time and pressure, which are respectively good proxies of baroclinic and barotropic sea level variability...

  9. Growth and reproduction of the sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the central Ryukyus, Japan: a mark and recapture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Gen; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2003-04-01

    A mark and recapture study was carried out for three years on a population of the Ijima's sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the coastal shallow water of Zamamijima Island, central Ryukyus, Japan. The relatively high recapture (47% of 167 marked snakes) suggests that E. ijimae is a particularly philopatric, sedentary species among the sea snakes. The sex ratio (male: female), approximately 1.6:1, significantly skewed from 1:1. The growth rate in SVL declined with growth, with females thoroughly growing better than males. Males and females were estimated to begin reproductive activity in the second or third summer and the third spring after birth, respectively. Frequency of female reproduction is guessed to vary from annual to biennial, or even less frequent.

  10. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  11. On the forcing mechanisms of mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea region, Antarctica: Process studies using a mesoscale numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Development mechanisms of Antarctic mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea area are examined by means of simulations with a mesoscale model using different idealized initial conditions. In one of the experiments, a mesocyclone develops over an area of open water close to the coast of the Antarctic continent. The forcing mechanisms of this mesocyclogenesis are investigated by means of sensitivity studies in which certain physical processes and the relevance of the surface conditions topography, sea surface temperature and sea ice coverage are examined. The sensitivity experiments show that the simulated mesocyclone is forced by an interaction of several forcing mechanisms at different stages of the development rather than by a single mechanism. The topography of the eastern Weddell Sea region and the summertime coastal polynia are shown to be of great importance for the mesocyclogenesis. A suitable synoptic-scale flow is necessary to support the katabatic flow over the sloped ice sheet, and to enhance the generation of cyclonic vorticity due to vertical stretching for the initial mesocyclogenesis. The diabatic process of the convergence of the sensible and latent heat fluxes in the boundary layer over the coastal polynia then becomes the dominant forcing mechanism for the further development of the mesocyclone.

  12. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  13. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  14. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  15. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  16. Ensemble-based evaluation of extreme water levels for the eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo

    2016-04-01

    The risks and damages associated with coastal flooding that are naturally associated with an increase in the magnitude of extreme storm surges are one of the largest concerns of countries with extensive low-lying nearshore areas. The relevant risks are even more contrast for semi-enclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea where subtidal (weekly-scale) variations in the water volume of the sea substantially contribute to the water level and lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using large ensembles of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. Single projections of the ensemble are constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima with various extreme value distributions. The ensemble is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and a similar hindcast by the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the annual maxima of water levels in the Baltic Sea are not always uncorrelated, we employ maxima for calendar years and for stormy seasons. As the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution changes its sign and substantially varies in magnitude along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the use of a single distribution for the entire coast is inappropriate. The ensemble involves projections based on the Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distributions. The parameters of these distributions are evaluated using three different ways: maximum likelihood method and method of moments based on both biased and unbiased estimates. The total number of projections in the ensemble is 40. As some of the resulting estimates contain limited additional information, the members of pairs of projections that are highly correlated are assigned weights 0.6. A comparison of the ensemble-based projection of

  17. Estimates of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures During the Pliocene From Carbonate 'Clumped Isotope' Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, N.; Tripati, A.; Eiler, J.

    2007-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5 to 3 Ma) was an interval in Earth history that was globally warmer than the present; thus, study of the details of Pliocene climate can provide insights into the dynamics of warm climates. There are two competing models of the temperature structure of the tropical Pacific upper-ocean during the early Pliocene: the dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model [1,2] and the 'El Padre' (or permanent 'El Nino') model [3], each of which predict zonal temperature gradients and mean conditions in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP), and which differ markedly from one another in these predictions. The dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model predicts an increased temperature contrast between the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP) and EEP, enhanced thermocline tilt and intensified upwelling under warmer conditions. In contrast, the 'El Padre' model postulates a collapse of the zonal temperature gradient, reduced thermocline tilt and a reduction in upwelling and/or warmer temperatures of upwelled waters. Existing reconstructions of tropical temperatures produce WEP sea surface temperatures which agree with each other, but yield very different results in the EEP [4,5]. We have reconstructed EEP sea surface temperatures at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 847 using a few samples spanning key intervals of the last 6 million years using carbonate clumped isotope thermometer [6,7,8]. This technique is based on the temperature dependence of the abundances of 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals. Initial measurements of planktonic foraminifera and coccoliths from ODP Site 847 indicate cool EEP sea surface temperatures, supporting models of Pliocene climate that have enhanced zonal temperature gradients, relative to modern. Analyses of Globigerinoides sacculifer (with sac) from sediments indicate calcification temperatures of 20.3°C ± 0.1°C and seawater δ18O values of -0.8‰ ± 0.1‰ from ~6.1 to 5.1 million years ago. Measurements of a mixed coccolith assemblage from the

  18. 40Ar-39Ar dating of terrestrial and exterrestrial materials. Basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoka, Ichiro; Takigami, Yutaka.

    1994-01-01

    Through a series of 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating for terrestrial and exterrestrial samples, the results for basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and for meteorites from Antarctica give significant information concerning their formation histories. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of basalts from the Japan Sea floor give a constraint that the Japan Sea floor was formed at least 20 Ma. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for dyke samples from the Deccan Plateau indicate a possibility for the occurrence of a little younger ages than that of the main plateau formations by a few million years. Meteorites collected from Antarctica show some variable 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages reflecting their different thermal histories. (author)

  19. Gradient measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) in the marine boundary layer of the northwest Sea of Japan (East Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Viktor; Lopatnikov, Evgeny; Astakhov, Anatoly

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) is a prolific and persistent contaminant in the atmosphere. Atmospheric concentrations of Hg 0 were determined from 17 September to 7 October 2015 in the northwest Sea of Japan aboard the Russian research vessel Professor Gagarinsky. Simultaneous measurements of Hg 0 concentrations were performed 2 m and 20 m above the sea surface using automatic Hg 0 analysers RA-915M and RA-915+, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 25.9 ng/m 3 (n = 5207) and from 0.3 to 27.8 ng/m 3 (n = 4415), with medians of 1.7 and 1.6 ng/m 3 , respectively. Elevated Hg 0 was observed during three episodes from 19 to 22 September, likely caused by one or more of the following factors: 1) atmospheric transport of Hg 0 from the west and south-west (from N. Korea, China, and the Yellow Sea region); 2) Hg 0 emission from the sea due to pollution by water from the Tumannaya River; or 3) underwater geological activities. Increased Hg 0 concentration was observed during periods when air masses flowed from the south, and low concentrations were observed when air masses came from the north. A daytime increase of Hg 0 concentrations at a height of 2 m occurred simultaneously with decreasing Hg 0 at a height of 20 m. These diurnal variations suggest that two contrasting processes occur during the daytime in the marine boundary layer (MBL): Hg 0 emission from the sea surface and Hg 0 oxidation in the MBL by active halogens formed by photolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preserved Crevasse Casts in the Whales Deep Basin, eastern Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, P. J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    A recent seismic stratigraphic study showed that the large bathymetric saddle in the Whales Deep Basin in eastern Ross Sea is a compound grounding zone wedge (CGZW). The basin was occupied by the paleo Bindschadler Ice Stream when grounded ice advanced to the outer continental shelf during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The CGZW is composed of at least seven overlapping GZWs. The crest of the bathymetric saddle corresponds to the grounding zone of GZW7, i.e., the seventh GZW. The north face of the saddle is essentially equivalent to the GZW7 foreset and the south side of the saddle is the GZW7 topset, i.e., the seafloor surface to which the paleo Bindschadler Ice Stream was grounded. The GZW7 topset is mantled by a series of relatively small-amplitude, but very long, ridges with low sinuosity. These ridges were previously imaged by Mosola and Anderson (2006). Here we show a larger-area multibeam survey that was acquired in 2015 during expedition NBP1502B. The larger-area multibeam survey shows that the ridges have amplitudes ranging from 2 to 11 m above grade and have an overall northeast-southwest orientation over an area of at least 500 km2 on the central and western flank of Whales Deep Basin middle continental shelf in water depths ranging from 500 to 550 m. The ridges have spacing that mostly range between 1 and 2 km. The longest ridges are observed to be 40 km. The ridges in the center of the trough have flatter tops than those in the shallower water on the flank of Houtz Bank. In our ongoing investigation of these interesting features, we hypothesize that the ridges formed below a rapidly flowing ice stream as it thinned and was decoupling from the bed towards the end of GZW7 deposition. High ice deformation rates accompanying this process caused the development of large basal crevasses or ice shelf rifts that reached the seafloor. Subglacial till was scraped and collected into lower parts of these crevasses/rifts. Chronologic data indicates that these

  1. Mesopelagic Prokaryotes Alter Surface Phytoplankton Production during Simulated Deep Mixing Experiments in Eastern Mediterranean Sea Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Hazan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesopelagic prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria, which are transported together with nutrient-rich intermediate-water to the surface layer by deep convection in the oceans (e.g., winter mixing, upwelling systems, can interact with surface microbial populations. This interaction can potentially affect production rates and biomass of surface microbial populations, and thus play an important role in the marine carbon cycle and oceanic carbon sequestration. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS is one of the most oligotrophic and warm systems in the world's oceans, with usually very shallow winter mixing (<200 m and lack of large-size spring algal blooms. In this study, we collected seawater (0–1,500 m in 9 different cruises at the open EMS during both the stratified and the mixed seasons. We show that the EMS is a highly oligotrophic regime, resulting in low autotrophic biomass and primary productivity and relatively high heterotrophic prokaryotic biomass and production. Further, we simulated deep water mixing in on-board microcosms using Levantine surface (LSW, ~0.5 m and intermediate (LIW, ~400 m waters at a 9:1 ratio, respectively and examined the responses of the microbial populations to such a scenario. We hypothesized that the LIW, being nutrient-rich (e.g., N, P and a “hot-spot” for microbial activity (due to the warm conditions that prevail in these depths, may supply the LSW with not only key-limiting nutrients but also with viable and active heterotrophic prokaryotes that can interact with the ambient surface microbial population. Indeed, we show that LIW heterotrophic prokaryotes negatively affected the surface phytoplankton populations, resulting in lower chlorophyll-a levels and primary production rates. This may be due to out-competition of phytoplankton by LIW populations for resources and/or by a phytoplankton cell lysis via viral infection. Our results suggest that phytoplankton in the EMS may not likely form blooms, even after

  2. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  3. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  4. Evaluating the impact of atmospheric depositions on springtime dinitrogen fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean - A mesocosm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Rahav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of dust and atmospheric aerosols, originating from surrounding desert areas (e.g., Sahara and Middle East are deposited annually on the surface of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. These depositions can provide high amounts of micro (such as Fe, Zn, Co and macro nutrients (such as P and N to supplement nutrient-poor surface waters- that typically limit primary productivity and also dinitrogen (N2 fixation in many marine environments. Here, we studied the impact of the atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols on N2 fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mixed polluted aerosols (hereafter A and Saharan dust (hereafter SD were added to nine mesocosms (3-m3 each containing surface mixed layer seawater (~10 m, and N2 fixation was evaluated for 6 days during May 2012 (springtime. The addition of SD triggered a rapid (30 h and robust (2-4 fold increase in N2 fixation rates that remained high for 6 days and contributed 3-8% of the primary productivity. The A addition also resulted in higher N2 fixation rates compared to the unamended control mesocosms, although the responses were less profound (1.5-2 fold and accounted for only 2-4% of the primary productivity. The microbial community responded differently to the two additions. Heterotrophic bacterial N2 fixers dominated the diazotroph community in A and the control mesocosms, while the non-filamentous cyanobacterial group Trichodesmium prevailed in the SD treatment (68% of all the operational taxonomic units, verified by qPCR analyses. Our results indicate that the aerosol source, its route prior to deposition, and its specific chemical composition, can alter the diazotrophic diversity and activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and may thus impact both the N and C dynamics in this impoverished environment.

  5. Looking for evidence of climate change impacts in the eastern Irish Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Esteves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although storminess is often cited as a driver of long-term coastal erosion, a lack of suitable datasets has only allowed objective assessment of this claim in a handful of case studies. This reduces our ability to understand and predict how the coastline may respond to an increase in "storminess" as suggested by global and regional climate models. With focus on 16 km of the Sefton coastline bordering the eastern Irish Sea (UK, this paper analyses available measured datasets of water level, surge level, wave height, wind speed and barometric pressure with the objective of finding trends in metocean climate that are consistent with predictions. The paper then examines rates of change in shoreline position over the period 1894 to 2005 with the aim of establishing relationships with climatic variability using a range of measured and modelled metocean parameters (with time spans varying from two to eight decades. With the exception of the mean monthly wind speed, available metocean data do not indicate any statistically significant changes outside seasonal and decadal cycles. No clear relationship was found between changes in metocean conditions and rates of shoreline change along the Sefton coast. High interannual variability and the lack of long-term measurements make unambiguous correlations between climate change and shoreline evolution problematic. However, comparison between the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index (NAOw and coastline changes suggest increased erosion at times of decreasing NAOw values and reduced erosion at times of increasing NAOw values. Erosion tends to be more pronounced when decreasing NAOw values lead to a strong negative NAO phase. At present, anthropogenic changes in the local sediment budget and the short-term impact of extreme events are still the largest threat likely to affect coastal flooding and erosion risk in the short- and medium-term. Nevertheless, the potential impacts of climate change in the long

  6. Grains of Nonferrous and Noble Metals in Iron-Manganese Formations and Igneous Rocks of Submarine Elevations of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, O. N.; Astakhova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    Iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks of submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan contain overlapping mineral phases (grains) with quite identical morphology, localization, and chemical composition. Most of the grains conform to oxides, intermetallic compounds, native elements, sulfides, and sulfates in terms of the set of nonferrous, noble, and certain other metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Ag, Pd, and Pt). The main conclusion that postvolcanic hydrothermal fluids are the key sources of metals is based upon a comparison of the data of electron microprobe analysis of iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks dredged at the same submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Heavy Rainfall in August 2014 over Japan and Analysis of Its Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minamiguchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model version 3.7 for simulating a series of rainfall events in August 2014 over Japan and investigated the impact of uncertainty in sea surface temperature (SST on simulated rainfall in the record-high precipitation period. WRF simulations for the heavy rainfall were conducted for six different cases. The heavy rainfall events caused by typhoons and rain fronts were similarly accurately reproduced by three cases: the TQW_5km case with grid nudging for air temperature, humidity, and wind and with a horizontal resolution of 5 km; W_5km with wind nudging and 5-km resolution; and W_2.5km with wind nudging and 2.5-km resolution. Because the nudging for air temperature and humidity in TQW_5km suppresses the influence of SST change, and because W_2.5km requires larger computational load, W_5km was selected as the baseline case for a sensitivity analysis of SST. In the sensitivity analysis, SST around Japan was homogeneously changed by 1 K from the original SST data. The analysis showed that the SST increase led to a larger amount of precipitation in the study period in Japan, with the mean increase rate of precipitation being 13 ± 8% K−1. In addition, 99 percentile precipitation (100 mm d−1 in the baseline case increased by 13% K−1 of SST warming. These results also indicate that an uncertainty of approximately 13% in the simulated heavy rainfall corresponds to an uncertainty of 1 K in SST data around Japan in the study period.

  8. Climatological studies on precipitation features and large-scale atmospheric fields on the heavy rainfall days in the eastern part of Japan from the Baiu to midsummer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Kato, Kuranoshin; Otani, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    In East Asia the significant subtropical frontal zone called the Meiyu (in China) / Baiu (in Japan) appears in early summer (just before the midsummer) and the huge rainfall is brought due to the frequent appearance of the "heavy rainfall days" (referred to as HRDs hereafter) mainly in that western part. On the other hand, large-scale fields around the front in eastern Japan is rather different from that in western Japan but the total precipitation in the eastern Japan is still considerable compared to that in the other midlatitude regions. Thus, it is also interesting to examine how the rainfall characteristics and large-scale atmospheric fields on HRDs (with more than 50 mm/day) in the eastern Japan in the mature stage of the Baiu season (16 June 15 July), together with those in midsummer (1 31 August). Based on such scientific background, further analyses were performed in this study mainly with the daily and the hourly precipitation data and the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis date from 1971 to 2010, succeeding to our previous results (e.g., EGU2015). As reported at EGU2014 and 2015, about half of HRDs at Tokyo (eastern Japan) were related to the typhoon even in the Baiu season. Interestingly, half of HRDs were characterized by the large contribution of moderate rain less than 10 mm/h. While, the precipitation on HRDs at Tokyo in midsummer was mainly brought by the intense rainfall with more than 10 mm/h, in association with the typhoons. In the present study, we examined the composite meridional structure of the rainfall area along 140E. In the pattern only associated with a typhoons in the Baiu season (Pattern A), the heavy rainfall area (more than 50 mm/day) with large contribution of the intense rain (stronger than 10 mm/h) showed rather wide meridional extension. The area was characterized by the duration of the intermittent enhancement of the rainfall. In the pattern associated with a typhoon and a front (Pattern B), while the contribution ratio of the rainfall

  9. Acoustic insights into the zooplankton dynamics of the eastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Boris; Strass, Volker H.

    2016-05-01

    The success of any efforts to determine the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems depends on understanding in the first instance the natural variations, which contemporarily occur on the interannual and shorter time scales. Here we present results on the environmental controls of zooplankton distribution patterns and behaviour in the eastern Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean. Zooplankton abundance and vertical migration are derived from the mean volume backscattering strength (MVBS) and the vertical velocity measured by moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), which were deployed simultaneously at 64°S, 66.5°S and 69°S along the Greenwich Meridian from February, 2005, until March, 2008. While these time series span a period of full three years they resolve hourly changes. A highly persistent behavioural pattern found at all three mooring locations is the synchronous diel vertical migration (DVM) of two distinct groups of zooplankton that migrate between a deep residence depth during daytime and a shallow depth during nighttime. The DVM was closely coupled to the astronomical daylight cycles. However, while the DVM was symmetric around local noon, the annual modulation of the DVM was clearly asymmetric around winter solstice or summer solstice, respectively, at all three mooring sites. DVM at our observation sites persisted throughout winter, even at the highest latitude exposed to the polar night. Since the magnitude as well as the relative rate of change of illumination is minimal at this time, we propose that the ultimate causes of DVM separated from the light-mediated proximal cue that coordinates it. In all three years, a marked change in the migration behaviour occurred in late spring (late October/early November), when DVM ceased. The complete suspension of DVM after early November is possibly caused by the combination of two factors: (1) increased availability of food in the surface mixed layer provided by the phytoplankton spring bloom, and

  10. Different nature of glacial CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS 12 in the East Sea/Japan Sea and its paleoceanographic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Boo-Keun; Tada, Ryuji; Itaki, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    Two piston cores (PC-05 and PC-08) were collected on the Yamato Rise in the East Sea/Japan Sea during the KR07-12 cruise. A composite core was achieved with the successful replacement of almost half of the upper part of core PC-05 by the entirety of core PC-08 based on the co-equivalence of L* values and the dark layers, because an interval (170 cm to 410 cm) of core PC-05 was considerably disturbed due to fluidization during the core execution. Chronostratigraphy of the composite core was constructed by the direct comparison of L* values to the well-dated core MD01-2407 that was obtained in the Oki Ridge. The lower-bottom of the composite core reached back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 14, based on the age estimate by LR04 stacks. Downcore opal variation of the composite core exhibited the distinct orbital-scale cyclic changes; high during the interglacial and low during the glacial periods. However, downcore CaCO3 variation showed no corresponding orbital-scale cyclic change between glacial and interglacial periods. Some intervals of both periods were high in CaCO3 content. Frequent and large fluctuations in CaCO3 content seemed to be more related to the presence of dark layers containing thin lamination (TL) within the glacial and interglacial intervals. It is worthy to note that MIS 2 and MIS 12 are characterized by distinctly high CaCO3 content, showing up to 18% and 73%, respectively, among the glacial periods. Furthermore, in terms of lithology, MIS 2 was characterized by a thick dark layer (low L* values) with TL, whereas MIS 12 preserved the distinctly light layer (high L* values) with parallel laminations. Another remarkable dissimilarity between MIS 2 and MIS 12 was the nature of their CaCO3 constituent; the CaCO3 constituent of MIS 2 consisted of mostly planktonic foraminifera, whereas that of MIS 12 was mostly dump of coccolithophorids, regardless the presence of planktonic foraminifera. The distinctness of the CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS

  11. Growth and Reproduction of the Sea Snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the Central Ryukyus, Japan : a Mark and Recapture Study(Ecology)

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Masunaga; Hidetoshi, Ota; Graduate School of Science and Engeneering, University of the Ryukyus; Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus

    2003-01-01

    A mark and recapture study was carried out for three years on a population of the Ijima's sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the coastal shallow water of Zamamijima Island, central Ryukyus, Japan. The relatively high recapture (47% of 167 marked snakes) suggests that E. ijimae is a particularly philopatric, sedentary species among the sea snakes. The sex ratio (male: female), approximately 1.6:1, significantly skewed from 1:1. The growth rate in SVL declined with growth, with females thoroug...

  12. Three new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on the gills of Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) from the Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Nataliya Y; Balbuena, Juan A; Sarabeev, Volodimir L

    2007-08-01

    Comparative morphology and multivariate morphometric analysis of monogeneans collected on flathead mullets Mugil cephalus from 2 Russian localities of the Japan Sea revealed the presence of 3 new species of Ligophorus, namely, L. domnichi n. sp., L. pacificus n. sp., and L. cheleus n. sp., which are described herein. So far, only 1 species of dactylogyrid monogenean identified as Ligophorus chabaudi was known on flathead mullets in this sea, but after comparison with the present material, we propose that this form actually represents L. domnichi n. sp. Results support previous zoogeographical evidence, suggesting that flathead mullets from different seas harbor different species complexes of Ligophorus. One interesting finding is that the 3 new species have a U-shaped ovary, whereas ovate ovaries have been reported in previous descriptions of species of the genus, e.g., L. vanbenedenii, L. parvicirrus, L. imitans, and L. chongmingensis. The U-shaped ovary was revealed only when the worms were observed in lateral view. The additional examination of L. vanbenedenii, L. parvicirrus, L. imitans, and L. pilengas specimens from our collections also revealed a U-shaped ovary in these forms as well. Further studies should establish whether or not this character is shared by all members of the genus.

  13. Interannual Variation of Surface Circulation in the Japan/East Sea due to External Forcings and Intrinsic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Ju; Cho, Seong Hun; Jung, Hee Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Byun, Do-Seong; Kwon, Kyungman

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of surface ocean currents can be as large as seasonal variation in the Japan/East Sea (JES). To identify the major factors that cause such interannual variability of surface ocean circulation in the JES, surface circulation was simulated from 1998 to 2009 using a three-dimensional model. Contributions of atmospheric forcing (ATM), open boundary data (OBC), and intrinsic variability (ITV) of the surface flow in the JES on the interannual variability of surface ocean circulation were separately examined using numerical simulations. Variability in surface circulation was quantified in terms of variance in sea surface height, 100-m depth water temperature, and surface currents. ITV was found to be the dominant factor that induced interannual variabilities of surface circulation, the main path of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC), and surface kinetic energy on a time scale of 2-4 years. OBC and ATM were secondary factors contributing to the interannual variation of surface circulation. Interannual variation of ATM changed the separation latitude of EKWC and increased the variability of surface circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Interannual variation of OBC enhanced low-frequency changes in surface circulation and eddies in the Yamato Basin. It also modulated basin-wide uniform oscillations of sea level. This study suggests that precise estimation of initial conditions using data assimilation is essential for long-term prediction of surface circulation in the JES.

  14. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  15. Extending the Instrumental Record of Sea-Level Change: A 1300-Year Sea-Level Record From Eastern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Cleary, P.

    2002-12-01

    The instrumental record of sea-level change in the northeastern United States extends back to the early 20th century and at New York City (NYC) extends back to 1856. These tide gauge records indicate that sea level has risen at a rate of 2.5 to 4 mm/year over the last 100-150 years. Geologic evidence of sea-level change in the region over the last 2,000 years indicates rates of sea-level rise of about 1 mm/year or less. The discordance between the instrumental and geologic records is frequently cited as potentially providing evidence that anthropogenic warming of the climate system has resulted in an increase in the rate of sea-level rise. In order to begin to test the hypothesis that acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise has occurred in the last 150 years due to anthropogenic climate warming, accurate and precise information on the timing of the apparent acceleration in sea-level rise are needed. Here we construct a high-resolution relative sea-level record for the past 1350 years by dating basal salt marsh peat samples above a glacial erratic in a western Connecticut salt marsh. Preservation of marsh vegetation remains in the sediment record that has a narrow vertical habitat range at the upper end of the tidal range provides information on past sea levels. { \\it Spartina patens} (marsh hay) and { \\it Juncus gerardi} (black rush) dominate both the modern marsh and their remains are the major constituent of the marsh sediments and occur in the modern marsh between mean high water (MHW) and mean highest high water. We use the elevation distribution of modern plant communities to estimate the relationship of sediment samples to paleo-mean high water. The chronology is based on 15 radiocarbon ages, supplemented by age estimates derived from the horizons of industrial Pb pollution and pollen indicative of European land clearance. Thirteen of the radiocarbon ages and the Pb and pollen data come from samples taken along a contact between marsh peat and a glacial

  16. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Miller, Peter I.; Ashraf, P. Muhamed; Kumar, T. Srinivasa; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B. R.; Menon, Harilal B.

    2013-08-01

    The use of ocean colour remote sensing to facilitate the monitoring of phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters is hampered by the high variability in absorption and scattering from substances other than phytoplankton. The eastern Arabian Sea coastal shelf is influenced by river run-off, winter convection and monsoon upwelling. Bio-optical parameters were measured along this coast from March 2009 to June 2011, to characterise the optical water type and validate three Chlorophyll-a (Chla) algorithms applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chla algorithms were evaluated. OC3M performed better than GSM and GIOP in all regions and overall, was within 11% of in situ Chla. GSM was within 24% of in situ Chla and GIOP on average was 55% lower. OC3M was less affected by errors in remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) and by spectral variations in absorption coefficient (aCDOM(λ)) of coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) compared to the other algorithms. A nine year Chla time series from 2002 to 2011 was generated to assess regional differences between OC3M and GSM. This showed that in the north eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred during the winter monsoon from December to February, where GSM consistently gave higher Chla compared to OC3M. In the south eastern shelf, maximum Chla occurred in June to July during the summer monsoon upwelling, and OC3M yielded higher Chla compared to GSM. OC3M currently provides the most accurate Chla estimates for the eastern Arabian Sea coastal waters.

  17. Aerosol sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on the temporal variability of compounds important in controlling aerosol chemical composition was performed during a one-month experiment conducted during summer 2000 at a background site on Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Contribution of different aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin could be investigated at this location since the site is influenced by a wide range of air masses originating mainly in Europe and Africa. Chemical apportionment was performed for various air mass origins and showed a strong impact of anthropogenic emissions in the Turkey and Central Europe sectors, with black carbon (BC and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4 concentrations higher than observed in the Eastern and Western Europe sectors. High levels of non-sea-salt calcium (nss-Ca were associated with air masses from Africa but also from Central Turkey. Evidence was found that BC calculation based on light absorbance during dust events was biased. This quality-controlled high temporal resolution dataset allowed to investigate in detail the source-receptor relationships responsible for the levels of BC, nss-SO4 and sulfur dioxide (SO2, observed in Crete. Among the results obtained from this model, the major contribution of Turkey and Central Europe was confirmed in terms of anthropogenic emissions. Comparisons with remote optical properties obtained from Satellite observations (SEAWIFS north of Crete indicates that our ground based aerosol characterization was suitable for describing aerosol properties in the atmospheric column for most of the time during the campaign.

  18. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  19. Short-term variability in halocarbons in relation to phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters of the central eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roy, R.

    The sampling locations, along the Candolim Time-Series Section (CaTS), in coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea, are shown in Fig. 1. Water depth at these stations varied between 6 m (G1) and 28 m (G5) whereas samples at G5 were generally collected from a... times. 6 3. Results The short-term variability of halocarbons and pigments has been presented for CaTS station G5, with a brief on hydrography. However, data from stations G1- G4 have been used to derive statistically significant relationships among...

  20. Seasonality of Reproduction and Embryonic Growth of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    The seasonality of reproduction and embryonic development of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sampled from the Eastern Black Sea were studied. The gestation period of spiny dogfish, starting in August, September and October, takes around 23-24 months. Fertilized females were caught at a depth of 30-45 m in July and August. Females with full-term pups and empty uteri were found at 50-60 m depth, where the temperature was 10 °C. Lengths of pups at birth were around 28-29 cm, whereas their weig...

  1. Decapod crustaceans on the Gökçeada (Imbros island continental shelf (north-eastern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. ATES

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present composition of decapod crustaceans found at the sublittoral depths (5-104 m off the coast of the island of Gökçeada (north-eastern Aegean Sea is presented. A total of 28 species (11 caridean shrimps, 1 thalassinid ghost crab, 7 anomurans and 9 brachyuran crabs and 277 specimens were recorded. The caridean shrimp, Athanas nitescens had the highest abundance with a dominance value of 20.94% in samples. The dominant group is caridean, represented by a total of 11 species and an occurrence frequency of 39.29%.

  2. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  3. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the East China Sea, Japan Sea and others from 2005-10-31 to 2006-01-30 (NODC Accession 0109919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109919 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Japan Sea, North Pacific...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Japan Sea, North Pacific Ocean and Sea of Okhotsk from 2006-08-01 to 2006-08-20 (NODC Accession 0112267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112267 includes chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Japan Sea, North Pacific Ocean and Sea of...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, Japan Sea and others from 2012-10-24 to 2013-08-27 (NODC Accession 0116977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116977 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Japan Sea,...

  7. Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaki, Takuya

    2016-12-01

    Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-sea drilling cores have provided important information about environmental changes in the Japan Sea that are related to the global climate and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major changes in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan Sea via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan Sea via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling event at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan Sea Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in sea level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Product Lifecycle and Sea/Air Modal Choice: Evidence of Export from Japan1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Murakami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we test the hypothesis that commodities at their peak valuation are transported by air, while those at their inception and maturity are shipped by sea, as well as the theory that shippers choose air to transport high-valued commodities. We empirically investigated how the product lifecycle of commodities is reflected by shippers’ choices of air over seaborne transportation. We also assumed that commodities that achieved substantial innovation in their lifecycles would be moved by air transportation so that these commodities could reach targeted markets as quickly as possible to avoid the opportunity costs that might be generated by missed business chances. We constructed two sets of unbalanced panel data of 14 commodities for 24 years drawn from Japan's customs, demographic, and international statistics. By estimating structural equation systems that consisted of commodity-specific export and export air ratio functions, we found that the product lifecycle of cargo outgoing from Japan exactly matched the upward and downward movement of the air ratio.

  9. Spatial distribution of cold-season lightning frequency in the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurushima, Daiki; Sakaida, Kiyotaka; Honma, Noriyasu

    2017-12-01

    The coastal areas of the Sea of Japan are a well-known hotspot of winter lightning activity. This study distinguishes between three common types of winter lightning in that region (types A-C), based on their frequency distributions and the meteorological conditions under which they occur. Type A lightning occurs with high frequency in the Tohoku district. It is mainly caused by cold fronts that accompany cyclones passing north of the Japanese islands. Type B, which occurs most frequently in the coastal areas of the Hokuriku district, is mainly caused by topographically induced wind convergence and convective instability, both of which are associated with cyclones having multiple centers. Type C's lightning frequency distribution pattern is similar to that of type B, but its principal cause is a topographically induced wind convergence generated by cold air advection from the Siberian continent. Type A is most frequently observed from October to November, while types B and C tend to appear from November to January, consistent with seasonal changes in lightning frequency distribution in Japan's Tohoku and Hokuriku districts.

  10. Habitat template approach for green roofs using a native rocky sea coast plant community in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Ayako; Tashiro-Ishii, Yurika

    2018-01-15

    The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding. The green roof was installed in the spring of 2012 in Chiba city. Thirteen plant species from the Jogasaki sea coast, which were successfully propagated, were planted in three kinds of substrate (15 cm depth): pumice, roof tile and commercial green roof substrate. The water drainage was restricted and a reservoir with 5 cm depth of water underlaid the substrate to simulate a similar growing environment to the sea coast. Volcanic rocks were placed as mulch to create a landscape similar to that on the Jogasaki sea coast. Plant coverage on the green roof was measured every month from June 2012 to October 2014. All plants were harvested and their dry shoot weight was measured in December 2014. The type of substrate did not cause significant differences in plant survival and dry shoot weight. Sea coast plant species were divided into four categories: vigorous growth; seasonal change; disappearing after a few years; limited growth. Understanding the ecology of natural habitats was important to simulating a local landscape using native plant communities on the green roof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Absolute sea levels and isostatic changes of the eastern North Sea to central Baltic region during the last 900 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Binderup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    that ice-cap growth can be faster than ice-cap melting. By comparison with 29 long-term tide gauge measurements of the region we show that the isostatic implications of the sea-level curve are in nearly perfect agreement with Peltier's global isostatic VM2 model (applied by IPCC and PSMSL) and yield a 3...

  12. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Dupont

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ∼120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (spanning the past 342 Ka have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials, the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods was favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including fynbos-like species of the high-altitude Grassland biome for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 Ka.

  13. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stalder

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral (CWC ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago. However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  14. Coupled wave and surge modelling for the eastern Irish Sea and implications for model wind-stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer M.; Wolf, Judith

    2009-05-01

    We revisit the surge of November 1977, a storm event which caused damage on the Sefton coast in NW England. A hindcast has been made with a coupled surge-tide-wave model, to investigate whether a wave-dependent surface drag is necessary for accurate surge prediction, and also if this can be represented by an optimised Charnock parameter. The Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System-Wave Model (POLCOMS-WAM) has been used to model combined tides, surges, waves and wave-current interaction in the Irish Sea on a 1.85 km grid. This period has been previously thoroughly studied, e.g. Jones and Davies [Jones, J.E., Davies, A.M., 1998. Storm surge computations for the Irish Sea using a three-dimensional numerical model including wave-current interaction. Continental Shelf Research 18(2), 201-251] and we build upon this previous work to validate the POLCOMS-WAM model to test the accuracy of surge elevation predictions in the study area. A one-way nested approach has been set up from larger scale models to the Irish Sea model. It was demonstrated that (as expected) swell from the North Atlantic does not have a significant impact in the eastern Irish Sea. To capture the external surge generated outside of the Irish Sea a (1/9° by 1/6°) model extending beyond the continental shelf edge was run using the POLCOMS model for tide and surge. The model results were compared with tide gauge observations around the eastern Irish Sea. The model was tested with different wind-stress formulations including Smith and Banke [Smith, S.D., Banke, E.G., 1975. Variation of the surface drag coefficient with wind speed. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 101(429), 665-673] and Charnock [Charnock, H., 1955. Wind-stress on a water surface. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 81(350), 639-640]. In order to get a single parameterisation that works with wave-coupling, the wave-derived surface roughness length has been imposed in the surge model

  15. The interaction of prehistoric human settlement, sea level change and tectonic uplift of the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The late Cenozoic mountain belt of Taiwan, resulting from the collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, is known for its rapid tectonic uplift. As postglacial sea level rose ca. 15,000 yr ago, the eastern coast of Taiwan, due to the rapid tectonic uplift rate, displayed a totally different scenario comparing with most of the coastal plains around the world. At the beginning of postglacial era, the sea level rising rate was greater than the tectonic uplift rate which induced the original piedmont alluvial fan or coastal plain to be overwhelmed by sea water rapidly. Around 13.5 ka, the tectonic uplift rate caught up with the sea level rising and broad wave-cut platform formed. The approximation of tectonic uplift and sea level rising rates was lasting from 13.5 to 5ka, but shoreline progradation may have been enhanced by increased slope erosion which resulted in the alluvial fan forming at the later time of this period. As soon as the eustasy stabilized, the landmass continued to uplift which might have enhanced the river incising and wave erosion rapidly. Therefore the topographic expression along the eastern fringing of Coastal Range forms extended alluvial-fan, stream, and marine terraces and are covered by late Holocene colluvium and marine deposits. 88 archaeological sites were chosen in this study based on surface survey where the archaeological chronology of cultural stage is established primarily through examining pottery series and associated manual excavation. It is interesting that most of the archaeological sites were located on the alluvial fan although the Holocene marine terraces have formed after 5ka. There are no clear evidences to support a shore-oriented settlement, but the abundant alluvial depositional structures observed from the overlaying formation reveals the stream depositional system was still active at this time. If the Neolithic people wanted to come to the "new born" coastal region for the abundant ocean resources, they

  16. 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in some marine biota, mostly from the seas around Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Recent 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs concentrations in some marine biota collected mostly from the seas around Japan were determined. Ash samples were digested with hot nitric acid, and the radionuclides were purified by ion exchange processes, then their alpha and beta radioactivities were measured. 239,240 Pu concentrations were in levels of 1/10 to 1/100 of 137 Cs concentrations, and showed values of some pCi/100 kg-raw in muscles. No clear difference was observed in the contents of the radionuclides of muscles between shallow waters and deep bottom inhabitants. Considerable variation in 239,240 Pu concentrations were shown among organs and tissues, but 137 Cs showed no such discrepancy. Apparent high concentration factors (CF) for 137 Cs of the deep water inhabitants were supposed to be caused by the contribution of the food chain in the deep sea. Concentrations of the radionuclides in krill and fur seal were also discussed. (author)

  17. Water masses, ocean fronts, and the structure of Antarctic seabird communities: putting the eastern Bellingshausen Sea in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine A.; Ainley, David G.; Ford, R. Glenn; Fraser, William R.; Tynan, Cynthia T.; Woehler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Waters off the western Antarctic Peninsula (i.e., the eastern Bellingshausen Sea) are unusually complex owing to the convergence of several major fronts. Determining the relative influence of fronts on occurrence patterns of top-trophic species in that area, therefore, has been challenging. In one of the few ocean-wide seabird data syntheses, in this case for the Southern Ocean, we analyzed ample, previously collected cruise data, Antarctic-wide, to determine seabird species assemblages and quantitative relationships to fronts as a way to provide context to the long-term Palmer LTER and the winter Southern Ocean GLOBEC studies in the eastern Bellingshausen Sea. Fronts investigated during both winter (April–September) and summer (October–March) were the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which separates the High Antarctic from the Low Antarctic water mass, and within which are embedded the marginal ice zone and Antarctic Shelf Break Front; and the Antarctic Polar Front, which separates the Low Antarctic and the Subantarctic water masses. We used clustering to determine species' groupings with water masses, and generalized additive models to relate species' densities, biomass and diversity to distance to respective fronts. Antarctic-wide, in both periods, highest seabird densities and lowest species diversity were found in the High Antarctic water mass. In the eastern Bellingshausen, seabird density in the High Antarctic water mass was lower (as low as half that of winter) than found in other Antarctic regions. During winter, Antarctic-wide, two significant species groups were evident: one dominated by Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) (High Antarctic water mass) and the other by petrels and prions (no differentiation among water masses); in eastern Bellingshausen waters during winter, the one significant species group was composed of species from both Antarctic-wide groups. In summer, Antarctic-wide, a High Antarctic group

  18. THE POSSIBILITY OF SAGO STARCH MARKETING IN JAPAN FROM SAGO PRODUCING AREAS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Datu, Diyah Yumeina R.; Katsuya, Osozawa

    2011-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sp.) is distributed and grows naturally in almost every island throughout Indonesia, especially in swampy coastal areas along rivers. After the World War II, the sago cultivation in the regions that surround Malaysia and the Western Indonesia, have been consolidated by the investors while farmers in the eastern Indonesia continue their conventional practice. Recently, these farmers in the eastern part have been shifting from sago production to others crops such as corn a...

  19. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North- Western Pacific in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Artemev, Georgii [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' (RPA ' Typhoon' ), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Ramzaev, Valery [Ramzaev Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osokin, Vladimir [V.G.Khlopin Radium institute, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevastianov, Aleksandr [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydro-meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian coastal areas of the Far East in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP in Japan, two radioecological expedition surveys were conducted onboard of research vessels of the Far Eastern Regional Hydro-meteorological Research Institute (FERHRI) of Roshydromet in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36 deg. 00'- 39 deg. 33' n., 146 deg. 33'- 150 deg. 00' e.): first survey in April-May 2011, onboard R/V 'Pavel Gordienko', second survey in August-September 2012, onboard R/V 'Akademik Shokalsky'. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The leading Russian institutions dealing with ensuring of population radiation safety and protection of environment from radioactive contamination were enlisted to investigations. The following main observations were performed during the surveys: constant measurement of gamma-radiation dose rate above the sea surface; twenty-four hour sampling of atmospheric aerosols, sea water sampling from the surface and deep water horizons with preliminary concentrating of radionuclides for onboard gamma-spectrometry and for subsequent transportation to the shore laboratories for further analysis. During the expeditions, a real-time data were received onboard of research vessels which characterize impact of input of radioactive products of the 'Fukushima-1' NPP accident on radioactive contamination of environment existed on that period (these are onboard estimates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the sea water samples and {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs content in atmospheric aerosol samples, data

  20. Sea-to-air and diapycnal nitrous oxide fluxes in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-to-air and diapycnal fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O into the mixed layer were determined during three cruises to the upwelling region off Mauritania. Sea-to-air fluxes as well as diapycnal fluxes were elevated close to the shelf break, but elevated sea-to-air fluxes reached further offshore as a result of the offshore transport of upwelled water masses. To calculate a mixed layer budget for N2O we compared the regionally averaged sea-to-air and diapycnal fluxes and estimated the potential contribution of other processes, such as vertical advection and biological N2O production in the mixed layer. Using common parameterizations for the gas transfer velocity, the comparison of the average sea-to-air and diapycnal N2O fluxes indicated that the mean sea-to-air flux is about three to four times larger than the diapycnal flux. Neither vertical and horizontal advection nor biological production were found sufficient to close the mixed layer budget. Instead, the sea-to-air flux, calculated using a parameterization that takes into account the attenuating effect of surfactants on gas exchange, is in the same range as the diapycnal flux. From our observations we conclude that common parameterizations for the gas transfer velocity likely overestimate the air-sea gas exchange within highly productive upwelling zones.

  1. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  2. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  3. Diversity, abundance and niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of the eastern China marginal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolan eYu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The eastern China marginal seas are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS and the East China Sea (ECS by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia and silicate (SiO32-, was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ15NTN and SiO32-, and nitrate and δ13C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO32-. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits.

  4. Diversity, Abundance, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Mud Deposits of the Eastern China Marginal Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaolan; Yao, Peng; Liu, Jiwen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Guiling; Zhao, Meixun; Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The eastern China marginal seas (ECMS) are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia, and silicate (SiO[Formula: see text]), was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ(15)NTN and SiO[Formula: see text], and nitrate and δ(13)C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO[Formula: see text]. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits.

  5. Retrospective analysis of seasonal ocean growth rates of two sea winter Atlantic Salmon in eastern Maine using historic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial declines of anadromous Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar have occurred throughout its range, with many populations at the southern extent of the distribution currently extirpated or endangered. While both one sea winter (1SW) and two sea winter (2SW) spawner numbers for the North American stocks have declined since the 1950s, the decline has been most severe in 2SW spawners. The first months at sea are considered a period of high mortality. However, early ocean mortality alone cannot explain the more pronounced decline of 2SW spawners, suggesting that the second year at sea may be more critical than previously thought. Atlantic Salmon scales collected by anglers and the state agency from 1946 to 2013 from five rivers in eastern Maine were used to estimate smolt age and ocean age of returning adults. Additionally, seasonal growth rates of maiden 2SW spawners were estimated using intercirculi measurements and linear back-calculation methods. Generalized linear mixed models (Gaussian family, log link function) were used to investigate the influence of average sea surface temperature, accumulated thermal units, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation indices, smolt age, smolt length, postsmolt growth, and river of origin on growth rate during the oceanic migration of North American Atlantic Salmon. Results suggest that different factors influence salmon growth throughout their oceanic migration, and previous growth can be a strong predictor of future size. Growth was negatively impacted by the phase of the AMO, which has been linked to salmon abundance trends, in early spring following the postsmolt period. This is likely when the 1SW and 2SW stock components separate, and our results suggest that this period may be of interest in future work examining the disproportionate decline in 2SW spawners.

  6. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    types collected in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to assess the regional impacts of past (1972-1996 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. Focus is made on the regional changes in sea-surface temperature and salinity. Commercial vessels were recently equipped with automated thermosalinographs which allows to monitor the location of salinity front along the Panama-Tahiti line, separating the Panama Gulf from the South Pacific water masses. The latitudinal change of the salinity front is well correlated with the latitudinal change of the ITCZ. Salinity distribution gives additional information on El-Niño development. How future real time SSS data might provide interesting information on the development of ENSO phenomenon in the eastern tropical Pacific area will be discussed.

  7. Small river plumes near the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea under climatic mean and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    The study is focused on the impact of discharge from small rivers on propagation and final location of fluvial waters and suspended matter at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers inflow into the sea at the studied region and most of them, except the several largest of them, have small annual runoff and limitedly affect adjacent coastal waters under climatic mean conditions. However, discharges of these small rivers are characterized by quick response to precipitation events and can dramatically increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the area under consideration. Propagation and final location of fluvial waters and terrigenous sediments at the studied region under climatic mean and rain-induced flooding conditions were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery and numerical modelling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers during climatic mean conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. Intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments form a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a north-western direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of narrow shelf at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea as compared to climatic mean discharge conditions.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  9. Comparative Morphometric Analysis of the Smallscaled Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Porcus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes, from the Southern Coast of the Crimea and Eastern Part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manilo L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of morphometric characters of small-scaled scorpionfish from the Black Sea (near the southern coast of the Crimea and from the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea showed significant differences in males and females on thirteen plastic and three meristic characters. These differences may be due to unequal abiotic and biotic habitat conditions, and refer about the geographical variability of the species, indicating the presence of two different populations in the study area.

  10. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr -1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr -1 . In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr - 1 , dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr -1 , extending past the year 4,000

  11. Japan. Wood-Plastic Composites [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T. [Central Research Laboratory, Showa Denko K.K., Ota-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1968-10-15

    Radiation chemistry research has made rapid progress in Japan over the last ten years, and many encouraging results have been obtained with radiation polymerization and graft-polymerization as well as in other fields. Several papers on wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been published in Japanese journals, but very little work on actual applications has been reported. This general review of basic studies and studies of the application of WPC in Japan is divided into three parts: radiation methods, chemical methods (catalyst-heat treatment) and the scope of future research and development.

  12. Monsoonal reversal of remote sensing biases in latent heat flux over eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Santosh, K.R.

    The Arabian Sea is a unique basin where a number of atmospheric and oceanographic processes occur due to the contrasting climatic conditions, which it experiences. The drastic monsoonal variability occurring in the boundary layer adversely affects...

  13. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A

    Extensive observations have been made on the carbon dioxide system in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons as part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Programme. Concentrations of total carbon dioxide and partial pressure...

  14. Analysis of multi-scale morphodynamic behaviour of a high energy beach facing the Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshinie Urmila Karunarathna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monthly cross shore beach profiles measured at the Ogata Wave Observation pier located in Joetsu-Ogata Coast, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, was analysed to investigate multi-scale morphodynamic beach behaviour. The Ogata beach, facing the Sea of Japan, is subjected to high energy wave conditions with that has a strong winter/summer seasonal signature. The measured beach profiles at the beach show very significant variability where cross-shore movement of shoreline position and lowering of the beach at the location of measurements exceed 20 m and 4 m respectively. The shoreline position seems to follow the seasonal variability of incident wave climate where a correlation coefficient of 0.77 was found between monthly averaged incident significant wave height and the measured monthly shoreline position. During the summer months, the beach variability mostly concentrated to in the sub-tidal part of the profile, while a significant amount of upper beach change was observed during the winter months. The beach profile shape was found to rotate between three different beach states in time; (i concave reflective profile; (ii profile with sub-tidal berm; and (iii gentle, dissipative profile. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis of the profiles show that the variability of beach profile shape is dominated by (a upper shoreface steepening; (b sub tidal berm development and dissipation; and (c variability of the overall profile slope, which have some longer than seasonal cyclic signatures. Comparison of temporal EOFs with climate indices such as Southern Oscillation Index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation index shows notable some correlations between profile change and climatic variability in the region. The analysis also shows that the morphological variability of Joetsu-Ogata Coast has similarities and some distinct spatial and temporal differences to beaches of similar kind found elsewhere.

  15. Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Anaximander mountains (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykousis, V.; Alexandri, S.; Woodside, J.M.; de Lange, G.; Dahlmann, A.; Perissoratis, C.; Heeschen, K.; Ioakim, Chr.; Sakellariou, D.; Nomikou, P.; Rousakis, G.; Casas, D.; Ballas, D.; Ercilla, G.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed multibeam, sedimentological, and geophysical surveys provide ample new data to confirm that the Anaximander Mountains (Eastern Mediterranean) are an important area for active mud volcanism and gas hydrate formation. More than 3000 km of multibeam track length was acquired during two recent

  16. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The well-exposed Middle Devonian rocks of the Appalachian foreland basin (Onondaga Formation; Hamilton Group, Tully Formation, and the Genesee Group of New York State) preserve one of the most detailed records of high-order sea-level oscillation cycles for this time period in the world. Detailed examination of coeval units in distal areas of the Appalachian Basin, as well as portions of the Michigan and Illinois basins, has revealed that the pattern of high-order sea-level oscillations documented in the New York-Pennsylvania section can be positively identified in all areas of eastern North America where coeval units are preserved. The persistence of the pattern of high-order sea-level cycles across such a wide geographic area suggests that these cycles are allocyclic in nature with primary control on deposition being eustatic sea-level oscillation, as opposed to autocylic controls, such as sediment supply, which would be more local in their manifestation. There is strong evidence from studies of cyclicity and spectral analysis that these cycles are also related to Milankovitch orbital variations, with the short and long-term eccentricity cycles (100. kyr and 405. kyr) being the dominant oscillations in many settings. Relative sea-level oscillations of tens of meters are likely and raise considerable issues about the driving mechanism, given that the Middle Devonian appears to record a greenhouse phase of Phanerozoic history. These new correlations lend strong support to a revised high-resolution sea-level oscillation curve for the Middle Devonian for the eastern portion of North America. Recognized third-order sequences are: Eif-1 lower Onondaga Formation, Eif-2: upper Onondaga and Union Springs formations; Eif-Giv: Oatka Creek Formation; Giv-1: Skaneateles, Giv-2: Ludlowville, Giv-3: lower Moscow, Giv-4: upper Moscow-lower Tully, and Giv-5: middle Tully-Geneseo formations. Thus, in contrast with the widely cited eustatic curve of Johnson et al. (1985), which

  17. Plutonium characteristics in sediments of Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiyong Liu; National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba; Jian Zheng; Masatoshi Yamada; Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori; Shaoming Pan; Hodaka Kawahata

    2011-01-01

    Sediment core samples were collected from Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea, western Northwest Pacific Ocean, and their 239+240 Pu activities and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were determined by sector field ICP-MS. The activities of 239+240 Pu ranged from 0.556 ± 0.025 to 0.745 ± 0.023 mBq/g. The atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were almost constant within the whole depth; the average value was 0.227 ± 0.014. This atom ratio was significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18, proving the presence of close-in fallout Pu that originated from the Pacific Proving Ground (PPG). The water masses exchanges between the Kuroshio Current and the Seto Inland Sea brought the PPG source Pu to this area, then Pu was extensively scavenged into sediment particles supplied by the rivers around the bay. The relative contributions of the global fallout Pu and the PPG close-in fallout Pu were evaluated by the two end-member mixing model. The contribution of the PPG close-in fallout was 38-41% of the total Pu in sediment. The remaining 59-62% was attributed to direct global fallout and the land-origin Pu transported by the rivers around the Hiroshima Bay. (author)

  18. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  19. Studies on the pore water sulfate, chloride and sedimentary methane to understand the sulfate reduction process in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.; Paropkari, A.L.; Joao, H; Kocherla, M.; Sarkar, G.P.; Biswas, G.; Kumar, N.

    Sediment cores (~5 m length) from ten stations collected in the water depths of 2665-3210 m in the eastern Arabian Sea were studied for pore water sulfate (SO42-), chloride (Cl-) and lighter-hydrocarbons (methane: C1, ethane:C2 and propane: C3...

  20. Random Forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Cipriano, Giulia; Paoli, Chiara; Ricci, Pasquale; Fanizza, Carmelo; Capezzuto, Francesca; Vassallo, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    This study provides the first estimates of density and abundance of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) and identifies the predictive variables mainly influencing their occurrence and concentration in the study area. Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) and the Delta approach on Random Forest (DaRF) methods have been applied to sightings data collected between 2009 and 2016 during standardized vessel-based surveys, providing similar outcomes. The mean value of density over the entire study area was 0.72 ± 0.26 specimens/km2 for the striped dolphin and 0.47 ± 0.09 specimens/km2 for the common bottlenose dolphin. The abundance estimated by DaRF in the Gulf of Taranto was 10080 ± 3584 specimens of S. coeruleoalba and 6580 ± 1270 specimens of T. truncatus, respectively. Eight predictive variables were selected, considering both the local physiographic features and human activities existing in the investigated area. The explanatory variables depth, distance from the coast, distance from industrial areas and distance from areas exploited by fishery seem to play a key role in influencing the spatial distribution of both species, whereas the geomorphological variables proved to be the most significant factors shaping the concentration of both dolphins. The establishment of a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) according the SPA/BD Protocol in the Gulf of Taranto is indicated as an effective management tool for the conservation of both dolphin populations in the Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  1. The Amino Acid Composition of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus Segnis, Forskal, 1775 from The North Eastern Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Artar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to detect the content of amino acid in female and male specimens of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis obtained from (including 12 male crab and also 12 female crab North Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. The protein was identified as 17.63% and 18.13% for female and male crab respevtively. Totally 9 essential amino acids were recorded in the present study. Lysine and leucine constituted the highest essential amino acid (EAA concentrations in P. segnis. This species was found to be in good score in terms of the level of EAA and the EAA/Non-EAA ratios when compared with other economical crab species.

  2. A GIS Approach for Reconstructing the Litorina Sea Lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa Area, Eastern Gulf of Riga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Hando-Laur; Rosentau, Alar; Jõeleht, Argo; Hang, Tiit; Kohv, Marko

    2015-04-01

    The eastern coast of the Gulf of Riga in the NE Baltic Sea is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Therefore even small increases in sea-level can easily lead to the flooding of considerable areas. The complex deglaciation history of the Baltic Sea area left, at times, south western Estonia submerged, while at other times, it emerged as terrestrial land. Different transgressive and regressive development stages of the Baltic Sea did not only shape the landscape, but also influenced the locations of the Stone Age settlements which were closely bound to the coastal areas which also include estuaries and lagoonal systems. The coastal region of the Gulf of Riga is abundant in Meso- and Neolithic settlement sites. The present study combines LiDAR, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geological data to reconstruct development of the Litorina Sea lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa area and to create prognostic palaeogeographic maps in order to search for Meso- and Neolithic coastal settlement sites. Over 47 km of GPR profiling was done; sediments were described and dated in 37 cores two riverbank outcrops. Diatoms were analysed in the master core. A semi-automatic method for the removal of modern anthropogenic features from LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) was developed, tested and used. In modelling process the impact of sedimentary processes subsequent to the time being modelled was taken into account by employing a backstripping methodology. The differential glacio-isostatic uplift within the study area was taken into account by using interpolated water-level surfaces. Palaeogeographic reconstructions shed new light into region's post-glacial coastal evolution and enabled us to suggest the possible locations of the Stone Age settlements with some of the proposed areas buried under up to 3 m thick peat layer. The results of the current study provide new chronological and shore displacement data

  3. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  4. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.; Benzoni, Francesca; Berumen, Michael L.; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  5. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2016-11-12

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  6. On the colour types in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D

    2014-05-30

    Two colour types were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the Sea of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the Sea of Japan.

  7. Drought reconstruction in eastern Hulun Buir steppe, China and its linkages to the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Bao, Guang; Bao, Ming; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lizhi; Ge, Yuxiang; Bao, Wurigen; Tian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A tree-ring width chronology covering the period 1780-2013 AD was developed from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica for the eastern Hulun Buir steppe, a region located on the edge of the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Climate-growth response analysis revealed drought stress to be the primary limiting factor for tree growth. Therefore, the mean February-July standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was reconstructed over the period 1819-2013, where the reconstruction could account for 32.8% of the variance in the instrumental record over the calibration period 1953-2011. Comparison with other tree-ring-based moisture sequences from nearby areas confirmed a high degree of confidence in our reconstruction. Severe drought intervals since the late 1970s in our study area consisted with the weakening East Asian summer monsoon, which modulating regional moisture conditions in semi-arid zone over northern China. Drought variations in the study area significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Pacific Ocean, suggesting a possible connection of regional hydroclimatic variations to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The potential influence associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was primarily analyzed.

  8. Enrichment of Bacteria From Eastern Mediterranean Sea Involved in Lignin Degradation via the Phenylacetyl-CoA Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Woo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of allochthonous terrestrial organic matter, such as recalcitrant lignin and hemicellulose from plants, occurs in the ocean. We hypothesize that bacteria instead of white-rot fungi, the model organisms of aerobic lignin degradation within terrestrial environments, are responsible for lignin degradation in the ocean due to the ocean’s oligotrophy and hypersalinity. Warm oxic seawater from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was enriched on lignin in laboratory microcosms. Lignin mineralization rates by the lignin-adapted consortia improved after two sequential incubations. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing detected a higher abundance of aromatic compound degradation genes in response to lignin, particularly phenylacetyl-CoA, which may be an effective strategy for marine microbes in fluctuating oxygen concentrations. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing detected a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria bacteria such as taxonomic families Idiomarinaceae, Alcanivoraceae, and Alteromonadaceae in response to lignin. Meanwhile, fungal Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes remained at very low abundance. Our findings demonstrate the significant potential of bacteria and microbes utilizing the phenylacetyl-CoA pathway to contribute to lignin degradation in the Eastern Mediterranean where environmental conditions are unfavorable for fungi. Exploring the diversity of bacterial lignin degraders may provide important enzymes for lignin conversion in industry. Enzymes may be key in breaking down high molecular weight lignin and enabling industry to use it as a low-cost and sustainable feedstock for biofuels or other higher-value products.

  9. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle, MBT, and CTD casts in the Sea of Japan and the NW Pacific (limit-180) from the HATSUTAKA MARU and other platforms from 10 April 1919 to 28 December 1993 (NODC Accession 0000416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, MBT, bottle, and other data were collected from the HATSUTAKA MARU and other platforms from the Sea of Japan and NW Pacific (limit-180) from 10 April 1919 to 28...

  10. Inverted echo sounder measurements collected in the Japan/East Sea, between 1999-06 to July 2001, under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research (NODC Accession 0002331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations were conducted from June 1999 to July 2001 to study the shallow and deep current variability in the southwest Japan/East Sea. Data were collected during...

  11. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from RYOFU MARU in the Sea of Japan from 1979-06-02 to 1979-07-21 (NODC Accession 9100223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Serial data in this accession was collected in Sea of Japan using ship RYOFU MARU. The data was collected between June 2, 1979 and July 21, 1979 and...

  12. Pressure/temperature/salinity profiler measurements collected in the Sea of Japan, 2001-06 to July 2001, under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research (NODC Accession 0002416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure/temperature/salinty profiles collected in support of a study to investigate the shallow and deep current variability in the southwest Japan/East Sea....

  13. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  14. Orbital time scale records of Asian eolian dust from the Sea of Japan since the early Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfang; De Vleeschouwer, David; Shen, Ji; Zhang, Zeke; Zeng, Lin

    2018-05-01

    A high-resolution potassium content record of sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1422 drilled in the northern Sea of Japan was employed to yield an astronomical timescale for this ∼205 m thick sedimentary archive. The K content was quantified using the natural gamma radiation (NGR) data routinely measured on DV JOIDES Resolution. The U1422 K (wt.%) series shows an increasing trend with time, which parallels the growth of North Hemisphere ice sheets since ∼4 Ma, as revealed by the global benthic foraminifer's oxygen isotope stack (LR04). We propose that K content variations reflect changes in the relative contributions of Asian eolian dust and volcanic weathering products, in response to changes in global ice volume. Using the shipboard age model, constrained by palaeomagnetism and nanofossils datums, we tuned the U1422 K content variations to the LR04 stack. Our tuned age model for site U1422 goes back to 3.9 Ma. The studied record indicates that Asian dust generation is enhanced during periods of global cooling. The synchronous variations between the U1422 K record and the LR04 stack also suggest that global cooling played a dominant role in promoting the central Asian aridification since ∼3.9 Ma, while the uplift of Tibetan Plateau plays a secondary role, considering many disagreements still exists between the timing and amplitude of the Qinghai-Tibetan uplift and the evolution of central Asian aridity since the early Pliocene.

  15. The absorbed dose in air of photons generated from secondary cosmic rays at sea level at Nagoya, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose in air of photons generated from secondary cosmic radiation at sea level at Nagoya, Japan. To isolate the contribution from cosmic photons, the pulse-height distributions due to μ particles and electrons were eliminated from the observed pulse-height distribution of a measurement with a 3'' diam. spherical NaI(Tl) detector. The pulse height due to μ particles and electrons was inferred from the coincidence technique using two types of scintillation detectors with different sensitivities to photons. To obtain the photon fluence rate for further dose calculation, the pulse-height distribution of cosmic photons was unfolded by the iterative method. The mean and its standard deviation of the absorbed dose in air and fluence rate due to cosmic photons calculated from a one year observation are 2.86±0.05 nGy.h -1 and 0.1342±0.0015 photons.cm -2 .s -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose in air from cosmic photons was 0.5% lower during autumn to winter and 0.6% higher during spring to summer than the mean taken over the year. (author)

  16. Impacts of tides on tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Soo; Shimoyama, Tomohisa; Popinet, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of tides on extreme tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, are investigated through numerical experiments. Tsunami experiments are conducted based on five scenarios that consider tides at four different phases, such as flood, high, ebb, and low tides. The probes that were selected arbitrarily in the Bungo and Kii Channels show less significant effects of tides on tsunami heights and the arrival times of the first waves than those that experience large tidal ranges in inner basins and bays of the SIS. For instance, the maximum tsunami height and the arrival time at Toyomaesi differ by more than 0.5 m and nearly 1 h, respectively, depending on the tidal phase. The uncertainties defined in terms of calculated maximum tsunami heights due to tides illustrate that the calculated maximum tsunami heights in the inner SIS with standing tides have much larger uncertainties than those of two channels with propagating tides. Particularly in Harima Nada, the uncertainties due to the impacts of tides are greater than 50% of the tsunami heights without tidal interaction. The results recommend simulate tsunamis together with tides in shallow water environments to reduce the uncertainties involved with tsunami modeling and predictions for tsunami hazards preparedness. This article was corrected on 26 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  17. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M.; Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T.

    2002-01-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs

  18. Data from investigation on seismic Sea-waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of Christ to 500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean has a long history of damaging seismic sea
    waves (Tsunamis but a great number of them which are locally generated are small. They have caused no serious damage to the coasts because their
    energy is confined by many islands of the Greek Archipelagos. However,
    some of them have been rather severe and destructive to property and
    human life.
    This paper is comprised of data from an investigation into the activity
    of seismic sea waves in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of
    Christ to 500 A.D. It contains a great amount of information concerning
    earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and seismic sea waves.
    All the available information has been compiled from historical accounts,
    archives, press reports, magazines and related works.

  19. The presence of the Indo-Pacific symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera in Greek coastal ecosystems (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. TRIANTAPHYLLOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, hundreds of species of Indo-Pacific origin from the Red Sea have traversed the Suez Canal and settled in the Eastern Mediterranean. Nowadays, Amphistegina lobifera Larsen, is known to be a successful immigrant that is widely distributed in the coastal ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Amphistegina is the most common epiphytic, symbiont- bearing large foraminifer. In this study we provide additional data on the presence of this species in the coastal ecosystems of Aegean Sea, Greece. The high relative abundance of A. lobifera is the result of very successful adaptation of this species to local conditions and suggests that it has become a significant part of the epiphytic foraminiferal fauna.

  20. Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; DeBoyer Montegut, C.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Blanke, B.; Madec, G.

    and are partly from the SEAS, but are cooled east and south of Sri Lanka in the model. That the downwelled subsurface waters are warm and are not cooled leads to temperature inversions in the BL. The main forcing for this appears to be remotely-forced planetary...

  1. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N.G.K.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of the Marine Research-Living Resource program at 24 stations in the Bay of Bengal (November, 2002) and 29 stations in the Arabian Sea (September-October, 2003) during the Cruises...

  2. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Madhupratap, M.; DileepKumar, M.; Gauns, M.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DeSouza, S.N.

    Using in situ data collected during 1992-1997, under the Indian programme of Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), it is shown that the biological productivity of the Arabian Sea is tightly coupled to the physical forcing mediated through nutrient...

  3. The central and eastern Arabian Sea as a perennial source of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.

    circulation and biological production. In all seasons, the pCO sub(2) is higher in surface waters of the Arabian Sea, except along the Indian coast in the southwest monsoon, than that in atmosphere, and thus this region appears to be a perennial source...

  4. Influence of eastern Arabian Sea on summer monsoon rainfall over west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.S.; Rao, M.V.

    and distant nature. In order to realise the model results and the influence of Arabian sea in the context of long range forecasting of monsoon rainfall, we have examined the correlation between the rainfall over west coast of India and premonsoon thermal...

  5. Distribution of metals and extent of contamination in sediments from the south-eastern Baltic Sea (Lithuanian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Remeikaitė-Nikienė

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The distribution of metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn in surface sediments and the potential pollution sources in the south-eastern part (SE of the Baltic Sea (Lithuanian zone were investigated in relation to the environmental characteristics (amount of fine-grained particles, TOC content in sediments, origin of sedimentary organic matter, salinity, water depth in 2011–2014. The higher metal concentrations were measured in sediments of the Curonian Lagoon and in the open waters. An approach using various environmental indices (enrichment factor EF, geoaccumulation index Igeo and contamination factor CF was used to quantitatively assess a contamination degree. The principal component analysis (PCA was applied in order to further scrutinize pollution from metal sources. The values of the contamination indices showed no/very low sediment contamination with Ni and Cr, minor–moderate contamination with Cu, Zn and Pb and moderate–considerable pollution with Cd. The strong relationships among metals suggested their similar distribution pattern and a combination of natural and anthropogenic sources. The higher metal concentrations coincided with an increasing amount of fine-grained fraction and organic carbon. In the territorial waters, the distribution of elements was related to the water depth. In addition, the binding of metals with insoluble iron sulphides might explain their high concentrations at the most remote and deepest stations. Keywords: Metals, Enrichment factor, Geoaccumulation index, Contamination factor, The Baltic Sea, The Curonian Lagoon

  6. Sedimentary sources and processes in the eastern Arabian Sea: Insights from environmental magnetism, geochemistry and clay mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution patterns of surficial sediment samples from different sedimentary domains (shallow to deep-sea regions of the eastern Arabian Sea were studied using sediment proxies viz. environmental magnetism, geochemistry, particle size and clay mineralogy. Higher concentrations of magnetic minerals (high χlf were recorded in the deep-water sediments when compared with the shallow water sediments. The magnetic mineralogy of one of the shallow water samples is influenced by the presence of bacterial magnetite as evidenced from the χARM/χlf vs. χARM/χfd biplot. However, the other samples are catchment-derived. The high correlation documented for χlf, anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (χARM and isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM with Al indicates that the deep-sea surficial sediments are influenced by terrigenous fluxes which have been probably derived from the southern Indian rivers, the Sindhu (the Indus and the Narmada-Tapti rivers. A lower Mn concentration is recorded in the upper slope sediments from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ but a higher Mn/Al ratio is documented in the lower slope and deep-sea sediments. Clay minerals such as illite (24–48.5%, chlorite (14.1–34.9%, smectite (10.6–28.7% and kaolinite (11.9–27.5% dominate the sediments of shallow and deep-sea regions and may have been derived from different sources and transported by fluvial and aeolian agents. Organic carbon (OC data indicate a low concentration in the shallow/shelf region (well oxygenated water conditions and deeper basins (increased bottom-water oxygen concentration and low sedimentation rate. High OC concentrations were documented in the OMZ (very low bottom-water oxygen concentration with high sedimentation rate. The calcium carbonate concentration of the surface sediments from the continental shelf and slope regions (<1800 m up to the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge show higher concentrations (average = 58% when compared to deep basin

  7. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  8. Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a coastal site in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ"3"4S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ"3"4S (δ"3"4S_n_s_s) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0–3.9‰ in spring, 2.8–4.5‰ in summer, 1.3–4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7–5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ"3"4S_n_s_s in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring sites were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ"3"4S_n_s_s in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ"3"4S_n_s_s in coal, the lower δ"3"4S_n_s_s for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ"3"4S_n_s_s due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40–75% in spring, 51–63% in summer, 45–73% in autumn, and 53–81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan. - Highlights: • δ"3"4Snss in PM2.5 is effective to estimate contribution of anthropogenic sulfur. • δ"3"4Snss have characterized with seasonal variation with high values in winter. • The contribution of transboundary transport is 39-81% at the site facing to the Sea of Japan. • δ"3"4Snss in PM2.5 are modified during transport with mixing of domestic sources. • Map of δ"3"4S distribution originated from coal in Northeast Asia is developed.

  9. Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a coastal site in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomata, Yayoi, E-mail: inomata@acap.asia [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Niigata Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 314-1, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Tokyo University of Science, 12-1, Ichigaya Funakawara, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0826 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ{sup 34}S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ{sup 34}S (δ{sup 34}S{sub nss}) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0–3.9‰ in spring, 2.8–4.5‰ in summer, 1.3–4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7–5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring sites were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in coal, the lower δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40–75% in spring, 51–63% in summer, 45–73% in autumn, and 53–81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan. - Highlights: • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 is effective to estimate contribution of anthropogenic sulfur. • δ{sup 34}Snss have characterized with seasonal variation with high values in winter. • The contribution of transboundary transport is 39-81% at the site facing to the Sea of Japan. • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 are modified during transport with mixing of domestic sources. • Map of δ{sup 34}S distribution originated

  10. Stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Carboniferous Sortebakker Formation, Wandel Sea Basin, eastern North Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhoff, F.; Stemmerik, L. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vigran, J.O. [IKU Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2000-07-01

    Two palynological assemblages of Early Carboniferous age have been recorded from the upper parts of the non-marine, fluvial-dominated Sortebakker Formation in the Wandel Sea Basin. The stratigraphically lower assemblage includes poorly preserved Cingulizonates spp., Densosporites spp., Lycospora spp. and Schulzospora spp. whereas the upper assemblage contains a more diversified microflora including the stratigraphically important Tripartites distinctus, Potoniespores delicatus and Savitrisporites spp. The microflora enables correlation and dating of the succession to the late Visean Perotrilites tessellatus - Schulzospora campyloptera (TC) and Raistrickia nigra - Triquitrites marginatus (NM) miospore Biozones of western Europe. The depositional facies correspond to those seen in time equivalent deposits from East Greenland, Svalbard, Bjoernoeya and the Barents Sea. (au)

  11. Postglacial sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    , in the outer delta, a dune field suggesting westerly-directed sediment transport is identified. The two dune fields appear to be separated by minor indefinite bed forms. The northern part of the Lister Tief is characterised by the presence of a channel with a depth of 20-30 mbsf (meter below sea level) (30......-40 msec TWT (Two Way Traveltime)) and displaying erosion towards the north. At the western termination of the channel the sediment transport pathway appears to be divided into two directions; one towards the outer delta, and one towards the sediment depocenter SW of Rømø. The Lister Ley is characterized......During the past 5 years the coastal zone offshore the northern part of the island of Sylt, has been investigated by sparker seismics and high-resolution subbottom profiling. The North Sea sector of the area is characterized by northward-directed sediment bypass as a result of strong long...

  12. Anaerobic carbon mineralisation through sulphate reduction in the inner shelf sediments of eastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Araujo, J.

    ,G.-J. .Reichart and S. W. Poulton. 2012. Sedimentary phosphorus and iron cycling in and below the oxygen minimum zone of the northern Arabian Sea.Biogeosciences Discussion. 9, 3829–3880. Pratihary A.K, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. Naik,B.R. Thorat, G. Narvenkar...). Other factors such as sedimentation rate and the presence of anaerobic electron acceptors asnitrate, Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides also affect sedimentary Corg mineralization rates.Under anoxic conditions, reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhyroxides produces...

  13. Twenty Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill Accident in the Sea of Japan, How Has Contamination Changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nakhodka, a Russian tanker loaded with 19,000 kL of C-type heavy oil, was broken up into sections and submerged off Oki Island, Shimane Prefecture, Japan on 2 January 1997. The bow, after drifting for four days, was wrecked off Anto, Sakai City (Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture, threatening the environment throughout the various shores of Ishikawa Prefecture. The accident, caused by a heavy oil spill of 6200 kL, created serious environmental problems along the shores of Hokuriku District. We report the characterization of C-type heavy oil 20 years after the accident at the Atake seashore, Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, in the Sea of Japan, based on observations in the field on 18 January 2017. We studied the microstructure, mineralogy, chemical composition, and radioactivity associated with microorganisms in the soils, and buried fishing nets and ropes that were contaminated with C-type heavy oil from this spill. The analyses used a combination of micro techniques, analytical data based on a CHN analyzer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and two kinds of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, paraffin wax, cristobalite, graphite, calcite, halite, and biotite from the Nakhodka oil spill were recognized on the surface of ropes and in the soil of the polluted seashores after 20 years. The chemical compositions indicated that high concentrations of C, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Fe, Cl, Sr, and Pb were predominantly indigenous to the Nakhodka oil spill. In the XRD analysis of the oil-contaminated soils on the rope at the Atake seashore indicated paraffin wax, graphite, sulfate, calcite and halite refractions with clay minerals, after 20 years. To date, no report has described the results of electron microscopy observations, such as Micrococcus bacillus and filamentous fungi, found in oil-contaminated soils after 20 years. In this research, such observations are introduced as

  14. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Vallès, Joan

    2012-06-14

    This paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the island of Mallorca, and provides significant information on pharmaceutical plant uses, built up from interviews with native people from this touristic hotspot, demonstrating its ethnopharmacological importance. To collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants in a north-eastern Mallorcan area (municipalities of Artà, Capdepera and Son Servera; 298 km2, 31,764 inhabitants). We performed semi-structured interviews with 42 informants (mean age 77; 40% women, 60% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analysed the results, comparing them with those found in the current Mallorcan ethnobotanical information and in other territories. The informants reported data on 121 human medicinal plants representing 64 botanical families. Around 45 medicinal uses reported, concerning 37 species, have not or have very rarely been cited as medicinal. An index of medicinal importance is proposed. All efforts addressed to compiling ethnobotanical information in industrialised or touristised areas such as Eastern Mallorca are still valuable. New possibilities can be explored to give practical value to Mallorcan ethnobotanical data in the frame of considering traditional plant knowledge as part of the islanders’ lifestyle and healthy habits.

  15. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  16. Three Kanto Earthquakes Inferred from the Tsunami Deposits and the Relative Sea Level Change in the Miura Peninsula, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Chiba, T.; Ishibe, T.; Okamura, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Tsuji, Y.; Satake, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto earthquake is a great interplate earthquake caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Japan Island along the Sagami Trough. The 1923 Kanto earthquake (M=7.9) and the 1703 Kanto earthquake (M~8.0) are two of the most devastating earthquake those struck Tokyo Metropolitan area, respectively. These earthquakes brought large (~5 m) tsunami to the coast area and uplifted the Miura peninsula by ~1.4 m. The tide gauge station, moreover, records the subsidence during the interseismic period before and after the 1923 earthquake. Present study clarifies the past Kanto earthquake prior to the 1703 earthquake based on the sedimentary analysis in the Koajiro bay of the southern Miura Peninsula. The continuous samples of inner bay fine sediments were taken by the boring survey using 3-m-long geoslicer. Three layers of coarse sediments, T1, T2, and T3 units from top toward bottom, are observed in the bay sediments at almost all the sites. These units are composed of mixture of materials such as shell fragments, rock clasts and gravel, and some of units have eroded the lower fine sediments, indicating the event deposits by the strong traction flow. The grain sizes of the bay sediments are grading upward and abruptly become larger after the deposition of the T1, T2 and T3 units. Very little diatom is observed in these units, but the total number of diatoms increase in the bay sediments. The ratio of the marine planktonic species against the benthic species gradually rises from the lower part to the upper part in the bay sediment. In the tidal flat sediment, the freshwater planktonic species appear in place of the marine planktonic diatom. The changes of grain size and diatom species make a presumption that the sea depth suddenly becomes shallow by the event and deeper during the interseismic period. The T1, T2 and T3 units, thus, are correlated with the tsunami deposits conveyed by the Kanto earthquake. The T1 and T2 units are inferred to be the tsunami

  17. Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaterman, E.; Rice, A. N.; Mann, D. A.; Paris, C. B.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater soundscapes vary due to the abiotic and biological components of the habitat. We quantitatively characterized the acoustic environments of two coral reef habitats, one in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama) and one in the Caribbean (Florida Keys), over 2-day recording durations in July 2011. We examined the frequency distribution, temporal variability, and biological patterns of sound production and found clear differences. The Pacific reef exhibited clear biological patterns and high temporal variability, such as the onset of snapping shrimp noise at night, as well as a 400-Hz daytime band likely produced by damselfish. In contrast, the Caribbean reef had high sound levels in the lowest frequencies, but lacked clear temporal patterns. We suggest that acoustic measures are an important element to include in reef monitoring programs, as the acoustic environment plays an important role in the ecology of reef organisms at multiple life-history stages.

  18. Comparison of biochemical compositions of phytoplankton during spring and fall seasons in the northern East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae Joong; Joo, HuiTae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jang Han; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Dabin; Kang, Chang Keun; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The East/Japan Sea (EJS) where is surrounded by the Korean peninsula, the Japanese islands, and the Russian coast has been experiencing a large change in physicochemical properties. Based on biochemical composition analysis (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), the current qualitative status of phytoplankton was identified in the northern EJS from two different sampling seasons (fall and spring in 2012 and 2015, respectively). The average chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration integrated from the euphotic depths was significantly higher in 2015 (99.3 ± 69.2 mg m-2) than 2012 (21.5 ± 6.7 mg m-2). Large phytoplankton (> 2 μm) were predominant in 2015 accounting for 64.5 ± 19.7% whereas small-size phytoplankton (0.7-2 μm) were dominant (49.1 ± 17.5%) in 2012. The biochemical compositions of phytoplankton were predominated by lipids (42.6 ± 7.8%) in 2012 whereas carbohydrate composition largely contributed (53.2 ± 11.7%) to the total biochemical composition in 2015, which is mainly due to different nutrient availabilities and growth stages. Interestingly, the averaged FM concentrations and calorific values for phytoplankton based on the biochemical compositions had similar values between the two years, although the integrated chl-a concentrations were substantially different between 2012 and 2015. In terms of different cell sizes of phytoplankton, we found that small phytoplankton assimilate more FM and calorific energy per unit of chl-a concentration than total phytoplankton. Our results are meaningful for the understanding of future marine ecosystems where small phytoplankton will become dominant at a scenario of ongoing warmer oceans.

  19. Crustal characteristic variation in the central Yamato Basin, Japan Sea back-arc basin, deduced from seismic survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; No, Tetsuo; Miura, Seiichi; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    The crustal structure of the Yamato Bank, the central Yamato Basin, and the continental shelf in the southern Japan Sea back-arc basin is obtained based on a seismic survey using ocean bottom seismographs and seismic shot to elucidate the back-arc basin formation processes. The central Yamato Basin can be divided into three domains based on the crustal structure: the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. In the deep basin domain, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-13 km thick. Very few units have P-wave velocity of 5.4-6.0 km/s, which corresponds to the continental upper crust. In the seamount and transition domains, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-16 km thick. The P-wave velocities of the upper and lower crusts differs among the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. These results indicate that the central Yamato Basin displays crustal variability in different domains. The crust of the deep basin domain is oceanic in nature and suggests advanced back-arc basin development. The seamount domain might have been affected by volcanic activity after basin opening. In the transition domain, the crust comprises mixed characters of continental and oceanic crust. This crustal variation might represent the influence of different processes in the central Yamato Basin, suggesting that crustal development was influenced not only by back-arc opening processes but also by later volcanic activity. In the Yamato Bank and continental shelf, the upper crust has thickness of about 17-18 km and P-wave velocities of 3.3-4.1 to 6.6 km/s. The Yamato Bank and the continental shelf suggest a continental crustal character.

  20. Seasonal variability in oxygen and nutrients in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; DileepKumar, M.; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    5. Northhyphenminussouth variations in nitrate deficit (DELN, ?M), along 64?E. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 71, NO. 11, 10 DECEMBER 1996 SPECIAL SECTION: JGOFS (INDIA) Figure 6. Dissolved oxygen (at <60 ?M) versus DELN (?M) during different seasons along 64.... This occurred to the east of 72?E where the surface temhyphenminus peratures were less than 28?C. The effect could also be Table 1. Average values of oxygen and nitrate deficit (DELN) in denitrification zone and surface Chlorophyll a in the Arabian Sea 850...

  1. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Saran, A.K.; Sharma, L.H.; Rajan, B.; Srivastava, M.

    , 2000) in the coastal waters off Goa due to grounding of a vessel and ?Sea Transporter? off Aguada on 5 June 1994 (1025 tonnes of diesel). Goa has been identified as one of the major tourist destinations of the world because of its beautiful beaches... and associated recreational activities. The economy of Goa depends on tourism to a large extent. The coastal population as well as the State Government are very particular about activities which are harmful in the coastal zone. In case spill-remains arrive...

  2. Distribution of organic carbon in surface sediments along the eastern Arabian Sea: a revisit

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrakashBabu, C.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Schnetger, B.

    , 1990; Paropkari et al., 1992, 1993a,b; Calvert et al., . 1995 . OC enrichments of )8% with maxima of up ) Corresponding author. Fax: q49-441-798-3404; E-mail: brumsack@icbm.de 1 E-mail: pbabu@csnio.ren.nic.in, pbabu@darya.nio.org. 2 E-mail: schnetger@icbm.de... sediments, that are too high by up to a factor of two. Weliky et al. . 1983 already pointed out that problems are evident when OC determinations are performed exclusively by the wet oxidation method. . Our analyses of Holocene Black Sea sapropels...

  3. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  4. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  5. Inventory, distribution, and origin of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sea water, the surface microlayer, and the aerosols in the tropical Eastern Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, J C; Saliot, A; Tissier, M J

    1978-03-20

    Hydrocarbons have been analyzed in several samples from ''Midlante'' cruise, Cape Verde islands-Canary islands, in the Eastern tropical Atlantic: subsurface water, sea surface microlayer collected by a metallic screen and aerosols collected by filtration of large air volumes at about 12 m. above the sea surface. Detailed analysis of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been made by computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This study of the air/sea interface indicates a discontinuity in hydrocarbon composition between the underlying water and the microlayer and a similarity between the surface microlayer and the aerosols. The origin of the collected aerosols is essentially marine with a minor terrestrial contribution. The hydrocarbon pattern shows that, superimposed on the typical marine components, a contribution from smokes of natural and industrial origin and/or from pollution associated with crude oil sea slicks is present.

  6. Vegetation Analysis in the Red Sea-Eastern Desert Ecotone at the Area between Safaga and South Qusseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Sheded

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is concerned with the studying the impact of environmental conditions on the vegetation in the arid ecotone located between Red Sea and Eastern Desert from Safaga to south Qusseir. Ninety eight quadrats inside 13 transects were selected to cover the environmental gradient across the ecotone, from the coastal region to the boundary of Eastern Desert. Forty five species were recorded belonged to 24 different families and 38 genera. The perennial species were 38 while the annuals were seven species. Zygophyllum coccineum had the highest presence value (89.8% followed by Tamarix nilotica (56.1% and Zilla spinosa (51.02%. Chamaephytes and Hemicryptophytes were the most prevailed life-forms. Chrological analysis exhibited that SaharoSindian and Sahro-Sindian with its extension to Sudano-Zambezian elements were the most dominant. TWINSPAN classification technique produced three vegetation groups include nine clusters at the fourth level. These groups identified according to the first and second dominant species as follows: Convolvulus hystrix - Panicum turgidum, Tamarix aphylla - Limonium pruinosum and Nitraria retusa - Tamarix nilotica. DECORANA results indicated a reasonable segregation among these groups along the ordination axis 1 and 2. Vegetation analysis showed that ecotonal clusters have highest number of species/cluster, high species richness and high species turnover. Therefore, the largest group existed in the ecotone (34 species while the desert group contained eight species and the coastal group included three species. Among the estimated soil variables in this study, pH, coarse sand, HCO3-, SO42- , clay and PO43- have the highest effect on species distribution. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR was the effective factor in detecting the ecotonal species, Aeluropus lagopoides and Limonium pruinosum.

  7. Geochemical characteristics of late Quaternary sediments from the southern Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SIOULAS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten cores from the southern Aegean Sea have been logged for their lithological composition and seventy-three sub-samples were analysed for the determination of major and trace elements concentrations. Four lithological units were identified, namely, mud, volcanic, turbidite and sapropel. On the basis of the “Z-2” Minoan ash layer radiocarbon age sedimentation rates for the southern Aegean Sea were estimated at 3.26 to 4.15 cm kyr -1. Simple correlation analysis revealed three groups of elements associated with: (1 biogenic carbonates; (2 terrigenous alumino-silicates and (3 sapropelic layers. R-mode factor analysis applied on the carbonate-free corrected data-set defined four significant factors: (1 the “detrital alumino-silicate factor” represented by Si, Al, Na, K, Rb, Zr, Pb and inversely related to Ca, Mg, and Sr; (2 a “hydrothermal factor” loaded with Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe; (3 the “volcanic ash factor” with high loadings for Ti, Al, Fe, Na and (4 a “sapropel factor” represented by Ba, Mo, and Zn. High factor scores for the “hydrothermal factor” were observed in sediment samples proximal to Nisyros Isl., suggesting a potential hydrothermal influence. Red-brown oxides and crusts dredged from this area support further this possibility. The use of factor analysis enabled for a better understanding of the chemical elements associations that remained obscured by correlation analysis.

  8. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrat Raveh

    Full Text Available This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world-the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region.

  9. Status of 137Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct 137 Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, 137 Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed 137 Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow 137 Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported 137 Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of 137 Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of 137 Cs, i.e. contaminated

  10. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background γ-spectrometry was used to determine the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio. These measured variations in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan

  11. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  12. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  13. Cetacean line-transect survey conducted in the eastern Bering Sea shelf by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from NOAA Ship Miller Freeman from 1999-07-07 to 2004-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0131862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC’s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  14. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: NPRB project number 926: Assessing the condition of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, larvae in the eastern Bering Sea with muscle-based flow cytometry cell cycle analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Walleye pollock are an important component of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem due to their vast numbers and biomass and are of great commercial importance. Their...

  15. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.002, p Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  16. Fate of microplastics and mesoplastics carried by surface currents and wind waves: A numerical model approach in the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi

    2017-08-15

    A numerical model was established to reproduce the oceanic transport processes of microplastics and mesoplastics in the Sea of Japan. A particle tracking model, where surface ocean currents were given by a combination of a reanalysis ocean current product and Stokes drift computed separately by a wave model, simulated particle movement. The model results corresponded with the field survey. Modeled results indicated the micro- and mesoplastics are moved northeastward by the Tsushima Current. Subsequently, Stokes drift selectively moves mesoplastics during winter toward the Japanese coast, resulting in increased contributions of mesoplastics south of 39°N. Additionally, Stokes drift also transports micro- and mesoplastics out to the sea area south of the subpolar front where the northeastward Tsushima Current carries them into the open ocean via the Tsugaru and Soya straits. Average transit time of modeled particles in the Sea of Japan is drastically reduced when including Stokes drift in the model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Groundwater balance in the Khor Arbaat basin, Red Sea State, eastern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Abdalla E. M.; Zeielabdein, Khalid A. Elsayed; Babikir, Ibrahim A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Khor Arbaat basin is the main source of potable water supply for the more than 750,000 inhabitants of Port Sudan, eastern Sudan. The variation in hydraulic conductivity and storage capacity is due to the heterogeneity of the sediments, which range from clay and silt to gravely sand and boulders. The water table rises during the summer and winter rainy seasons; it reaches its lowest level in the dry season. The storage capacity of the Khor Arbaat aquifer is estimated to be 21.75 × 106 m3. The annual recharge through the infiltration of flood water is about 1.93 × 106 m3. The groundwater recharge, calculated as underground inflow at the ‘upper gate’, is 1.33 × 105 m3/year. The total annual groundwater recharge is 2.06 × 106 m3. The annual discharge through underground outflow at the ‘lower gate’ (through which groundwater flows onto the coastal plain) is 3.29 × 105 m3/year. Groundwater discharge due to pumping from Khor Arbaat basin is 4.38 × 106 m3/year on average. The total annual groundwater discharge is about 4.7 × 106 m3. A deficit of 2.6 × 106 m3/year is calculated. Although the total annual discharge is twice the estimated annual recharge, additional groundwater flow from the fractured basement probably balances the annual groundwater budget since no decline is observed in the piezometric levels.

  18. Discovering where bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, might go: using environmental and fishery data to map potential tuna habitat in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Damalas; Persefoni Megalofonou

    2012-01-01

    Based on a dataset derived from commercial fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 1998-2005, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to investigate the relative influence of a range of environmental factors on catch rates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1785). GAM analyses were conducted by separately modelling (1) the probability of making a catch (encountering a school), and (2) the positive catch rates (school size). Results suggested intra-annual variation...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from SOYO-MARU in the Japan Sea, North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 2010-11-12 to 2011-07-17 (NODC Accession 0117672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117672 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOYO-MARU in the Japan Sea, North Pacific Ocean and...

  20. Spatial distribution and dietary overlap between Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of ichthyoplankton and jellyfish, and dietary overlap between the ichthyoplankton and jellyfish in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS, Japan. Ichthyoplankton, copepods, and jellyfish were collected during two cruises in July 2005 in the Sea of Hiuchi and in July 2006 in Hiroshima Bay within the SIS. Sea surface temperature (˚C, salinity, bottom-layer dissolved oxygen (mg l-1 and the abundance (no. m-2 of fish eggs and larvae were significantly higher in the Sea of Hiuchi. Japanese anchovy was most dominant (69.3% in number of eggs and 52.3% in number of larvae among the ichthyoplankton. Mean jellyfish biomass (g m-2 in Hiroshima Bay was significantly higher (50-folds than that in the Sea of Hiuchi. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant among the jellyfish collected, accounting for 85.6% in wet weight. Surface temperature had a significant effect on fish egg and larval distribution: abundance of fish eggs and larvae increased with increasing temperature. Jellyfish abundance was negatively correlated with the bottom-layer oxygen concentration. Stable isotope analysis indicated dietary overlap between the Japanese anchovy and the moon jellyfish in Hiroshima Bay.

  1. Eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature annual cycle in the Kiel climate model: simulation benefits from enhancing atmospheric resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengel, C.; Latif, M.; Park, W.; Harlaß, J.; Bayr, T.

    2018-05-01

    A long-standing difficulty of climate models is to capture the annual cycle (AC) of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) sea surface temperature (SST). In this study, we first examine the EEP SST AC in a set of integrations of the coupled Kiel Climate Model, in which only atmosphere model resolution differs. When employing coarse horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution, significant biases in the EEP SST AC are observed. These are reflected in an erroneous timing of the cold tongue's onset and termination as well as in an underestimation of the boreal spring warming amplitude. A large portion of these biases are linked to a wrong simulation of zonal surface winds, which can be traced back to precipitation biases on both sides of the equator and an erroneous low-level atmospheric circulation over land. Part of the SST biases also is related to shortwave radiation biases related to cloud cover biases. Both wind and cloud cover biases are inherent to the atmospheric component, as shown by companion uncoupled atmosphere model integrations forced by observed SSTs. Enhancing atmosphere model resolution, horizontal and vertical, markedly reduces zonal wind and cloud cover biases in coupled as well as uncoupled mode and generally improves simulation of the EEP SST AC. Enhanced atmospheric resolution reduces convection biases and improves simulation of surface winds over land. Analysis of a subset of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) reveals that in these models, very similar mechanisms are at work in driving EEP SST AC biases.

  2. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  3. Mercury Redox Chemistry in Waters of the Eastern Asian Seas: From Polluted Coast to Clean Open Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yin, Yongguang; Chen, Jinsheng; Wang, Shiwei

    2016-03-01

    We performed incubation experiments using seawaters from representative marine environments of the eastern Asian seas to determine the mercury (Hg) available for photoreduction (Hgr(II)), to investigate the Hg redox reaction kinetics, and to explore the effect of environmental factors and water chemistry on the Hg redox chemistry. Results show that Hgr(II) accounted for a considerable fraction of total Hg (THg) (%Hgr(II)/THg: 24.90 ± 10.55%, n = 27) and positively correlated with THg. Filtration decreased the Hgr(II) pool of waters with high suspended particulate matter (SPM). The positive linear relationships were found between pseudo-first order rate constants of gross Hg(II) photoreduction (kr) and gross Hg(0) photo-oxidation (ko) with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Under the condition of PAR of 1 m mol m(-2) s(-1), the kr were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than ko (kr/ko: 0.86 ± 0.22). The Hg(0) dark oxidation were significantly higher than the Hg(II) dark reduction. The Hg(II) dark reduction was positively correlated to THg, and the anaerobic condition favored the Hg(II) dark reduction. Filtration significantly influenced the Hg photoredox chemistry of waters with high SPM. UVB radiation was important for both Hg(II) photoreduction and Hg(0) photo-oxidation, and the role of other wavebands in photoinduced transformations of Hg varied with the water chemistry.

  4. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth H; Walker, William A; Thomason, James R

    2015-01-01

    The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m-1000 m) is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models.

  5. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absorption properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the East China Sea and the waters off eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengxia; Gao, Xuelu; Song, Jinming; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yuan, Huamao; Xing, Qianguo

    2018-05-01

    The absorption properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the East China Sea (ECS) and the waters off eastern Taiwan (WET) were studied during May 2014. CDOM absorption coefficient (a280) and spectral slope (S275-295) revealed considerable spatial variations. In the ECS, the values of a280 and S275-295 presented a reverse distribution pattern. In the WET, a280 values were generally low while S275-295 values were generally high. Vertical distributions of a280 and S275-295 also varied in different regions. Terrestrial input, phytoplankton production, sediment release or photobleaching may be responsible for the dynamics of CDOM. Relationships among CDOM related parameters could partly support this conclusion. a280 were also used to trace different water masses and the result showed that the influence of Changjiang Diluted Water could reach the outer shelf of the northern ECS, and that the Kuroshio Current had a strong influence on the middle shelf of the southern ECS.

  7. Effects of habitat and substrate complexity on shallow sublittoral fish assemblages in the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GIAKOUMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to explore fish community structure and its relations to habitat and topographic complexity in the shallow coastal waters of the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea. In situ visual surveys were carried out at 233 sampling sites in 26 islands of the Cyclades Archipelago. Fish community parameters and biomass were estimated across seven substrate types: sand, seagrass, vertical walls, boulders, horizontal/subhorizontal continuous rock, rocky substrate with patches of sand, and rocky substrate with patches of sand and Posidonia oceanica. Topographic complexity and percentage of algal cover were estimated on hard substrate. Substrate type was found to be a determining factor affecting the structure and composition of fish assemblages. Species number, abundance and biomass were significantly lower in sandy areas and always higher on hard substrates, with seagrass habitats presenting intermediate values. Topographic complexity in rocky bottoms did not seem to affect species richness, density or biomass. This study provides a baseline for future evaluation of changes produced by potential management actions such as the creation of marine protected areas in the study region.

  8. Patterns in connectivity and retention of simulated Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) larvae in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richar, Jonathan I.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Curchitser, Enrique; Hermann, Albert J.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) population of Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) has exhibited high variability in recruitment to the commercially exploited stock since the late 1970s. Concurrently, apparent shifts in crab distribution have also been observed. Larval advection patterns and associated local retention offer a potential mechanism for these observations. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was used to simulate larval Tanner crab advection patterns over 1978-2004 based on larval hatching sites inferred from the distributions of reproductive females sampled during annual National Marine Fisheries Service trawl surveys. Connectivity among EBS subregions was examined by comparing start and end float locations after 60 days of simulated drift. High levels of retention (>50% of floats) were observed in the majority of source subregions, and contributed significantly to the total number of endpoints in each region. Patterns in advection and resultant interregional connectivity were variable, with strongest sustained connectivity occurring along shelf, within individual domains. Increased settlement potential in the outer domain and southern middle domain after 1990 is consistent with an observed geographic shift in fishery productivity. Apparent reliance of Bristol Bay on local larval retention validates recent spatial fishery management to conserve this area as a subpopulation.

  9. Vertical nutrient fluxes, turbulence and the distribution of chlorophyll a in the north-eastern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Richardson, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    During summer the northern North Sea is characterized by nutrient rich bottom water masses and nutrient poor surface layers. This explains the distribution of chlorophyll a in the water column where a subsurface maximum, referred to as the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), often is present during the growth season. Vertical transport of nutrients between bottom water masses and the well lit surface layer stimulates phytoplankton growth and this generally explains the location of the DCM. However, a more specific understanding of the interplay between vertical transports, nutrient fluxes and phytoplankton abundance is required for identifying the nature of the vertical transport processes, e.g the role of advection versus vertical turbulent diffusion or the role of localized mixing associated with mesoscale eddies. We present results from the VERMIX study in the north-eastern North Sea where nutrients, chlorophyll a and turbulence profiles were measured along five north-south directed transects in July 2016. A high-resolution sampling program, with horizontal distances of 1-10 km between CTD-stations, resolved the horizontal gradients of chlorophyll a across the steep bottom slope from the relatively shallow central North Sea ( 50-80 m) towards the deep Norwegian Trench (>700 m). Low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water masses above the slope indicated enhanced biological production where vertical mixing would stimulate phytoplankton growth around the DCM. Measurements of variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed elevated values in the DCM which demonstrates a higher potential for electron transport in the Photosystem II in the phytoplankton cells, i.e. an indication of nutrient-rich conditions favorable for phytoplankton production. Profiles of the vertical shear and microstructure of temperature and salinity were measured by a VMP-250 turbulence profiler and the vertical diffusion of nutrients was calculated from the estimated vertical turbulent diffusivity and the

  10. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico R Crema

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes.

  11. Relations between tectonics and sedimentation along the Eastern Sardinian margin (Western Tyrrhenian Sea) : from rifting to reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Chanier, Frank; Vendeville, Bruno; Lymer, Gaël; Maillard, Agnès; Thinon, Isabelle; Lofi, Johanna; Sage, Françoise; Giresse, Pierre; Bassetti, Maria-Angela

    2014-05-01

    The offshore-onshore project "METYSS-METYSAR" aims at better understand the Miocene-Pliocene relationships between crustal tectonics, salt tectonics, and sedimentation along the Eastern Sardinian margin, Western Tyrrhenian Sea. In this key-area, the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin underwent recent rifting (9-5 Ma), pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma), sea-floor spreading starting during Pliocene times. Thereby, the Tyrrhenian basin and the Eastern Sardinian margin are excellent candidates for studying the mechanisms of extreme lithospheric stretching and thinning, the role of pre-existing structural fabric during and after rifting, and the reactivation of a passive margin and the associated deformation and sedimentation patterns during the MSC. We looked at the respective contributions of crustal and salt tectonics in quantifying vertical and horizontal movements, using especially the seismic markers of the MSC. Overall, we delineate the history of rifting and tectonic reactivation in the area. The distribution maps respectively of the Messinian Erosion Surface and of Messinian units (Upper Unit and Mobile Unit) show that a rifted basin already existed by Messinian time. This reveals a major pre-MSC rifting across the entire domain. Because salt tectonics can create fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined in order to decipher the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and thin-skinned salt tectonics. Our data surprisingly show that there are no clues for Messinian syn-rift sediments along the East-Sardinia Basin and Cornaglia Terrace, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Nevertheless, widespread deformation occurred during the Pliocene and can only be attributed to post-rift reactivation. This reactivation is characterized not only by normal faulting but also by contractional structures. Some Pliocene vertical movements caused localized gravity gliding of the mobile

  12. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  13. The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A Relict Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, D; Goffman, O; Elasar, M; Hadar, N; Scheinin, A; Lewis, T

    Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of two super typhoons on the Kuroshio and marginal seas on the Pacific coast of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Masunaga, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution downscaling ocean modeling was conducted to investigate the impacts of two super typhoons on the Kuroshio in the fall of 2014 off the Kyushu and Shikoku Islands, Japan. The model result was compared with field observations and satellite altimetry. The synoptic and mesoscale oceanic structures around the Kuroshio exhibit a good reproducibility. The typhoons generated near-inertial oscillations (NIOs) and near-inertial internal waves (NIIWs) around the Kuroshio path, particularly on the right side of the typhoon tracks. The NIOs developed in the mixed layer to alter the direction of the Kuroshio by 30°. The associated velocity off the Shikoku and Kyushu Islands was significantly decelerated by 0.2 ms-1. The velocity almost vanished off Kyushu Island and thus induced an unstable fluctuating path shortly after both typhoons passed over that region. The NIIWs were also excited at the thermocline, resulting in the oscillation of the Kuroshio path occurred in the entire water column. In contrast, off Shikoku Island, the typhoons shifted the Kuroshio path northward to enhance the interactions with the topographies. This shift caused considerable eddy shedding from the capes that resulted in mesoscale counterclockwise circulations as cyclonic quasi-standing eddies with a shedding period of 3 days in the north of the Kuroshio path. The magnitude, direction, and meridional location of the path of the Kuroshio prominently fluctuated with the propagation of these eddies, manifested off Shikoku Island. Furthermore, these eddies induced sporadic northward intrusions of the Kuroshio warm water through the Kii Channel into the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), where a weak but persisting southward outflow prevails under normal conditions. Therefore, the process could collectively be called the "typhoon-Kuroshio-eddy interaction", which conceptually differs from the "typhoon-eddy-Kuroshio interaction" in the previous studies, where the Kuroshio was modulated by eddy collision

  15. Changes in distributional patterns of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central and eastern North Sea; do declining nutrient loadings play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Munk, Peter; Kodama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    of offshore habitats as nursery areas by juvenile plaice in the North Sea appears not related to water depth per se but driven by specific processes dominating in near-shore areas and may be related to changes in nutrient loadings. This point to the importance of separating more general depth-related factors....... For the same time period available time series data on nutrient conditions in the coastalNorth Sea area showthat the freshwater nitrogen loading has decreased by about 50%. While nutrient concentrations in the ambient environment have been shown to influence growth in juvenile plaice through influence...... on their prey, we here inspect the potential linkage between distributional changes in plaice and the decline in nutrient loading.We compare plaice observations in coastal areas in the eastern North Sea,which have experienced large changes in eutrophication,with observations for the Dogger Bank, a large...

  16. Organohalogen compounds in deep-sea fishes from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan: Contamination status and bioaccumulation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shin; Oshihoi, Tomoko; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ohmori, Koji; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of deep-sea fishes collected in 2005 from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan were analyzed for organohalogen compounds. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of DDTs and PCBs (up to 23,000 and 12,400 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) were the highest. The present study is the foremost to report the occurrence of brominated flame retardants such as PBDEs and HBCDs in deep-sea organisms from the North Pacific region. Significant positive correlations found between δ 15 N ( per mille ) and PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs suggest the high biomagnification potential of these contaminants in food web. The large variation in δ 13 C ( per mille ) values observed between the species indicate multiple sources of carbon in the food web and specific accumulation of hydrophobic organohalogen compounds in benthic dwelling carnivore species like snubnosed eel. The results obtained in this study highlight the usefulness of deep-sea fishes as sentinel species to monitor the deep-sea environment.

  17. Constraining back-arc basin formation in the eastern Coral Sea: preliminary results from the ECOSAT voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Williams, S.; Mortimer, N. N.; Meffre, S.; Moore, J.; Micklethwaite, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Coral Sea region is an underexplored area at the northeastern corner of the Australian plate, where long-lived interaction between the Pacific and Australian plate boundaries has resulted in an intricate assemblage of deep oceanic basins and ridges, continental fragments and volcanic products. A paucity of marine geophysical and geological data from this complex region has resulted in the lack of a clear conceptual framework to describe its formation, ultimately affecting our understanding of the connection between the plate boundaries of the SW Pacific and SE Asia. In particular, the tectonic relationship between two back-arc basins, the Santa Cruz and d'Entrecasteaux Basins, and the South Rennell Trough, has yet to be resolved. In October-November, 2012, we collected 6,200 km of marine magnetic, 6,800 km of gravity and over 13,600 km2 of swath bathymetry data from the eastern Coral Sea onboard the RV Southern Surveyor. A complementary dredging program yielded useful samples from 14 seafloor sites. Our preliminary geochemical interpretation of the dredge samples obtained from the South Rennell Trough reveal volcanic rocks resembling MORB or BABB-type basalts, similar in composition to the recently re-analysed and dated ORSTOM dredges from the area that yielded ~28 Ma MORB-like basalts. Swath bathymetry profiles from the Santa Cruz Basin reveal that the South Rennell Trough extends into this basin, with seafloor spreading fabric being parallel to the trough. Preliminary analysis of the three full and four partial new magnetic anomaly profiles across the Santa Cruz Basin, coupled with limited existing profiles, reveals that the basin may have formed between Chrons 13-18 (~32-38 Ma), with an extinct spreading ridge along the inferred continuation of the South Rennell Trough, consistent with ORSTOM age dates. Our results suggest that the South Rennell Trough is an extinct southwestward propagating spreading ridge, which may have initiated along a pre

  18. Aspects on gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis of two deep-sea polychaetes from Eastern Atlantic cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudron, S. M.; Hourdez, S.; Olu, K.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated two gonochoristic species of annelid polychaetes (one siboglinid and one polynoid) from cold seeps that ranged from 525 m to 3300 m in depth (Guiness, Worm Hole and Regab pockmarks) on the Gabon and Congo continental margins (Gulf of Guinea). Different aspects of gametogenesis (oocyte diameter, presence of ovisac, spermatozoa shape, and fecundity), fertilization (in vitro fertilization experiments: IVF) and embryogenesis (cleavage rate) were studied. The sampled siboglinid was a new species of Lamellibrachia and the second population of this genus in the Eastern Atlantic. Mean oocyte diameter was about 100 μm and fully-grown primary oocytes were stored in an ovisac, as in other studied siboglinids. The presence of a single spermatozoon was noted within an oviduct, indicating a possible internal fertilization. The rate of cell division at 6 °C was one cleavage every 20 h. Embryos developed normally to the blastula stage after 5-d post-fertilization at atmospheric pressure suggesting some pressure tolerance. The second polychaete was the scale-worm Branchipolynoe cf. seepensis that lives in commensalism in the mantle cavity of Bathymodiolus aff. boomerang. Anatomical reproductive features were similar to those described in B. seepensis from hydrothermal vents on Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with lecithotrophic larval development and continuous gametogenesis. We performed the first IVF carried out on gametes for any deep-sea polynoid species. Fertilization and development occurred but a number of abnormalities were observed demonstrating a limitation to embryogenesis at atmospheric pressure. The rate of cell division was three times faster at 8 °C than at 4 °C with a maximum stage of 8-cells reached after 72 h post-fertilization. We surprisingly observed some oocytes from the negative seawater control during IVF experiments cleaved to the 2-cell stage, demonstrating the possible occurrence of internal fertilization prior to IVF experiment or the accidental

  19. A Review of Plastic-Associated Pressures: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Australian Shearwaters as Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of debris on marine fauna occur throughout the marine ecosystems, with adverse impacts documented on over 1,400 species; impacts can be divided into those arising from entanglement, and those from ingestion. Ingestion of, and entanglement in, debris has been documented in over 60% of all cetacean species. Seabirds are also impacted by debris predominately through entanglement and ingestion, with the number of species negatively impacted increasing from 138 to 174 over the past two decades. In the marine environment, cetaceans and seabirds are widely regarded as reliable sentinels due to their position near the top of the marine food web, conspicuous nature, and reliance on marine resources; for this reason, this paper is focused on seabirds and cetaceans as sentinels of ocean change. In particular, two case studies are considered in relation to different levels of environmental anthropogenic impact: the cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and seabirds of eastern Australia. Here we describe two recent studies used to diagnose the toxicological stress related to debris-associated pressures in cetaceans and seabirds. These studies highlight the diversity and scale of impacts being felt by marine species and the role these organisms can play in our society as charismatic sentinels of ocean health. Seabirds and marine mammals are exposed, in these key areas, to a variety of adversities that potentially decrease their survival or reproductive success. These include weather, food shortages, predators, competitors, parasites, disease, and human-induced effects and plastic pollution. Each factor affects seabirds and marine mammals in a different way, but more importantly, factors can also interact and create impacts far greater than any one factor alone. The Australian and Mediterranean case studies presented here emphasize the need to consider multiple sources of mortality when developing management plans for the conservation of vulnerable

  20. Updated analysis of flatfish recruitment response to climate variability and ocean conditions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderbuer, Thomas; Stockhausen, William; Bond, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This study provides a retrospective analysis of the relationship between physical oceanography, biology and recruitment of three Eastern Bering Sea flatfish stocks: flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) during the period 1978-2005. Stock assessment model estimates of recruitment and spawning stock size indicate that temporal patterns in productivity are consistent with decadal scale (or shorter) patterns in climate variability, which may influence marine survival during the early life history phases. Density-dependence (through spawning stock size) was statistically significant in a Ricker stock-recruit model of flatfish recruitment that included environmental terms. Wind-driven advection of northern rock sole and flathead sole larvae to favorable nursery grounds was found to coincide with years of above-average recruitment. Ocean forcing of Bristol Bay surface waters during springtime was mostly on-shelf (eastward) during the 1980s and again in the early 2000s, but was off-shelf (westerly) during the 1990s, corresponding with periods of good and poor recruitment, respectively. Finally, the Arctic Oscillation was found to be an important indicator of arrowtooth flounder productivity. Model results were applied to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future springtime wind scenarios to predict the future impact of climate on northern rock sole productivity and indicated that a moderate future increase in recruitment might be expected because the climate trends favor on-shelf transport but that density-dependence will dampen this effect such that northern rock sole abundance will not be substantially affected by climate change.

  1. Abnormal storm waves in the winter East/Japan Sea: generation process and hindcasting using an atmosphere-wind wave modelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal storm waves cause coastal disasters along the coasts of Korean Peninsula and Japan in the East/Japan Sea (EJS in winter, arising due to developed low pressures during the East Asia winter monsoon. The generation of these abnormal storm waves during rough sea states were studied and hindcast using an atmosphere-wave coupled modelling system. Wind waves and swell due to developed low pressures were found to be the main components of abnormal storm waves. The meteorological conditions that generate these waves are classified into three patterns based on past literature that describes historical events as well as on numerical modelling. In hindcasting the abnormal storm waves, a bogussing scheme originally designed to simulate a tropical storm in a mesoscale meteorological model was introduced into the modelling system to enhance the resolution of developed low pressures. The modelling results with a bogussing scheme showed improvements in terms of resolved low pressure, surface wind field, and wave characteristics obtained with the wind field as an input.

  2. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Fengfu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu Xueqin; Xu Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-01-01

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 o N, 140.36 o E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm -1 ), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC + BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 μm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation

  3. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation.

  4. Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

  5. An illustrated catalogue of Rudolf Sturany’s type specimens in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria (NHMW: deep-sea Eastern Mediterranean molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo G. Albano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Pola” expeditions were the first to explore the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea in the 1890s. They remained the most intense surveys in that area for a century and constitute today a fundamental baseline to assess change in the basin, whose fauna is still inadequately described. Solid taxonomic foundations for the study of deep-sea organisms are needed and we here contribute by revising the name-bearing types of mollusc species introduced by Rudolf Sturany on the basis of the “Pola” material from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea stored in the Natural History Museum in Vienna. Sturany introduced 15 names (Marginella occulta var. minor Sturany, 1896 shall not be considered as the introduction of a new name. He described and established two manuscript names by Monterosato: Jujubinus igneus and Pseudomurex ruderatus. The genus Isorropodon was also introduced together with its type species I. perplexum. For each name, we list the available type material, provide the original description and a translation into English and illustrate the specimens in colour and with SEM imaging.

  6. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (oftenstomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

  7. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  8. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  9. Fluctuations in the East Asian monsoon recorded by pollen assemblages in sediments from the Japan Sea off the southwestern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, from 4.3 Ma to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko; Irino, Tomohisa; Sawada, Ken; Song, Lu; Furota, Satoshi

    2018-04-01

    We reconstructed fluctuations in the East Asian monsoon and vegetation in the Japan Sea region since the middle Pliocene based on pollen data obtained from sediments collected by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program off the southwestern coast of northern Japan. Taxodiaceae conifers Metasequoia and Cryptomeria and Sciadopityacere conifer Sciadopitys are excellent indicators of a humid climate during the monsoon. The pollen temperature index (Tp) can be used as a proxy for relative air temperature. Based on changes in vegetation and reconstructed climate over a period of 4.3 Ma, we classified the sediment sequence into six pollen zones. From 4.3 to 3.8 Ma (Zone 1), the climate fluctuated between cool/moist and warm/moist climatic conditions. Vegetation changed between warm temperate mixed forest and cool temperate conifer forest. The Neogene type tree Carya recovered under a warm/moist climate. The period from 3.8 to 2.5 Ma (Zone 2) was characterized by increased Metasequoia pollen concentration. Warm temperate mixed forest vegetation developed under a cool/moist climate. The period from 2.5 to 2.2 Ma (Zone 3) was characterized by an abrupt increase in Metasequoia and/or Cryptomeria pollen and a decrease in warm broadleaf tree pollen, indicating a cool/humid climate. The Zone 4 period (2.2-1.7 Ma) was characterized by a decrease in Metasequoia and/or Cryptomeria pollen and an increase in cool temperate conifer Picea and Tsuga pollen, indicating a cool/moist climate. The period from 1.7 to 0.3 Ma (Zone 5) was characterized by orbital-scale climate fluctuations. Cycles of abrupt increases and decreases in Cryptomeria and Picea pollen and in Tp values indicated changes between warm/humid and cold/dry climates. The alpine fern Selaginella selaginoides appeared as of 1.6 Ma. Vegetation alternated among warm mixed, cool mixed, and cool temperate conifer forests. Zone 6 (0.3 Ma to present) was characterized by a decrease in Cryptomeria pollen. The warm temperate broadleaf

  10. Neogene Tectonics of Part of the Junction of Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ćifçi, G.; Gürçay, S.; Hall, J.; Yaltırak, C.; Aksu, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    the Finike Basin is puzzling and requires that the Finike Basin either remained above the depositional surface during the Messinian or was isolated from the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Reprint of - Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  12. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  13. Early-to-middle Holocene sea-level fluctuations, coastal progradation and the Neolithic occupations in Yaojiang valley of southern Hangzhou bay, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Sun, Q.; Fan, D.; Chen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of Holocene coast in eastern China provided material base for the development of Neolithic civilizations. The coastal Yaojiang valley of south Hangzhou bay was one of the examples where the well-known Neolithic Hemudu Culture (HC) of Eastern China initiated. Here, we studied the early-to-middle Holocene environment changes in relation to sea-level fluctuations on the basis of a serial of sediment cores based on a set of new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) chronology. The result indicated that relative sea-level rose rapidly in the Yaojiang valley at the early Holocene, reaching its maximum at ca. 8000-7800 cal yr BP and then decelerated at ca. 7800-7500 cal yr BP. The alluvial plain in Yaojiang valley began to form at the foothills first and then grew towards the valley center accompanying with the sea-level stabilization after ca. 7500 cal yr BP. This progressive progradation of alluvial plain would attract the early arrivals of foragers to dwell at the foothills to engaging in rice farming after ca.7000 cal yr BP and starting the epic Hemudu Culture. The HC people then move down to the valley center as more land became available thanks to sediment aggregation and progradation. The rise and development of HC were closely associated with the sea-level induced landscape changes in Yaojiang valley at the early-middle Holocene, and the unstable hydraulic condition in the valley after 5000 cal yr BP could be accountable for the cultural termination.

  14. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Western Baltic Sea, and implications for assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Boje, Jesper; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    and management. Plaice in Kattegat and Skagerrak have traditionally been considered as one stock unit. Current understanding indicates that several plaice components may exist in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A comprehensive review of all available biological knowledge on plaice...

  15. Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management strategies such as thinning have long been used to enhance ecosystem functions, especially in plantations. Thinning in plantations with high deer density, however, may not yield a desired increase in understory vegetation because deer graze on germinating plants after thinning. Here, we examine the changes in understory vegetation after thinning in plantations that have been overgrazed by sika deer to provide insight into the effects of thinning on ecosystem functions such as soil conservation and biological diversity. Methods We conducted our survey in the Tanzawa Mountains of eastern Japan. We surveyed the change in understory vegetation within and outside of three deer exclosures on a single slope with three levels of understory vegetation cover: sparse (1%, exclosure “US”, moderate (30%, exclosure “MM”, and dense (80%, exclosure “LD” over 10 years after a 30% thinning of an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation which was overgrazed by sika deer. Results Understory vegetation cover, biomass and species richness increased within and outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures after thinning, and biomass was greater within than outside the exclosures at 10 years after thinning. Unpalatable species dominated both “US” and “MM” exclosures before thinning, and trees and shrubs dominated within the exclosures over time after thinning. In contrast, unpalatable, grazing-tolerant, perennial, and annual species increased outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures. No noticeable changes were observed within and outside the “LD” exclosure when compared with the “US” and “MM” exclosures. Conclusions Our results suggest that thinning a stand by 30% based on volume resulted in an increase in understory vegetation cover mainly composed of both unpalatable and grazing-tolerant species in a plantation forest where understory vegetation is sparse or moderate and sika deer density is high. We

  16. Tritium concentration in fresh, brackish and sea-water samples in Rokkasho-Village, Japan, bordered by nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Kakiuchi, H.; Kondo, K.; Inaba, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify the concentration of tritium ( 3 H) in areas of fresh, brackish and sea water, bordered by nuclear fuel facilities at Rokkasho-Village, Aomori, Japan, water samples were collected from 2001 to 2004 at six points in those areas. Concentration ranges of tritium in fresh river water, brackish lake and seawater samples were 0.60 to 1.1 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.79 Bq x l -1 ), 0.20 to 0.87 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.41 Bq x l -1 ), and 0.08 to 0.25 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.15 Bq x l -1 ), respectively. Relationships between tritium concentrations and salinity in the samples showed a clear negative correlation. Moreover, the seasonal variation of tritium in water from Rokkasho-Village was high in spring and low in fall. (author)

  17. Diets and niche overlap among nine co-occurring demersal fishes in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myun Park, Joo; Nam Kwak, Seok; Huh, Sung-Hoi; Han, In-Seong

    2017-09-01

    Dietary niches and food resource partitioning can support the coexistence of many fishes in benthic marine systems, which can lead to the greater abundances of those species that can potentially support their fisheries. Diets and niche overlap among nine demersal fish species were investigated in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea. Specimens were collected monthly from January to November 2007 on soft bottoms between 40 and 100 m depth using a bottom trawl. A total of 20 prey taxa were found in 1904 stomachs of the nine species. Comparison of the stomach contents among the nine species showed that inter-specific dietary compositions differed significantly. Although all fish species consumed similar types of prey items, their contributions to the diet of different species varied. Among prey taxa, carid shrimps contributed greatly to the diets of Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Amblychaeturichthys sciistius, Coelorinchus multispinulosus, Lepidotrigla guentheri, and Liparis tanakae, whereas polychaetes and teleosts contributed to the diets of Callionymus lunatus and Lophius litulon, respectively. On the other hand, carid shrimps and teleosts together contributed to the diets of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus. Non-metric multivariate analysis of the mass contributions of dietary categories for food resources emphasized visually that the dietary compositions of the nine species differed. Although C. multispinulosus, L. guentheri, L. litulon, and L. tanakae showed similar dietary compositions between small and large size classes, ontogenetic diet changes of the remaining six species were evident. Feeding relationships among the nine demersal species were complicated, but inter- and intra-specific differences in dietary composition among the species reduced potential competition for food resources within the fish community in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea.

  18. Spatial variation in low-level 134Cs in the coastal sediments off central Honshu in the Sea of Japan. Implications for delivery, migration, and redistribution patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mutsuo; Uemura, H.; Kofuji, H.; Shirotani, Y.; Nagao, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Takata, H.; Kudo, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 and 2015, we examined the spatial distribution of cesium-134 (half-life: 2.06 years) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in marine sediments within coastal-basin areas (water depths of 40-520 m) off central Honshu Island (the main island of Japan) in the Sea of Japan. The 134 Cs concentrations in both the surface sediment (0-1 cm depth) and whole-core inventory exhibited wide variations, and were highest at the site closest to the Agano River Estuary area (6.7 Bq/kg-dry and 886 Bq/m 2 , respectively). This indicates that 134 Cs in coastal areas was delivered by riverine suspended solids (SS). Given the spatial variation in 134 Cs concentrations, we believe that 134 Cs partially migrated northeastward within ∼50 km along Honshu Island (at water depths shallower than ∼140 m), and southwestward, including the Sado Basin area. This is predominantly attributable to the transport of SS by bottom currents and unsteady downward delivery onto the steep slopes of the basin. The total amount of 134 Cs in the study area in 2014 was estimated at approximately 0.6 TBq (decay-corrected to March 11, 2011, date of FDNPP accident). (author)

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  20. Variability in the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales within the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, as observed by HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two high-frequency (HF radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted using the Barnett–Preisendorfer approach to canonical correlation analysis (CCA of reanalysis surface winds and HF radar-derived surface currents. The CCA yields two canonical patterns: the first wind–current interaction pattern corresponds to the classical Ekman drift at the sea surface, whilst the second describes an anticyclonic/cyclonic surface circulation. The results obtained demonstrate that local winds play an important role in driving the upper water circulation. The wind–current interaction timescales are mainly related to diurnal breezes and synoptic variability. In particular, the breezes force diurnal currents in waters of the continental shelf and slope of the south-eastern Bay. It is concluded that the breezes may force diurnal currents over considerably wider areas than that covered by the HF radar, considering that the northern and southern continental shelves of the Bay exhibit stronger diurnal than annual wind amplitudes.

  1. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  2. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    in the Arabian Sea is driven by net heat loss from the ocean, whereas the Bay of Bengal does not contribute to such large heat loss to the atmosphere. It appears that the subduction of high saline Arabian Sea water mass is the mechanism behind the formation of a...

  3. Rapid Variability in the Japan/East Sea. Basin Oscillations, Internal Tides, and Near-Inertial Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    mode" among all the Korea, Tsugaru, and Soya Straits gov- onance (Garrett, 1983; Lyu et al., 2002; the pressure records shown in Figure 2. ern JES sea...31, 2000 (first column); Winter-2 is from No- 3 vember 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001 LA (second column). Both monthly 2 ....... . .,................. irms

  4. A reconsideration on deep sea bed disposal of high level radiological wastes. A post-Fukushima reflection on sustainable nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a common issue among all nuclear developing countries. However, this becomes especially a hard issue for sustainable nuclear energy in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. In this paper, the difficulty of realizing underground HLW disposal in Japanese islands is first discussed from socio-political aspects. Then, revival of old idea of deep seabed disposal of HLW in Pacific Ocean is proposed as an alternative way of HLW disposal. Although this old idea had been abandoned in the past for the reason that it would violate London Convention which prohibits dumping radioactive wastes in public sea, the author will stress the merit of seabed disposal of HLW deep in Pacific Ocean not only from the view point of more safe and ultimate way of disposing HLWs (both vitrified and spent fuel) than by underground disposal, but also the emergence of new marine project by synergetic collaboration of rare-earth resource exploration from the deep sea floor in Pacific Ocean. (author)

  5. Changes in distributional patterns of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central and eastern North Sea; do declining nutrient loadings play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støttrup, Josianne G.; Munk, Peter; Kodama, Masashi; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a change in the relative distribution of smaller age-classes of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (age 1-3) in the North Sea. The abundances have increased in deeper, more offshore areas, while coastal abundances have been stagnant or declining. For the same time period available time series data on nutrient conditions in the coastal North Sea area show that the freshwater nitrogen loading has decreased by about 50%. While nutrient concentrations in the ambient environment have been shown to influence growth in juvenile plaice through influence on their prey, we here inspect the potential linkage between distributional changes in plaice and the decline in nutrient loading. We compare plaice observations in coastal areas in the eastern North Sea, which have experienced large changes in eutrophication, with observations for the Dogger Bank, a large sandbank in a shallow offshore area of the North Sea. The Dogger Bank, was used as a reference location assuming this area has been less influenced from coastal eutrophication but similar regional climate conditions, and here we found no changes in the abundances of juvenile plaice. The increase in the use of offshore habitats as nursery areas by juvenile plaice in the North Sea appears not related to water depth per se but driven by specific processes dominating in near-shore areas and may be related to changes in nutrient loadings. This point to the importance of separating more general depth-related factors from conditions specific for near-shore areas, such as nutrient loadings in coastal waters and export offshore. The concurrent changes in environment and in distribution of juvenile plaice may have implications for environmental and fisheries management.

  6. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  7. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  8. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  9. Long-Term Trends, Variability and Extremes of In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Measured Along the Eastern Adriatic Coast and its Relationship to Hemispheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Beg Paklar, Gordana; Morović, Mira; Popović, Ružica; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines long-term series of in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data measured at nine coastal and one open sea stations along the eastern Adriatic Sea for the period 1959-2015. Monthly and yearly averages were used to document SST trends and variability, while clustering and connections to hemispheric indices were achieved by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. Both PCA and SOM revealed the dominance of temporal changes with respect to the effects of spatial differences in SST anomalies, indicating the prevalence of hemispheric processes over local dynamics, such as bora wind spatial inhomogeneity. SST extremes were connected with blocking atmospheric patterns. A substantial warming between 1979 and 2015, in total exceeding 1 °C, was preceded by a period with a negative SST trend, implying strong multidecadal variability in the Adriatic. The strongest connection was found between yearly SST and the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, while North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic/West Russia (EAWR) patterns were found to also affect February SST values. Quantification of the Adriatic SST and their connection to hemispheric indices allow for more precise projections of future SST, considered to be rather important for Adriatic thermohaline circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries, and sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  10. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  11. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research about feasibility of CO{sub 2} reduction program construction for Pan-Japan sea resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kannihonkai shigen CO{sub 2} sakugen program kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research aims to construct a recyclable resources distribution network in coordination with other Japan Sea countries so as to establish measures for the effective utilization of resources originating in Japan. The research covers the needs in China and in Russia's Far East provinces for used electrical home appliances and the supply capability of Japan's four prefectures on Japan Sea including Akita Prefecture. Demand in the countries on the other side of the sea for three major categories of electrical home appliances (color television sets, washing machines, and refrigerators) for 2010 and 2025 is predicted. Part of the predicted demand is specified to be for used items, and a scenario is built based on the reuse substitution rate. On the other hand, in view of the life time of such commodities and the rate of reusables in the amount of waste generated, a conclusion is reached that probabilities are that all such appliances from the four Japanese prefectures will be put to reuse. When the reuse rate is estimated at 10% for goods under the three major categories from the four prefectures, approximately 20,000 articles out of each of the three categories will be put to reuse, and this will lead to a reduction of CO2 emissions of 7700 tons a year. (NEDO)

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research about feasibility of CO{sub 2} reduction program construction for Pan-Japan sea resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kannihonkai shigen CO{sub 2} sakugen program kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research aims to construct a recyclable resources distribution network in coordination with other Japan Sea countries so as to establish measures for the effective utilization of resources originating in Japan. The research covers the needs in China and in Russia's Far East provinces for used electrical home appliances and the supply capability of Japan's four prefectures on Japan Sea including Akita Prefecture. Demand in the countries on the other side of the sea for three major categories of electrical home appliances (color television sets, washing machines, and refrigerators) for 2010 and 2025 is predicted. Part of the predicted demand is specified to be for used items, and a scenario is built based on the reuse substitution rate. On the other hand, in view of the life time of such commodities and the rate of reusables in the amount of waste generated, a conclusion is reached that probabilities are that all such appliances from the four Japanese prefectures will be put to reuse. When the reuse rate is estimated at 10% for goods under the three major categories from the four prefectures, approximately 20,000 articles out of each of the three categories will be put to reuse, and this will lead to a reduction of CO2 emissions of 7700 tons a year. (NEDO)

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found i...

  14. A model study of the seasonality of sea surface temperature and circulation in the Atlantic North-Eastern Tropical Upwelling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou eFaye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The climatological seasonal cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST in the north-eastern tropical Atlantic (7-25°N, 26-12°W is studied using a mixed layer heat budget in a regional ocean general circulation model. The region, which experiences one of the larger SST cycle in the tropics, forms the main part of the Guinea Gyre. It is characterized by a seasonally varying open ocean and coastal upwelling system, driven by the movements of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. The model annual mean heat budget has two regimes schematically. South of roughly 12°N, advection of equatorial waters, mostly warm, and warming by vertical mixing, is balanced by net air-sea flux. In the rest of the domain, a cooling by vertical mixing, reinforced by advection at the coast, is balanced by the air-sea fluxes. Regarding the seasonal cycle, within a narrow continental band, in zonal mean, the SST early decrease (from September, depending on latitude, until December is driven by upwelling dynamics off Senegal and Mauritania (15°-20°N, and instead by air-sea fluxes north and south of these latitudes. Paradoxically, the later peaks of upwelling intensity (from March to July, with increasing latitude essentially damp the warming phase, driven by air-sea fluxes. The open ocean cycle to the west, is entirely driven by the seasonal net air-sea fluxes. The oceanic processes significantly oppose it, but for winter north of ~18°N. Vertical mixing in summer-autumn tends to cool (warm the surface north (south of the ITCZ, and advective cooling or warming by the geostrophic Guinea Gyre currents and the Ekman drift. This analysis supports previous findings on the importance of air-sea fluxes offshore. It mainly offers quantitative elements on the modulation of the SST seasonal cycle by the ocean circulation, and particularly by the upwelling dynamics.Keywords: SST, upwelling, circulation, heat budget, observations, modeling

  15. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Kurian, S.; Gauns, M.; ChndrasekharaRao, A.V.; Mulla, A.; Naik, B.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we...

  16. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasiq, K.T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    continental slope of India. Marine Geology, 111, 7-13. Qasim, S., 1982. Oceanography of the northern Arabian Sea. Deep Sea Research Part A, 29, 1041- 1068. Quiblier‐Llobéras, C., Bourdier, G., Amblard, C. and Pepin, D., 1996. A qualitative study..., but intact pigment quality was comparable. Qualitatively nine pigments were observed at the OMZ of Indian margin while nearly similar diversity of accessory pigments were reported at Pakistan margin (Woulds and Cowie., 2009), but only Chlorins degradation...

  17. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, F; Karakas, T; Cakir, M; Aksoy, A; Baki, A; Gedik, Y

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food in childhood in Turkey is not known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs) in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study recruited 3500 of the randomly selected 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2006. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges. Children with suspected IgE-mediated FA were skin prick tested with a predefined panel of food allergens (milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, peanut, fish, and hazelnut), aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, Alternaria, grass pollen mix, weed pollen mix, and tree pollen mix), and food allergens reported in the questionnaire. All children with a positive SPT to any food were invited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The prevalence of IgE-mediated FA was established using DBPCFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78.2% (2739/3500). The estimated prevalence of parental-reported IgE-mediated FA was 5.7% (156/2739) [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.83-6.57%]. The rate of sensitization to the food allergens was 33.1% (48/145) in the parental-reported group. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated FA by means of DBPCFC in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren living in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was 0.80% (22/2739) (95% CI, 0.47-1.13%). The most common allergenic foods were beef (31.8%), cow's milk (18.1%), cocoa (18.1%), hen's egg (13.6%), and kiwi (13.6%). The rate of reported IgE-mediated FA was significantly higher than clinically confirmed FA by means of DBPCFC (odds ratio, 7.46; 95% CI, 4.67-12.01; Pfoods was different and somewhat unique to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey when compared with western countries.

  18. Processes regulating pCO2 in the surface waters of the central eastern Gotland Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional simulation of the seasonal changes in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. The results of the model were constrained using data from observations, which improved the model's ability to estimate nitrogen fixation in the central Baltic Sea and allowed the impact of nitrogen fixation on the ecological state of the Baltic Sea to be studied. The model used here is the public domain water-column model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model, which in this study was coupled with a modifed Baltic Sea ecosystem model, ERGOM (The Baltic Sea Research Institute's ecosystem model. To estimate nitrogen fixation rates in the Gotland Sea, the ERGOM model was modified by including an additional cyanobacteria group able to fix nitrogen from March to June. Furthermore, the model was extended by a simple CO2 cycle. Variable C:P and N:P ratios, controlled by phosphate concentrations in ambient water, were used to represent cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment detritus. This approach improved the model's ability to reproduce sea-surface phosphate and pCO2 dynamics. The resulting nitrogen fixation rates in 2005 for the two simulations, with and without the additional cyanobacteria group, were 259 and 278 mmol N m-2 year-1respectively.

  19. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  20. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, L.M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.H.; Castañeda, I.S; Malaize, B.; Giraudeau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a

  1. Analysis of gravity anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and its implications for the crustal structure of rift-dominated back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Sang-Mook

    2018-01-01

    The Ulleung Basin (UB), one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental-rifting end-member of back-arc basin system, but is much less understood compared to the nearby Yamato Basin (YB) and Japan Basin (JB). This study examines the gravity anomalies of the UB since the variation in crustal thickness can provide important insights on the mode of extension during basin opening. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth (from the sea surface) varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the edges. However, within the central part of the basin, the crustal thickness (not including sediment) is more or less the same (10-12 km), by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous suggestions. Our finding of anomalous but uniformly thick crust is consistent with the recent seismic results from the YB (14 km on average). A mantle residual gravity anomaly high (∼20 mGal) exists in the northeastern part of the UB. This feature is interpreted as the location of maximum extension (slightly thinner crust by ∼1 km). Together with another moderate gravity high to the southwest, the two anomalies form a NNE-SSW line, which corresponds to the direction of the major tectonic structures of the Korean Peninsula. We argue that the a massive magmatic emplacement took place extensively in the lower crust of the UB during the opening, significantly increasing its overall thickness to almost twice as that of the JB where a mid-ocean-ridge style seafloor spreading occurred. Two important post-opening processes took place after the formation of uniformly thick crust: post-rift volcanic intrusions in the north, especially in its northeast sections but had little effect on the residual gravity anomaly itself, and the deflection of crust in response to differential sediment loading towards the south, producing the median high in the basement in response to the flexural bending. We also conducted a simple test to

  2. Bacterial community composition in different sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a comparison of four 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Bertilsson, Stefan; Tselepides, Anastasios; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2005-10-01

    The regional variability of sediment bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of four large 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries from sediments in different regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf, Cretan Sea, and South lonian Sea). Amplified rDNA restriction analysis of 664 clones from the libraries indicate that the rDNA richness and evenness was high: for example, a near-1:1 relationship among screened clones and number of unique restriction patterns when up to 190 clones were screened for each library. Phylogenetic analysis of 207 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the sediment libraries demonstrated that Gamma-, Delta-, and Alphaproteobacteria, Holophaga/Acidobacteria, Planctomycetales, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were represented in all four libraries. A few clones also grouped with the Betaproteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetales, Chlamydiae, Firmicutes, and candidate division OPl 1. The abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria was higher in libraries from shallow sediments in the Thermaikos Gulf (30 m) and the Cretan Sea (100 m) compared to the deeper South Ionian station (2790 m). Most sequences in the four sediment libraries clustered with uncultured 16S rDNA phylotypes from marine habitats, and many of the closest matches were clones from hydrocarbon seeps, benzene-mineralizing consortia, sulfate reducers, sulk oxidizers, and ammonia oxidizers. LIBSHUFF statistics of 16S rDNA gene sequences from the four libraries revealed major differences, indicating either a very high richness in the sediment bacterial communities or considerable variability in bacterial community composition among regions, or both.

  3. Change in the intensity of low-salinity water inflow from the Bay of Bengal into the Eastern Arabian Sea from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene: Implications for monsoon variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahesh, B.S.; Banakar, V.K.

    A 100–400 km wide region of the coastal Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS), off the west-coast of India, is characterized by a low-salinity tongue formed by the inflow of low-salinity surface water from the Bay of Bengal (BoB). This low-salinity tongue...

  4. A laboratory and field study of 210Po depuration by edible winkles (Littorina littorea L.) from the Cumbrian coast (north-eastern Irish Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Allington, D.J.; Winpenny, K.

    1995-01-01

    Edible winkles from Saltom Bay, Cumbria (north-eastern Irish Sea) had flesh 210 Po concentrations in excess of 200 Bq kg -1 (wet). This came from liquid waste discharged under authorisation from a chemical plant producing phosphoric acid. This labelling of the winkles under natural conditions was exploited to determine the 210 Po depuration rate and biological half-time. Winkles transferred to Lowestoft and depurated in flowing seawater had biological half-times ranging from 82 to 119 days depending on temperature. After the chemical plant was shut, changes in Saltom Bay winkle flesh contents of 210 Po, 210 Pb and cadmium were followed by monthly samples. The biological half-time in the environment for the decrease in 210 Po after the plant closed was estimated at about 92 days. (author)

  5. Comparative Reproduction Aspects of the Deep-water Shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae in the Greek Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kapiris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern Ionian Sea, the deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus constitute a virgin fishing resource, since their maximum abundance depth exceeds commercial exploitation depths. The two sympatric species share a number of common reproductive features, such as summer reproduction. A slight temporal shift in mating activity, ovarian maturation, and spawning period was observed between species. The most notable difference was the more pronounced seasonality in reproductive activity of Aristeus antennatus compared to that of A. foliacea as evidenced by the frequency of inseminated females and functionally mature males, as well as by the shorter ovarian maturation period. Nevertheless, regarding the whole life span, both sexes of Aristeus antennatus exhibit a more extended reproductive activity in comparison to A. foliacea. No notable differentiation of both species existed in comparison to other Mediterranean regions.

  6. The Tectonic Boundary Between Eastern Subbaisin and South-West Subbasin of the South China Sea Revealed from the Normalized Magnetic Source Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Meng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), surrounded by the Eurasia, Pacific and India-Australia plates, is one of the largest marginal seas in the Western Pacific. It was formed by the interaction of the three plates and the seafloor spreading during Late Oligocene time to Early Miocene time. The boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin of the SCS has long been debated in the literature. Refining the boundary is one of the crucial tasks for correctly understanding the seafloor spreading model of the SCS. Due to few drills on the deep ocean basin of the SCS, magnetic data become important information for refining the boundary. However, the interpretation of magnetic data in the SCS suffers from the remanent magnetization of ocean crust as well as igneous rock and seamounts. The conventional reduction-to-pole anomalies at low latitudes usually neglect the remanent magnetization, making the interpretation incorrect. Here, we assembled high-resolution total magnetic intensity (TMI) data around the ocean basin of the SCS, and then did a special transformation of the TMI anomalies with a varying magnetic inclinations algorithm to obtain the normalized source strength (NSS). The NSS has advantage of insensitivity to remanent magnetization, benefitting correct interpretation. The NSS presents discriminative features from east to west in the ocean basin. The boundary of the discriminative features is clear and just ranges from the northeastern edge of the Zhongsha Islands running in the southeast direction to the northeastern edge of the Reed Bank. These imply that magnetic structure and tectonic features in the crust are discriminative between both sides of this boundary. It can be deduced that this boundary is the tectonic boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41374093) and the SinoProbe-01-05 project.

  7. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  8. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Adkison, Milo D; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  9. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    a number of profile lines across less than c. 60 years old berm, beach ridge and swale structures at the Feddet peninsula. The GPR images allow us to interpret internal sedimentary architecture, and here we focus especially on the identification of downlapping reflections, which are interpreted to mark...... fluctuations in past sea level due to variations in tidal effects and meteorological conditions (isostatic rebound is expected to have a minimal effect on Feddet (Hansen et al., 2011)). Comparison with existing time series of measurements of actual sea level from the Danish Maritime Safety Administration (from...

  10. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    D’Oriano, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  11. Assessment of fish populations and habitat on Oculina Bank, a deep-sea coral marine protected area off eastern Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Harter , Stacey L.; Ribera, Marta M.; Shepard, Andrew N.; Reed, John K.

    2009-01-01

    A portion of the Oculina Bank located off eastern Florida is a marine protected area (MPA) preserved for its dense populations of the ivory tree coral (Oculina varicosa), which provides important habitat for fish. Surveys of fish assemblages and benthic habitat were conducted inside and outside the MPA in 2003 and 2005 by using remotely operated vehicle video transects and digital still imagery. Fish species composition, biodiversity, and grouper densities were used to determine w...

  12. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  13. Spatial analysis of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Sea-Nine 211) concentrations and probabilistic risk to marine organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ichihashi, Hideki; Amano, Haruna; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution of an antifouling biocide, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Sea-Nine 211) in the surface water and sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan to determine the extent of contamination by this biocide. A quantitative estimate of the environmental concentration distribution (ECD) and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for marine organisms were derived by using a Bayesian statistical model to carry out a probabilistic ecological risk analysis, such as calculation of the expected potentially affected fraction (EPAF). The spatial distribution analysis supported the notion that Sea-Nine 211 is used mainly for treatment of ship hulls in Japan. The calculated EPAF suggests that approximately up to a maximum of 0.45% of marine species are influenced by the toxicity of Sea-Nine 211 in Hiroshima Bay. In addition, estimation of the ecological risk with a conventional risk quotient method indicated that the risk was a cause for concern in Hiroshima Bay. - Highlights: • Spatial distribution analysis exhibits the dynamics of Sea-Nine 211 in Hiroshima Bay. • Probabilistic ecological risk of the biocide was estimated with a Bayesian approach. • Approximately up to 0.45% of marine species were possibly influenced by the toxicity. • The risk analysis concludes that Sea-Nine 211 should be a priority for further work. - Spatial distribution of an antifouling biocide and quantification of its ecological risk were elucidated

  14. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  15. Sequential measurements of cosmic-ray neutron spectrum and dose rate at sea level in Sendai, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nunomiya, Tomoya; Abe, Shigeru; Terunuma, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron energy spectrum and dose rate were measured sequentially for two years from April 2001 up to March 2003 by using three neutron detectors, a 3 He-loaded multi-moderator detector (Bonner ball), 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm long NE213 organic liquid scintillator, and high-sensitivity rem (dose equivalent) counter at the Kawauchi campus of Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan of geomagnetic latitude, 29degN, and cutoff rigidity, 10.43 GV. The neutron spectrum has three major peaks, thermal energy peak, evaporation peak around 1 MeV and cascade peak around 100 MeV. The ambient neutron dose equivalent rates measured by the rem counter, and the Bonner ball keep almost constant values of 4.0 and 6.5 (nSv/h), respectively, throughout this time period, after atmospheric pressure correction, and it often decreased about 30% after a large Solar Flare, that is called as the Forbush decrease. The total neutron flux was also obtained by the Bonner ball measurements to be 7.5x10 -3 (ncm -2 ·s -1 ) in average. The altitude variation of neutron flux and dose was also investigated by comparing the measured results with other results measured at Mt. Fuji area and aboard an airplane, where the cutoff rigidities are similar. (author)

  16. Biogeography of Coptis Salisb. (Ranunculales, Ranunculaceae, Coptidoideae), an Eastern Asian and North American genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Erst, Andrey S; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Jabbour, Florian; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-24

    Numerous studies have favored dispersal (colonization) over vicariance (past fragmentation) events to explain eastern Asian-North American distribution patterns. In plants, however the disjunction between eastern Asia and western North America has been rarely examined using the integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, and biogeographical methods. Meanwhile, the biogeographic patterns within eastern Asia remain poorly understood. The goldthread genus Coptis Salisb. includes 15 species disjunctly distributed in North America, Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan. We present a dated phylogeny for Coptis under the optimal clock model and infer its historical biogeography by comparing different biogeographic models. The split of Coptis and Xanthorhiza Marshall occurred in the middle Miocene (ca. 15.47 Ma). Coptis started their diversification in the early late Miocene (ca. 9.55 Ma). A late Miocene vicariance event resulted in the eastern Asian and western North American disjunction in the genus. Within eastern Asia, dispersals from mainland Asia to Japan and from Japan to Taiwan occurred at ca. 4.85 Ma and at ca. 1.34 Ma, respectively. Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal events have played important roles in shaping the current distribution and endemism of Coptis, likely resulting from eustatic sea-level changes, mountain formation processes and an increasing drier and cooler climate from the middle Miocene onwards.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the SEIFU MARU in the Sea of Japan from 2008-10-21 to 2008-11-25 (NODC Accession 0112358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112358 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SEIFU MARU in the Sea of Japan from 2008-10-21 to...

  18. Relationships between fish, sea urchins and macroalgae: The structure of shallow rocky sublittoral communities in the Cyclades, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Cebrian, Emma; Kokkoris, Giorgos D.; Ballesteros, Enric; Sala, Enric

    2012-08-01

    Historical overfishing is the most likely explanation for the depletion of the shallow sublittoral communities in many areas not least in the Cyclades Archipelago, Greece. The present study is the first quantitative study of the shallow rocky sublittoral of the Cyclades based on in situ underwater surveys of algal cover, and fish and sea urchin abundance at 181 sampling sites in 25 islands to provide a baseline and investigate the relationship between these communities. Algal turf was the most abundant algal functional group, and canopy algae of the genus Cystoseira were more abundant at the northern islands. A range in fish biomass of almost two orders of magnitude was found across islands, but overall the Cyclades displayed much lower values than fished areas of the Western Mediterranean. We observed apex predators only in 25% of our sampling sites, and their biomass was uncorrelated to total fish biomass, indicating a depleted ecosystem. Sea urchin biomass was also low but similar to values found in other Mediterranean islands and was positively correlated with barrens. We observed a gradient of benthic community complexity from sea urchin barrens to communities dominated by Cystoseira spp. There was no correlation between sea urchins and their predators Diplodus spp., which presented extremely low densities.

  19. The bloom of the dinoflagellate (Noctiluca miliaris) in the North Eastern Arabian Sea: Ship and Satellite study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Goes, J.I.; Gomes, H.

    The bloom of Noctiluca miliaris (a dinoflagellate) which appears in the form of a green tide was studied from 2003-2011. This bloom covered a large area of the Arabian Sea from the west coast of India to the coast of Oman. The bloom was easily...

  20. Altimeter-derived flow field over a newly identified coastal ocean boundary in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Swamy, G.N.

    part, tapers off towards north and bulges towards south. In the present communication, the T/P-derived flow pattern over this new boundary is presented. The derived flow pattern shows the general dominance of meso-scale eddies in the Arabian Sea...

  1. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  2. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  3. Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological, technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise, and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan. We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM.

  4. Age, growth and utility of otolith morphometrics as a predictor of age in the wrasse Coris julis (Labridae from the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Škeljo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of Coris julis were determined by examining sagittal otoliths belonging to fish sampled between November 2008 and October 2009 in the eastern Adriatic Sea (north-central Mediterranean Sea. A total of 1102 specimens (528 males, 487 females and 87 individuals of indeterminate sex, ranging from 48 to 222 mm total length were analysed. Ninety-two per cent of the otoliths were readable and 68% of the specimens had two readings in agreement. Counting of daily rings revealed that the second opaque ring represents the first annulus (315.1±27.8 daily rings. The maximum observed age was 7 years for males and 5 years for females, with males dominating in higher age classes ( > 3 years and females in age classes 1+ and 2+. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth curves and significant differences were found between males (L∞=29.10 cm, k=0.12 and t0=–1.48 and females (L∞=21.27 cm, k=0.21 and t0=–1.08. Otolith mass, length, width and thickness were determined for the otoliths belonging to 465 fish and the utility of these morphometrics as a predictor of age was evaluated. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith length data, followed by the otolith mass.

  5. Lead in blood and eggs of the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from the Eastern Pacific: Concentration, isotopic composition and maternal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Calderon-Campuzano, M.F.; Soto-Jimenez, M.F.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the 'arribada' event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95 ± 0.18 μg g -1 ) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80 ± 0.10 μg g -1 ; albumen, 1.08 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ; eggshell, 1.05 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb) in blood (1.183 ± 0.0006 and 2.452 ± 0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188 ± 0.005 and 2.455 ± 0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment.

  6. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  7. Seasonal variation in radon concentration in the atmosphere simultaneously measured in Donghae on Korean peninsula, Matsue on Shimane peninsula, and Oki island in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro; Iida, Takao; Kim, Yoon Shin

    2008-01-01

    We measured simultaneously radon concentration in the atmosphere at Donghae, Oki Island and Matsue. In Donghae, radon concentration had peaks in the winter and summer and lower values in the spring. It was the highest in the winter and lowest in the summer in Oki Island, in Matsue, the highest in the fall and lowest in the summer. The timing and frequency of arrival air mass from the ocean and the land were different among the three measuring points. The highest values in Donghae and Oki Island were because of effects of radon flow from Eurasian continent in the winter. The inversion layer often formed in the atmospheric boundary layer over the land area around the Sea of Japan caused the peak values in the summer in Donghae. The atmosphere over Oki Island is always mixed with that over the ocean because the island is small. Radon escaping from the ground of the island does not stay with the surface layer even at night, therefore, diurnal variation was almost none throughout the year. Air mass with low radon concentration coming from the Pacific Ocean caused the lowest values in the summer. In Matsue, the peak was found in the fall in which occurrences of surface inversion layer is most common in the year. (author)

  8. Far Eastern Mission: One Fiercely Committed Choir Director at a Defense Department School in Japan Wants to Make a Global Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    Tim Black, choral director at the Department of Defense's Kadena High School in Okinawa, Japan, might just be the closest thing to a new-millennium embodiment of that early '70s idealism. Not only does Black lead three choirs and teach advanced placement music theory to children of those serving in the U.S. armed forces, but he also is…

  9. Predicting the impacts of Mississippi River diversions and sea-level rise on spatial patterns of eastern oyster growth rate and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; La Peyre, Megan K.; Hu, Kelin; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    There remains much debate regarding the perceived tradeoffs of using freshwater and sediment diversions for coastal restoration in terms of balancing the need for wetland restoration versus preserving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production. Further complicating the issue, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence are also expected to affect estuarine water quality. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical modeling system that couples hydrodynamic, water quality, and oyster population dynamics. We selected Breton Sound Estuary (BSE) (∼2740 km2) in the eastern Mississippi River Deltaic Plain since it is home to several of the largest public oyster seed grounds and private leases for the Gulf coast. The coupled oyster population model was calibrated and validated against field observed oyster growth data. We predicted the responses of oyster population in BSE to small- (142 m3 s−1) and large-scale (7080 m3 s−1) river diversions at the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion structure planned in the 2012 Coastal Master Plan (Louisiana) under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative sea-level rise (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) compared to a baseline condition (Year 2009). Model results showed that the large-scale diversion had a stronger negative impact on oyster population dynamics via freshening of the entire estuary, resulting in reduced oyster growth rate and production than RSLR. Under the large-scale diversion, areas with optimal oyster growth rates (>15 mg ash-free dry weight (AFDW) oyster−1 wk−1) and production (>500 g AFDW m−2 yr−1) would shift seaward to the southeastern edge of the estuary, turning the estuary into a very low oyster production system. RSLR however played a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of oyster growth rate and production. RSLR would result in an overall estuary-wide decrease in oyster growth rate and production as a

  10. Early to Middle Holocene sea level fluctuation, coastal progradation and the Neolithic occupation in the Yaojiang Valley of southern Hangzhou Bay, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Qianli; Fan, Daidu; Dai, Bin; Ma, Fuwei; Xu, Lichen; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2018-06-01

    The Yaojiang Valley (YJV) of southern Hangzhou Bay was the birthplace of the well-known Hemudu Culture (HC), one of the representatives of Neolithic civilization in eastern China. To explore the magnitude of natural environmental effects on the HC trajectory, the palaeo-embayment setting of the YJV was studied in detail for the first time in terms of 3D Holocene strata supported by a series of new radiocarbon-dated cores. The results indicated that the local relative sea level rose rapidly during the Early Holocene in the YJV, reached its maximum flooding surface ca. 7900 cal yr BP, and then remained stable ca. 7900-7600 cal yr BP. Thereupon, an estuary stretching inland was first formed by marine transgression, and then, it was transformed to an alluvial-coastal plain by regressive progradation. The alluvial plain was initiated in the foothills and then spread towards the valley centre after sea level stabilization ca. 7600 cal yr BP. Accompanying these natural environmental changes, the earliest arrivals of foragers in the valley occurred no later than ca. 7000 cal yr BP. They engaged in rice farming and fostered the HC for approximately two millennia from ca. 7000-5000 cal yr BP as more lands developed from coastal progradation. The rise and development of the HC are closely associated with the sea level-induced landscape changes in the YJV in the Early-Middle Holocene, but the enigmatic exodus of the HC people after ca. 5000 cal yr BP is still contentious and possibly linked with the rapid waterlogging and deterioration of this setting in such a low-lying coastal plain as well as with associated social reasons.

  11. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  13. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  14. Histological and Morphological Aspects of Reproduction in Male Blackspotted Smooth-Hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Gračan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on reproductive biology of male blackspotted smooth-hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea and first histological examination of gonads at different maturation stages and seasonal cycles for this species. We collected samples from 117 male specimens of M. punctulatus ranging in length from 44.6 to 126.5 cm, caught by commercial bottom trawls in the North-Central Adriatic Sea. Microscopic observation revealed a diametric development of testes, in which round-shaped spermatocysts have zonal arrangement, showing seven different stages of development. Males began to mature when they were between 61 and 88 cm body length, which was indicated by the presence of functional claspers or appearance of the spermatogenic cysts. While the smallest mature shark was only 80 cm long, all animals longer than 89 cm were sexually mature. The seasonal analysis of the testes indicated that mature spermatozoa dominated in testes during the first half of the year with a peak in May and June, after which followed less active period during July and August.

  15. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  18. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  19. Seasonal and geographic distribution of luminous bacteria in the eastern mediterranean sea and the gulf of elat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetinson, T; Shilo, M

    1979-06-01

    Luminous bacteria in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba-Elat have different distribution patterns. In the Mediterranean Sea, Beneckea harveyi is present all year round, with different subtypes alternating in summer and winter; Photobacterium fischeri was only present during the winter. In the Gulf of Elat, P. leiognathi is present throughout the water column in similar densities during the entire year. This constancy in distribution is presumably due to the near-constancy in water temperature. In summer, Photobacterium leiognathi is replaced by B. harveyi in coastal surface waters. In the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon, only B. harveyi types are present. P. fischeri, a major component of the Mediterranean Sea winter communities, is absent from the lagoon. Luminous Beneckea strains show a great diversity in properties, e.g. temperature range for growth, sensitivity to infection by phages, sensitivity to attack by Bdellovibrio strains, and differences in tolerance to high-salinity shock. Therefore, subdivision of the taxonomic cluster of B. harveyi into subtypes is indicated. The composition of the luminous bacteria communities may serve as indicators of different marine water bodies. The symbiotic luminous bacteria of the light organ of the common Gulf of Elat fish, Photoblepharon palbebratus steinitzi, is different from any of the types described.

  20. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  1. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  2. K-Ar ages of basalts from the Higashi-Matsuura district, northwestern Kyushu, Japan and regional geochronology of the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks in eastern Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Eizo; Campbell, I.H.; McDougall, I.

    1986-01-01

    Seven new K-Ar age determinations are presented on whole rock samples from alkaline and tholeiitic basalts of the Higashi-Matsuura district, northwestern Kyushu, Japan. Ages obtained range from 2.92 ± 0.03 Ma to 3.01 ± 0.04 Ma; these ages are essentially identical within analytical errors and yield an average age of 2.98 ± 0.03 Ma (Late Pliocene). When combined on an isochron type diagram the six Higashi-Matsuura samples give an age of 3.00 ± 0.03 Ma with the composition of nonradiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar = 294.2 ± 2.0. The excellent age agreement of samples with different K contents and petrographic characteristics provides strong evidence that the tholeiitic and alkaline basalts were erupted for an extremely short period in the Higashi-Matsuura district. A basalt from Ogawashima Island yields a K-Ar age of 3.58 ± 0.04 Ma. This study and previously reported data support the hypothesis that alkaline volcanic activity in southwestern Japan commenced some 10 Ma ago and continued intermittently until recent times. Systematic variations of age and distribution of Cenozoic alkaline basalts are recognized in northeastern China, Korea and southwestern Japan. It is suggested that these variations are related to the initiation of 'mantle plumes' resulting from convection in the mantle wedge caused or controlled by subduction of the Kula and Pacific plates. (author)

  3. Geologic and Geophysicsal Studies of Natural Hazards and Risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Viktor; Motychko, Viktor; Slinchenkov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The area of the Gulf of Peter the Great is socially, economically and culturally one of the most important regions for the Russian Far East. At the same time, there have been reported palpable natural hazards, which pose a real threat to local infrastructure. Complex field team of the Gramaberg VNIIOkeangeologia institute carried out geological and geophysical studies of natural hazards in the water area and coastal zone of the gulf in the summer and autumn of 2012. The research program included - geodetic deformation monitoring of the coastal zone by the HDS 3000 Leica tachometer; - echo sounding of the underwater part of the coastal slope by the LCX-37C depth sounder equipped with active external 12-channel GPS Lowrance antenna LGC-3000; - high-frequency acoustic profiling by GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier with oscillator frequency of 12.2 kHz for the study of bottom sediments to a depth of 40 m; - hydromagnetic measurements by SeaSPY Marine Magnetics magnetometer for investigation of deep geological structure; - sonar measurements by GEO SM C-MAX, 325 kHz frequency emitters for studying seafloor features; - studies of the water column (sensing and sampling); - bottom sediment sampling. Analytic work was performed by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry and included the following. For water - the content of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg in solution and in suspension, polycyclic aromatic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, oil, methane. For sediments - grade analysis, mineralogical analysis of sand, determination of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg content; identification of petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the specific activity of Cs-137. As a result, a set of geological maps was composed: maps of pre-Quaternary and Quaternary rocks and deposits, lithological map, geomorphological map, map of engineering

  4. Assessment of island beach erosion due to sea level rise: the case of the Aegean archipelago (Eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monioudi, Isavela N.; Velegrakis, Adonis F.; Chatzipavlis, Antonis E.; Rigos, Anastasios; Karambas, Theophanis; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Hasiotis, Thomas; Koukourouvli, Nikoletta; Peduzzi, Pascal; Manoutsoglou, Eva; Poulos, Serafim E.; Collins, Michael B.

    2017-03-01

    The present contribution constitutes the first comprehensive attempt to (a) record the spatial characteristics of the beaches of the Aegean archipelago (Greece), a critical resource for both the local and national economy, and (b) provide a rapid assessment of the impacts of the long-term and episodic sea level rise (SLR) under different scenarios. Spatial information and other attributes (e.g., presence of coastal protection works and backshore development) of the beaches of the 58 largest islands of the archipelago were obtained on the basis of remote-sensed images available on the web. Ranges of SLR-induced beach retreats under different morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic forcing, and SLR scenarios were estimated using suitable ensembles of cross-shore (1-D) morphodynamic models. These ranges, combined with empirically derived estimations of wave run-up induced flooding, were then compared with the recorded maximum beach widths to provide ranges of retreat/erosion and flooding at the archipelago scale. The spatial information shows that the Aegean pocket beaches may be particularly vulnerable to mean sea level rise (MSLR) and episodic SLRs due to (i) their narrow widths (about 59 % of the beaches have maximum widths Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) - a storm-induced sea level rise of 0.6 m is projected to result in a complete erosion of between 31 and 88 % of all beaches (29-87 % of beaches are currently fronting coastal infrastructure and assets), at least temporarily. Our results suggest a very considerable risk which will require significant effort, financial resources and policies/regulation in order to protect/maintain the critical economic resource of the Aegean archipelago.

  5. Quantity and biochemical composition of particulate organic matter in a highly trawled area (Thermaikos Gulf, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawling represents nowadays one of the most severe anthropogenic disturbances at sea, and determines large impacts on benthic communities and processes. Bottom trawling determines also local sediment resuspension and the effects of the injection of large amounts of surface sediments into the water column have been repeatedly investigated. Few studies have assessed the consequences of sediment resuspension caused by bottom trawling on the quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability of suspended organic particles and how these eventually rival those exerted by natural storms. To provide insights on this poorly addressed issue, we investigated concentrations and biochemical composition of total and enzymatically digestible pools of particulate organic matter (POM in the Thermaikos Gulf (Mediterranean Sea under calm sea conditions, during intensive trawling activities, and after a severe storm. We show here that sediment resuspension caused by trawling can cause large effects on POM quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability. Both during trawling and after the storm, the relative importance of the carbohydrate pools increased (in the upper water column and the total lipid concentrations decreased (in the intermediate and bottom layers when compared to values measured during calm conditions. These results would suggest that bottom trawling could inject in the upper water column POM pools more refractory in nature (e.g., carbohydrates than those present in calm or after-storm conditions. By contrast, we show also that the bioavailable fraction of biopolymeric C increased significantly during trawling in the upper water column of the shallowest stations and in the bottom water column layer of the deepest ones. These results provide evidence that bottom trawling can influence the overall trophic status of coastal waters, exerting effects similar or stronger than those caused by natural storms, though of variable amplitude

  6. Prevalence of skeletal tissue growth anomalies in a scleractinian coral: Turbinaria mesenterina of Malvan Marine Sanctuary, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hussain, A.; De, K.; Thomas, L.; Nagesh, R.; Mote, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    (1998), ultra- violet radiation-induced cell damage is a potential mechanism leading to growth anomalies in corals. The severity may be related to exposure to environ- mental stressors such as light, high levels of sedimen- tation (Riegl et al. 1996... west coast of India. The patch reef, located in the core area of the MMS’s MPA harbours 74 species of fishes, 73 species of sea weeds and 9 coral species, as well as 181 other associated flora and fauna species (Parulekar 1981). Two sites were selected...

  7. Age, Growth, Reproduction and Feeding of the Spurdog ( Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758) in the South-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, D.

    2001-02-01

    Life-history parameters and diet of spurdog ( Squalus acanthias) sampled from the SE Black Sea were studied. Spurdog from age classes I to XIV were identified, with a dominance of age class VIII for both sexes. The length-weight relationship was W=0·0040*L 2·95and the mean annual growth rates in length and weight were 7·2 cm and 540·1 g, respectively. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: W ∞=12021 (g), L ∞=157 (cm), K=0·12 (year -1) and t 0=-1·30 (year). The size at first maturity was 82 cm for males and 88 cm for females. Mean biennial fecundity was also found to be 8 pups/female. The relationships between fecundity-length, fecundity-weight and fecundity-age were found to be: F=-17·0842+0·2369*L (R=0·93), F=0·3780+0·0018*W (R=0·89) and F =-0·7859+1·1609*A (R=0·94) respectively. The spurdog can be considered an opportunistic feeder. Their natural diet was composed mainly of teleost fishes, followed by Crustaceans, Nematodes and Actinarians (=sea anemones). Whiting ( Merlangius merlangus euxinus) was the predominant prey item among their fish prey. Demersal teleosts formed the majority of the diet, and there was no difference ( P>0·05) among the food items of immature, maturing and mature individuals of both sexes.

  8. The distribution and remobilisation of plutonium and americium in estuaries of the eastern Irish Sea: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toole, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium and americium components in the authorised discharges from BNFL Sellafield are rapidly removed from Irish Sea seawater onto the particulate phase. These actinides tend to be concentrated in fine sediment deposits on the Irish Sea bed and in estuaries where fine sediment accumulates. This paper focuses on these estuarine areas and brings together the available data on the levels and distributions of Pu and Am within the estuarine sediments. The results from field and laboratory experiments which have been undertaken in order to determine the degree of Pu and Am remobilisation, and the mechanism responsible, are also reviewed. These sediment-associated actinides may undergo both chemical and physical remobilisation, leading to increased dissolved concentrations in low-salinity waters and to apparent losses from the estuary on the sediment phase under certain conditions. Saltmarsh sediments are demonstrated to be the most important reservoirs for Pu and Am. The radiological significance of the levels of Pu and Am found in these and in other sediments is summarised, by comparison with GDLs. The appropriateness of GDLs for assessing the radiological significance of Pu and Am in these saltmarsh sediments is discussed. A more site-specific assessment methodology is recommended. (author)

  9. Lionfishes Pterois miles and Pterois volitans in the North-eastern Mediterranean Sea: Distribution, Habitation, Predation and Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lionfish Pterois miles was first recorded in the Iskenderun Bay on 2014 in Turkish Marine waters, and then its distribution was extended to Mersin and Antalya Bays in 2014 in the Mediterranean part of Turkey. The first observation of P. miles in the Aegean Sea was from Fethiye region in July 2015. The extension of P. miles in Turkish marine waters seems to be fast even though it’s slow moving feature. Second species of the lionfish, red lionfish Pterois volitans, was also recorded from Turkish Marine waters on May 2016 by a commercial purse seine at 30 m depth at İskenderun Bay and underwater observation was also recorded on October 2016 at Antakya Bay. Therefore, the number of Pterois species in the Mediterranean Sea has reached to two, P. miles and P. volitans. Based on underwater observations, P. miles and P. volitans are usually observed in rocky and cave habitats and prefer 10-40 meters for feeding that may cause the reduction of populations of vanikoro sweeper (Pemperis spp., cardinal fish (Apagon spp. and red coat (Holocentrus rubrum species. P. miles and P. volitans also show cohabitation and gathering usually with 2-5 individuals. Grouper species such as dusky gruper Ephinephelus marginatus and goldblotch grouper Ephinephelus costae are the main predators of the lionfishes.

  10. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How a collaborative integrated taxonomic effort has trained new spongiologists and improved knowledge of Martinique Island (French Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea marine biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pérez

    Full Text Available Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites. We explored only shallow water habitats (0-30 m, such as mangroves, reefs or rocky bottoms and underwater caves. According to this study, the sponge fauna of Martinique is currently represented by a minimum of 191 species, 134 of which we could assign species names. One third of the remaining non-identified sponge species we consider to be new to science. Martinique appears very remarkable because of its littoral marine fauna harboring sponge aggregations with high biomass and species diversity dominating over coral species. In mangroves, sponges cover about 10% of the surface of subtidal roots. Several submarine caves are true reservoirs of hidden and insufficiently described sponge diversity. Thanks to this new collaborative effort, the Eastern Caribbean has gained a significant increase of knowledge, with sponge diversity of this area potentially representing 40% of the total in the Caribbean Sea. We thus demonstrated the importance of developing exploratory and educational research in areas historically devoid of biodiversity inventories and systematics studies. Finally, we believe in the necessity to consider not only the number of species but their distribution in space to evaluate their putative contribution to ecosystem services and our willingness to preserve them.

  12. Sinkholes, subsidence and subrosion on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea as revealed by a close-range photogrammetric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Saberi, Leila; Alrshdan, Hussam; Sawarieh, Ali; Closson, Damien; Walter, Thomas R.; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-05-01

    Ground subsidence and sinkhole collapse are phenomena affecting regions of karst geology worldwide. The rapid development of such phenomena around the Dead Sea in the last four decades poses a major geological hazard to the local population, agriculture and industry. Nonetheless many aspects of this hazard are still incompletely described and understood, especially on the eastern Dead Sea shore. In this work, we present a first low altitude (sinkhole area of Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan. We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of a new, high resolution digital surface model (5 cm px-1) and orthophoto of this area (2.1 km2). We also outline the factors affecting the quality and accuracy of this approach. Our analysis reveals a kilometer-scale sinuous depression bound partly by flexure and partly by non-tectonic faults. The estimated minimum volume loss of this subsided zone is 1.83 ṡ 106 m3 with an average subsidence rate of 0.21 m yr-1 over the last 25 years. Sinkholes in the surveyed area are localized mainly within this depression. The sinkholes are commonly elliptically shaped (mean eccentricity 1.31) and clustered (nearest neighbor ratio 0.69). Their morphologies and orientations depend on the type of sediment they form in: in mud, sinkholes have a low depth to diameter ratio (0.14) and a long-axis azimuth of NNE-NE. In alluvium, sinkholes have a higher ratio (0.4) and are orientated NNW-N. From field work, we identify actively evolving artesian springs and channelized, sediment-laden groundwater flows that appear locally in the main depression. Consequently, subrosion, i.e. subsurface mechanical erosion, is identified as a key physical process, in addition to dissolution, behind the subsidence and sinkhole hazard. Furthermore, satellite image analysis links the development of the sinuous depression and sinkhole formation at Ghor Al-Haditha to preferential groundwater flow paths along ancient and current wadi riverbeds.

  13. The cycling and sea-air exchange of mercury in the waters of the Eastern Mediterranean during the 2010 MED-OCEANOR cruise campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, L; Manca, G; Ammoscato, I; Pirrone, N; Sprovieri, F

    2013-03-15

    An oceanographic cruise campaign on-board the Italian research vessel Urania was carried out from the 26th of August to the 13th of September 2010 in the Eastern Mediterranean. The campaign sought to investigate the mercury cycle at coastal and offshore locations in different weather conditions. The experimental activity focused on measuring mercury speciation in both seawater and in air, and using meteorological parameters to estimate elemental mercury exchange at the sea-atmosphere interface. Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), unfiltered total mercury (UTHg) and filtered total mercury (FTHg) surface concentrations ranged from 16 to 114, 300 to 18,760, and 230 to 10,990pgL(-1), respectively. The highest DGM, UTHg and FTHg values were observed close to Augusta (Sicily), a highly industrialized area of the Mediterranean region, while the lowest values were recorded at offshore stations. DGM vertical profiles partially followed the distribution of sunlight, as a result of the photoinduced transformations of elemental mercury in the surface layers of the water column. However, at some stations, we observed higher DGM concentrations in samples taken from the bottom of the water column, suggesting biological mercury production processes or the presence of tectonic activity. Moreover, two days of continuous measurement at one location demonstrated that surface DGM concentration is affected by solar radiation and atmospheric turbulence intensity. Atmospheric measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) showed an average concentration (1.6ngm(-3)) close to the background level for the northern hemisphere. For the first time this study used a numerical scheme based on a two-thin film model with a specific parameterization for mercury to estimate elemental mercury flux. The calculated average mercury flux during the entire cruise was 2.2±1.5ngm(-2)h(-1). The analysis of flux data highlights the importance of the wind speed on the mercury evasion from sea surfaces

  14. Genetic variation and local differences in Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus around Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, A; Nagata, N; Sato, A; Narimatsu, Y; Nadiatul, H H; Kawata, M

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using 15 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (ND2 region). In total, 274 individuals were sampled from 16 locations around Japan to estimate the level of genetic differentiation and effective population size (N e ). Pairwise F ST , analysis of molecular