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Sample records for eastern goldfields province

  1. Geochemical aspects of mineralization in the Sabie-Pilgrim's Rest goldfield, eastern Transvaal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, R.H.; Meyer, F.M.; Robb, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Sabie-Pilgim's Rest goldfield in the eastern Transvaal constitutes the third biggest gold source in South Africa. Mineralization is vein controlled and extends from the Archaean granite basement, through the pre-Transvaal Godwan and Wolkeberg sequences into the Transvaal Supergroup comprising the Chuniespoort and Pretoria Groups. Gold occurs predominantly in three styles, as stratiform quartz-gold lodes, as transgressive veins, and as structurally controlled quartz blows. The flat reefs which host the majority of gold and sulphide ores are dominated by quartz although calcite becomes an important constituent towards the edges of the deposits. δ 18 O values obtained on quartz associated with a variety of different styles of gold mineralization are typically enriched in δ 18 O relative to SMOW. A progressive increase in δ 18 O is apparent from the underlying Archaean granite basement through the vertical reefs to the horizontal reefs. The trend towards heavier δ 18 O is accompanied by an increase in fluid salinity. The trend towards heavier δ 18 O and the increased salinity upwards in the stratigraphy is explained by the mixing of low salinity magmatic water from the granitic basement, with formation waters of the Transvaal basin. 3 refs., 2 figs

  2. Tourmalinization at the Darasun goldfield, Eastern Transbaikalia: Compositional, fluid inclusion and isotopic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Prokofiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoned tourmaline (schorl-dravite in the matrix of hydrothermal explosive breccia and ore veins in gold deposits, Chita region, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, are associated with Na- and K-rich porphyry-type subvolcanic intrusives. δ18O values of tourmaline from three gold deposits (Darasun, Talatui, Teremkinskoye are +8.3‰, +7.6‰, and +6.0‰ and calculated δ18O values of fluids responsible for the tourmalinization are +7.3‰, +7.7‰, and +4.2‰, respectively. These data imply an igneous fluid source, except at the Teremkin deposit where mixing with meteoric water is indicated. Wide ranges of Fe3+/Fetot and the presence of vacancies characterize the Darasun deposit tourmaline indicating wide ranges of ƒ(O2 and pH of mineralizing fluids. Initial stage tourmalines from the gold deposits of the Darasun ore district are dravite or high mg schorl. Second stage tourmaline is characterized by oscillatory zoning but with Fe generally increasing towards crystal rims indicating decreasing temperature. Third stage tourmaline formed unzoned crystals with xMg (mole fraction of Mg close to that of the first stage tourmaline, due to a close association with pyrite and arsenopyrite. From Fe3+/Fetot values, chemical composition and crystallization temperatures, logf(O2 of mineralizing fluids ranged from ca. −25 to −20, much higher than for the gold-bearing beresite–listvenite association, indicating that tourmalinization was not related to gold mineralization.

  3. Estimation of the mass density contrasts and the 3D geometrical shape of the source bodies, in the Yilgarn area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Boschetti, F.; Papp, G.

    2005-01-01

    We invert 2D surface gravity data constrained both by geological and seismic information. We use a number of pre-processing tools in order to reduce the general multi-body inversion into several single-body inversions, whereby we can reduce the overall complexity of the inversion task. This is done...... step, the overall change of the shape of the source body is followed by an update of the mass density contrast to the surroundings. The technique was applied to a set of gravity data from the Eastern Goldfield area in Western Australia. The area has been widely studied in the past. In 1999, two seismic...... profiles that cross-sect the area were measured. Furthermore, an extensive geological modelling for the area has been conducted. The practical goal of this work was to verify the geological interpretation using the potential field data (mainly the gravity data although magnetic data were also available...

  4. Estimation of the mass density contrasts and the 3D geometrical shape of the source bodies, in the Yilgarn area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Boschetti, F.; Papp, G.

    2005-01-01

    with as few assumptions as possible. Furthermore, for a single-body inversion we uncouple the determination of the shape of the causative sources from the determination of their mass density contrast to the surroundings. The inversion for the geometrical shape of the source body is done in steps. Firstly...... step, the overall change of the shape of the source body is followed by an update of the mass density contrast to the surroundings. The technique was applied to a set of gravity data from the Eastern Goldfield area in Western Australia. The area has been widely studied in the past. In 1999, two seismic......) and only weakly constrained by the seismic information. The result was the reconstruction of the 'rough' 3D geometry of the source bodies and the estimation of a constant mass density contrast to the surroundings. A possible extension of this technique for detailed studies of the geological model...

  5. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  6. Snail abundance in freshwater canals in the eastern province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of three species of freshwater snails, namely; Biomphalaria Arabica; Planorbidae, Lymnaea auricularia; Lymnaeidae and Melanoides tuberculatus; Thiaridae in two different parallel canals (the concrete irrigation and the earthen drainage canals) in the eastern province ...

  7. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...

  8. Hydrology of Area 7, Eastern Coal Province, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Morris J.; Roth, D.K.; ,

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey established 24 study areas in Eastern Appalachian Coal Province to appraise the hydrology and water resources from Alabama to Pennsylvania. Chemical, physical, biological, and streamflow data were collected from 138 synoptic sites in Area 7, eastern Ohio. The data are evaluated and presented in this report. Area 7 lies within the drainage basins of Muskingum Rivers and Duck and Willis Creeks in eastern Ohio. Walhounding, Tuscarawas, and Little Muskingum, and Muskingum Rivers and Wills and Duck Creeks are the major streams draining the study area. In Ohio, surface and subsurface coal mining has altered the environment. In areas where land has been reclaimed, the environmental stress expected to be temporary. Hydrologic problems related to coal mining are erosion and sedimentation which degrade water-quality. Based on available sediment data, suspended sediment concentration were highest in abandoned mine areas, followed by currently mined and reclaimed areas, and lowest in unmined areas. Low pH, high specific conductance, high concentrations of iron, sulfate and manganese, increased sediment yields, discoloration of streambeds, limited aquatic vegetation and animal life typify streams draining areas with abandoned mines. In abandoned mine areas, the specific conductance of water ranged from 800 to 2,300 micromhos; pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.8; dissolved-iron concentrations ranged from 1,000 to 85,000 micrograms per liter; dissolved-sulfate concentrations ranged from 14 to 1,200 milligrams per liter and dissolved-manganese concentration commonly exceeded 2,000 micrograms per liter. Red and yellow coloration on the streambeds were precipitates from the hydrolysis of iron, manganese, and sulfate minerals carried into the stream channel by increased sediment erosion from abandoned coal mines. Trace metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) were generally low. Degradation of fish habitat

  9. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

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    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  10. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  11. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  12. Molecular epidemiological investigations of plague in Eastern Province of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Stanley S; Hang Ombe, Bernard M; Simulundu, Edgar; Mulenga, Evans; Moonga, Ladslav; Machang U, Robert S; Misinzo, Gerald; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2018-01-04

    Plague is a flea-borne zoonotic and invasive disease caused by a gram negative coccobacillus bacterium called Yersinia pestis. Plague has caused three devastating pandemics globally namely: the Justinian, Black Death and Oriental plague. The disease in the Eastern Province of Zambia has been reported in Nyimba and Sinda Districts in the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of plague in the two affected districts. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), targeting Plasminogen activator gene (pla gene) of Y. pestis, was performed on suspected human bubo aspirates (n = 7), rodents (n = 216), shrews (n = 27) and fleas (n = 1494). Of these, one positive sample from each source or host was subjected to sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. The plasminogen activator gene (pla gene) of Y. pestis was detected in 42.8% bubo aspirates, 6.9% rodents, 3.7% shrew and 0.8% fleas. The fleas were from pigs (n = 4), goats (n = 5) and rodents (n = 3). The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the pla gene of Y. pestis in Nyimba and Sinda was similar and the isolates demonstrated a high degree of evolutionary relationship with Antiqua strains from the Republic of Congo and Kenya. It can be concluded that pla gene of Y. pestis was present in various hosts in the two districts and the strains circulating in each district were similar and resembles those in the Republic of Congo and Kenya.

  13. Perceived HIV and Aids impasse in the eastern cape province and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on perceived HIV and AIDS impasse in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to explore perceptions of those students already known to be living with HIV and Aids. There are a myriad of risky behaviours observed amongst them that continue to persist unabated despite several ...

  14. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the potential for acid generation is therefore very important in any mine setting where sulphide minerals exist. Results of two Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) studies conducted at Abosso Goldfields Limited (AGL) on 120 rock and tailings samples reveal that on average, total sulphide values in rocks are low, with ...

  15. Distribution of the Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in the province of Alessandria

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano, Fabrizio; Acquarone, Camilla; Cucco, Marco

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Eastern cottontail, a lagomorph native to the American continent, was introduced to N-Italy in the mid-1960s. In subsequent years a rapid territorial expansion and a remarkable demographic increase has been observed in many areas. In the province of Alessandria, NW Italy, we used night-time censuses with spotlights and road mortality assessment to evaluate the diffusion of the species and its trend. Night-time censuses were performed each year in spr...

  16. Demographic and histopathological patterns of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud S; Almsned, Fahad M; Hassen, Mohammed A; Atean, Ibrahim M; Alwbari, Ahmed M; Alharbi, Qasim K; Abdulkader, Marwah M; Almuhaish, Husam S

    2018-01-01

    To review the demographic and pathological pattern of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in a tertiary referral center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to compare the results of our study with other national and international studies. This is a retrospective chart-review study of all patients with neuro-epithelial brain tumors referred and treated in our center between January 2010 and January 2015. The age, gender, tumor location, and histopathology were recorded. The total number of cases was 149 including 96 adult cases and 53 pediatric cases. 58% of cases were male, and 42% were female. The age group distribution showed 2 peaks; one in the first 5 years of life and the second was in the age range from 26-45 years old. Glioblastoma multiforme was the most common pathological type (32%), followed by medulloblastoma (13.3%). This study showed similar results to a previous study conducted in the Eastern Province in terms of age and gender distribution, but pathologically, the tumors diagnosed in our study were generally of a higher grading. When comparing our results to other international studies in nearby countries (Jordan and Egypt), we found similarities in pathological patterns and age distribution. However, when comparing our results to a western country (USA), we found considerable differences in the age group distribution. Neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Saudi Arabia affect younger population according to our study compared to Western countries. These findings are similar to other studies from Middle Eastern countries. In addition, our study showed a significant increase in high grade gliomas in the Eastern Province compared to an old historical study. This increase should be interpreted cautiously due to possible selection errors, changes in pathological grading, and expertise.

  17. Pediatric retinal detachment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: Experience of a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema Rizwan A; AlKhars Wajeeha; AlAskar, Essam; Amin, Yasir M

    2009-01-01

    Because no previous studies have addressed the issue, we describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a pediatric population of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive cases of pediatric RRD (0-18 years) patients presenting at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over a period of 3 years. Twenty patients were included in the study, accounting for 9.4% of all retinal detachment surgery cases performed over a period of 3 years (January 2006 to December 2008). The median age was 11.0 years, (range, birth to 18 years). Trauma, (45%) myopia/vitreoretinal degeneration (10%) and prior ocular surgery (25%) were significant risk factors for RRD. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) more than grade C was present in 14/20 (70%) of cases. Most patients (15/20, 75%) were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and placement of an encircling buckle, while silicone oil or gas was used as tamponade in 13/20 (65%) patients. Surgery was successful in 17/20 (85%) cases in achieving retinal re-attachment. Visual acuity improved significantly following surgery (Mean preop 2.146 LogMAR, Mean postop 1.497 LogMAR) ( P= .014). Longer duration of RRD ( P =.007) and macular involvement ( P =.05) were associated with worse anatomical outcomes following surgery. Pediatric RRD in the Eastern province is often associated with predisposing pathology. Surgery is successful in achieving anatomical reattachment of the retina in a majority of cases with improvement of visual acuity. (author)

  18. Mineralogy and Chemistry of Desert Roses, Ayn Dar Area, Abqaiq, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    2002-01-01

    Desert roses are crystals which usually take the form of rose petal. They have definite crystal shapes, and enclose sand grains. The desert roses were scattered along an area of about 500m2 in the Ayn Dar area, near Abqaiq, about 80km southwest of Ad Dammam, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. They are made up of gypsum crystals included sand grains in the from of rosettes, with distinctive petal morphology. Most quartz grains are cemented by gypsum crystals which show a fibrous structure. ...

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  20. On numismatic findings from the southern part of the province of Dalmatia (examples from the area of Eastern Herzegovina

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    Samardžić Gligor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data about the numismatic findings from the area of the Roman province of Dalmatia (Eastern Herzegovina. With this supplement we present the unpublished and published ancient coins finds that have been discovered in the area of Eastern Herzegovina. The interpretation and publishing of numismatic sources are significant for the deliberation on the circulation of money and the representation of mints in the south of the province of Dalmatia in ancient times. The lack of written historical sources on the economic and political conditions is complemented by these old monetary emissions. The Roman conquest of and rule over the Province of Illyricum have contributed to the discovery of a significant amount of Roman coins in the area of present-day Eastern Herzegovina.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Said, Halima; Gcebe, Nomakorinte

    2017-10-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E.C) Province of South Africa. Although the isolates were genotyped with variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, no detailed epidemiological investigation was carried out on the respective farms to unequivocally confirm or link humans as sources of TB transmission to cattle, a move that would have embraced the 'One Health' concept. In addition, strain comparison with human M. tuberculosis in the database from the E.C Province and other provinces in the country did not reveal any match. This is the first report of cases of M. tuberculosis infection in cattle in South Africa. The VNTR profiles of the M. tuberculosis strains identified in the current study will form the basis for creating M. tuberculosis VNTR database for animals including cattle for future epidemiological studies. Our findings however, call for urgent reinforcement of collaborative efforts between the veterinary and the public health services of the country.

  2. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  3. Distribution of the Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in the province of Alessandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Silvano

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Eastern cottontail, a lagomorph native to the American continent, was introduced to N-Italy in the mid-1960s. In subsequent years a rapid territorial expansion and a remarkable demographic increase has been observed in many areas. In the province of Alessandria, NW Italy, we used night-time censuses with spotlights and road mortality assessment to evaluate the diffusion of the species and its trend. Night-time censuses were performed each year in spring and in autumn along 51 transects which were 10 km long on average. Road deaths were extracted from our 6715 records regarding 85 species of mammals, birds and reptiles found dead along the roads. The distribution area expanded markedly from the 1980s, and the expansion persisted between 1996 and 1997, while in 1998 the area failed to increase further, settling at around 620-660 km². The species is not present, at the moment, in the entire Apennine sector nor in the eastern and southern plains. The densities reach maximum values of 2.5-2.75 individuals/10 ha. From the road-death data we found a progressive increase of the Eastern cottontail, its proportion of the total mammals rising from 2.2% in 1995 to 3.7% in 1996 and 6.0% in 1997.

  4. Incidence of haematological malignancies, Eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, Diana; Truter, Ilse

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of haematological malignancies in Africa's rapidly urbanising populations is insufficiently explored. Reliable population-based cancer statistics, however, continues to be a scarce resource in Africa and tends to be urban biased with limited rural coverage. In addition, many haematological malignancies are regarded as rare cancers, a sub-group that often affects the young disproportionately and require advanced diagnostic services and facilities able to deliver costly sophisticated treatments. This study provides a first attempt to estimate the incidence of haematological malignancies among the Eastern Cape Province population of South Africa. Multiple public- and private sector data archives and resources were utilised to optimise the identification of incident cases, including clinical records; bone marrow; cytology; histology; flow cytometry and cytogenetic records. Crude incidence, age-and gender-standardised rates are presented and comparison made with existing national data and select data from other economically developed countries and global institutions. A total of 3603 incident cases were identified between 2004 and 2013. Mature lymphoid malignancies accounted for approximately 60% (n = 2153), myeloma/plasma cell neoplasms 13% (n = 465), acute leukaemia 17% (n = 596), chronic myeloid leukaemia 4% (n = 155) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms 6% (n = 234) when stratified according to conventional groups. Most subtypes increase with age, with male excess. Haematological malignancies in the Eastern Cape Province show disparities in gender and pathology-specific incidence patterns. The present study suggest that haematological malignancies are not uncommon in this region and the incidence rate of at least one rare subtype, APL, is comparable with some European populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  6. Utilisation of the partogram among nurses and midwives in selected health facilities in the Eastern Province of Rwanda

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    Oliva Bazirete

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Nurses’ and midwives’ years of professional experience and training in managing pregnant women in labour were found to be predictors of the likelihood of proper use of the partogram. In-service training of obstetric caregivers in the Eastern Province of Rwanda is recommended to improve use of the partogram while managing women in labour.

  7. Rabies in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - where are we going wrong?

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    S.J. Van Sittert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a growing problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study investigated dog ecology, vaccination coverage and rabies neutralising antibody levels in 203 randomly selected dogs within a local municipality in the former Transkei area. Responses to vaccination were also evaluated in 80 of these dogs. The population was remarkably uniform in size, breed and condition. Slightly over 1/5th of the population was between 6 weeks and 1 year of age, while very few dogs reached 10 years or older. According to owner responses, the Animal Health Technicians achieved a total vaccination coverage of 65 % of owned dogs over several years, but only 56 % within the previous 12 months. Only 32%of dogs had adequate circulating rabies virus neutralisation antibodies (≥0.5IU/ℓ. After vaccination, 83 % had seroconverted to this level. The magnitude of seroconversion was independent of body condition or age. This study proposes a different approach to vaccination strategies than those currently employed in certain areas of the province.

  8. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

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    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  9. The clinical competency of community health workers in the eastern highlands province of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, H E; Freeman, P

    1995-09-01

    A case study of the clinical competency of community health workers employed in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea was conducted in March 1993. Of the 79 who graduated from the Onamuga Community Health Worker Training School between 1989 and 1992, only 24 were currently employed in the province. Current knowledge and clinical competency were compared with results on completion of basic community health worker training. Results showed that 22 of the 24 maintained their knowledge competency, and 15 maintained clinical competency. It was found that those community health workers (CHWs) employed at a health subcentre use 40% to 50% of their skills, whilst those at a district health centre or provincial hospital use only 20% to 30% of their skills. Only 8% of the CHWs studied used all the skills obtained in their basic training. This study indicates that the CHW is being viewed by some health managers as a replacement for the nurse aide. If CHWs' skills are to be maintained, certainly good supervision, inservice training and adequate logistic support are needed, but so also is a change in management thinking. The CHW has been trained specifically to improve the access to essential primary health care services of people living in rural areas, especially in preventive and maternal and child health care. If in practice the CHW is not given the opportunity to practise and hence maintain these skills, the whole logic of the CHW training scheme will need to be reexamined.

  10. The content and solubility of lead in arable soils of the Podlasie Province (eastern Poland

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    Łukowski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the estimation of total content of lead and its fraction in arable soils and permanent grassland of Podlasie Province, eastern Poland. The research material included 104 soil samples from Podlasie Province, which were collected in years 2011–2013 from the topsoil (0–30 cm after plant harvest. The following basic physicochemical properties of soil samples were determined: granulometric composition, organic carbon content and pH in 1 mol·dm−3 KCl solution. Based on the granulometric composition soils were divided into three groups: very light and light, medium and organic soils. The total lead and its content in fractions was determined by means of GFAAS technique using Varian AA-100 apparatus. The fractions of lead were extracted by BCR method. In the case of very light and light soils the lowest percentage share of Pb on average was noted in exchangeable fraction (16.3% of total content and the highest in fraction bound to Fe/Mn oxides (43.5%. Similarly in medium and organic soils the highest amount of Pb was stated in reducible fraction, 43.7 and 41.3% of total content, respectively, and the lowest in exchangeable fraction, 16.5 and 12.2%, respectively. It was found that content of total lead was typical for arable uncontaminated soils.

  11. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  12. Investigation on hepatitis C virus infection among different population group in eastern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Zhang Renhua; Yao Zhanchen; Xu Pinghui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the HCV infection rate and the route of transmission among different population groups in Eastern Gruangdong province. Methods: Anti HCV was detected with EL ISA and HCV-RNA with FQ-PCR in selected population groups in Eastern Guangdong (total 8990 subjects). Results: The anti-HCV positive rates for general population, pregnant women, medical personnel, hepatitis B patients and patients on hemodialysis (HD) were: 0.89%(58/6468), 0.93%(17/1836), 2.93%(5/171), 11.5%(47/410) and 51.4%(54/105) respectively. Twelve of the 17 anti-HCV positive mothers were found to be HCV-RNA positive and two of the 12 infants were also HCV-RNA positive: a mother-to-infant transmission rate of 16.7%. In MD patients, anti HCV positive rate in those with history of transfusion and those without transfusion was 58% and 17% respectively, the difference being significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Blood transmission was the main route for HCV infection transmission and mother-to-infant transmission as well as infections in medical personnel should be of great concern. (authors)

  13. Emergence of a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in Golestan Province, north-eastern of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Asadi Kia, A; Gohardehi, Sh; Sharif, M; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Pagheh, A; Dadimoghadam, Y; Cheraghali, F

    2014-09-01

    Over the last decade, a few cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported in some districts of the province of Golestan, in north-eastern Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection among humans and domestic dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT) and PCR assays in the eastern zone of the province. Between 2011 and 2012, blood samples were randomly collected from 450 humans and 50 domestic dogs, in the eastern zone of Golestan Province including 7 villages from Marave-tappeh district where new cases of human VL had been recorded there. Each of these samples was tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies, in DAT, and for L. infantum kinetoplast DNA on whole blood, in PCR-based assays. A total of 450 human samples, 6 (1.33 %) were found seropositive and 13 (2.8 %) was found PCR-positive. Of the 50 dog samples, 16 (32 %) were found seropositive and 15 (30 %) were PCR-positive. All PCR-positive dogs were found seropositive except one as well as 6 (46.2 %) PCR-positive humans were also found seropositive. Moreover, the species of L. infantum was detected in all PCR-positive samples. The high prevalence of VL in the study areas offer it has emerged as an endemic focus in the province. Further investigations on the vectors, reservoirs and human population are recommended.

  14. [Molecular epidemiology of G6PD deficiency in Chaozhou area of eastern Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fen; Wu, Jiaoren; Yang, Hui; Lin, Min; Yang, Liye

    2016-02-01

    To determine the incidence and molecular characteristics of G6PD deficiency in Chaozhou region of eastern Guangdong Province. G6PD enzyme activity was assayed with an auto-bioanalyzer. Reverse dot blotting (RDB) was used for detecting 6 common G6PD mutations. Samples with no mutation detected by RDB were further sequenced for unknown mutations. The rate of G6PD deficiency was 3.36% (142/4224). 2.33% (47/2013) of males and 4.3% (95/2208) of females were affected. 12 mutations were detected among the 142 patients, which included c.1376G>T, c.1388G>A, c.1024C>T, c.392G>T, c.871G>A, c.95A>G, c.517T>C, c.131C>G, c.1376G>T/c.517T>C, c.871G>A/IVS-1193T>C/c.1311C>T, c.1376G>T/IVS-11, 93T>C/c.1311C>T and c.1376G>T/c.486_34delT (rs3216174). The incidence of G6PD deficiency in Chaozhou region was lower than that of the Hakka population of Guangdong Province, and the mutation types were diversely distributed in this region. c.1376G>T, c.1388G>A and c.1024C>T were the most common mutations, which was followed by c.517T>C. In addition, c.131C>G has been first discovered in the Chinese population. c.1376G>T/c.517T>C and c.1376G>T/c.486_34delT(rs3216174) were new types of compound heterozygous mutations in females.

  15. Clinical and demographic features of pediatric burns in the eastern provinces of Turkey

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    Abdullah Yıldız

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes of burns observed in children in the eastern provinces of Turkey. Method In this study, patients were studied retrospectively with regard to their age, sex, cause of burns, seasonal variations, social and economic factors, length of hospital stay, burned body surface area, medical history, site of injury, and mortality. Results A total of 125 patients undergoing inpatient treatment were male, (53.2% and 110 were female (46.8%. The most common causes of burns in patients treated on an inpatient basis were scald burns (65.5% and tandir burns (15.7%. The mean total body surface area of all the patients was 12.17+9.86%. When the patients were grouped according to tandir, cauldron, and others burn causes, a significant difference was seen between the in burn percentages caused by tandir and cauldron burns and other causes (p Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.4%. Of the 235 patients, 61 were treated in operating rooms. During the 24-month period of the study, 2 of the 235 patients died (0.85%. Conclusion Pediatric burns in the eastern part of Turkey are different from those in other parts of Turkey, as well as in other countries. Due to the lifestyle of the region, tandir and cauldron burns, which cause extensive burn areas and high morbidity, are frequently seen in children. Therefore, precautions and educational programs related to the use of tandirs and cauldrons are needed in this region.

  16. Clinical and demographic features of pediatric burns in the eastern provinces of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes of burns observed in children in the eastern provinces of Turkey. Method In this study, patients were studied retrospectively with regard to their age, sex, cause of burns, seasonal variations, social and economic factors, length of hospital stay, burned body surface area, medical history, site of injury, and mortality. Results A total of 125 patients undergoing inpatient treatment were male, (53.2%) and 110 were female (46.8%). The most common causes of burns in patients treated on an inpatient basis were scald burns (65.5%) and tandir burns (15.7%). The mean total body surface area of all the patients was 12.17+9.86%. When the patients were grouped according to tandir, cauldron, and others burn causes, a significant difference was seen between the in burn percentages caused by tandir and cauldron burns and other causes (p burn percentages were seen for cauldron burns than for tandir burns (p burn causes (tandir, cauldron, and others), a significant difference was determined between the hospitalization periods of patients with tandir burns and other burn causes (p = 0.001) The most commonly proliferating microorganism in burned areas was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.4%). Of the 235 patients, 61 were treated in operating rooms. During the 24-month period of the study, 2 of the 235 patients died (0.85%). Conclusion Pediatric burns in the eastern part of Turkey are different from those in other parts of Turkey, as well as in other countries. Due to the lifestyle of the region, tandir and cauldron burns, which cause extensive burn areas and high morbidity, are frequently seen in children. Therefore, precautions and educational programs related to the use of tandirs and cauldrons are needed in this region. PMID:21244683

  17. Social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Obrain T. Murire

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT framework was used as the theoretical foundation of the questionnaire that was distributed to 300 full-time staff members. A response rate of 39% was attained. Factor analysis was used to test the relationship between variables. Contribution: The study’s contribution is to the theoretical body of knowledge that affirms that the UTAUT framework is an appropriate tool to use to test adoption of social media at traditional universities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that academics are conversant with emerging technologies and could incorporate these technologies into academic settings with an aim to increase communication and interaction among lecturers and learners. The results revealed that performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and behavioural intention have a positive influence on social media adoption and continued use by academics in teaching and learning at traditional university. The facilitating condition scale was not statistically significant, but must be considered by management in order to improve the adoption of social media among lecturers.

  18. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  19. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

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    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  20. Assessment of Pharmacy Information System Performance in Three Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.

  1. Barriers and Incentives to Potential Adoption of Biofuels Crops by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge; Mushunje, Abbyssinia; Taruvinga, Amon

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify barriers and incentives that influence the potential adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. The study utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to record responses from 129 smallholder farmers that were identified through a snowballing sampling technique. The respondents were from the Oliver Tambo and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A Heckman two-step model was applied to analyze the dat...

  2. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  3. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.

  4. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  5. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-08-08

    Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The study was conducted in six villages in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa between June 2014 and March 2017. Data on socio-economic characteristics of the participants, useful plants harvested from the wild, managed in home gardens were documented by means of questionnaires, observation and guided field walks with 138 participants. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 54 genera were recorded from the study area. More than half of the species (59.2%) are from 13 families, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae. More than a third of the useful plants (37.6%) documented in this study are exotic to South Africa. About three quarters of the documented species (74.4%) were collected from the wild, while 20.8% were cultivated and 4.8% were spontaneous. Majority of the species (62.4%) were used as herbal medicines, followed by food plants (30.4%), ethnoveterinary medicine (18.4%), construction timber and thatching (11.2%). Other minor plant use categories (1-5%) included firewood, browse, live fence, ornamentals, brooms and crafts. This study demonstrated that local people in the Eastern Cape province harbour important information on local vegetation that provides people with food, fuel and medicines, as well as materials for construction and the manufacturing of crafts and many other products. This study also demonstrated the dynamism of

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  7. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  8. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  9. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  10. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, PToxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential morbidity associated with Toxocara infection. PMID:25101756

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  12. THE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN VEGETATION OF THE TRIESTE PROVINCE (NORTH EASTERN ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of a numerical classification of 85 phytosociological releves, 11 unions of epiphytic lichen vegetation are described for the Province of Trieste. Their ecology and dynamics are discussed. The results confirm the transitional character of the study area from the phytogeographical and phytosociological points of wiew.

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  14. The Ambiguity of Militarization : The complex interaction between the Congolese armed forces and civilians in the Kivu provinces, eastern DR Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweijen, J.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on extensive ethnographic field research, this dissertation explores the interaction between the Congolese armed forces (FARDC) and civilians in the eastern DR Congo’s conflict-ridden Kivu provinces. It uncovers the multidimensionality, reciprocity and complexities of this interaction, which

  15. Mortality and morbidity among traditionally circumcised Xhosa boys in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mogotlane

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Male circumcision is one of the oldest traditions observed by many societies. The ritual is performed at specific periods in life with the main purpose of integrating the male child into the society according to cultural norms. Recently, especially in the Eastern Cape, many initiates have died or have had to face life with mutilated genitals following this ritual.

  16. Determinants of child nutritional status in the eastern province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, Julius; Gardebroek, Koos; Khonje, Makaiko G.; Alene, Arega D.; Mutenje, Munyaradzi; Kassie, Menale

    2016-01-01

    Using household survey data from a sample of 810 households, this paper analyses the determinants of children’s nutritional status and evaluates the impacts of improved maize varieties on child malnutrition in eastern Zambia. The paper uses an endogenous switching regression technique, combined

  17. Changes in Reference Evapotranspiration and Its Contributing Factors in Jiangsu, a Major Economic and Agricultural Province of Eastern China

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    Ronghao Chu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETref is a key parameter of hydro-meteorological studies as well as water resource planning. In this study, we adopted the Penman–Monteith FAO 56 model to estimate ETref and through the differential equation and detrending method to determine sensitivities and the contributions of four meteorological parameters to ETref based on daily weather data from 60 stations of Jiangsu province during 1961–2015. Results reveal that ETref and its trends in the three sub-regions of the Jiangsu province had a significant spatial heterogeneity. A significant decreasing tendency of ETref (p < 0.001 was observed in the Huaibei region, while a slightly increasing tendency was identified in the Jianghuai and Sunan regions. These changes of ETref were caused by a significant increasing trend in air temperature (TA and significant decreasing trends in wind speed (WS, sunshine duration (SD as well as a non-significant change trend in actual vapor pressure (VP. However, the VP was the meteorological parameter to which ETref was most sensitive, whereas ETref was more sensitive to TA and SD in the summer but less so in the winter; the least sensitive factor, WS, had the opposite trend. Across the whole region, WS contributed most to ETref, followed by SD, while the positive contribution of TA to ETref could not offset the negative contributions of WS and SD. Although the effect of VP on changes in ETref is small, it could not be ignored, especially in the winter. The reverse relationship between increasing TA and decreasing ETref, namely the “evaporation paradox,” occurred in Jiangsu province. Thus, the outcomes of this study will contribute to thorough insight into the response to changes in ETref to the provincial water planning and management in eastern China.

  18. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  19. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey

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    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless, 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01. Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l. The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g and fructose (15.55 g/100 g contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l, o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l, and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l, and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of

  20. Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Masika; A. Sonandi; W. Van Averbeke

    1997-01-01

    A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other ...

  1. Ecology and management of a remnant Brachystegia Speciformis (Miombo) Woodland in North Eastern Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saidi, AT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ˚24’ and 30˚27’ east. It falls within the territory of the former homeland of Venda, and now part of Vhembe District of Limpopo province. It is a section of the Soutpansberg, a chain of hills and plateaus that stretch east-west on the southern edges... in the study area allows the growth of other woody plant species. The ecological survey approach described by Kershaw and Looney (1985), and Kent and Coker (1992) was followed. Woody plants occurring in each PSP were identified in the field, sometimes...

  2. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

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    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  3. Mortality and morbidity among traditionally circumcised Xhosa boys in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogotlane, S M; Ntlangulela, J T; Ogunbanjo, B G A

    2004-05-01

    Male circumcision is one of the oldest traditions observed by many societies. The ritual is performed at specific periods in life with the main purpose of integrating the male child into the society according to cultural norms. Recently, especially in the Eastern Cape, many initiates have died or have had to face life with mutilated genitals following this ritual. of the study was to explore the causes of morbidity and mortality among traditionally circumcised Xhosa boys in the Eastern Cape. A revelatory case study design was used to obtain information from initiates and traditional surgeons and attendants in the Flagstaff District. From the data collected, restriction of fluid intake, unhealthy surroundings, like, cold and dusty holding rooms and incompetent attendants were cited as factors that contributed to dehydration; wound infection and respiratory infection. The initiates recommended a collaboration with the Department of Health to ensure that circumcision is performed by knowledgeable persons in appropriate surroundings i.e. a clean and warm room with adequate space.

  4. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

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    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  5. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

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    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  6. Assessment of Conservation Agriculture Practices by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Lindah Muzangwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA can sustainably address soil degradation and improve crop yields. However, the success of CA amongst South African smallholder farmers is not known. The aims of the study were to find out: (1 the extent of CA practice by the Eastern Cape smallholder farmers; (2 perceptions towards CA amongst smallholder farmers with some history of practising the technology; and (3 the impact of practised CA components on soil quality indicators. Diagnostic survey techniques and soil sampling in farmers’ fields were employed to gather data from five districts of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The most common CA principle adopted by surveyed farmers was no-till (34.81%, whilst crop rotation and residue retention were practised by only 25.93% and 22.22% of the farmers, respectively. Education level and CA training influenced the likelihood of a farmer to practise no-till farming, whilst the likelihood of farmers to retain residues was influenced by education level and access to grazing lands. Lack of appropriate equipment and costly herbicides were the major constraining factors to practising CA. Crop residue retention conflicted with the common practice of free-range livestock grazing. Cabbage, maize and beans were the most common crops of choice for the few farmers that practised crop rotations. No significant (p > 0.05 improvement on soil quality indicators was observed with CA compared to the conventional farming method. The noted high dependency on government grants by the smallholder farmers could be a disincentive towards the adoption of agricultural innovations such as CA. Identification of practical key CA entry points is recommended, bearing in mind the noted impediments to CA adoption.

  7. Magmatic mineral assemblages of eclogitized and not eclogitized Paleoproterozoic gabbronorites from the Belomorian province, Eastern Fennoscandian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recognition of magmatic crystallization processes is problematic in high-grade metamorphic terrains. However, sometimes metamorphosed gabbro preserve relics of primary magmatic mineral assemblages that give valuable information about the time and conditions of melt crystallization. The Belomorian province of the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield is characterized by repeated high-pressure metamorphic events during Archean and Paleoproterozoic. Metagabbronorites of age ca. 2.4 Ga are widespread in the Belomorian province(Stepanova, Stepanov, 2010) and in spite of metamorphic alteration they retain relicts of primary igneous mineral assemblages. We have studied eclogitized gabbronorites, from the Gridino area (metamorphosed at P~19 kbar, T≤930°C, Volodichev, 2005) and metagabbronorites metamorphosed in amphibolite facies conditions (P corona textures on the boundary of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Eclogitized gabbronorites contain also omphacite (up to Jd52), and plagioclase (An17). It was found that central parts of the both eclogitized and not eclogitized metagabbronorite bodies are well-preserved and retain magmatic textures and primary mineral assemblages that consist of Ol, Opx, Cpx and Pl. Magnesium olivine (Fo81-84) in these rocks is enclosed in euhedral bronzite that also may contain small inclusions of chromite. Rather more ferrous olivine (Fo75) occurs in association with augite, hypersthene and plagioclase (An70). The magmatic stage of crystallization in eclogized and not eclogized olivine gabbronorites is identical: (Ol1+Crt) → OPx → Ol2+Pl (An70) +Aug →Pl (An45). The microprobe data on the composition of rock-forming minerals were used to calculate the crystallization pressures and temperatures for the minerals equilibrium with the melt. Calculations of PT-conditions of magmatic mineral assemblage crystallization were carried out using several geotermobarometers (Nimis, 1996, Putirka,1996, 2008). Relict magmatic assemblages in the

  8. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  9. The association between ethnic identity and condom use among young men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Resnicow, Ken; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Reddy, Priscilla

    2014-08-01

    This article reports on the association between ethnic identity and condom use among Black African men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Individual face-to-face structured interviews were conducted by trained community research assistants among 1,656 men who had undergone traditional initiation and male circumcision. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between two components of ethnic identity (cultural affiliation and cultural alienation) and condom use. Overall, 49.2 % of the participants reported using condoms consistently and, of these users, 66.4 % used them correctly. Logistic regression adjusting for age, employment status, education level, and nation of origin showed that participants who expressed high as opposed to low cultural affiliation were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently and correctly when having sex, especially if they reported to have more than one sexual partner. Cultural alienation was negatively related with consistent condom use, whereas its association with correct use was unclear. The findings of this study suggest that positively emphasizing the ethnic identity of African black men may promote condom use.

  10. β2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in normal and asthmatic individuals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaish, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Several polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) gene have been identified, including the amino acid substitution from arginine (Arg) to glycine (Gly) at codon 16 and from glutamine (Gln) to glutamic acid (Glu) at codon 27. These substitutions affect receptor function and show significantly more agonist-promoted receptor down-regulation than cells expressing the Arg 16/Gln 27 variants. Although the ethnic dependency of this polymorphism has been described in other populations, no studies investigating its relationship to asthma have been conducted in the Saudi population . Therefore, our main objective was to determine the prevalence of these two mutations among patients with asthma in the Eastern Province and in matched healthy controls. A case-control study conducted at a university hospital among Saudi patients. Blood samples were collected from 73 asthmatic patients and from 85 controls, and the β2-AR gene polymorphisms at codon 16 and codon 27 were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Although a significant difference was observed in genotype frequencies at codon 16 (Arg/Gly) between the asthmatic and normal control subjects (P.68). Using the THESIAS statistical program, no significant association of any haplotype with asthma was found. Our findings indicate a poor association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms with asthma. However, further study is required to ascertain the interactions of different haplotypes and the response of patients with different haplotypes to various treatments.

  11. Heavy metals burden in kidney and heart tissues of Scarus ghobban fish from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia

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    Waqar Ashraf

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney tissues followed the order; Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > Mn > Cd. In the heart tissue the analyzed metals followed similar pattern of metal accumulation. The average Pb (0.85 ± 0.50 ppm, Cd (0.12 ± 0.07 ppm, Ni (0.92 ± 0.35 ppm and Mn (0.86 ± 0.43 ppm were significantly lower in the heart tissue whereas Zn (26.4 ± 12.9 ppm and Cu (3.29 ± 2.18 ppm were higher in the kidney tissues. In general, the data indicated that marine fish from the sampling site of the Arabian Gulf contain relatively less burden of heavy metals in their tissues.

  12. Factors that could motivate people to adopt safe hygienic practices in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shukla, Nimish

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 18 million South Africans do not have access to adequate sanitation. This problem is not unique to South Africa but is a challenge to many developing countries. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain insight and understanding of factors that could motivate people to adopt safe hygienic practices. A non-probability purposive sample of 122 participants was drawn from sanitation stakeholder organisations in the Eastern Cape Province. Of these, 74 were male and 48 were female. The mean age of the participants was 40.1 years. The 122 participants were divided into 15 focus groups, each consisting of about eight members. The focus group discussions were conducted using seven guiding questions. Responses were examined and clustered in terms of the primary focus group questions. Regular water supply, provision of sanitation facilities, stakeholder participation and improvement of consumer sanitation knowledge are factors which can motivate people to adopt safe hygienic practices. There are cultural, educational, economic, institutional, environmental and psycho-social factors that could motivate people to adopt safe hygienic practices.

  13. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

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    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  14. Adoption and Barriers to Adoption of Electronic Health Records by Nurses in Three Governmental Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza

    2015-01-01

    Although electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented in many hospitals and healthcare providers benefit from their effective and efficient data processing, their evaluation from nurses has received little attention. This project aimed to assess the adoption and barriers to the use of an EHR system by nurses at three governmental hospitals implementing the same EHR software and functionalities in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The study was a cross-sectional, paper-based questionnaire study. SPSS version 20 was used for data entry and analysis, and descriptive statistics were calculated. The study found underutilization of almost all functionalities among all hospitals and no utilization of any communication tools with patients. In addition, there were no instances of "allowing patients to use the Internet to access parts of their health records." The most frequently cited barrier among all hospitals was "loss of access to medical records transiently if computer crashes or power fails" (88.6 percent). This was followed by "lack of continuous training/ support from information technology staff in hospital" (85.9 percent), "additional time required for data entry" (84.9 percent), and "system hanging up problem" (83.8 percent). Complexity of technology (81.6 percent) and lack of system customizability (81.1 percent) were also frequently reported problems. The formation of an EHR committee to discuss problems with the system in Saudi hospitals is recommended.

  15. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  16. Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other reasons for participation in dipping programmes were to prevent ticks from sucking blood, provide animals with a clean appearance, and prevent damage to teats of cows. Many livestock owners complement dipping with other tick control measures, including old motor oil, household disinfectant, pour-on acaricide and manual removal of ticks. Recently local farming communities were given the responsibility of buying dipping acaricide. This has presented them with the challenge of developing farmer-managed, cost-effective tick control programmes. At present, this process is constrained by lack of information and farmer training.

  17. Coastal debris analysis in beaches of Chonburi Province, eastern of Thailand as implications for coastal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Chavanich, Suchana; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2017-03-15

    This study quantified coastal debris along 3 beaches (Angsila, Bangsaen, Samaesarn) in eastern coast of Thailand. Debris samples were collected from lower and upper strata of these beaches during wet and dry seasons. The results showed that Bangsaen had the highest average debris density (15.5m -2 ) followed by Samaesarn (8.10m -2 ), and Angsila (5.54m -2 ). Among the 12 debris categories, the most abundant debris type was plastics (>45% of the total debris) in all beach locations. Coastal debris distribution was related to economic activities in the vicinity. Fishery and shell-fish aquaculture activities were primary sources of debris in Angsila while tourism activities were main sources in Bangsaen and Samaesarn. Site-specific pollution control mechanisms (environmental awareness, reuse and recycling) are recommended to reduce public littering. Management actions in Angsila should focus on fishery and shell-fish culture practices, while Bangsaen and Samaesarn should be directed toward leisure activities promoting waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytotherapeutic Information on Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current rate of deforestation in Africa constitutes a serious danger to the future of medicinal plants on this continent. Conservation of these medicinal plants in the field and the scientific documentation of our knowledge about them are therefore crucial. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB was carried out in selected areas of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These areas were Hala, Ncera, Sheshegu, and Gquamashe, all within the Nkonkobe Municipality. One hundred informants were interviewed. The survey included the identification of scientific and vernacular names of the plants used for treatment of TB as well as the methods of preparation and administration, the part used, dosage, and duration of treatment. The survey revealed 30 plants belonging to 21 families which are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of TB and associated diseases. Of these plants Clausena anisata, Haemanthus albiflos, and Artemisia afra were the most cited. The leaves were the most common part used in the medicinal preparations. Our findings are discussed in relation to the importance of the documentation of medicinal plants.

  19. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  20. Tectonic juxtaposition of crust and continental growth during orogenesis: Example from the Rengali Province, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Bose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern boundary of the Singhbhum Craton witnessed multiple orogenies that juxtaposed thin slice of granulite suite of the Rengali Province against the low-grade granite-greenstone belt of the craton along the E–W trending Sukinda Thrust. The strong southerly dipping mylonitic foliation within the granulites along with the prominent down-dip mineral lineation, suggest a northerly-verging thrusting. Mylonitized charnockite at the contact zone contains enclaves of mafic and ultramafic granulite, whereas granitoid gneiss contains enclaves of pelitic granulite. Mafic granulite enclaves preserve an early (S1M foliation that formed during D1M deformation. This rock, along with the host charnockite, were intensely deformed by the D2M thrusting event and resulting S2M foliation development in both rock suites. Geothermobarometric and pseudosection analyses show that the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-orthopyroxene-ilmenite-quartz assemblage in mafic granulite was stabilized at high-pressure and temperature conditions (10−12 kbar, 860 °C and was overprinted by a fine-grained assemblage of clinopyroxene-plagioclase ± hornblende that developed during decompression (down to 5.5–7.5 kbar. Matrix hornblende shows incipient breakdown to garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz intergrowth due to a granulite facies reworking. A contrasting P-T history is preserved in the pelitic granulite. The peak assemblage garnet-orthopyroxene-cordierite-quartz-rutile was stabilized at ∼6.0 kbar, 730 °C which resulted from heating of the mid crust magma during the D2M thrusting. The contrasting P-T histories could result from the tectonic juxtaposition of lower- and mid-crustal section during the D2M event. Evidences of an early orogenic imprint within the mafic granulite imply involvement of deep continental crust during southward growth of the Singhbhum Craton.

  1. Colecta de leguminosas forrajeras en tres provincias orientales de Cuba Collection of forage legumes in three Eastern provinces of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseika Olivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una labor de prospección y colecta en la zona oriental del país con el objetivo de colectar germoplasma de leguminosas herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas multipropósito para ser utilizadas en el sector ganadero. El trayecto incluyó la costa norte y sur de la provincia de Guantánamo, la costa norte y centro de la provincia Holguín, así como la parte centro-este de la provincia Granma. Se utilizó un sistema de muestreo individual en pequeñas poblaciones, con repetitividad de especies en diferentes sitios, y en ocasiones se muestreó aleatoriamente en poblaciones abundantes. La información se recogió a través de los descriptores relacionados con la localización, el hábitat natural, la vegetación, el suelo y los daños motivados por insectos y enfermedades, entre otros. Se colectaron 95 accesiones pertenecientes a 24 especies, entre las que primaron las de tipo herbáceo (10 géneros. Se encontraron especies utilizadas con diversos propósitos (alimento animal, cobertura, abono verde, cercas vivas, etc., tanto herbáceas como arbustivas y arbóreas. Se recomienda beneficiar las muestras obtenidas; proceder a su rápida reproducción, caracterización morfobotánica y evaluación agronómica (fase I; utilizar este material para diversos fines, entre ellos la conservación y el intercambio; así como continuar la colecta en otras zonas del país.A prospecting and collection work was carried out in the eastern zone of the country with the objective of collecting germplasm of herbaceous, shrubby and tree multipurpose legumes to be used in the livestock production sector. The trip included the northern and southern coast of the Guantanamo province, the northern and central coast of the Holguín province, as well as the central-eastern part of the Granma province. An individual sampling system was used in small populations, with repetitiveness of species in different sites, and sometimes random sampling was performed in abundant

  2. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  3. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  4. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  5. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Vallely

    Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion.Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information.Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119 of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119 of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported.In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  6. Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Han, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Yue; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Liu, Jing-Bo; Yan, Zhi-He; Zheng, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Jia-Kun; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a total of 10,297 healthy people selected from a regional hospital were screened. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, complete blood cell (CBC) count, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, reverse dot-blot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect Hb variants, thalassemias and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH). Two thousand and twenty-one adult subjects were screened for thalassemia, five cases were identified as α-thalassemia (α-thal) carriers including three cases of the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion, one case of the - -(SEA) deletion and one case of β-thal [IVS-II-654 (C>T), (HBB: c.316-197C>T)]. The incidence of Hb variants, thalassemia and HPFH/δβ-thal were 0.136% (14/10,297), 0.25% (5/2021) and 0.0001% (1/10,297), respectively. Eight genotypes of Hb variants were found, including Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp (GGC>GAC); HBB; c.170G>A], Hb G-Coushatta [β22(4)Glu→Ala (GAA>GCA); HBB: c.68A>C], Hb Queens [α34(B15)Leu→Arg (CTG>CGG) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.104T>G (or HBA1)], Hb I [α16(A14)Lys→Glu, AAG>GAG (α1); HBA1: c.49A>G], Hb Beijing [α16(A14)Lys→Asn (AAG>AAC or AAT) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.51G>C (or HBA1) or 51G>T (or HBA1)], Hb Ube-2 [α68(E17)Asn→Asp (AAC>GAC) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.205A>G (or HBA1)] and Hb G-Taipei [β22(B4)Glu→Gly (GAA>GGA); HBB: c.68A>G]. A Sicilian δβ(0)-thal, identified for the first time in Asia, was also found in this survey.

  7. Regional geologic characteristics of uranium ores and assessment of metallogenetic potentials in the central part of Eastern Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenguang; Tao Quan; Zhang Shouben

    1997-10-01

    Regional geologic characteristics, metallogenetic conditions and prospects of uranium ores in the central part of the Eastern Liaoning Province of North China is studied systematically. It demonstrates that the Archaean basement of the study area consists of a special type of granite-greenstone belts in China. It is called the granite-greenstone belts of the Liaoning-model, in which the granitic rocks are mainly migmatitic granite and granite-gneiss of migmatitic genesis. The greenstone belts in this area have undergone strong metamorphism. Large amounts of Precambrian geochronological studies have been made with U-Pb isotopic method on zircon; and a new Precambrian geologic time scale has been established. It is also proved that multistage activation of the Early Precambrian basement and the proto-platform took place in Early Proterozoic. Emphases are laid on uranium and thorium abundances and their variations as well as primary uranium contents of rocks in the granite-greenstone terrain and those of the Lower Proterozoic. At the same time, uraninite as accessory mineral in granitic rocks is found to exist more or less. Early Precambrian strata and many kinds of mineral deposits occurring in the strata are in origin chiefly of syngenetic hot brine sedimentation and of submarine extrusive gas-hydrothermal sedimentation superimposed by metamorphism. Metallogenetic features and models of various types of uranium deposits are studied emphatically and compared with similar large deposits abroad. In addition, overall synthetical appraisals are made for this area; and on this basis, prospecting directions and favourable sections of uranium metallization are suggested. (4 refs., 4 tabs.)

  8. Performance of body mass index in predicting diabetes and hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajwal, Ali M; Al-Baghli, Nadira A; Batterham, Marijka J; Williams, Peter G; Al-Turki, Khalid A; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure to define obesity and predict its complications, such as diabetes and hypertension, but its accuracy and usefulness in Saudi subjects is unknown. This study aimed to assess the validity of standard BMI cut-point values in the Saudi population. 197 681 adults participated in a cross-sectional study to detect diabetes and hypertension in the Saudi Eastern province in 2004/2005, with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, height and weight measurements taken. Sensitivities, specificities, areas under the curves, predictive values, likelihood ratios, false positive, false negatives and total misclassification ratios were calculated for various BMI values determined from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The significance of the association between risk factors and BMI was assessed using regression analysis. For the definition of overweight, ROC curve analysis suggested optimal BMI cut-offs of 28.50 to 29.50 in men and 30.50 to 31.50 in women, but the levels of sensitivity and specificity were too low to be of clinical value and the overall misclassification was unacceptably high across all the selected BMI values (>0.80). The relationship between BMI and the presence of diabetes and/or hypertension was not improved when a BMI of 25 was used. Using regression analyses, the odds ratios for hypertension and/or diabetes increased significantly from BMI values as low as 21-23 with no improvement in the diagnostic performance of BMI at these cutoffs. In Saudi population, there is an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension relative to BMI, starting at a BMI as low as 21 but overall there is no cutoff BMI level with high predictive value for the development of these chronic diseases, including the WHO definition of obesity at BMI of 30.

  9. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  10. Floral diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in hogsback, the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.Y.; Tol, J.J.V.; Maroyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific. (author)

  11. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  12. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  13. Utilisation of the partogram among nurses and midwives in selected health facilities in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazirete, Oliva; Mbombo, Nomafrench; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2017-08-03

    Maternal mortality continues to be a global burden, with more than 200 million women becoming pregnant each year and a large number dying as a result of complications of pregnancy or childbirth. The World Health Organisation has recommended use of the partogram to monitor labour and delivery in order to improve healthcare and reduce maternal and foetal mortality rates. This study described factors affecting utilisation of the partogram among nurses and midwives in selected health facilities of Rwanda. A descriptive quantitative and cross-sectional research design was used. The population comprised 131 nurses and midwives providing obstetric care in 15 health institutions (1 hospital and 14 health centres). Data collection was through a self-administered questionnaire, and a pre-test of the data collection instrument was carried out to enhance validity and reliability. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 21) was used to capture and analyse data. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of the Western Cape (Republic of South Africa) and from the Institutional Review Board of Kigali Health Institute (Rwanda). Patricia Benner's model of nursing practice was used to guide the study. It was found that 36.6% of nurses and midwives did not receive any in-service training on how to manage women in labour. Despite fair knowledge of the partogram among nurses and midwives in this study, only 41.22% reported having used the partogram properly, while 58.78% reported not having done so. Nurses' and midwives' years of professional experience and training in managing pregnant women in labour were found to be predictors of the likelihood of proper use of the partogram. In-service training of obstetric caregivers in the Eastern Province of Rwanda is recommended to improve use of the partogram while managing women in labour.

  14. Ore controls in the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia: Constraints from geological, geophysical and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, O.P.; Blenkinsop, T.G.; Morrison, R.J.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The approach taken in this paper, namely synthesising a wealth of previous information with new data and a genetic model, in combination with integrated numerical analyses, led to new insights into the geological controls on the localisation of auriferous veins and residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia. The method also has implications for the assessment of other "mature" goldfields worldwide. Despite a number of different ore controls having operated within the Charters Towers goldfield, the controlling factors can be linked to a single genetic model for orogenic, granitoid-hosted lode-gold mineralisation in a brittle deformation regime (D4) of NE-SW to NNE-SSW shortening, under conditions of supralithostatic fluid pressure and low stress difference. Spatial autocorrelation results suggest district-scale alignment of the auriferous veins parallel to and overlapping with the ESE-WNW- to E-W-striking Charters Towers-Ravenswood lineament, a major crustal boundary in the basement to the Ravenswood batholith. At the camp-scale, auriferous veins have abundance and proximity relationships with NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-oriented lineaments, suggesting that structures that controlled gold deposition in one camp did not necessarily control mineralisation in other camps. Fractal dimensions obtained with the box-counting method range from 1.02 to 1.10, whereas veins in the Charters Towers City camp are characterised by a significantly higher fractal dimension of 1.28. This discrepancy may be taken to imply that most or all outcropping and near-surface deposits within the Charters Towers City camp have been found and that new discoveries are more likely to occur at greater levels of depth, or outside the boundaries of this camp. The new understanding has implications for the assessment of the residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, where large areas of prospective rock types and structures (e.g., approximately 40% of

  15. The Eastern Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Queenstown, Cradock, Molteno, Sada, Cofimvaba, Dordrecht, Machubeni, Engcobo and All. Saint's. O. R. Tambo District. 10. Umtata, Mqanduli, Ngqeleni, Mthatyana, Libode, Bulolo, Umzimvubu, Mt Ayliff, Mt Frere and Tsolo. Ukhahlamba District. 8. Maclear, Sonwabile, Ugie, Lady Grey, Aliwal North, Burgersdorp, Barkley ...

  16. Source identification and exchangeability of heavy metals accumulated in vegetable soils in the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiutong, Xu; Mingkui, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Vegetable production in China is suffering increasingly heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agricultural, industrial and other activities. It is of practical significance to understand the effects of human activities on the accumulation and exchangeability of soil heavy metals in vegetable fields. In this study, seventy-two arable layer samples of vegetable soils were collected from the Shaoxing coastal plain, a representative region of the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China for characterizing the effects of fertilization methods on accumulation and exchangeable heavy metals in soils (Exchangeable heavy metals in the soil samples were extracted by 0.01molL -1 CaCl 2 ). The different origins of heavy metals in the vegetable soils were investigated by multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Marked increases were noted for soil heavy metals due to long-term manure or chemical fertilizer application. Three significant components were extracted by PCA, explaining 78.86% of total variance. Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Al were associated in lithogenic components, while an anthropogenic origin was identified for Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg. However, As level was due to the geochemical background and was not linked to soil management. The results obtained by cluster analysis elucidated individual relationships between metals and agreed with PCA. Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the soils that were mainly associated with the application of chemical fertilizers, organic manures or other activities regarding soil management. Although the origin of Cd, Hg, and As was also attributed to soil management, other sources like vehicle exhaust or aerial depositions were not discarded as possible contributors. Soil amended with organic fertilizer contained more Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr; whereas the soil amended with chemical fertilizer had more Cd. Application of fertilizers also had significant effect on the

  17. Study of Seismogenic Crust In The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia And Its Relation To The Seismicity of The Ghawar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Rayn Anticlines (RA) developed in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are truncated by the Abu-Jifan Fault (AJF) to their southeast and by the Wadi-Batin Fault (WBF) to the northwest. This set of anticlines is comprised of six sub-parallel super-giant anticlines, including the Ghawar Anticline (GA). Here we firstly present a revised seismicity map for the Eastern Province on the basis of ';Reviewed ISC Earthquake Catalogue' for the period 1970-2010 that shows the Eastern Province crust is seismogenic down to about 45 km depth while its surface width is 220 km (what is seven times wider than the width of GA). The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) Earthquake Network Catalogue for Eastern Province shows that characteristic magnitude completeness (Mc), based on the assumption of self-similarity, have detected all local earthquakes above the cut-off magnitude ≥ 2.7. SGS catalogue events demonstrate that the GA is seismically intensely active where 826 events have originated during the period of 2005-10, of maximum magnitude ML 4.24. These events came almost in equal proportions from the Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah and Haradh production divisions belonging to the central and southern Ghawar oil/gas Fields, where, the seismic zones orient in NE and NW directions respectively. Focal-depth distribution of events along the strike direction of seismic zones follows the ';En Nala axis' in GA and broadly defines an inverted triangular zone extending to crustal depths. Seismic activity below both the production divisions is supposedly triggered by hydrocarbon fluid-extraction activity; although, their root cause is probably due to regional compressive stress operative across RA. Triggered seismicity locally shows better correlation to mutually opposite reverse faults oriented NW and NE transgressing the Haradh and Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah production divisions under the influence of regional compressive stress oriented N40°E. Some support to this inference comes from mapped surface faults

  18. Tectonothermal and palaeogeographic significance of orthopyroxene-plagioclase bi-phase corona around garnet in the Proterozoic anorthosite complex, Eastern Ghats Province, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    Development of structural elements and subsequent metamorphic reactions are evidences of tectono-thermal events that continuously change the mutual positions of the cratonic blocks in the Earth. In the Proterozoic era, the structural evolution of the crust is governed by the assembly and disintegration of two supercontinent: a) Columbia and b) Rodinia. The assembly and breakup of these two supercontinent is marked by the extremely high heat flow and emplacement of massif type anorthosite. Although, the palaeo-position of the continents in the northern hemisphere is well constrained to explain the anorthosite magmatism, even after five decades of research ambiguity still exists on the origin of anorthosite in the Gondwana supercontinent. Central to the controversy of Gondwana reconstruction is the position of proto-India in the Proterozoic time. In this contribution, the interrelationship between structural elements and the metamorphic reaction is discussed. At Bolangir, Eastern Ghats Province, massif type anorthosite is characterized by a margin parallel foliation defined by recrystallized biotite and magmatic orthopyroxene. The margin parallel foliation is parallel to the parallel alignment of magmatic plagioclase. At the margin of the pluton, 2-3 mm long garnet porphyroblasts are observed. The garnet porphyroblasts are mantled by bi-phase corona of orthopyroxene and plagioclase and overgrow the orthopyroxene- defined margin parallel foliation. In a core to rim traverse, the garnet shows a decrease in the Ca content. In the bi-phase corona, the plagioclase shows a strong zonation of anorthite component that gradually decrease away from the bi-phase corona. The metamorphic orthopyroxene don't show any compositional variation. Classical thermo barometry obtained from the compositions of the garnet-plagioclase-orthopyroxene indicates a decompression path from 750 °C, 10 Kbar to 650 °C, 6.5 kbar for the origin of bi-phase corona. Available radiometric ages and

  19. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  20. A new look at the collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Volcanic history of the Northern-Van neovolcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Oyan, Vural; Ünal, Esin

    2010-05-01

    The region including the Eastern Anatolian - Northern Iranian High Plateau and Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges is one of the best examples of an active continental collision zone in the world, which is thought to have been formed by the closure of the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean. It comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt (i.e. the Eastern Anatolia High Plateau) with an average elevation of ~2 km above the sea level. The volcanic activity initiated immediately after the block uplift of the region (at around 15 Ma as our new isotope-geochronological database indicates) and produced great volumes of volcanic material in a number of countries including Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Iran. At present, the volcanic province extends from Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) into Caucasus of Southern Russia, spanning a distance of some 1000 km. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the Eastern Anatolian - N Iranian High Plateau and Caucasus is the volume and compositional variability of collision-related volcanic products erupted in a time interval from Neogene to Quaternary. Only in E Turkey, the collision-related volcanic units cover over half of the region (i.e.˜43,000 km2). In order to better understand the spatial and temporal compositional variations in volcanic rocks and their implications on magma genesis and geodynamic evolution of the region, we conducted joint research on this spectacular volcanic province. One of the largest Cenozoic volcanic areas on the EAHP is located in the north of Lake Van as we named "the Northern-Van neovolcanic province". It covers an area of about 6000 km2 starting from the northern cost of Lake Van. It is composed of a series of volcanic edifices (e.g. Girekol, Meydandag and Etrusk volcanoes). Remarkably, these volcanoes sit almost on the culmination of a regional domal structure called "Lake Van dome" in the vertex of the eastern Turkish high plateau. We intentionally

  1. New aeromagnetic data of eastern Dronning Maud Land: implications for the spatial extent of a major Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, A. S.; Jacobs, J.; Eagles, G.; Läufer, A.; Jokat, W.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing collaboration between Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) aims to investigate the sub-ice crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Its main emphasis is on Dronning Maud Land (DML). During the austral summers 2014 and 2015, ca. 40.000 line kilometre of new magnetic, gravity and ice-penetrating radar data were collected with 10 km line spacing. Here, we report on magnetic anomaly data to the east and south of Sør Rondane (eastern DML), analysed with several filtering techniques. These data are integrated with exposure information from Sør Rondane, the Belgica Mts., and the Yamato Mts.. The study area covers the eastern part of a major, recently revealed Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal block, the Tonian Oceanic Arc Super Terrane (TOAST). The western extent of the TOAST is well defined by the Forster Magnetic Anomaly and characterized by a province of subdued SE-striking parallel positive magnetic anomalies in the mostly ice-covered region of south-eastern DML (the SE DML province). Geological investigations showed that this area can be correlated with exposures in Sør Rondane and scattered nunataks west of it. U-Pb ages of ca. 1000-900 Ma, are documented from zircons of gabbro-trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (GTTG) suites in both areas. Further, geochemical analyses prove a juvenile character of the GTTGs, which are interpreted as oceanic arc complexes. Glacial drift from southern Sør Rondane points to an inland continuation of the TOAST, so far of unknown dimensions. The new magnetic data constrain the southern and eastern minimum extent of the TOAST, which we think has a minimum area of 450.000 km2. The spatial extent of this major juvenile crustal province has major significance for the tectonic reconstruction of East Antarctica and its involvement in Rodinia since it is suggested having evolved

  2. Geologic application of thermal inertia imaging using HCMM data. [Death Valley and Pisgah Crater, California and Goldfield, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, H. N.; Kahle, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    During the July to September 1980 quarter the final tapes were received completing the order and preliminary processing was done. Thermal Inertia images for each of the three test sites, Death Valley and Pisgah Crater, California and Goldfield, Nevada were created using registered HCMM day/night pairs and the JPL model. A comprehensive study and analysis of the geologic application of all acquired HCMM data is in progress.

  3. Fluid inclusion chemistry of adularia-sericite epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the southern Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mark P.; Strmic Palinkas, Sabina; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Microthermometry, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the temperature, apparent salinity, and composition of individual fluid inclusions in adularia-sericite Au-Ag epithermal veins from the Karangahake, Martha, Favona, and Waitekauri deposits, southern Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Quartz veins contain colloform to crustiform bands that alternate with coarse-grained quartz and amethyst. The ore mineralization occurs only in colloform to crustiform bands.

  4. Comparison of the quality of night paediatric urgent care in rural and urban areas of Lublin Province, eastern Poland - Appraisals by parents of children requiring medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Barbara; Kołłątaj, Witold; Wrzołek, Katarzyna; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Klatka, Maria

    2017-03-31

     Introduction. The quality of primary medical care for children in Poland is unsatisfactory. In the ranking known as 'the European Health Consumer Index', Poland (taking the patient point of view on healthcare quality) is classified on the 27th position out of the 33 possible. The unsolved problems concern inter alia the quality and availability of night paediatric urgent care. The aim was assessing the quality as well as the level of satisfaction with the night paediatric urgent care in the Lublin Province of eastern Poland. The materials for this study consisted of 540 parents of children aged 6-16 years benefiting from night paediatric urgent medical assistance in Lublin Province. The survey was conducted using the Original Survey Questionnaire. Inhabitants of the Lublin Province (regardless of place of residence) generally assessed the quality and accessibility of night paediatric urgent care facilities as only satisfactory. Inhabitants living in rural areas have worse access to night paediatric urgent care facilities because of having to travel greater distances, and receive less comprehensive medical assistance than inhabitants living in more urbanized areas, and they are more often referred to hospital emergency departments. During the past five years, both the availability and quality of night paediatric urgent care did not change significantly. Inhabitants of the Lublin Province (regardless of place of residence) generally assessed the quality as well as accessibility of night paediatric urgent care facilities as only satisfactory. Rural residents have more reasons for dissatisfaction than urban dwellers. Both the quality and availability of such medical care needs to be improved.

  5. Correlates of consistent condom use among recently initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Consistent use of condoms is the most effective method of preventing STIs including HIV. However, recent evidence suggests that limited knowledge about HIV prevention benefits from male circumcision leads to inconsistent condom use among traditionally circumcised men. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of consistent condom use and identify its psychosocial correlates to inform future HIV prevention strategies among traditionally circumcised men in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study using interviewer administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 1656 men who had undergone initiation and traditional male circumcision in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Logistic regression was used to evaluate univariate and multivariate relationships of psychosocial correlates with consistent condom use. Results The mean age of the participants was 21.4 years. About 45% belonged to the amaXhosa ethnic group, followed by 15.1% of the amaMpondo, 11.6% of the amaHlubi, and 27.9% from other ethnic groups. A total of 72.3% reported having a main sexual partner and of those 44.8% indicated having other sexual partners as well. About 49% reported consistent condom use and 80% used free government issued condoms, varies among ethnic groups. A total of 35.1% indicated having tested for HIV. Of those who tested for HIV, 46% reported inconsistent condom use when having sex with their sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a positive association between consistent condom use and the general knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use with main and casual sexual partners, subjective norm towards condom use with the main sexual partner, perceived self-efficacy towards condom use, positive self-esteem, beliefs about traditional male circumcision and STI protection, attitude towards gender based violence, and cultural alienation. Conclusions

  6. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  7. The Influence of School Culture and School Climate on Violence in Schools of the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kalie; Brynard, Susette; de Wet, Corene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF), which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's…

  8. School District Leadership Styles and School Improvement: Evidence from Selected School Principals in the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…

  9. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to obtain information on the performance of four European hemp cultivars piloted at five different sites in the Eastern Cape (South Africa), by assessing the fibre content of each cultivar grown under different agronomic...

  10. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  11. A study on association of SNP-43 polymorphism in Calpain-10 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the population of Eastern Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahreini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genome – wide analysis of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus in different populations have yielded variable results. Calpain10, a gene that encodes a non-lysosomal cysteine protease, has been recently proposed as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM1 region. Aim of the study is to evaluate the relation between SNP43 and type2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 102 diabetic subjects and 100 undiabetic controls enrolled in a case-control study in Eastern Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Province. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP was applied. We use X2 test and logistic regression to analysis of data. Results: Genotypes distribution of calpain10 gene in control group were 11(11%, 86(86% and 3(3% with respected to A/G, G/G and A/A genotypes, respectively. In diabetic group genotypes distribution were 7(6.9%, 95(93.1% and zero, respectively. The G allele frequency was significant difference in case and control groups. Conclusion: Since G allele is a risk factor to affect type 2 diabetes disease hence SNP43 of calpain10 gene had significant association with type 2 diabetes in Eastern Azerbaijan.

  12. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Background Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape ...

  13. Mise en évidence de Provinces géochimiques dans les schistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'est du bassin de Paris Geocheminical Provinces Revealed in Toarcien Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of the Soluble Organic Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la matière organique soluble dans le chloroforme des schistes du Toarcien de la partie orientale du bassin de Paris met en évidence l'existence d'une province géochimique nord et d'une province géochimique sud dont la frontière commune se trouve dans la région de Fécocourt. La province septentrionale se caractérise par une influence du domaine continental (massif des Ardennes au niveau de l'apport organique. Alors que la province méridionale se révèle exempt d'apport terrestre. Ces résultats sont en accord avec les indications sédimentologiques fournies par la littérature et apportent une dimension géochimique à la paléogéographie de ce bassin. An anaalysis of soluble organic motter in the chloroform from Toarcian shales from the eastern part of the Paris Basin reveals the existence of a northern geochemical province and a southern geochemical province whose commun boundary lies in the Fecocourt region. The northern province is characterized by the influence of the continental domain (Ardennes range with regard to organic influx, whereas no terrestrial influx is found in the southern province. These findings agree with the sedimentological indications supplied by the literature and add a geochemical dimension to the paleogeography of this basin.

  14. Farmers′ perceptions, believes, knowledge and management practices of potato pests in South-Kivu Province, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyuli Théodore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous complaints and reports from farmers to researchers about potato (Solanum tuberosum L. problems in South-Kivu Province, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (RDCongo, there was a need to understand farmers′ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and current management practice challenges. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy for the Province. Hence, using a semi-structured questionnaire, a farm household survey was conducted among 300 potato farmers in six sites belonging to 2 territories (Kabare, Kalehe of South- Kivu Province from June to August 2015. Insect pests, diseases and price fluctuations were among the highest ranked constraints in potato production by farmers. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller were the most severe insect pests in medium altitude zones (1600-1950m. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard were the pests of high importance reported from sites of very high altitude (2000-2600m. Major yield losses were mostly attributed to late blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary and or insect pests and reached 65-90% without chemical control in most study sites. On average, farmers had little knowledge about pest characteristics (bio-ecology, behavior,…. Most (71.5% farmers were not able to correctly identify insect pest species names. Sometimes, two or more species had the same local name. There was a great confusion between damages (attacks due to pests, diseases and environmental stresses (rains, soil nutrient deficiency among farmers. Very few (18.5% farmers interviewed knew with precision some insect pests. Most (80% farmers did not know what natural enemies of insect pests and IPM were. Seasonal pest outbreak and emerging new pests were phenomenon related

  15. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Small Businesses in the Eastern Villages of Gilan Province with Emphasis on the Tourism Sector in Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hajilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of small businesses in rural areas as a key strategy for sustaining the population and improving the quality of life of villagers has always been a concern for many developed and developing countries. Some rural areas provide their villagers with favorable conditions for the development of businesses in order to enjoy the potential in the field of tourism. Sustainable development in these areas can be achieved with systematic attention and planning. In the present work, the spatial analysis of the distribution of small businesses in the eastern parts of Gilan Province was studied with an emphasis on tourism in mountainous regions. The study population consisted of all villages in the east part of Gilan Province, and the sample included all businesses officially supported by the Omid Entrepreneurship Fund. The research method was a descriptive analytic in which GIS software and the G statistic were used for the analysis of spatial correlation, clustering, hot and cold spots analysis and buffer zones. Finally, the results of the study showed that the spatial distribution of businesses in different economic sectors (agriculture, industry, services and tourism were different between 2011 and 2016 in the way the cluster pattern was formed in agricultural and service activities. A cluster pattern cannot be considered in the tourism and industrial activities, but there is a random (point pattern; in this regard, the results indicate the importance of the factor of distance between the village and the city center in the distribution of tourism businesses. In addition, the highest levels of support for businesses were in the agricultural and services sectors, while the lowest support was in industry and tourism. Finally, the results showed that the distribution of businesses in all activities was much higher in the plains and valleys as compared to the mountainous and hill areas.

  16. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women’s experiences and community leaders’ perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Sepali; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Ganesan, Mahesan; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Kanthasamy, Parvathy; Shanmugalingam, Pushparani; Vithanarachchi, Hemamala

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women’s experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem. It also explored the IPV-related services and supports available after the end of a 30-year civil war. Method We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 15 women who had experienced IPV and 15 service providers who were knowledgeable about IPV in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were translated into English, coded and organized using NVivo8, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results Participants described IPV as a widespread but hidden problem. Women had experienced various forms of abusive and controlling behaviours, some of which reflect the reality of living in the post-war context. The psychological effects of IPV were common, but were often attributed to war-related trauma. Some men used violence to control women and to reinstate power when their gender roles were reversed or challenged due to war and post-war changes in livelihoods. While some service providers perceived an increase in awareness about IPV and more services to address it, this was discordant with women’s fears, feelings of oppression, and perception of a lack of redress from IPV within a highly militarized and ethnically-polarized society. Most women did not consider leaving an abusive relationship to be an option, due to realistic fears about their vulnerability to community violence, the widespread social norms that would cast them as outsiders, and the limited availability of related services and supports. Implications These

  17. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women's experiences and community leaders' perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepali Guruge

    Full Text Available Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women's experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem. It also explored the IPV-related services and supports available after the end of a 30-year civil war.We conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews with 15 women who had experienced IPV and 15 service providers who were knowledgeable about IPV in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were translated into English, coded and organized using NVivo8, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis.Participants described IPV as a widespread but hidden problem. Women had experienced various forms of abusive and controlling behaviours, some of which reflect the reality of living in the post-war context. The psychological effects of IPV were common, but were often attributed to war-related trauma. Some men used violence to control women and to reinstate power when their gender roles were reversed or challenged due to war and post-war changes in livelihoods. While some service providers perceived an increase in awareness about IPV and more services to address it, this was discordant with women's fears, feelings of oppression, and perception of a lack of redress from IPV within a highly militarized and ethnically-polarized society. Most women did not consider leaving an abusive relationship to be an option, due to realistic fears about their vulnerability to community violence, the widespread social norms that would cast them as outsiders, and the limited availability of related services and supports.These findings revealed the need for

  18. ICT applications as e-health solutions in rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxwana, Nkqubela L; Herselman, Marlien E; Conradie, D Pieter

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions (e.g. e-health, telemedicine, e-education) are often viewed as vehicles to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban healthcare centres and to resolve shortcomings in the rural health sector. This study focused on factors perceived to influence the uptake and use of ICTs as e-health solutions in selected rural Eastern Cape healthcare centres, and on structural variables relating to these facilities and processes. Attention was also given to two psychological variables that may underlie an individual&s acceptance and use of ICTs: usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations are made with regard to how ICTs can be used more effectively to improve health systems at fi ve rural healthcare centres where questionnaire and interview data were collected: St. Lucy&s Hospital, Nessie Knight Hospital, the Tsilitwa Clinic, the Madzikane Ka-Zulu Memorial Hospital and the Nelson Mandela General Hospital.

  19. Presence of antibiotic residues in various environmental compartments of Shandong province in eastern China: Its potential for resistance development and ecological and human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Nada; Sun, Pan; Sun, Qiang; Li, Xuewen; Yang, Xiwei; Ji, Xiang; Zou, Huiyun; Ottoson, Jakob; Nilsson, Lennart E; Berglund, Björn; Dyar, Oliver James; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to determine the concentration of antibiotic residues. The ratio of the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) was used to evaluate the ecological risk (risk quotient, RQ) for development of antibiotic resistance. The potential risks to human health through exposure to antibiotics in drinking water were assessed by comparing measured environmental concentrations (MEC) and predicted no-effect concentration in drinking water (PNEC DW ), and in vegetables by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) to ADI. Sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, doxycycline, and metronidazole were detected at concentrations ranging between 0.3 and 3.9 ng/L in river water, 1.3 and 12.5 ng/L in waste water, 0.5 and 21.4 ng/L in drinking water, 0.31 and 1.21 μg/kg in river sediment, 0.82 and 1.91 μg/kg in pig manure, 0.1 and 11.68 μg/kg in outlet sediment, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/kg in soil, and 6.3 and 27.2 μg/kg in vegetables. The RQs for resistance development were >1 for enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ranged between 0.1 and 1 for ciprofloxacin. MECs/PNEC DW ratios were <1 from exposure to antibiotics through drinking water for both adults and children. EDI/ADI ratios were <0.1 from

  20. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  1. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area.

  2. Incorporating the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI in Ecological Impacts Assessment of Roads at Landscape Scale (Case study: Eastern Part of Isfahan Province

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    Sh. Nematollahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of roads can have deleterious effects on natural habitats containing species of conservation concern. Fragmentation of habitat into small, non-contiguous patches may result in dramatic population declines. Thus appropriate studies quantifying ecological impacts of roads at landscape scale are essential. In this study, the Spatial Road Disturbance Index (SPROADI was applied for the ecological impact assessment of the roads network in Eastern part of Isfahan Province, including Abassabad wildlife refuge and Siahkouh National park, which are among the most important habitats for Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus classified as Critically Endangered (CR on the IUCN Red List. This new landscape index uses three sub-indices including traffic intensity, vicinity impact and fragmentation grade to calculate the ecological impacts of roads network. Results obtained through quantifying the Spatial Road Disturbance Index showed that the degree of disturbance by roads network is between 0 and 54.53. Our results also revealed that 12 percent of Abassabad wildlife refuge and wide range of suitable habitats for Asiatic Cheetah were affected by roads network, which presents a conservation concern for this critically endangered species.

  3. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  4. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  5. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province

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    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  6. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  7. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  8. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

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    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  9. Relationship between geohydrology and Upper Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the eastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capítulo, Leandro Rodrigues; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-07-01

    The Upper Pleistocene-Holocene geological evolution, which is characterized by its landscape-forming energy and is related to geological and geomorphological complexity, has an impact on the groundwater dynamics of coastal aquifers. The geological configuration of a sector of the east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires was analyzed, as well as its connection with the geological and geomorphological history of the region during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, and its influence on the regional and local geohydrological behaviour. This analysis was based on the application of the concept of hydrofacies. Boreholes were drilled and sampled (with depths of up to 40 m), and vertical electrical sounding, electrical tomography and pumping tests were undertaken. The description of the cutting samples by means of a stereo microscope, the interpretation of satellite images, and the construction of lithological and hydrogeological profiles and flow charts were carried out in the laboratory, and then integrated in a GIS. The identification of the lithological units and their distribution in the area allowed the construction of an evolutionary geological model for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Three aquifer units can be recognized: one of Late Pleistocene age (hydrofacies E) and the other two of Holocene age (hydrofacies A and C); their hydraulic connection depends on the occurrence and thickness variation of the aquitard units (hydrofacies B and D). The approach adopted allows the examination of the possibilities for groundwater exploitation and constitutes an applied conceptual framework to be taken into consideration when developing conceptual and numerical models at the local and regional scales.

  10. Identification of bacterial contaminants in polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis in Amatole District of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, using rapid 16S rRNA technique

    OpenAIRE

    Famewo, Elizabeth Bosede; Clarke, Anna Maria; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-01-01

    Background Polyherbal medicines are used for the treatment of many diseases in many African and Asian communities. With the increasing use of these remedies, several investigations have shown that they are associated with a broad variety of residues and contaminants. This study investigates the presence of bacteria in the polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods Bacterial DNA was extracted from the polyherbal medici...

  11. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard

  13. Barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural Eastern province, Zambia: the role of household economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Rainier; Chowa, Gina; Nyirenda, Victor

    2017-07-01

    In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia. Adherence was measured using patient self-assessment and pharmacy information. Household economic status included components such as occupation, income, assets, food security, and debt. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated with non-adherence. The association between assets and adherence depends on the type of asset. Owning more transportation-related assets was consistently associated with non-adherence, whereas owning more livestock was associated with self-reported adherence. Additionally, living in a community with fewer economic opportunities was associated with non-adherence. The associations between place of residence and pharmacy refill adherence and between transportation assets and self-reported adherence were statistically significant. Improving adherence requires a multifaceted strategy that addresses the role of economic status as a potential barrier and facilitator. Programmes that provide economic opportunities and life-skills training may help PLHIV to overcome economic, social, and psychological barriers.

  14. From extension to shortening: Dating the onset of the Brasiliano Orogeny in eastern Borborema Province (NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Sérgio P.; Bruguier, Olivier; da Silva, José Maurício Rangel; Mariano, Gorki; da Silva Filho, Adejardo F.; Teixeira, Cristiane M. L.

    2015-03-01

    In pre-drift reconstructions, the central and southern parts of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, belong to a large Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic realm situated to the north of the São Francisco-Congo Craton. In order to better understand the timing and geodynamic setting under which this orogenic system developed, a structural, geochemical and geochronological study was conducted across the east Pernambuco shear zone (EPSZ) system, which separates the Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain (PEAL) from the Central Domain. A sample of the Pinhões orthogneiss (GE-1), in the Central Domain, one sample of a syenitic orthogneiss (CA-34) wrapped by the EPSZ, and one sample of orthogneiss named Altinho (CA-40), in the northern portion of the PEAL, were dated by LA-ICP-MS. The Pinhões orthogneiss yielded an age of 869 ± 9 Ma, interpreted as the emplacement age of the protolith during a late Tonian magmatic episode. Samples CA-40 and CA-34 yielded 206Pb/238U weighted mean ages of 652 ± 6 Ma and 636 ± 3 Ma, respectively, which are interpreted as dating emplacement and crystallization of the magmatic protoliths. However, it is also possible that these rocks were formed during the same magmatic event in view of the identical ages of 646 ± 13 Ma and 646 ± 11 Ma, respectively, given by the less precise upper intercept of the discordia lines. The metaluminous and magnesian nature of the Altinho orthogneiss is akin to the calc-alkalic suite. However, some samples plot in the intraplate field in tectonic discrimination diagrams and the Nd TDM model age of 1.36 Ga is unlike that of juvenile magmas in convergent settings. The Altinho orthogneiss is quite similar in terms of trace elements geochemistry to the syenitic orthogneiss, which has a clearer intraplate affinity, and the dated samples have identical initial Sr isotope ratios (0.7047). Therefore, emplacement in an extensional setting is preferred over a convergent one. Two samples of paragneisses (SB-1 and BB-9) from

  15. Structure, petrology and U-Pb zircon age of Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenites from the Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for their petrogenesis and geodynamic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Janisar M.; Champati, Anil K.; Patel, Suresh C.; Prabhakar, Naraga; Gerdes, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Three Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenite intrusions, namely Chhatabar, Lodhajhari and Baradangua intrusions, have been concordantly emplaced within a polydeformed and amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary sequence (quartzites and mica schists) in the Rengali Province, eastern India. The metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenite intrusions both record three phases of folding (F1, F2 and F3). The penetrative fabric in quartzites is a schistosity (S1SS), while that in mica schists is a crenulation cleavage (S2SS), which has transposed to S1SS. The nepheline syenite intrusions exhibit magmatic to solid state deformation structures and microstructures. Magmatic layering in the rocks is commonly transposed by a prominent schistosity (S1NN). Fold geometries and deformation fabrics of the metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenites indicate that the latter were emplaced syntectonically during F1 folding of the metasedimentary sequence. The dominant rock type in the intrusions is nepheline syenite, while nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite occur in subordinate amounts in the form of centimeter to metre scale layers. Essential felsic minerals in the rocks are microcline (Or88-92Ab8-12) and nepheline, while sodic plagioclase (Ab88-96An4-12Or0.3-1.4) is additionally present in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. End member compositions of nephelines (Ne77-80Ks17-20Qtz1.6-3.6An0.5-2.6) fall below the 500oC isotherm in the nepheline-kalsilite-quartz projection from anorthite which indicates low temperature re-equilibration of the mineral after magmatic crystallization. Common mafic minerals in the rocks include biotite and amphibole, the latter being taramite in nepheline syenite, and hastingsite in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. Melt-present deformation microstructures which indicate syntectonic emplacement of the intrusions include late magmatic grains of nearly pure albite (Ab98-99An0.8-1.5Or0.2-0.6) and

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables sold in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abong'o, B O; Momba, M N B; Mwambakana, J N

    2008-04-01

    Fresh vegetables have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in most parts of the world. Microbiological quality of vegetables used as recipes for salads is very crucial. Residents of the Amathole District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa consume salads frequently, although the microbial quality of recipe vegetables is questionable. The present study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from selected vegetables sold within the Amathole District. One hundred eighty samples of the vegetables were analyzed. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated by enrichment culture and by immunomagnetic separation and identified by conventional and molecular techniques. In three settlements in this district, the mean counts of presumptive E. coli O157 for the vegetables ranged between 9 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(6) CFU/g for Fort Beaufort, 1.6 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU/g for Mdantsane, and 1.3 x 10(3) and 4.1 x 10(4) CFU/g for Alice. Four (10.3%) of 39 vegetable samples were confirmed to carry E. coli O157:H7. Four representative E. coli O157:H7 isolates from these vegetables were susceptible to at least one of the eight antimicrobial agents tested against them. Even though the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was low and those isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials, there remains a need for E. coli O157:H7 surveillance in vegetables used in salad recipes in urban and rural areas of South Africa.

  17. Prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from three selected dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Luyanda Msolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw milk, cattle udder, milking machines and worker’s hand swabs from three selected commercial dairy farms in the Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected from bulk storage tanks and swab samples were collected from milking machines, cattle udders and worker’s hands fortnightly over a sixmonth sampling regime between June and November 2014. A standard culture-based method was used for the enumeration and isolation of E. coli O157:H7, presumptive identification using sorbitol MacConkey agar (supplemented with cefixime (50 µg/L and potassium tellurite (25 mg/L. A serological confirmation of the presumptive E. coli O157:H7 isolates was conducted using the O157 latex agglutination test kit. Results: A total of 252 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were further subjected to PCR amplification of rfbEO157 and flCH7 genes of which 27(11% of the isolates were confirmed positive E. coli O157:H7. The percentage antibiotic resistance of the 27 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the dairy farms revealed penicillin [23 (85%], tetracycline [22 (81%], erythromycin [19 (70%], streptomycin [14 (52%] and chloramphenicol [12 (45%]. The highest resistances were penicillin [23 (85%] and tetracycline [22 (81%]. Conclusions: These findings revealed that the dairy farms are potential reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 serotype, and harbor antibiotic-resistant determinants, a concern to public and environmental health.

  18. Realities of ambulatory multi-drug treatment of chronic diseases in rural areas of Lublin Province, eastern Poland – comparison of situations in 2010 and 2013

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    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The economic stratification observed for many years among the population in Poland, increasing poverty rates, especially those being effects of the current economic crisis in the country, and the rising prices of medicines, are potential risk factors for medication non-adherence among patients in the poorest class of the Polish population. Materials an method. The subjects were 2 groups of inhabitants of rural areas of Lublin Province in eastern Poland. The first consisted of 209 people aged 52–80 years who were surveyed in 2010, the second – 210 people aged 51–88 years, surveyed in 2013. All patients were outpatients who attended the Endocrine Clinic in Poniatowa. The studies were conducted with the use of the standardized survey questionnaire. Results. The problem of medication non-adherence among the surveyed was evident and has risen from 43.1% in 2010 to 54.8% in 2013. Both in 2010 and in 2013, the main reasons for this state of affairs were the financial problems of the surveyed people. During the period 2010–2013, both expenditure on medicine as well as the ratio “patients’ expenditure on medicine/expenditure on food” had increased. In 2010, 25 respondents per 209 (12% expressed the opinion that they had always had sufficient means to buy necessary medications, in 2013 – only 3 per 210 (1.5%. Conclusions. In 2013, most of surveyed patients (54.8% did not follow prescribed treatment plans (in 2010–43.1%. In most cases, medication non-adherence were the result of financial problems. Current regulations governing refunding of the costs of medicines may make effective ambulatory treatment of chronic diseases impossible.

  19. Realities of ambulatory multi-drug treatment of chronic diseases in rural areas of Lublin Province, eastern Poland - comparison of situations in 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Barbara; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The economic stratification observed for many years among the population in Poland, increasing poverty rates, especially those being effects of the current economic crisis in the country, and the rising prices of medicines, are potential risk factors for medication non-adherence among patients in the poorest class of the Polish population. Materials an method. The subjects were 2 groups of inhabitants of rural areas of Lublin Province in eastern Poland. The first consisted of 209 people aged 52-80 years who were surveyed in 2010, the second - 210 people aged 51-88 years, surveyed in 2013. All patients were outpatients who attended the Endocrine Clinic in Poniatowa. The studies were conducted with the use of the standardized survey questionnaire. The problem of medication non-adherence among the surveyed was evident and has risen from 43.1% in 2010 to 54.8% in 2013. Both in 2010 and in 2013, the main reasons for this state of affairs were the financial problems of the surveyed people. During the period 2010-2013, both expenditure on medicine as well as the ratio "patients' expenditure on medicine/expenditure on food" had increased. In 2010, 25 respondents per 209 (12%) expressed the opinion that they had always had sufficient means to buy necessary medications, in 2013 - only 3 per 210 (1.5%). In 2013, most of surveyed patients (54.8%) did not follow prescribed treatment plans (in 2010-43.1%). In most cases, medication non-adherence were the result of financial problems. Current regulations governing refunding of the costs of medicines may make effective ambulatory treatment of chronic diseases impossible.

  20. Genetic assessment of an isolated endemic Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) population in the Amathole Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisha, M Thabang; Dalton, Desire L; Jansen, Raymond; Kotze, Antoinette

    2018-03-01

    The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular genetic investigation to determine if the observed isolation has affected the genetic variability of the subspecies. A total of 65 Samango monkeys (including juveniles, subadults and adults) were sampled from two localities within the Hogsback area in the Amathole Mountains. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers and by sequencing the hypervariable 1 region (HVR1). Microsatellite data generated was used to determine population structure, genetic diversity and the extent of inbreeding. Sequences of the HVR1 were used to infer individual origins, haplotype sharing and haplotype diversity. No negative genetic factors associated with isolation such as inbreeding were detected in the two groups and gene flow between groups can be regarded as fairly high primarily as a result of male migration. This was in contrast to the low nuclear genetic diversity observed (H o  = 0.45). A further reduction in heterozygosity may lead to inbreeding and reduced offspring fitness. Translocations and establishment of habitat corridors between forest patches are some of the recommendations that have emerged from this study which will increase long-term population viability of the subspecies.

  1. Surface water pollution and water quality studies at Prestea Goldfields Limited (P. G. L.) Prestea, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampong, Charles Horace

    1993-11-01

    Prestea is a mining community developed around Prestea Goldfields Limited, which is engaged in mining Sulphide gold ores known to give rise to several environmental problems like air pollution in the form of emissions of arsenic or arsenous oxides, with concurrent production of large amounts of Sulphur dioxide. As a result of extensive mining since 1929 using underground methods, involving about 18 million tons of ore, an estimated 3.5 - 4 million tons of tailings have been left on the surface in the vicinity of both current and historic treatment sites. Since the mine is located in an area of heavy rainfall, incessant rain will flush contaminants from tailings dumps and waste sites into the downstream environment and subsequently into surface waters. Water supply for the population in the area is derived from rivers and streams flowing in the area, supplemented by boreholes and spring water. Not much is known with respect to pollution levels along the rivers and streams which serve as water for domestic uses by settlers along these river banks and around. It therefore became necessary to carry out studies to ascertain the pollution levels of various water resources and to make some suggestions to guide pollution of these waters and uses of them as well. Water sampling was carried out in the rivers and streams. A spring water and well water were also sampled as reference data to ascertain background levels of pollutants. The work highlights activities of the mine and that of the surrounding inhabitants which are likely to result in the pollution of surface waters. It also discusses results of water samples within the area, Sample analysis included determination of parameters like pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Solids (TS), Total hardness, Cyanide and Sulphate concentrations among others. Concentrations of some heavy metals were also determined. Based on standards prevailing in the country

  2. Factors influencing the risk of wildlife cyanide poisoning on a tailings storage facility in the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Smith, Gregory B; Donato, David B; Gillespie, Craig G

    2009-07-01

    Patterns of wildlife visitation and interaction with cyanide-bearing tailings slurry and solutions at the Fimiston tailings storage facility (TSF) have been reported in a previously published ecological study. The above-mentioned findings are extended in this paper by the examination of additional wildlife survey data, along with process water chemistry data collected during the same study period. Analysis of the combined results revealed that the primary wildlife protective mechanism in operation was effective management of tailings cyanide concentration. Nevertheless, tailings discharge concentration exceeded the industry standard wildlife protective limit of 50mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide episodically during the study period. Wildlife that interacted with habitats close to the spigot outlet during brief periods of increased discharge concentration were likely to have been exposed to bioavailable cyanide at concentrations greater than the industry standard protective limit. However, no wildlife deaths were recorded. These results appear to support the hypothesis that hypersalinity of process solutions (unique to the Kalgoorlie district of Western Australia) and a lack of aquatic food resources represent secondary protective mechanisms that operated to prevent cyanide-related wildlife mortality during the project. The proposed protective mechanisms are discussed in the context of their potential application as proactive management procedures to minimise wildlife exposure to cyanide.

  3. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  4. Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses from the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for the Triassic biotic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueqian; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Woods, Adam; Pei, Yu; Wu, Siqi; Fang, Yuheng; Luo, Mao; Xu, Yaling

    2017-10-01

    Two Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses are reported from the Boyun and Junmachang (JMC) sections located along the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, respectively. The Boyun ichnoassemblage is middle Anisian in age and is dominated by robust Rhizocorallium, while the JMC ichnoassemblage is of an early Anisian age and is characterized by the presence of Zoophycos. The ichnoassemblage horizons of the Boyun section represent an inner ramp environment, while the JMC section was likely situated in a mid-ramp setting near storm wave base as indicated by the presence of tempestites. The ichnofossil-bearing successions are usually highly bioturbated in both the Boyun (BI 3-5, BPBI 5) and JMC (BI 3-4, BPBI 3-4) sections. Three large, morphologically complicated ichnogenera: 1) Rhizocorallium; 2) Thalassinoides; and, 3) Zoophycos characterize the Anisian ichnocoenoses. Of these, Rhizocorallium has mean and maximum tube diameters up to 20.4 mm and 28 mm, respectively, while Thalassinoides mean and maximum tube diameters are 14.2 mm and 22 mm, respectively. Zoophycos is present in the early Anisian strata of the JMC section, and represents the oldest known occurrence of this ichnogenus following the latest Permian mass extinction. Similar to coeval ichnoassemblages elsewhere in the world, the Yunnan ichnocoenoses embrace a relatively low ichnodiversity, but their burrows usually penetrate deeply into the sediment, and include large and complex Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides. All of these ichnologic features are indicative of recovery stage 4 after the latest Permian crisis. Anisian ichnoassemblages occur globally in six different habitat settings, and all show similar ecologic characteristics except for slightly different degrees of ichnotaxonomic richness, indicating that depositional environment is not a crucial factor shaping the recovery of the trace-makers, but may have an impact on their ichnodiversity

  5. The Keimoes Suite redefined: The geochronological and geochemical characteristics of the ferroan granites of the eastern Namaqua Sector, Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Russell; Macey, Paul Hugh; Nethenzheni, Sedzani; Frei, Dirk; le Roux, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    Voluminous granite gneisses and granites straddle the boundary between the Kakamas and Areachap Terranes in the eastern Namaqua Sector (NS) of the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province (NNMP). These rocks have been previously poorly defined and loosely grouped into the Keimoes Suite, but a recent U-Pb age study has suggested the suite be subdivided into syn-tectonic and post-tectonic groups relative to the main phase of the Namaqua Orogeny. This study adds new whole rock geochemical, isotopic and age data for these granites that confirms the subdivision is appropriate. The older group of syn-tectonic granite gneisses, dated between 1175 and 1146 Ma, have penetrative foliations and are largely derived from fractionated, leucogranitic metaluminous to peraluminous magmas with low maficity, low Ti, Mn and Ca. They were derived from mildly depleted sources (εNd(t): -1.47 to 1.78), with Meso-to Paleoproterozoic Nd model ages (1.57-1.91 Ga), and high initial Sr ratios (0.71970-0.75567) suggesting mixing between younger depleted and older, arc-like sources imparting an arc-like signature to the magmas. High initial Sr ratios appear to be an intrinsic character of these granites reflecting those of granites in the region and the highly radiogenic nature of the NS. The weakly to unfoliated late-to post-tectonic megacrystic granodiorites and monzogranites, including charnockites, intruded between 1110 and 1078 Ma and constitute the Keimoes Suite proper. They have I-type characteristics, being strongly metaluminous and locally hornblende- and orthopyroxene-bearing with moderate SiO2 and with arc-type affinities (LILE enrichment relative to the HFSE, Ta-Nb, Ti and P anomalies). However, the granitoids also have high Fe/Mg ratios, along with high HFSE, LILE and REE contents more indicative of A-type granites. They show an increasing maficity, metaluminous character, and general decreasing degree of fractionation with decreasing age. They are similar to the syn

  6. Petrogenesis, geochronology, and tectonic significance of granitoids in the Tongshan intrusion, Anhui Province, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Du, Yang-Song; Teng, Chuan-Yao; Zhang, Jing; Pang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit in Anhui Province is a typical mid-sized skarn and porphyry type deposit in the Anqing-Guichi district along the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China. The Tongshan intrusion is closely related to this mineralization. The intrusion mainly comprises rocks that are quartz diorite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, and granodiorite porphyry. Plagioclase in these rocks is mostly andesine (An = 31.0-42.9), along with minor oligoclase. Biotite is magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.52-0.67] and aluminum-poor (Al2O3 = 12.32-14.09 wt.%), and can be classified as magnesio-biotite. Hornblende is TiO2-poor ( 0.60], and is magnesio-hornblende or edenite. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the quartz monzonite porphyry is 145.1 ± 1.2 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Yanshanian period. Whole-rock geochemical results show that the rocks are silica-rich (SiO2 = 60.23-66.23 wt.%) and alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 4.97-8.72 wt.%), and low in calcium (CaO = 2.61-5.66 wt.%). Trace element results show enrichments in large ion lithophile element (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba) and depletions in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, P, and Ti). The total rare earth element (REE) content of the rocks is low (ΣREE 10] and small positive Eu anomalies (average δEu = 1.16). These mineralogical, geochronological, and geochemical results show that the intrusion has a mixed crust-mantle source. The Tongshan intrusion was formed by multiple emplacements of crustally contaminated basaltic magma generated by varying degrees of partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. Hornblende thermobarometry yielded magmatic crystallization temperatures of 652-788 °C and an average crystallization pressure of 1.4 kbar, which corresponds to a depth of approx. 4.7 km. Biotite thermobarometry yielded similar temperatures and lower pressures of 735-775 °C and 0.6 kbar (depth 2.1 km), respectively. The parental magma had a high oxygen fugacity and was

  7. The role of live poultry movement and live bird market biosecurity in the epidemiology of influenza A (H7N9): A cross-sectional observational study in four eastern China provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Li, Yin; Wang, Youming; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Clements, Archie C A; Huang, Baoxu; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares

    2015-10-01

    A new reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged early 2013 in eastern China. Exposure to H7N9 infected poultry at live bird markets (LBM) was implicated as the main risk factor for human infection. We aimed to identify the role of LBM biosecurity indicators and poultry movement in the affected areas. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 24 LBMs at the beginning of H7N9 outbreak in all affected provinces. We used univariable analysis to identify the biosecurity factors associated with the H7N9 presence in LBMs and social network and spatial analysis to quantify the connectivity and geographic variation in the connectivity of poultry movements. Chickens were the predominant poultry species traded by affected LBMs. The presence of H7N9 in LBMs was significantly associated with the type of LBM and with LBMs that sold chicken to other markets. The chicken movements were significantly spatially clustered and was highest in counties from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. LBM biosecurity and chicken movement played an important role in the emergence of H7N9. This study identified highly connected areas in eastern China which continue to report human infections highlighting candidate areas for more detailed epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two major types of transitional chambers of magmatic systems: Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic large igneous provinces from the eastern Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexey; Bogina, Maria

    2014-05-01

    During ascent to the surface, mantle-derived melts usually passed through a system of transitional magma chambers. One of best areas to study the structure of such systems occurred is the Precambrian shields which have undergone intense tectonic reworking and uneven erosion. As a result, the different parts of these systems became available for study by geological and petrological methods, which can help to reveal definite mechanisms for transformation of primary mantle-derived magmas. It is obviously that we can see such parts of different magmatic systems because lava plateaus above definiteconcrete deep-seated intrusion were annihilated by erosion and, usually we can judge about them only from geological, petrological and geochemical data. However, these pieces of data may compose a puzzle and a general picture will emerge. Of particular importance is the study of transitional magma chambers where such melts accumulated and experienced crystallization differentiation, mixing, and crustal contamination. The deepest of such solidified magma chambers survived as large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. We studied two examples of such intrusions from different Paleoproterozic large igneous provinces (LIPs) in the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Sharkov, Bogina, 2006). The comparison of REE distribution in the lava series of the plateaus of these LIPs and cumulates in the layered intrusions allowed us to identify the two types of such intrusions. One of them was solidified practically without removal of evolved melts from solidified intrusive chamber and under conditions of limited replenishment of fresh magma portions. This type may be exemplified by the Monchegorsky layered mafic-ulramafic pluton (2.5 Ga) in the Kola Peninsula which belongs to the early Paleoproterozoic LIP of the siliceous high-Mg series. The second type of the layered intrusions represents transitional magma chamber sensu stricto, which was periodically replenished with new portions of magmas

  9. Contributions of Phosphorus from Groundwater to Streams in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Ator, Scott W.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus from natural and human sources is likely to be discharged from groundwater to streams in certain geochemical environments. Water-quality data collected from 1991 through 2007 in paired networks of groundwater and streams in different hydrogeologic and land-use settings of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States were compiled and analyzed to evaluate the sources, fate, and transport of phosphorus. The median concentrations of phosphate in groundwater from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.017 and 0.020 milligrams per liter, respectively) generally were greater than the median for the carbonate setting (less than 0.01 milligrams per liter). In contrast, the median concentrations of dissolved phosphate in stream base flow from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.010 and 0.014 milligrams per liter, respectively) were less than the median concentration for base-flow samples from the carbonate setting (0.020 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of phosphorus in many of the stream base-flow and groundwater samples exceeded ecological criteria for streams in the region. Mineral dissolution was identified as the dominant source of phosphorus in the groundwater and stream base flow draining crystalline or siliciclastic bedrock in the study area. Low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater from carbonate bedrock result from the precipitation of minerals and (or) from sorption to mineral surfaces along groundwater flow paths. Phosphorus concentrations are commonly elevated in stream base flow in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock, however, presumably derived from in-stream sources or from upland anthropogenic sources and transported along short, shallow groundwater flow paths. Dissolved phosphate concentrations in groundwater were correlated positively with concentrations of silica and sodium, and negatively with alkalinity and concentrations of calcium

  10. Comparison of the quality of night paediatric urgent care in rural and urban areas of Lublin Province, eastern Poland – Appraisals by parents of children requiring medical attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2017-03-01

    Inhabitants of the Lublin Province (regardless of place of residence generally assessed the quality as well as accessibility of night paediatric urgent care facilities as only satisfactory. Rural residents have more reasons for dissatisfaction than urban dwellers. Both the quality and availability of such medical care needs to be improved.

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Survey in Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: DN patients on MHD in Anhui province exhibited different clinical characteristics compared to non-DN hemodialysis patients. They presented higher percentage in TCC use and cardiovascular complication, lower serum albumin and iPTH levels than those in non-DN patients.

  12. [Investigation on the vectors of Borrella burgdorferi and on the identification of the isolates along China-Russia border in Eastern Heilongjiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Hao, Qin; Hu, Man-xia; Hou, Xue-xia; Fan, Dong-hui; Geng, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-hua; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Yong-sheng; Wang, Chuan-song; Cui, Wen-fu; Wan, Kang-lin; Yang, Li-wei

    2007-01-01

    To explore the fact that the east border of Heilongjiang had been a lyme disease natural focus,we investigated the species and distribution of ticks and isolated bacteria from ticks and identified genomic species of Borrelia burdorferi sensu lato. This study provided evidence for prevention and control of lyme disease. Ticks were caught by flagging method and Direct immunofluorescence method was used to detect the rate of bacteria borne by the tick. BSK UI culture medium was used to isolate the agent and Specific McAbs were used to identify the bacteria. SDS-PAGE protein profile and PCR-RFLP method were also used to identify the species of Spirochetes. Ticks, collected from China-Russia border of east Heilongiiang province were classified including Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, Dermacentor sivarum Olener, Haemaphysalis concinna Kock,and Haemaphysalis japonica Kock. We found that the distributon of ticks was different under different circumstances and the predominant species were also different in different ports. The rate of bacteria borne by Iodes persulaatus Schulze was 31.4% ,by Dermacentor sivarum Olener and Haemaphysalis concinna Kock were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. However,it was negative for Haenaphysalis japonica Kock. Spirochetes isolated from Ixodes persulcatus Schulze were collected from Dongning and Tongjiang while Genomic species of Spirochetes, isolated from ticks of the border belonged to B. garinii. All the results showed that the east border of Heilongjiang province was the natural focus of lyme disease.

  13. C, Sr and Pb isotopic chemostratigraphy in precambrian carbonate sequences in the eastern transversal domain of the Borborema Province, northastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, V. H.; Ferreira, V.P.; Sial, A.N; Babinski, M; Pimentel, M.M

    2001-01-01

    The Transversal Domain, in the Borborema Structural Province, northeastern Brazil, is characterized by a system of NE-trending, left-lateral, transcurrent mega-structure and dextral E-W trending fault zones (Jardim de Sa, 1994). This domain is formed by supracrustal metasedimentary and metavolcansedimentary sequences overlying a gneissic-migmatitic basement. Geological sequences of this domain exhibit distinct lithotectono-stratigraphy that characterize different terranes, separated by shear zones developed during the Cariris Velhos cycle (1.1-0.95 Ga), and that have been reworked during the Brasiliano orogen at the end of the Neoproterozoic (Brito Neves et al., 1995). The objective of this work is to show the results of C, Sr and Pb isotope studies performed in marble lens located near (and in both sides) the proposed boundary between two tectono-stratigraphic terranes (Alto Moxoto and Rio Capibaribe) in the Transversal Domain (au)

  14. Contribution to the geologic evolution from the Eastern part of Central Amazonia Province by Rb-Sr geochronology from the Carajas Mineral Province and the Sao Felix do Xingu region, Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Edilea Dutra.

    1992-01-01

    This work deals with a Rb/Sr geochronological study carried on granitoids and granulites of the Carajas Mineral Province (Rio Maria, Serra dos Gradaus and Serra do Pium regions) and Sao Felix do Xingu regions. The Manelao and Ourilandia granitoids of the Sao Felix do Xingu region are associated with the greenstone terrains of the Tucuma Group, and yield an age of 2749 ± 24 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.07028 ± 19, and 2677 ± 50 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.07016 ± 22, respectively. In the Rio Maria region, an age of 2541 ± 74 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.7104 ± 343 was obtained on the Mata Surrao Granite located near the Marajoara Village. This age confirms an archaean monzogranitic magmatism in this region. In the Gradaus area, the Cumaru Granodiorite give an mineral age of 2577 ± 27 Ma similar to the age obtained by whole rock method. Finally, Rb/Sr ages were obtained from granulitic rocks of the Pium Complex located at the Serra do Pium and near the Catete River. Samples of the Serra do Pium yielded ages of 2325 ± 71 Ma (whole rock) and 1857 ± 48 (minerals). Samples from the Catete River area give a whole rock age of 2018 ± 25 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.7039 ± 25. These data show that the Rb/Sr system in these granulitic rocks suffered changes during the Early Proterozoic times. The geochronological data here obtained confirm promptly an Archaean evolution in the studied regions, besides give rise the discussion about the problem related to the Transamazonian Event inside them. (author). 92 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  16. Post-exposure rabies prophylaxis in humans exposed to animals in Lublin province (Eastern Poland) in 2012-2015 - A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzowska-Firych, Joanna; Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Kozøowska, Agata

    2017-06-03

    patients with bite wounds were consulted at the Department of Surgery and wound care followed surgical recommendations. In the study group, 45 patients had category III contact. There were 38 patients exposed to dogs, and 7 exposed to cats. There were no people exposed to wildlife in this group. All animals were available for veterinary observation. During and after exposure, none of the animals that serve as a potential source of infection presented with symptoms of rabies. The local epidemiological data indicated that during exposures of our patients, there were no confirmed cases of rabies among animals in Lublin province. Based on the data mentioned above, RIG was not applied. During the studied period in Lublin province, rabies was confirmed mainly in wildlife, and only in 2 dogs. In Lublin province, people are still at risk of exposure to rabid animals. The majority of our patients were vaccinated after domestic animals exposure, but rabies was confirmed mainly in wildlife, and since 2013, there were no cases of rabies among domestic animals.

  17. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Ramiro; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al 2 O 3 and CaO contents with increasing SiO 2 suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 ± 21 Ma and 1373 ± 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T DM model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while ε Nd(1330) values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 ± 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T DM model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and ε Nd(1330) values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval plutons. The Porvenir, San Cristobal and Piso Firme plutons

  18. Climate and land use changes as origin of the Water Cycle variations and sediment transport in Pesaro Urbino Province, Central and Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Farina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a significant net precipitation and surficial runoff decrease in the Province of Pesaro-Urbino during the 1950-2010 period, especially affecting mountain areas and the water-surplus winter season. Runoff variation is also related to a significant land use change, due to a progressive natural reafforestation process that has taken place in the mountain area. Candigliano river’s base-flow, fed by carbonate aquifers’ groundwater discharge, was found more stable over time, due to an aquifers’ capacity largely exceeding that of existing surface reservoirs. The latter have been affected by a significant silting process, which is still active, as suggested by specific erosion rates of watersheds, particularly in the Foglia basin. Important implications both on sediment mobility, surface water-supply reliability, minimum flow constraints and effectiveness of volume-recovery projects of reservoirs were preliminarly evaluated. In the perspective of a necessary adaptation process to the climate change, the study suggests a gradual transition from the present prevailing use of surface water, to an integrated management of the carbonate aquifers’ dynamic resources, on a seasonal base, as a sustainable strategy for the next future.

  19. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  20. Geologic Cross Section I–I′ Through the Appalachian Basin from the Eastern Margin of the Illinois Basin, Jefferson County, Kentucky, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Scott County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2015-12-08

    Geologic cross section I‒I’ is the fourth in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section I‒I’ provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from the eastern margin of the Illinois basin in central Kentucky, across the Cincinnati arch (Lexington dome), to the Valley and Ridge province in southwestern Virginia, a distance of approximately 280 miles. This cross section is a companion to cross sections E‒E’, D‒D’, and C‒C’ that are located about 200 to 300 miles to the northeast. Cross section I‒I’ either updates or complements earlier geologic cross sections through the central Kentucky and southwestern Virginia part of the Appalachian basin. Although other published cross sections through parts of the basin show more structural and stratigraphic detail, these other cross sections are of more limited extent geographically and (or) stratigraphically.

  1. Health system reforms, violence against doctors and job satisfaction in the medical profession: a cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-12-31

    To explore the factors influencing doctors' job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor-patient relationship. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors' workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors' salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  2. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  3. Modeling the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs using multivariate statistics in the eastern part of Marvast placer, the Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossein Morshedy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, exploration of rare earth element (REE resources is considered as one of the strategic priorities, which has a special position in the advanced and intelligent industries (Castor and Hedrick, 2006. Significant resources of REEs are found in a wide range of geological settings, including primary deposits associated with igneous and hydrothermal processes (e.g. carbonatite, (per alkaline-igneous rocks, iron-oxide breccia complexes, scarns, fluorapatite veins and pegmatites, and secondary deposits concentrated by sedimentary processes and weathering (e.g. heavy-mineral sand deposits, fluviatile sandstones, unconformity-related uranium deposits, and lignites (Jaireth et al., 2014. Recent studies on various parts of Iran led to the identification of promising potential of these elements, including Central Iran, alkaline rocks in the Eslami Peninsula, iron and apatite in the Hormuz Island, Kahnouj titanium deposit, granitoid bodies in Yazd, Azerbaijan, and Mashhad and associated dikes, and finally placers related to the Shemshak formation in Marvast, Kharanagh, and Ardekan indicate high concentration of REE in magmatogenic iron–apatite deposits in Central Iran and placers in Marvast area in Yazd (Ghorbani, 2013. Materials and methods In the present study, the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements is modeled by using multivariate statistical methods in the eastern part of the Marvast placer. Marvast is located 185 km south of the city of Yazd in central Iran between Yazd and Mehriz. This area lies within the southeastern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (Alipour-Asll et al., 2012. The samples of 53 wells were analyzed for Whole-rock trace-element concentrations (including REE by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS (GSI, 2004. The clustering techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis technique can be employed to find appropriate groups in data sets. One of the main objectives of data clustering

  4. Identification and molecular survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sika deer (Cervus nippon) from Jilin Province, north-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bintao; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Yin, Hong; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is a common disease of domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. Sika deer is first-grade state-protected wildlife animals in China and have economic consequences for humans. It is reported that sika deer may serve as an important reservoir host for several species of B. burgdorferi s.l. and may transmit these species to humans and animals. However, little is known about the presence of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. In this study, the existence and prevalence of Borrelia sp. in sika deer from four regions of Jilin Province in China was assessed. Seventy-one blood samples of sika deer were collected and tested by nested-PCRs based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), outer surface protein A (OspA), flagenllin (fla), and 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (5S-23S rRNA) genes of B. burgdorferi s.l. Six (8.45%) samples were positive for Borrelia sp. based on sequences of 4 genes. The positive samples were detected 18 for 16S rRNA, 10 for OspA, 16 for fla and 6 for 5S-23S, with the positive rates 25.35% (95% CI=3.8-35.6), 14.08% (95% CI=3.0-21.6), 22.54% (95% CI=4.3-36.9) and 8.45% (95% CI=1.7-22.9), respectively. Sequence analysis of the positive PCR products revealed that the partial 4 genes sequences in this study were all most similar to the sequences of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), no other Borrelia genospecies were found. This is the first report of Borrelia pathogens in sika deer in China. The findings in this study indicated that sika deer as potential natural host and may spread Lyme disease pathogen to animals, ticks, and even humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  6. Interaction of the fluctuation of the population density of sweet potato pests with changes in farming practices, climate and physical environments: A 11-year preliminary observation from South-Kivu Province, Eastern DRCongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyuli Théodore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato is a major food security crop grown in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Its production is however limited due to high prevalence of pests and diseases among other abiotic and biotic factors. A study was designed to aid understanding the knowledge of farmers about pests and their perception about climate variability impacts, as well as documenting the phenology of sweetpotato pests (pest population dynamics in relationship with weather factors. The paper aimed at determined which climatic factors may be used as best predictors of the different status of pest populations (declines, outbreaks. Farmer based data was obtained using a semi structured questionnaire administered to several of farmers. Population dynamics of sweetpotato pests were monitored year-round from 2005 to 2015 in South Kivu province, eastern DRCongo. Field monitoring (visual counts observations (population dynamic of different soil-dwelling and surface dwelling arthropods visiting sweetpotato fields combined with a survey of farmers’ knowledge on sweetpotato pests and their practices in the management of these pests in South- Kivu Province were conducted for 11 years. Monitoring (with field observations and counts was carried out in fields under different farming practices (monocropping and inter-cropping in sites located at different altitudes. Similarly, data for climatic factors, for the same period, were collected from Lwiro Research center. Regression models were applied to understand the linkages between environmental factors (rainfall and temperature and pest population dynamics. The results indicated that different varieties (local and improved ones of sweetpotato are grown three times (3 seasons per annum under various cropping systems (sole crop, mixed crops in various agroecological zones at different altitudes. Various arthropod species visit the crop at its different stages of development including classically known pests (Acraea acerata, Cylas

  7. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous A-type granite from the Feie'shan W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province, SE China: Implications for W-Sn mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Bao, Zhian; Zeng, Xiaojian; Jia, Lihui

    2018-02-01

    The Feie'shan greisen-type W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province forms part of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (SCMB) in South China. Here we present zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of the biotite granite which shows a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 134.7 ± 2.0 Ma, consistent with the zircon U-Pb, biotite 40Ar-39Ar and molybdenite Re-Os ages in the previous study. The biotite granite is peraluminous and belongs to high-K calc-alkaline type. It is characterized by high SiO2, K2O, F, K2O + Na2O and FeOt/(FeOt + MgO), and low CaO, MgO, TiO2 and P2O5 contents, enrichment in Rb, Cs, Th and U, and depletion in Ba, Sr, Zr, Ti and P, with flat REE patterns and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, showing an A2-type affinity. The rocks also display extremely low Ba, Sr and Ti concentrations and high Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and low CaO/(Na2O + K2O) ratios, indicating high degree of fractionation. Zircon grains from the granite have low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, suggesting low oxygen fugacity. The highly fractionated and reduced features imply that the Feie'shan mineralization is genetically related to the biotite granite. The εNd(t) values and zircon εHf(t) values of the biotite granite range from - 2.96 to - 1.95 and - 5.69 to 0.62, with two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1083 to 1164 Ma and 1150 to 1552 Ma, indicating that they were derived from magma hybridization between anatectic granitic and mantle-derived mafic magmas. In combination with previous studies, we propose a geodynamic model for the 145―135 Ma W-Sn mineral system and related magmatism in the southwestern domain of the SCMB. After ca. 145 Ma, the subduction orientation of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel with respect to the continental margin resulting in large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, which led to the upwelling of asthenosphere. The ascending mantle-derived mafic magmas provided not only supplied the heat for crustal remelting but also added

  8. psha of van province for performance assessment using spectrally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    30

    Seismic hazard analysis of the earthquake-prone Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey has become more important due to its growing strategic importance as a global energy corridor and closer integration with the European Union. In this study Van province is selected as the study area. The town of Van, capital of province, ...

  9. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Western Cape Province had the highest homicide rates in South Africa during the early 2000s. South African Police Service (SAPS) data suggested a significant decline in homicide rates in the Western Cape since 2007. It ranked second highest to the Eastern Cape Province until 2013 and ranked highest ...

  10. The application of evidential belief function in the integration of regional geochemical and geological data over the Ife-Ilesha goldfield, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likkason, Othniel K.; Shemang, Elisha M.; Suh, Cheo E.

    1997-10-01

    There are several methods available for the integration of geological, geophysical and even remotely sensed data sets. Several published reports have discussed the successful application of these integration techniques, including geologically orientated geographical information systems (GIS), to non-renewable resource exploration. Many geoscience data sets often have only partial coverage, and in most cases have different spatial resolution. These shortcomings plague statistical integration schemes employed in resource evaluation. In this paper, the evidential belief function approach is examined and applied to the integration of geological and geochemical data sets over the Ife-Ilesha goldfield, southwest Nigeria. In using this approach, nine maps of trace element concentrations (whole rock) and that of the bedrock geology of the test area were digitised. The characteristic grid values of the digitised maps were converted to degrees of belief, with a Au bearing mineral deposit as the target proposition. These resulting spatial data sets were pooled using the Dempster-Shafer combination rule. The resulting maps define portions of the study area with known auriferous mineral occurrences and even outline areas of past mining operations. There are additional areas with high interest that are not linked with known mineralisation and could therefore represent viable exploration targets. The Dempster-Shafer method of evidential reasoning appears to be suitable in identifying areas of known Au mineralisation in the test area. One of the major difficulties of this method is that the evidential belief function depends on the exploration target, which can only be defined, at present, by the interpreter's intuitive and qualitative knowledge of the environmental proposition being explored.

  11. Detection, referral and control of diabetes and hypertension in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa by community health outreach workers in the rural primary healthcare project: Health in Every Hut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A. Morris-Paxton

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the follow-up of patients with hypertension or diabetes as well as those individuals at-risk adds value to hypertension and glucose control.

  12. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  13. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  14. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  15. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  16. Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR. Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian. The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source.

  17. Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Seutloali, Khoboso; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    Land degradation as a result of inappropriate land use practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was therefore, to assess the potential and strength of using the free or readily available Landsat series data in mapping degraded land areas at the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (1984-2010). Data analysis was done using a robust non-parametric classification ensemble; Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show that degraded areas vary over the years. For example, the results show that the year 1994 and 2004 incurred high degradation levels, when compared to the year 1984 and 2010. Moreover, the observed degradation significantly (α = 0.05) varies with soil type. The chromic acrisols have the highest levels of erosion (approx. 80% in 1984), when compared to humic-umbric acrisols (less than 10% for the entire period under study). It can also be observed that considerable part of degradation occurred in the northern part of the municipal district. Overall, the findings of this research underlines the importance and efficacy of multispectral Landsat series data-set in mapping and monitoring levels of land degradation in data-scarce catchments.

  18. eastern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study sites and experimcntal design. The study was conducted in thrce hi ghland districts ofeastern. Uganda, namely; Kapchorwa, Mbale and Sironko, for three consecutivr: seasons bcginning with thc second (September [0 December) season of2001, and during thc first (April ...

  19. Contribution to the geologic evolution from the Eastern part of Central Amazonia Province by Rb-Sr geochronology from the Carajas Mineral Province and the Sao Felix do Xingu region, Para State; Contribuicao a evolucao geologica da parte oriental da Provincia Amazonia Central atraves da geocronologia Rb-Sr da Provincia Mineral de Carajas e regiao de Sao Felix do Xingu, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Edilea Dutra

    1992-12-31

    This work deals with a Rb/Sr geochronological study carried on granitoids and granulites of the Carajas Mineral Province (Rio Maria, Serra dos Gradaus and Serra do Pium regions) and Sao Felix do Xingu regions. The Manelao and Ourilandia granitoids of the Sao Felix do Xingu region are associated with the greenstone terrains of the Tucuma Group, and yield an age of 2749 {+-} 24 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.07028 {+-} 19, and 2677 {+-} 50 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.07016 {+-} 22, respectively. In the Rio Maria region, an age of 2541 {+-} 74 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.7104 {+-} 343 was obtained on the Mata Surrao Granite located near the Marajoara Village. This age confirms an archaean monzogranitic magmatism in this region. In the Gradaus area, the Cumaru Granodiorite give an mineral age of 2577 {+-} 27 Ma similar to the age obtained by whole rock method. Finally, Rb/Sr ages were obtained from granulitic rocks of the Pium Complex located at the Serra do Pium and near the Catete River. Samples of the Serra do Pium yielded ages of 2325 {+-} 71 Ma (whole rock) and 1857 {+-} 48 (minerals). Samples from the Catete River area give a whole rock age of 2018 {+-} 25 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.7039 {+-} 25. These data show that the Rb/Sr system in these granulitic rocks suffered changes during the Early Proterozoic times. The geochronological data here obtained confirm promptly an Archaean evolution in the studied regions, besides give rise the discussion about the problem related to the Transamazonian Event inside them. (author). 92 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting;Geoquimica e assinaturas Nd-Sr do Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, provincia Rondoniana-San Ignacio, pre-cambriano de Bolivia Oriental: caracterizacao petrogenetica de um arco magmatico no mesoproterozoico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Ramiro, E-mail: rmatoss@igc.usp.b [Universidad Mayor de San Andre (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva, E-mail: wteixeir@usp.b, E-mail: jsbetten@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar, E-mail: geraldes@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia

    2009-07-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO contents with increasing SiO{sub 2} suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 {+-} 21 Ma and 1373 {+-} 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 {+-} 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval

  1. A synthesis on the alkaline magmatism of Eastern Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Celso de Barros; Chiaramonti, Piero Comin-; Fernandez, Victor Velazquez

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline magmatism occurs in six distinct areas of Paraguay and forms bodies of variable size, shape, composition and age. The oldest rocks are found in the north and correspond to the Permo-Triassic Alto Paraguay Province (241 Ma). Four Early Cretaceous events can be distinguished in Eastern Paraguay: the Rio Apa and Amambay Provinces (139 Ma), both predating the tholeiites of the Serra Geral Formation, are located in the northern and northeastern regions, respectively; and the Central (126 ...

  2. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  3. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  4. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  5. Snail abundance in freshwater canals in the eastern province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ksu-network

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Recent Advances in Freshwater Biology. New Delhi. Anmol. Publication. Vol. 2. pp. 187-202. Al-Akel and Suliman. 12261. Supian Z, Ikhwanuddin AM (2002). Population dynamics of freshwater mollusks (Gastropod: Melanoides Tuberculatus) in crocker range park, Sabah. ASEAN Rev. Biodiv. Environ.

  6. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Platinum group elements; geochemistry; Deccan volcanism; India. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, No. 4, August 2013, pp. 1035–1044 c Indian Academy of Sciences. 1035 ... cal Survey of India has identified 16 flows form- ing four formations in the Umaria .... core and iron enrichment in the rims. Olivine is rarely present.

  7. Suicidal deaths in depth-Eastern Province-Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Y. Issa

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, extensive socio-demographic variability exists across different suicidal cases. Acknowledgement of this variability may help to tailor prevention efforts in different parts of the world.

  8. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-05

    Mar 5, 1990 ... small, aligned in regular rows, indistinct on nape and embedded between pectoral fins and antero-ventral region. .... major row teeth of Barbus omfltolicus sp.nov. B - Posterior view of the right pharyngeal bone and teeth of B. onwtoiicus sp.nov. Scale bar is 1 mm. 191. Figure 4 The nuptial tubercles on the ...

  9. EARLY HISTORY OF AVIATION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and twisting in a marvellous fashion at about thirty miles per hour" wrote an excited reporter of the great occasion. The flight was repeated on New Year's Day, ending in a minor ..... the first appearance in South Africa of a rotary- winged aircraft. As it had no power driving the rotor, the pilot had to taxi at high speed until the.

  10. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  11. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern Cape province – race and disease status. ... Fisher's exact test was used to assess the univariate association between H. pylori infection and the possible risk factors. ... Gender, antibiotic treatment and alcohol consumption may be risk factors for infection.

  12. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  13. Party identification and service delivery protests in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service delivery protests against municipalities in South Africa have become common. This article discusses the relationship between party identification and these protests. It presents an in-depth analysis of two qualitative case studies: one in the Eastern Cape Province, where protests have mainly been about the shortage ...

  14. Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa's colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the ...

  15. Valuing water gains in the Eastern Cape's Working for Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure for pricing water is described and applied in six WWP projects in the Eastern Cape province: Tsitsikamma, Kouga, Port Elizabeth Driftsands, Albany, Balfour and Pott River. It is shown that the procedure yields very different prices at the different sites, and higher prices for projects that increase river flows feeding ...

  16. Contract farming approach to essential oil production in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on empirical evidence from small scale growers and a processor, this study evaluated contract farming of rose geranium (Pelagonium graveoleus) production in a rural setting of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the aid of interview schedules and observation, cross sectional data were collected from the ...

  17. Mental health symptoms following war and repression in eastern Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Willem F.; Olff, Miranda; Ventevogel, Peter; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Jansveld, Eveline; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol A. Gotway

    2004-01-01

    Context Decades of armed conflict, suppression, and displacement resulted in a high prevalence of mental health symptoms throughout Afghanistan. Its Eastern province of Nangarhar is part of the region that originated the Taliban movement. This may have had a distinct impact on the living

  18. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Eastern Equine Encephalitis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Eastern Equine Encephalitis Home Frequently Asked Questions Prevention Virus Transmission ...

  20. Some effects. Guangdong province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y; Wang, J

    1994-03-01

    Shenzhen City in Guangdong Province grew from 310,000 residents when it was established in 1979 to 1.66 million people in 1990. 1.02 million inhabitants are considered floating people, non-natives. Wang Jinxia, a 26-year-old mother, is like other women comprising 46.05% of the floating population who came from across the country to earn money then return to their native homes. Wang had an IUD inserted after giving birth to her daughter, even though it is common to bear many children in her native home in Anhui province. Understanding that the floating population is the main engine of rapid economic growth in the city, the Family Planning Committee of Shenzhen provides services to both native and nonnative residents. The committee has worked particularly hard to promote family planning counseling and services to nonnatives of childbearing age to prevent unplanned pregnancy before and after marriage. Health care services are also provided to adolescents. Acknowledging that most nonnatives have not registered their households with the community, however, some enterprises have integrated family planning services into their total health and welfare program for employees.

  1. Diatoms of the marine littoral of Steenberg's cove in St. Helena Bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of previous investigation of the marine littoral of the South African coast, the author has made observations at the various localities along the shores of the Eastern Cape Province. All these stations are situated along the shores...

  2. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its natural enemies in Sichuan Province, China, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Zhou; Yinbo Xiao; Yugui Xiao; Wenhua Lu; Michael Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of Chinese and American institutions was formed in 2005 to obtain natural enemies for biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), in the eastern United States. We report here the first 6 months (June-November) of studies done at three sites in Kangding and Baoxing Counties in Sichuan Province.

  3. The tectonic setting and evolution of the 2.7 Ga Kalgoorlie-Kurnalpi Rift, a world-class Archean gold province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Walter K.; Cassidy, Kevin F.; Lu, Yong-Jun; Hagemann, Steffen G.

    2018-01-01

    The Yilgarn Craton results from three major mantle input events (at ca 3.0-2.9, 2.8 and 2.7 Ga) that have interacted with > 3.0 Ga continental crust. Zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic data subdivide the craton into an older Yilgarn proto-craton and the younger, more primitive Eastern Goldfields Superterrane (EGST). Formation of the Kalgoorlie-Kurnalpi Rift (KKR) within the EGST was associated with the 2.7 Ga event, which exploited weakened crust at the eastern margin of the Yilgarn proto-craton where thick sequences of komatiite and basalt were erupted between ca 2710 and 2690 Ma in the Kalgoorlie Terrane. Calc-alkaline volcanism in the Kurnalpi Terrane began at ca 2730 Ma and continued to ca 2690 Ma, overlapping rifting and plume-related volcanism in the Kalgoorlie Terrane. Deposition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within basins at ca 2660 resulted from an intra-orogenic extensional event and coincided with the transition from High-Ca to Low-Ca granite magmatism and peak emplacement of intrusions with a metasomatised mantle source component. Most aspects of the KKR are satisfied by broadly coincident plume-related magmatism in the Kalgoorlie Terrane and westward subduction to the east of the Burtville Terrane. Geochemical characteristics of 2730-2700 Ma calc-alkaline volcanism and 2685-2630 Ma low-SiO2 and alkali-rich intrusions support models for a continental margin subduction zone setting. World-class gold deposits formed in reactivated margins of the KKR, which became flux zones for mantle-derived magmas, hydrothermal fluids and heat during 2675-2620 Ma orogenesis. The orogenic gold mineralisation can be subdivided into proximal intrusion-related and distal-source deposits.

  4. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  5. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  6. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  7. Self-organizing Maps Applied To Mapping Mineral Potential In The Region Of Eastern Sierra Mineral Province Of Carajás, To [mapas Auto-organizáveis Aplicados Ao Mapeamento Do Potencial Mineral Na Região De Serra Leste, Província Mineral De Carajás, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Leite E.P.; de Souza Filho C.R.

    2010-01-01

    A Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was designed with the aim of integrating and searching for patterns in airborne geological and geophysical gammaspectrometric and magnetic data of the Serra Leste region, Carajás Mineral Province. SOM is an unsupervised Artificial Neural Network method that performs a non-linear mapping from a high-dimensional data space to a 2-dimensional grid, whereas preserving the topological relations in the original data. The SOM grid can be efficiently used in an integrated ...

  8. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  9. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  10. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  11. Multiple water isotope proxy reconstruction of extremely low last glacial temperatures in Eastern Beringia (Western Arctic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porter, T.J.; Froese, D.G.; Feakins, S.J.; Bindeman, I.N.; Mahony, M.E.; Pautler, B.G.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sanborn, P.T.; Simpson, M.J.; Weijers, J.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation isotopes are commonly used for paleothermometry in high latitude regions. Here we present multiple water isotope proxies from the same sedimentary context – perennially frozen loess deposits in the Klondike Goldfields in central Yukon, Canada, representing parts of Marine Isotope

  12. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  13. The Province of the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Papastergiadis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of contemporary art nothing could be worse than to be described as provincial. In a sphere where novelty, mobility and connectedness are the most highly valued signs, the image of the province is loaded with a curse that is saturated with the melancholic rut of repetition, stagnation and isolation. The dreaded load of the province is to be stuck when everyone else is on the move. This curse is nowhere more heavily felt than in the former colonial spaces of the South. And yet, in and from the South the idea of provincialism has been radically redefined.

  14. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe ...

  15. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterer, N.; Passeggi, E.; Zucol, A.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  16. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe mental illnesses.

  17. Mineral chemistry of lava flows from Linga area of the Eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several basaltic lava flows have been identified in the study area in and around Linga, in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP) on the basis of distinctly developed structural zones defined by primary volcanic structures such as columnar joints and vesicles. These basaltic lava flows are spatially distributed in four ...

  18. Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üngör, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    For ages, the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire had been a multi-ethnic region, where Armenians, Kurds, Syriacs, Turks and Arabs lived together in the same villages and cities. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and rise of the nation state would violently alter this situation, as

  19. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.We estimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  20. Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J., eds. Schweitzer

    2012-01-01

    Contains 14 full-length papers and 40 abstracts of posters that were presented at the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests conference, held in Springfield, MO, May 17-19, 2011. The conference was attended by over 250 people from 65 different organizations and entities, representing 22 states and 1 Canadian province.

  1. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  2. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  3. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  4. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  6. The Timan-Pechora Basin province of northwest Arctic Russia; Domanik, Paleozoic total petroleum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Domanik-Paleozoic oil-prone total petroleum system covers most of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province of northwestern Arctic Russia. It contains nearly 20 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (66% oil). West of the province is the early Precambrian Eastern European craton margin. The province itself was the site of periodic Paleozoic tectonic events, culminating with the Hercynian Uralian orogeny along its eastern border. The stratigraphic record is dominated by Paleozoic platform and shelf-edge carbonates succeeded by Upper Permian to Triassic molasse siliciclastics that are locally present in depressions. Upper Devonian (Frasnian), deep marine shale and limestone source rocks ? with typically 5 wt % total organic carbon ? by middle Mesozoic time had generated hydrocarbons that migrated into reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Triassic but most focused in Devonian and Permian rocks. Carboniferous structural inversions of old aulacogen borders, and Hercynian (Permian) to Early Cimmerian (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) orogenic compression not only impacted depositional patterns, but also created and subsequently modified numerous structural traps within the province.

  7. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  8. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  9. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea......P essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...... that soft power can never be separated from the 'harder' policies that would meet the expectations of those wishing to align with it. This failure of policy continues to largely negate the EU's actually considerable reservoir of potential soft power in Eastern Europe....

  10. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  11. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  12. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of the Eastern Cape School Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ncanywa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the trends of education indicators that affect efficiency at schools in the Eastern Cape in the period 2009 to 2013. The focus is on the state of public ordinary schools which include primary and secondary schools from grade one to grade twelve. The province is regarded as a poor province as it constituted 95% of quintile one to three schools which are declared as ‘no fee schools’. There had been decline in learner performance as learners’ progress to higher grades and a drastic decline in important subjects such as Mathematics.  province had a significant number of educators with 16 years’ experience and an average of 45% under-qualified educators in 2013. There were variations in educator learner ratios per district with larger ratios found in the former Transkei. The province progressed well in learner transport, learner teacher support material and school nutrition programmes. There was no virtual change in infrastructural developments. Education in schools should be provided in a manner that ensures learners can realise their potential and aspirations, in schools that facilitate learning and reduce societal disparities.

  14. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  15. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  16. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  17. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  18. Herpetofauna, Coastal Dunes, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Kacoliris, Federico; Horlent, Nathalie; Williams, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coastal dunes habitats at Buenos Aires province are in a fragmentation and habitat loss process due to related human activities. Knowledge on the herpetofauna of Buenos Aires province coast habitats is plentiful for some species of lizards and scarce for most amphibians and snakes. With the aim to present a list on the amphibians and reptiles of the coastal dune habitats in Buenos Aires province we recorded species coming from field work, cited in literature, and vouchers specimens deposited ...

  19. Organic No-Till Systems in Eastern Canada: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Halde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, studies have aimed to adapt the agronomy of organic no-till systems for the environmental conditions of Eastern Canada. Most research on organic no-till practices in Eastern Canada has been conducted in the province of Québec, where 4% of farms are certified organic, and results from these trials have been published in technical reports available in French. The objective of this review was to revisit previous research work on organic farming in Eastern Canada—the majority of which has been published as technical reports in the French language—in order to highlight important findings and to identify information gaps. Cover crop-based rotational no-till systems for organic grain and horticultural cropping systems will be the main focus of this review. Overall, a few trials have demonstrated that organic rotational no-till can be successful and profitable in warmer and more productive regions of Eastern Canada, but its success can vary over years. The variability in the success of organic rotational no-till systems is the reason for the slow adoption of the system by organic farmers. On-going research focuses on breeding early-maturing fall rye, and terminating cover crops and weeds with the use of bioherbicides.

  20. No visible means of subsistence : rural livelihoods, gender and social change in Mooiplaas, Eastern Cape 1950-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Leslie; Qambata, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Ngxingxolo in 1997-1998, this study highlights some of the key changes that have taken place in the way rural livelihoods have been made in Mooiplaas location, situated 45 km outside the city of East London in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa). In line with developments

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  2. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  4. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  5. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  6. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (psociety, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  8. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  9. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  10. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  11. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  13. Red Crescent and its effect on the geography security on eastern borders (comparative study of social abnormalities during 1383-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh allah Shahbahrami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: drugs have some multidimensional effects on people and their lives. People who live in eastern provinces are at the risk of getting addicted and abnormal. Afghanistan is and has been the main problem for Iran. Method: this research has been done by library method and for this many books and articles have been read. The determined time was about 6 years. Findings: drugs have direct effects on life of people. Border cities are under the unkind effects of drugs and its relevant things. Conclusion: authorities must pay too much attention to drugs and eastern provinces

  14. Seismotectonic Properties and Zonation of the Far-Eastern Eurasian Plate Around the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Park, Seongjun; Houng, Soung Eil

    2016-04-01

    Regional seismotectonics provides crucial information for seismic hazard analysis, which is difficult to address with short-term earthquake records. The far-eastern Eurasian plate around the Korean Peninsula presents a stable intraplate environment with diffuse seismicity, of which responsible tectonics and active faults are difficult to identify. Combined analysis of instrumental and historical earthquake records is required for assessment of long-term seismicity properties. Seismotectonic provinces are identified from the spatial distribution of seismicity properties controlled by the medium properties and stress field. The boundaries of the seismotectonic provinces are defined considering the medium properties that can be inferred from geological, geophysical and tectonic features. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationships and maximum magnitudes for the seismotectonic provinces are determined using instrumental and historical earthquake records. The validity of maximum magnitude estimation is tested with synthetic data. A parametric method, the Tate-Pisarenko method, produces more accurate estimates than non-parametric methods. A modified Tate-Pisarenko method is proposed for estimation of maximum magnitudes for incomplete short-term earthquake catalogs. The maximum magnitude of events for the whole region is approximately the same as the average of the maximum magnitudes of events for subdivided provinces, causing apparent variation in maximum magnitudes depending on the number of seismotectonic provinces. Consideration of a reasonable number of seismotectonic provinces may be needed for proper assessment of seismic hazard potentials is recommended. The combined analysis of historical and instrumental earthquake records suggests maximum magnitudes greater than 7 around the peninsula.

  15. Total petroleum systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya; Tanezzuft-Illizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one “composite” total petroleum system is identified. This total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. The total petroleum system was named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in the Tanezzuft-Illizi Total Petroleum System are 2,814 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27,785 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 873 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  16. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  17. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabri?l, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sam...

  18. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-04-11

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus.

  19. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon IV; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.Weestimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  1. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  2. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...

  3. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km 2 ). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh -1  at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh -1  at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh -1  at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  5. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  7. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  8. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  9. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  10. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

  11. Population-based Seroprevalence of HTLV-I Infection in Golestan Province, South East of Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavi, Khodaberdi; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 is an oncornavirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) HTLV-I-associated myelopathy⁄tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Golestan province is located in North West of Khorasan province known as an endemic area for HTLV-I in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence of HTLV-I in Golestan province. In this cross-sectional descriptive study in 2007, blood samples were collected from 2034 healthy people residing in different parts of Golestan province. Sera were assessed for HTLV-I/II-specific antibodies by ELISA method and reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Demographic and serologic data were entered in SPSS version 11.5 and statistical analysis was performed. An overall HTLV-I/II prevalence of 0.7% was observed in 15 cases by ELISA. Six out of 15 were confirmed as HTLV-I by western blot. Regional variation in the prevalence of HTLV-I was observed; 0%, 0%, 0.1%, 1.9%, 0.3%, 0%, and 2.6% tested HTLV-I-positive from west to east of Golestan Province regions, respectively. Seropositivity increased with age. No association between HTLV-I infection and sex status was detected. Highest rate of HTLV-I seroprevalence was shown in east of this region located in neighborhood with Khorasan province, the only confirmed endemic area in Iran. It seems that eastern area of our province is endemic for HTLV-I. Further comprehensive detailed epidemiological and molecular studies are recommended.

  12. Zircon and monazite geochronology of the granulites and associated gneisses from the Rengali Province, India: Growth of the southern margin of the Singhbhum Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Das, K.; Kimura, K.; Hayasaka, Y.; Hidaka, H.; Dasgupta, A.; Ghosh, G.; Mukhopadhyay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Geological evidences show that cratons grew in size by multiple orogenic cycles which can best be studied in their marginal orogenic belts. Rengali Province, occurring at the southern margin of the Singhbhum Craton, India is one such belt, characterized by low- to high-grade metamorphic signatures. This is sharply different from the virtually unmetamorphosed cratonic rocks in north and ultrahigh temperature metamorphosed rocks of the Eastern Ghats Province in south. High-grade gneisses and granitoids (including charnockite) constitute the central highland of this province. Several large-scale faults and shear zones juxtapose rocks of contrasting metamorphic grades. Our geochronological investigation from samples of high-grade orthogneiss and paragneiss along with the intrusive granitoids from central and eastern part of the Rengali Province using zircon (SHRIMP) and monazite chemical techniques reveal a complex evolutionary history. Zircon grains of the metapelitic granulites from the eastern segment yield detrital ages in the time span of ca. 3528-3087 Ma, without perceptible evidence of subsequent metamorphism. In contrast, monazite grains from the same samples record strong metamorphic signature at ca. 2.8-2.7 Ga along with inherited populations of ca. 3.0-2.9 Ga. Charnockite from the eastern segment has protolith age of 3058×15 Ma while that from the central segment records high-grade metamorphism at 2818×15 Ma. Mafic granulite from the central segment preserves the oldest core age of 2844×7 Ma. Synkinematic leucogranite in the central and undeformed granitoid in the eastern segment were emplaced at 2807×13 Ma and 2809×13 Ma respectively. Most of the samples show zircon overgrowth at ca. 2500 Ma, which possibly caused by a separate tectonothermal overprinting. From the available geochronological data, we postulate the existence of marine basin which opened at ca. 3050 Ma, received sediments from the adjacent cratonic hinterland, switched to an active

  13. Comparing the Community Composition of European and Eastern Chinese Waterbirds and the Influence of Human Factors on the China Waterbird Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Wang, X.; Sun, M.; Oeveren, van H.; Leeuw, de J.; Barzen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the European and eastern Chinese waterbird assemblages and checked whether the effects of human disturbance could be detected in the assemblages’ composition. For the different Chinese provinces, we expected to find a negative effect of economic development on the mean bird species mass

  14. Menes caldera, a highly active site of brine seepage in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: "In situ" observations from the NAUTINIL expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Ondreas, H.; Thouement, M.; Gontharet, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Pierre, C; Bayon, G.; Loncke, L; Boetius, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; de Lange, G.; Caprais, J.-C.; Fouquet, Y.; Woodside, J.M.; Dupre, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the first "in situ" seafloor observations of fluid escape structures in a fault-controlled caldera-type depression of about 8 km diameter, named the Menes caldera, in the Eastern Mediterranean sea off Egypt (western province of the Nile Deep Sea Fan). A detailed analysis of seven

  15. An investigation into possibilities for implementation of a virtual community of practice delivered via a mobile social network for rural community media in the Eastern Cape South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The article...

  16. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  17. Characterization of wildland-urban interfaces for fire prevention in the province of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madrigal Olmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The present study is the first attempt to characterize and map wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs in eastern Spain (province of Valencia and its relationship with wildfire occurrence. Area of study. The study area is located in eastern Spain in the province of Valencia. The area covers 246,426 ha and includes four administrative departments comprising 86 municipalities.Material and methods. The methodology integrates housing density and vegetation aggregation for large-scale fire prevention using the WUImap ® ARC GIS tool. A PLS model was developed to relate wildfire occurrence and WUI typologies.Main results. The results show that 21% of housing can be considered as WUIs, highlighting the high degree of fire hazard in the study area. The PLS model shows that the 4 typologies outside of WUI present lower significance than most of WUI typologies. The types of WUI most related to fire occurrence (Number of Fires and Area Burned are Insolated and Scattered housing with Low or High vegetation aggregation. The type Insolated housing with low aggregation presents the highest significance to explain wildfire occurrence.Research highlights: A significant relationship between wildfire occurrence the study area and WUI has been demonstrated. The obtained results verify the ability of WUImap tool in classifying large-scale administrative departments and its suitability for application to prioritize preventive actions in the Mediterranean areasKey words: Housing density; PLS (Partial Least Squares model; vegetation aggregation; WUImap.

  18. Franchising O&M water services infrastructure in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , R, Revels, C, and Amies, M. 2001. Franchising in small town water supply. The World Bank, Washington DC, February 2001. Ruiz-Mier, F and van Ginneken, M. 2006. Consumer cooperatives: an alternative institutional model for delivery of urban water...

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of mthatha, eastern cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd

    2013-10-01

    The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.

  20. Patterns of violent deaths associated with positive ethanol finding in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Sahar Y.; Aldossary, Mohammed; Almazroua, Maha K.; Youssef, Mohammed Abdel Salam; Ghaleb, Sherien; Alsowayigh, Kholuod; Hamd, Mostafa A.; Kharoshah, Magdy

    2016-01-01

    Background: The analysis of alcohol exemplifies the principal aim of forensic toxicology worldwide. Detection of ethanol in post-mortem cases is getting more important nowadays due to the upsurge in the number of ethanol related fatalities all over the world. Toxicological analysis is mandatory to diagnose, and interpret the presence and levels of alcohol in different post mortem samples. The difficulties in the interpretation of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) are more profound when the bo...

  1. Surviving change by changing violently: ukuthwala in South Africa's Eastern Cape province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, W.J.; Notermans, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade a comeback of the apparently extinct marriage practice called ukuthwala has been noted and has found much attention in the South African media. It has been raised as a particular concern that, apparently, ukuthwala increasingly entails the abduction and rape of underage girls

  2. The aerobic bacteriology of infected skin lesions in children of the Eastern Highlands Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J

    1985-06-01

    Of 480 children studied, the relative frequency of skin infections divided into three categories were: score 266 (55%), infected scabies 164 (34%) and tropical ulcers 50 (10%). Infected scabies was more prevalent in the less than 2 year age group and tropical ulcers were commonest in the 9-12 year age group and these differences were significant. The majority of lesions occurred on the lower extremities with the trunk the least commonly affected area. No significant differences were found in different age groups between males and females. Beta haemolytic streptococci (95%), Staphylococcus aureus (83%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (72%) and Corynebacterium haemolyticum (35%) were the major bacteria isolated. Beta haemolytic streptococci were the most prevalent in infected scabies and least in tropical ulcers and these differences were significant. Three major Lancefield groups were isolated: group A (61%), group C (19%) and group G (19%). The distribution of these groups were unequal with group A most common in infected scabies but rarely seen in tropical ulcers. Groups C and G were found more commonly in tropical ulcers than the other two groups of lesions and these differences were significant. Multiple populations of beta haemolytic streptococci in a single lesion were seen in 19% of children. Less than one third of Streptococcus pyogenes were M typable and of these 18% were known nephritogenic serotypes. Staphylococcus aureus was significantly more common in infected scabies and least common in tropical ulcers. The prevalence of Vincent's organisms in tropical ulcers (74%) was significantly higher than scores (9%) and infected scabies (1%). The isolation rate of Corynebacterium diphtheriae was significantly higher in infected scabies than the other two groups. The most common biotype isolated was var mitis (72%). Only 2% of isolates were toxigenic. Corynebacterium haemolyticum was isolated significantly more frequently in tropical ulcers than the other lesions. All major bacteria, excluding betalactamase-producing Straphylococcus aureus, were uniformly sensitive to penicillin. Methicillin resistance was found in 1% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and is reported here for the first time in this country. These isolates were also multiply resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

  3. Systematics and biogeography of the Mozambique thicket rat, Grammomys cometes, in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštufek, B.; Baxter, R. M.; Haberl, W.; Zima, Jan; Bužan, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2008), s. 325-335 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomes * cytochrome-b gene * Grammomys * morphology * systematics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.737, year: 2008 http://www.asmjournals.org/archive/1545-1542/89/2/pdf/i1545-1542-89-2-325.pdf

  4. A Technical Perspective on Roadway Safety in Eastern Province: Data Evaluation and Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farhan; Sayed Faruque; Amr Mohammed; Sami Osman; Omar Al-Jabari; Abdul Almojil

    2014-01-01

    Saudi Arabia in recent years has seen drastic increase in traffic related crashes. With population of over 29 million, Saudi Arabia is considered as a fast growing and emerging economy. The rapid population increase and economic growth has resulted in rapid expansion of transportation infrastructure, which has led to increase in road crashes. Saudi Ministry of Interior reported more than 7,000 people killed and 68,000 injured in 2011 ranking Saudi Arabia to be one of the ...

  5. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Regional inventory of karst activity in the Valley and Ridge Province, eastern Tennessee: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A data collection form was developed for use in compiling information in the inventory. Information sources included files on subsidence, state and county highway departments, county agents and executives, soil conservation service representative, etc. Data obtained included location, date of occurrence, number of subsidence features at the reported site, size, topographic setting, geologic setting, and probable causative factors. The regional inventory obtained information on over 300 historic subsidence events at more than 200 sites in East Tennessee. Areas having the greatest areal density of active subsidence include Hamblen, Jefferson, and Loudon Counties. Reported subsidence events occurred between 1945 and 1986. The Knox Group dolomites account for about two-thirds of all reported sinkholes in the inventory. Most of the karst activity occurs in valleys or flat areas. In cases where causative factors could be established, the combination of surface water drainage alteration or impoundment combined with soil disturbance associated with construction activity were most often precursors to subsidence. 54 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Biochemical and hematological changes among saudi firefighters in the eastern province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Fikry Salama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and hematological changes in concentration level involved firefighters in comparison to normal controls. Materials and Methods: This study involved two groups of male firefighters to participate in the study. The first group included 50 firefighters from Dammam while the second group included 50 firefighters from Khobar. An additional control group of 50 male nonfirefighters from both cities was included in the study. Blood samples were collected from all participants and investigated for some relevant biochemical, hematological differences and blood heavy metals between the three studied groups. Results: The results obtained showed that there were statistically significant differences in liver function, serum lipid profile, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and ferritin, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with normal control group, while there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of blood heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal controls. These results indicate that fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and hematological parameters but does not affect serum heavy metals levels. Conclusion: Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to try to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions, and firefighters must be under continuous medical follow-up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for the early detection of any biochemical or hematological changes.

  8. A different development model in China’s western and eastern provinces?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Economic growth in China has declined between 2008 and 2009. The global financial crisis of 2008/9 has shown a number of structural weaknesses in the Chinese economy, such as the functioning of its capital and labor markets and the substantial income differences between the

  9. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasaikar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaKPC, and blaNDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7% species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%, while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9% each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%. ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by blaSHV 121 (77.1% followed by blaTEM 105 (66.9% and blaCTX-M at 89 (56.7%. The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was blaTEM+blaSHV + blaCTX-M at 79 (50.3%. There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  10. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  11. Smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 157 smallholder farmers from the OR Tambo and Chris Hani district municipality in South Africa were purposively sampled to participate in a survey. The objective was to identify the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops. Using a binary logistic model it was found that the variables; gender, household income, membership in association; land utilisation and qualification were statistically significant in influencing farmers’ awareness of biofuel c...

  12. Managing Japanese stiltgrass dominated communities in the ridge and valley physiographic province in eastern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; William N. Grafton; Jonathan A. Pomp

    2008-01-01

    Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is an exotic invasive species that can dominate forest understories and suppress native herbaceous and woody species. This study had two objectives: 1) to assess directed spray herbicides for controlling M. vimineum; and 2) to collect a set of factors that affect management of M...

  13. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

  14. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif K Althunyan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain.

  15. Leptospirosis in Cattle From Markets of Almaty Province, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkimbayeva Zhumagul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  16. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  17. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  18. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a provincewide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  19. Levels of PCDD/Fs and trace elements in superficial soils of Pavia Province (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Ingrid; Müller, Anne; Umlauf, Gunther; Christoph, Eugen H; Mariani, Giulio; Skejo, Helle; Cenci, Roberto Michele; Sena, Fabrizio; Beone, Gian Maria

    2008-10-01

    Trace elements and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soils from rural and light-industrialized sites (n = 168) of Province of Pavia (Northern Italy). Most of the trace element values fit in typical ranges of concentrations in soils and are similar to the ones reported for rural sites in Italy or sites with no direct anthropogenic impact. Total concentrations of 2,3,7,8 chlorine substituted PCDD/Fs in superficial soils ranged between 24.4 and 1287 pg g(-1) dw (0.5-28.9 pg WHO98-TEQ g(-1) dw). The North Eastern part of the Province presented significantly higher levels (p polluting source for this specific site has been suggested, in the case of PCDD/Fs, profiles were not linked to any specific emission source fingerprint. In the whole extension of Pavia Province, OCDD/F dominated the 2,3,7,8 chlorine substituted congener soil pattern, followed by the 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 hepta-CDD/F congener. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that this profile could not be associated to any described PCDD/F emission source fingerprint and was relatively similar to the baseline deposition of sites with no direct impact of PCDD/F emission sources independently of land use.

  20. Sm-Nd study of Precambrian crustal development in the Prieska-Copperton region, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Van Calsteren, P.; Scott, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Samples representing the major lithological units between Copperton and Prieskapoort in the Cape Province have been analysed for Sm and Nd concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions. The ∼ 3000 Ma Marydale Group is shown to extend without major chronostratigraphic breaks from slightly metamorphosed basalt and arkose west of the Doornberg Fault at Prieskapoort to highly metamorphosed gneisses east of the Brakbos Fault at Copperton. Evidence is found of plutonic alkaline igneous activity, and possibly volcanism, which occurred during the ∼ 1 900 Ma Kheis tectogenesis. Early Proterozoic material apparently dominates the lower crustal region of the eastern Namaqua Province sampled by kimberlites. Sm-Nd data for the Copperton Formation of the Namaqua Province places an upper limit of ∼ 1 514 Ma and lower limit of ∼ 1 350 Ma on its origin. Omission of basaltic samples from the isochron regression yields the younger age, which is more easily reconciled with Pb isotope data. Volcanism is envisaged from a mantle source with a history of light rare-earth depletion relative to the chondritic earth model. By analogy with modern tectonic environments, the Copperton Formation probably formed in an active continental margin or island arc environment

  1. Impact of climate variability on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Azimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, is frequently cited with respect to health risks related to climate change. The current variability of the climate may have different impacts on the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL depending on the various Leishmania species. The number and distribution of CL cases in Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran was analysed over the 2010-2014 period with regard to temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind-related climate issues. During the study period, there were 4672 recorded clinical cases of CL, the incidence of which was found to fall into three types of areas, such as high, intermediate and low-level endemic areas. Compared to the intermediate and low-endemic areas, the hyper-endemic areas showed significantly variable meteorological data with regard to rainy days, maximum/minimum temperature and humidity. Decreased temperatures in the eastern part of this province were found to promote the disease towards its centre. We conclude that the meteorological variables and incidence data of CL indicate that the number of rainy days, maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity are significant variables that can predict CL incidence. Indeed, the substantial climatic variability occurring during the recent 5-year period (2010-2014 in Khuzestan Province could be the main reason for the change in epidemiology and transmission of CL.

  2. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  3. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  4. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  5. New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, Adam B; Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.

  6. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  7. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  8. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic r...

  9. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  10. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  11. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Ren

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.

  12. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  13. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  14. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  15. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice......The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below...

  16. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  17. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  18. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of Acid Rock Drainae (ARD) affects both plants and animals that are present in a drainage system. In some base metal and coal mining environments, the presence of sulphide minerals especially pyrite and their exposure to oxygen and water may trigger Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Evaluation of the potential for ...

  19. U-Series Disequilibria across the New Southern Ocean Mantle Province, Australian-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S. R.; Sims, K. W. W.; Park, S. H.; Langmuir, C. H.; Lin, J.; Kim, S. S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Michael, P. J.; Choi, H.; Yang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) provide a unique window into the temporal and spatial scales of mantle evolution. Long-lived radiogenic isotopes in MORB have demonstrated that the mantle contains many different chemical components or "flavors". U-series disequilibria in MORB have further shown that different chemical components/lithologies in the mantle contribute differently to mantle melting processes beneath mid-ocean ridges. Recent Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic analyses from newly collected basalts along the Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) have revealed that a large distinct mantle province exists between the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, extending from West Antarctica and Marie Byrd Land to New Zealand and Eastern Australia (Park et al., submitted). This southern mantle province is located between the Indian-type mantle and the Pacific-type mantle domains. U-series measurements in the Southeast Indian Ridge and East Pacific Rise provinces show distinct signatures suggestive of differences in melting processes and source lithology. To examine whether the AAR mantle province also exhibits different U-series systematics we have measured U-Th-Ra disequilibria data on 38 basalts from the AAR sampled along 500 km of ridge axis from two segments that cross the newly discovered Southern Ocean Mantle province. We compare the data to those from nearby ridge segments show that the AAR possesses unique U-series disequilibria, and are thus undergoing distinct mantle melting dynamics relative to the adjacent Pacific and Indian ridges. (230Th)/(238U) excesses in zero-age basalts (i.e., those with (226Ra)/(230Th) > 1.0) range from 1.3 to 1.7, while (226Ra)/(230Th) ranges from 1.0 to 2.3. (226Ra)/(230Th) and (230Th)/(238U) are negatively correlated, consistent with the model of mixing between deep and shallow melts. The AAR data show higher values of disequilibria compared to the Indian and Pacific Ridges, which can be explained by either

  20. Women in Poverty: Experience from Limpopo Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. Poverty rating by province (table 1) suggests that Limpopo province occupies the ninth position in the country with poverty rating of 77%. The province accounts for about 832 200 households, with a ration of 5.4 people per household, 4.0 people per shack and about 34 700 ...

  1. Ancient terrane boundaries as probable seismic hazards: A case study from the northern boundary of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern part of the Indian shield, late Paleozoic–Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Talchir Basin lie precisely along a contact of Neoproterozoic age between granulites of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB and amphibolite facies rocks of the Rengali Province. At present, the northern part of the basin experiences periodic seismicity by reactivation of faults located both within the basin, and in the Rengali Province to the north. Detailed gravity data collected across the basin show that Bouguer anomalies decrease from the EGMB (∼+15 mGal, through the basin (∼−10 mGal, into the Rengali Province (∼−15 mGal. The data are consistent with the reportedly uncompensated nature of the EGMB, and indicate that the crust below the Rengali Province has a cratonic gravity signature. The contact between the two domains with distinct sub-surface structure, inferred from gravity data, coincides with the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF that defines the northern boundary of the Talchir Basin. Post-Gondwana faults are also localized along the northern margin of the basin, and present-day seismic tremors also have epicenters close to the NOBF. This indicates that the NOBF was formed by reactivation of a Neoproterozoic terrane boundary, and continues to be susceptible to seismic activity even at the present-day.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  3. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    . Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most......During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese...

  4. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. An annotated bibliography of eastern redcedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Ronald J. Piva

    1995-01-01

    Presents a listing of 719 citations related to eastern redcedar through September 1994. Major eastern redcedar subject headings include: physiology, nursery propagation, regeneration / planting, pests, weather-related factors, control, products, wildlife relationship, and ecological relationships.

  7. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  8. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  9. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  10. MAIN STAGES OF THE IBERIAN CULTURE AS A SYNTHESIS OF EASTERN AND WESTERN TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Chistyakova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the synthesis of Eastern and Western traditions in the modern world as an example of the Iberian Peninsula. Spain – is a country in the vicissitudes of two worlds –the West and East. For a long time, Iberian culture has undergone some important changes related to the Arab conquest of land, starting with the southern province of Andalusia and ending the northern province of Galicia, Navarre, the Basque Country, Astu-rias. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of influence on the formation of the Reconquest of the Iberian culture features. The analysis of linguistic characteristics of the Spanish language, revealed word of Arabic origin.

  11. Chronicles of rice, mosquitoes and malaria in Spain: the case of the province of Valencia (18th-20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the situation of the rice fields in the Valencia province (Eastern Spain during the centuries XVIII-XX. This area, together with the region of Campo Arañuelo (Western Spain, is one of the territories with highest malaria prevalence during the Spain's Modern History. Medical, demographic, social, economic and legal issues related with the problematic of the rice during this epoch are also discussed. Furthermore, this article provides information about the supposed transmission mechanisms of the disease, as well as the fight against it through chemotherapeutic and environmental sanitation techniques.

  12. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces.......The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...

  13. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  14. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  15. THE WELDING INDUSTRY IN BILIRAN PROVINCE, PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos P. Garcia*, Noel P. Tancinco

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the status of the welding industry in Biliran Province. Findings of the study highlighted in detail the characteristics of the welding shops, their owners, problems encountered, future plans, and their service status through the years. Facilities of the welding shops were moderately available (OWM=3.3); and supplies and materials were available (OWM=3.4). Shop personnel were sufficient (OWM=3.5); and location of shops was generally much accessible. Working capital of major...

  16. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  17. Phlebovirus and Leishmania detection in sandflies from eastern Thrace and northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergunay, Koray; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Orsten, Serra; Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Yoldar, Ayse Zeynep Akkutay; Dincer, Ender; Alten, Bulent; Ozkul, Aykut

    2014-12-12

    Phlebotomine sandflies are vectors of several pathogens with significant impact for public health. This study was conducted to investigate and characterize phlebovirus and Leishmania infections in vector sandflies collected in the eastern Thrace region in Turkey and Northern Cyprus, where previous data indicate activity of these agents. Field sampling of sandflies was performed at 4 locations in Edirne and Tekirdag provinces of eastern Thrace and at 17 locations in Lefkosa, Girne, Magosa and Guzelyurt provinces of northern Cyprus. In sandfly pools, phlebovirus RNA and Leishmania DNA were screened via a generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and kinetoplast minicircle PCR, respectively. Selected sandfly specimens unsuitable for pathogen detection were identified to species level. Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene region was used for DNA barcoding of selected specimens and pathogen positive pools. Positive amplicons were cloned and characterized by sequencing. A total of 2690 sandflies, collected from Eastern Thrace (15.4%) and Northern Cyprus (84.6%) were evaluated. Morphological examination of 780 specimens from Cyprus exhibited Phlebotomus perfiliewi sensu lato (72.6%), Phlebotomus tobbi (19.7%), Phlebotomus papatasi (2.8%), Laroussius sp. (1.6%) and Sergentomyia azizi (1.6%), Sergentomyia sp. (0.9%), Sergentomyia minuta (0.5%) and Phleobotomus jacusieli (0.1%) species. Pathogen screening was performed in 1910 specimens distributed in 195 pools. In eight pools of P.tobbi sandflies collected in Cyprus, Leishmania infantum DNA was demonstrated. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A sequences were identified in two pools of P. perfiliewi s.l. and one pool of P.tobbi sandflies from Cyprus. Co-infection of TOSV and Leishmania infantum was characterized in a P.tobbi pool. Sequences belonging to novel phleboviruses are revealed in three P. perfiliewi s.l. pools. One sequence, provisionally named Edirne virus, identified in Edirne province in eastern Thrace, demonstrated the highest

  18. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  19. Contributions of palynology to Carboniferous biostratigraphy and coal geology of the Atlantic provinces of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacquebard, P.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre

    1997-01-01

    W.A. Bell`s palaeobotanical and geological studies carried out between 1927 and 1948 resulted in the recognition of six stratigraphic units in the Carboniferous system of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. Subsequent palynological research provided additional information on: (1) The recognition of nineteen miospore zones in the six groups of the Carboniferous succession. (2) Regional correlation of the stratigraphic units in areas where, due to lack of plant megafossils, no age relationship had been established. This resulted in recognizing the existence of the Gulf of St. Lawrence coalfield, the largest in eastern Canada. (3) Detailed coal seam correlations from miospore histograms, as an aid to structural and stratigraphic interpretations, resulted in delineating hitherto unknown coal reserves, notably in the Mabou and Pictou coalfields of Nova Scotia and in the Central Pennsylvanian Basin of New Brunswick. (4) The miospore assemblages provided information on the negotiation of the ancient peat mires that are valuable to coal-facies interpretations.

  20. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe mental illnesses. Human resource expenditure is calculated for nursing staff at acute, ambulatory and medium-to-long-stay services. A further objective was to conduct a gap analysis for human resources and beds for the EC in order to assist mental health planners in the commissioning of services.  Methods. Data from previous research conducted in the province, and international and national epidemiological studies were utilised to quantify the requirements for human resources (psychiatrists, medical officers/registrars, psychologists, nurses, occupational therapists and social workers and beds for acute, medium-to-long-stay and ambulatory services at provincial and regional levels, to provide mental healthcare. The authors focused on three of the eight priority conditions set by the World Health Organization. A target coverage rate of 80% was used in all calculations. A gap analysis was conducted to demonstrate deficits and excesses, utilising available data on human resources and beds available in the province. Results. The results showed that the districts of Alfred Nzo and Ukhahlamba have no human resources or beds for the provision of mental health services. The province has a deficit of 23 psychiatrists and 243 nurses trained in psychiatry, and an oversupply of 486 other nurses. The results also clearly demonstrated an inequitable distribution of resources in the province.  Conclusions. This is the first study that has provided detailed estimates of human resource and bed deficits in the EC. The study demonstrates that the areas of greatest need in terms of bed and human resource requirements are in the eastern regions of the

  1. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three “composite” total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit.The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides.The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids]:Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 MMBO 2,341 BCFG 110 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 MMBO 4,887 BCFG 269 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 MMBO 12,035 BCFG 908 MMBNGL

  2. Tsunami scattering provinces in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofjeld, H. O.; Titov, V. V.; González, F. I.; Newman, J. C.

    We use a scattering index to identify the regions in the Pacific Ocean where topographic features scatter significant tsunami energy. Based on linear wave theory, the index is computed from the Smith/Sandwell topography. Consistent with numerical simulations, it shows that there is a narrow band of strong scatterers running across the ocean from the northwest (Emperor Seamount Chain) to the southeast (Easter Island Fracture Zone). The eastern Pacific is nearly devoid of scatterers, except for this band and isolated features along the eastern margin. To the west of the band lies a region with moderate scattering; the strongest scattering occurs in the southwestern Pacific. The Pacific is rimmed by island arcs and shallow continental shelves that also trap and scatter tsunamis. These results show that numerical models of trans-Pacific tsunamis must resolve the effects of the small-scale topography in order to accurately simulate their wave patterns and amplitudes.

  3. Mantle source heterogeneity of the Early Jurassic basalt of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2018-04-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the basaltic rocks from the Early Jurassic Eastern North America (ENA) sub-province of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the systematic compositional variation from South to North. Moreover, the tectono-thermal regime of the CAMP is debated as it demonstrates geological and structural characteristics (size, radial dyke pattern) that are commonly associated with mantle plume-derived mafic continental large igneous provinces but is considered to be unrelated to a plume. Mantle potential temperature ( T P) estimates of the northern-most CAMP flood basalts (North Mountain basalt, Fundy Basin) indicate that they were likely produced under a thermal regime ( T P ≈ 1450 °C) that is closer to ambient mantle ( T P ≈ 1400 °C) conditions and are indistinguishable from other regions of the ENA sub-province ( T Psouth = 1320-1490 °C, T Pnorth = 1390-1480 °C). The regional mantle potential temperatures are consistent along the 3000-km-long ENA sub-province suggesting that the CAMP was unlikely to be generated by a mantle plume. Furthermore, the mantle potential temperature calculation using the rocks from the Northern Appalachians favors an Fe-rich mantle (FeOt = 8.6 wt %) source, whereas the rocks from the South Appalachians favor a less Fe-rich (FeOt = 8.3 wt %) source. The results indicate that the spatial-compositional variation of the ENA basaltic rocks is likely related to differing amounts of melting of mantle sources that reflect the uniqueness of their regional accreted terranes (Carolinia and West Avalonia) and their post-accretion, pre-rift structural histories.

  4. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  5. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hui; Yuan, Yuqi; Sun, Na; Bi, Zhenwang; Guan, Bing; Shao, Kun; Wang, Tongzhan; Bi, Zhenqiang

    Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of global solar radiation using multiple weather parameters as predictors for South Africa provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeala Adeyemi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation were developed for South African provinces. These models, in addition to the traditional sunshine hours used in existing models incorporates ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed as variable parameters for predicting global solar radiation, making it different from most of the existing models that use only sunshine hours as variable. Meteorological data obtained for nine locations in South Africa were employed in the model formulation. The accuracy of the models were verified by comparing estimated values with measured values in terms of the following statistical error tests: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, root mean square error (RMSE, and the regression coefficient (R2.The values of R2 for the formulated models are between the ranges of 90% - 99%. It was also observed that for an accurate estimation of global solar radiation in Eastern Cape Province, all weather elements are needed. This implies that the models give an excellent prediction for global solar radiation for their corresponding locations. Also, different errors calculated for the formulated models are close to zero especially MAPE. The result shows that the formulated models are good enough to be used to predict monthly average daily radiation for South Africa and also, the inclusion of some other elements in some of the models improved the accuracy of the predictions made by the models.

  7. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  8. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  9. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong--the most developed province in Southern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-08-06

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ 0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R(2) = 0.782) and elevation (R(2) = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R(2) above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R(2) values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution.

  10. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  12. “Can it be a Rehearsal before a Wider Participation in the Social Activities?”: Women’s Committees of the Yenisey Province in Wars of the Early XX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies activities of women’s committees in Yenisey province during the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. It characterizes the number of participants and types of women’s committees, social preconditions for their emergence, contents of their activities, their interaction with the local provincial and municipal administrations, and determine the degree of their social effectiveness and significance. The article evaluates the influence of women’s committees on the nature of women’s civil activity in one of the distant Eastern Siberia provinces of the Russian Empire.

  13. [Spatial differences of Chinese material medicine resources species in Jilin province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Guo, Lan-Ping; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The differences in the spatial distribution of regional Chinese material medicine resources between regions are determined by differences in natural conditions and social resources among different regions. Spatiotemporal evolution of the distribution of Chinese material medicine resources is a manifestation of the development process of Chinese medicine industry in time and space. The spatiotemporal evolution of the distribution of regional Chinese material medicine resources can reveal the regularity of spatial distribution of Chinese material medicine resources. County as the basic unit of the national material medicine resources census, the difference of resource endowment is of great significance to the rational development of Chinese material medicine resources policy and the coordinated development of regional resources and environment. Based on the results of the pilot project of Jilin province, this study selected 51 counties that had completed the census of Chinese material medicine resources. According to the species of Chinese material medicine resources, we explored the diversity of Chinese material medicine resources in Jilin province by using statistical data analysis (ESDA), trend surface analysis and spatial variability function to analyze the spatial differences of Chinese material medicine resources. Chinese material medicine resources are distributed in the eastern and southeastern part of Jilin province, mostly in the Changbai Mountains. The species of Chinese material medicine resources tend to be low-value spatial aggregation; the overall cold spots are located in Changchun and Jilin city, near the administrative center, mostly urban built-up area. The rich areas of Chinese material medicine resources are rich in hot spots, mainly in broad-leaved forest. The low-abundance of Chinese material medicine resources is dominated by cultivated vegetation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  15. Coping with Crisis in Eastern Europe's Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alcamo, J.

    1992-01-01

    Along with the winds of political change in Central and Eastern Europe have come the realities of severely polluted air, water and soil. Among the greatest challenges for Eastern Europeans will be how to cope with these environmental problems during a period of difficult economic and political transition. This book is one of the first published since the revolutions of 1989 giving the views of top environmental experts from six Central and Eastern European countries on these issues. In...

  16. How to sell electricity from eastern Canada to New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessome, D.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the natural gas market in the Maritimes. It described market restructuring, market seams and future opportunities. The resource activities of Emera Energy Inc. are based in electricity, midstream and downstream power development, and energy services. The Northeast supply mix includes natural gas pipelines and electric power generation. This presentation included a graph of electricity market demand in the Northeast which outlined generation capacity as well as peak demand for Canada's eastern provinces and the New England states. A history of natural gas exploration and development in Nova Scotia was also included. In December 1999, Nova Scotia received natural gas for the first time when the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP) delivered the first production of natural gas from the Sable Offshore Energy Project. Natural gas is now a bigger part of the province's economy than the fishery. Sable Offshore Energy Tier 2 is underway, as is phase 3 of the M and NP project in the United States to connect to the Boston Hubline. EnCana's Deep Panuke project is currently on hold. Nova Scotia is also considering electricity restructuring for 2005. Recommendations have been made for open transmission access for all market participants, and for transmission tariffs to be compatible with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The government of New Brunswick also introduced a new Electricity Act to restructure NB Power to open electricity markets by 2003, and to be in compliance with FERC Order 888. The market in the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL) was opened to wholesale access in 1999. The New Standard Market Design in the NEPOOL is expected to begin in March 2003 to reflect wholesale power costs more accurately. Trade challenges between Canada and the United States were highlighted with reference to transmission access and capacity. 12 figs

  17. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  18. House Dust Mites in Erzincan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytun, Erhan; Doğan, Salih; Aykut, Medeni; Özçiçek, Fatih; Ünver, Edhem; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to determine the species of the house dust mites seen in Erzincan, the number of mites per gram of dust in the houses, and the relationship between temperature and the number of mite specimens. For this purpose, 54 dust samples collected from 18 houses located in different districts of Erzincan province between November 2013 and January 2014. These samples were examined by a lactic acid precipitation method. Of the houses in which the dust samples were collected, 94.44% were found to be positive in terms of mites. A total of 844 mite specimens were isolated from the dust samples, and the mean number of mites per gram of dust was found to be 18.34. The most common species was found to be Acarus siro (55.55%) and was followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (50.00%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (22.22%), Histiostoma sp. (22.22%), Lepidoglyphus destructor (16.66%), T. perniciosus(11.11%), Euroglyphus maynei (11.11%), Glycyphagus privatus (11.11%), Cheyletus sp. (11.11%), Tarsonemus sp. (11.11%), and Tetranychus sp. (11.11%). Mite-holding rate of the houses in Erzincan province was found to be 94.44%. The mean number of mites per gram of dust was found to be 18.34. The most common mite species was A. siro, which was followed by D. pteronyssinus.

  19. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

    1986-01-01

    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.

  20. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  1. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal O. Al-Qurashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and seventy-six preterm infants were admitted with a total prevalence of 7.5%. Descriptive analysis revealed 55% were males. Extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks’ gestation comprised 9% and very preterm infants (28 to <32 weeks’ gestation comprised 20%. Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW infants (<1000 g comprised 11%. One hundred and fifty-seven (32% infants were small for gestational age. Out of the total number of ELBW infants, 58% of them were discharged. The overall mortality was 7.6%. The mortality rate of male infants was 53%. The survival to discharge according to gestational age ranged from 30-97.6%. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of preterm births in a university hospital in eastern province of Saudi Arabia, is consistent with various studies from different parts of the world.

  2. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  3. [Temporal-spatial scan clustering analysis on hand-foot-mouth disease in Zhejiang province, 2008-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Chen, Enfu; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang; Fu, Guiming; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2014-06-01

    To understand the temporal-spatial distribution of hand-foot-mouth disease in Zhejiang province, from May 2008 to June 2013. The cases number and incidence data of hand-foot-mouth disease from May 2008 to June 2013 for all the counties(cities, districts) in Zhejiang province were collected from China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, total 511 643 cases. Temporal distribution of hand-foot-mouth disease was described, the incidence maps were drawn using Epimap software. Temporal-spatial clustering was analyzed by Satscan 9.0.1 software.Log likelihood ratio(LLR) was used to assess the clustering. The year-county (city, district)-specific relative risk(RR) of hand-foot-mouth disease were calculated. RR contour maps were drawn with Arcview GIS 3.3. In Zhejiang province, from May 2008 to June 2013, the highest incidence rate was 270.81/100 000 (147 943/54 629 996) (2012 year) and the lowest incidence rate was 135.32/100 000 (69 285/51 199 987) (2009 year). The incidence in the eastern coastal areas (217.77/100 000(286 300/131 468 746)) including Ningbo, Taizhou, Wenzhou, was higher than the western mountain areas(168.11/100 000(98 016/58 304 266)) including Quzhou, Lishui, Jinhua. The epidemic curve showed two peaks, during April to July (101.15/100 000(320 144/316 497 516)) , and during October to November (23.30/100 000 (61 088/262 148 114)) . of temporal-spatial scan showed 10 temporal spatial aggregation areas, the strongest one was in Wenzhou city, south-east Zhejiang province, from July 2009 to June 2011(RR = 2.38, LLR = 10 650.75, P hand-foot-mouth disease in Zhejiang province, 2008-2013, with the peak during April to July. Temporal-spatial clustering were observed, the disease showed a distinct regional distribution feature, eastern coastal cluster areas and mid-west cluster areas were found.

  4. [Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Reis, Ahu; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of transfusion-associated hepatitis, is an important public health problem in the world as well as in Turkey. HCV is grouped as six distinct genotypes and a large number of closely-related subtypes. Genotyping of HCV is an important tool for providing epidemiological data, prediction of prognosis, and optimization of antiviral therapy. This study was carried out to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in hepatitis C patients residing in different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. A total of 304 HCV-RNA positive cases (151 male, 153 female; age range: 11-93 years, mean age: 55.2 ± 13.3 years) who were admitted to the Molecular Microbiology Unit of Department of Medical Microbiology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, between January 2009 to December 2012, were included in the study. HCV genotypes were detected in plasma samples of the patients by using commercial assays [INNO-LiPA HCV II (Innogenetics, Belgium) or Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc, USA)]. Due to the ambiguous genotyping results in some samples with these methods, an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with genotype-specific primers was also used in the study. Similar to the previous reports from Turkey, our results showed that four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) prevailed in the Eastern Black Sea Region and the predominant genotype and subtype were genotype 1 (92.8%) and 1b (87.5%), respectively. Distribution of genotypes were observed to vary according to the province. Prevalences of subtype 1a, genotype 2, 3, and 4 were noted as 5.3%, 1.6%, 4.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the samples from Giresun, Gumushane and Bayburt provinces, which are relatively less immigrated, had higher genotype 1, and the prevalence rates in the region was affected by the presence of non-citizen residents. This study is the first report on distribution of HCV genotypes in chronic hepatitis

  5. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  6. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  7. The Sirte Basin province of Libya; Sirte-Zelten total petroleum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    The Sirte (Sirt) Basin province ranks 13th among the world?s petroleum provinces, having known reserves of 43.1 bil-lion barrels of oil equivalent (36.7 billion barrels of oil, 37.7 tril-lion cubic feet of gas, 0.1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids). It includes an area about the size of the Williston Basin of the north-ern United States and southern Canada (?490,000 square kilome-ters). The province contains one dominant total petroleum system, the Sirte-Zelten, based on geochemical data. The Upper Cretaceous Sirte Shale is the primary hydrocarbon source bed. Reservoirs range in rock type and age from fractured Precam-brian basement, clastic reservoirs in the Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones, and Lower Cretaceous Nubian (Sarir) Sand-stone to Paleocene Zelten Formation and Eocene carbonates commonly in the form of bioherms. More than 23 large oil fields (>100 million barrels of oil equivalent) and 16 giant oil fields (>500 million barrels of oil equivalent) occur in the province. Abstract 1 Production from both clastic and carbonate onshore reservoirs is associated with well-defined horst blocks related to a triple junc-tion with three arms?an eastern Sarir arm, a northern Sirte arm, and a southwestern Tibesti arm. Stratigraphic traps in combina-tion with these horsts in the Sarir arm are shown as giant fields (for example, Messla and Sarir fields in the southeastern portion of the province). Significant potential is identified in areas marginal to the horsts, in the deeper grabens and in the offshore area. Four assessment units are defined in the Sirte Basin prov-ince, two reflecting established clastic and carbonate reservoir areas and two defined as hypothetical units. Of the latter, one is offshore in water depths greater than 200 meters, and the other is onshore where clastic units, mainly of Mesozoic age, may be res-ervoirs for laterally migrating hydrocarbons that were generated in the deep-graben areas. The Sirte Basin reflects significant rifting

  8. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase, clinopy......The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...... outcrops were adjacent before the Late Cretaceous rifting that split Madagascar from India, If so, they provide a valuable tool to check and aid traditional Cretaceous India Madagascar reconstructions based on palaeomagnetism, matching Precambrian geological features, and geometric fitting of continental...

  9. Sailing to Komodo: Contradictions of Tourism and Development in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth Erb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is often pinpointed as a sector of growth for countries in the developing world, and this perspective has been readily accepted in Indonesia. Government officials in poorer sections of the country, such as Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT in eastern Indonesia, have high hopes for the role that tourism can play in developing these poorer regions. This is not surprising, given the increasing renown of the Komodo National Park, just west of the island of Flores, where the world famous Komodo dragons reside. However, how exactly tourism is supposed to raise the standard of living and aid in development in NTT province is often unclear. In this paper I want to critically look at ideas about tourism and development in NTT, by focusing on the ‘Sail Komodo’ yacht rally, a major tourism event that took place from August to September 2013. Sail Komodo was as a marine tourism event expected to boost tourist numbers, lift the standard of living of people in this province and lower poverty levels. I critically analyze this event within the context of a ‘mega event’, and show how the contradictory ideas about how the event was meant to lead to prosperity for the poor can indicate the sometimes misguided relationship posited between tourism and development.

  10. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  11. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  12. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  13. Geographical Distribution of Malaria Vectors in Culicidaes Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Province of Khemisset (Morocco) and its climate are very diverse landforms, these offers a wide variety of breeding places of mosquitoes. 95 stations surveyed in the province are home to 10 species of Culicidae (4. Anopheles, Culex and 5 species of Aedes). Anopheles labranchaie is widespread in the study area.

  14. Sm-Nd isotope province of Crust of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Yarmolyhk, V.V.; Kozakov, I.K.; Kovach, V.P.; Kotov, V.B.; Sal'nikova, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the Sm-Nd isotope systematic studies of granitoid rocks in the Central Asia are presented. The Sm-Nd isotope provinces, characterized by various Sm-Nd model ages of intrusive granitoids, are separated. The Doriferian, Caledonian, and Hercynian provinces refer to the main ones. 7 refs., 1 fig

  15. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  16. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  17. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau physiographic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Subsurface hydrologic conditions in the Pacific Northwest are strongly controlled by the structural and stratigraphic framework of subregions. A significant portion of the Pacific Northwest is underlain by the Columbia River Plateau basalt sequence. This discussion is limited to hydrologic conditions as they relate to the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province and specifically to the Pasco Basin in the central part of the province

  18. Practice and thoughts of radiation safety management in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Sun Yuyu

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the practices of radiation safety management in Jiangsu Province, analyzes the current problems of radiation safety management and extends the experiences of management in Jiangsu Province, and finally puts forward some effective measures to improve radiation safety management. (authors)

  19. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  20. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  1. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  2. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  3. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  4. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2014-01-01

    In the 2000s, along a booming economy, the ideas behind the experience economy and the creative cities inspired policy makers and city planners throughout the western world (Pine and Gilmore 1999, Florida 2004, Klingman 2007). This resulted in urban development and regeneration projects where...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...

  5. Dengue virus serotype in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimated 50 million dengue infections happen every year in the world. In Indonesia, there were 90,245 DHF cases on 2012 with 816 deaths. In the Province of Aceh, 2,269 cases happened in the same year. This study aimed to identify dengue virus serotype in Aceh. Sampling was done in Kota Banda Aceh Hospital, Kota Lhokseumawe Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Barat Hospital, and Kabupaten Simeulue Hospital between May to December 2012. This was a clinical laboratory research with observation design using cross sectional approach. Research’s population was sample from patients with dengue clinical symptom. Using purposive sampling technique, we have collected 100 samples from the five hospitals (20 samples from each hospital. From RT-PCR, we found 16 positive samples (9 samples were DENV-4, 3 samples were DENV-1, 2 samples were DENV-2, and 2 samples were DENV-3.

  6. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  7. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  8. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  9. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Sulistyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  10. Using Multicriteria Decision Making Techniques in Free Zone for Facility Location Selection: An Example for Eastern Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ağaç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free Zones contribute to the prosperity of the region by increasing employment, attracting foreign capital, allowing technology transfer and increasing exports. In this study, an application of location selection was performed for a possible Free Zone established in provinces of Eastern Anatolia Region. For application of the study, AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE, which are multi criteria decision making techniques, were used. AHP was used for determine weights of the criteria that influence the Free Zone location selection while TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE methods were used to rank alternatives. Accordingly; the three most important criteria for the Free Zone location selection were proximity countries, quantity of exports and government incentives while first three provinces were respectively, Iğdır, Hakkâri and Van for Free Zone will be established.

  11. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  12. Characterizing pediatric surgical capacity in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Sarah B; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bigabwa, Richard; Rothstein, David H

    2018-03-01

    Characterize pediatric surgical capacity in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to identify areas of potential improvement. The Pediatric Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PediPIPES) survey was used in two representative eastern DRC provinces to assess existing surgical infrastructure and capacity. We compared our results to previously published reports from other sub-Saharan African countries. Fourteen hospitals in the eastern DRC and 37 in 19 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries were compared. The average PediPIPES index for the DRC was 7.7 compared to 13.5 for SSAs. The greatest disparities existed in the areas of personnel and infrastructure. Running water was reportedly available to 57.1% of the hospitals in the DRC, and the majority of hospitals (78.6%) were dependent on generators and solar panels for electricity. Only two hospitals in the DRC (14.3%) reported a pediatric surgeon equivalent on staff, compared to 86.5% of facilities sampled in SSA reporting ≥ 1 pediatric surgeon. Significant barriers in personnel, infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies impede the provision of adequate surgical care to children. Further work is needed to assess allocation and utilization of existing resources, and to enhance training of personnel with specific attention to pediatric surgery.

  13. Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mason

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

  14. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  15. Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, A; Dimba, E A O; Ndolo, U M; Chindia, M L

    2006-03-01

    The khat habit is a widespread phenomenon which has in the past two decades spread to parts of Western Europe and North America from Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Although khat has been identified as one of the most commonly abused substances in Kenya, restrictions on cultivation, trade and usage have been non-existent since its legalisation in 1977. To describe the socio-economic effects of khat chewing in Ijara District in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Cross sectional study. Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya. Fifty respondents were interviewed. Eighty eight percent of the respondents were khat chewers, and the majority (80%) had family members who engaged in the khat habit. There was a general lack of education on the negative effects of khat chewing. Due to reported mood changes and withdrawal symptoms when not chewing khat, many respondents used more than half of their domestic budgets on khat, but few (28%) perceived this as a waste of resources. Fifty four percent of khat chewers typically started the habit during the day, implying a waste of time for productive work. However, only 40% of the persons interviewed admitted that the drug affected work performance negatively. The khat habit was associated with strain on family relationships, anti-social behaviour and health effects such as insomnia. In spite of the negative socio-economic impact of khat in Ijara District, khat consumption remains a widespread habit.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  17. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  18. Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No research data exists on forensic psychiatric service provision in the Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa. The objective of this research was to assess current forensic psychiatric service provision and utilisation rates at Fort England Hospital. This is important in improving and strengthening the service. A related objective was to develop a model for a provincial prison mental health service. Methodology: This study is a situational analysis of an existing forensic psychiatric service in the Eastern Cape. The design of the study was cross sectional. An audit questionnaire was utilised to collate quantitative data, which was submitted to Fort England Hospital, Grahamstown. A proposed prison mental health service was developed utilising prevalence rates of mental illness among prisoners to calculate bed and staff requirements for an ambulatory and in-patient service. Results: During the study period a total of 403 remand detainees were admitted to the forensic psychiatry division of Fort England Hospital. The average length of stay was 494 days and the bed utilisation rate was determined at 203.54%. We estimate that to provide a provincial prison mental health service to treat psychotic illnesses and major depression the province requires a 52 bedded facility and a total staff complement of approximately 31. Conclusions: Forensic psychiatric services include the assessment, management and treatment of mentally disordered persons in conflict with the law and prisoners requiring psychiatric assessments. The Eastern Cape Province does not have plans or policies to assess and manage mentally ill offenders, resulting in an increased load on available services. We recommend that an inter-departmental task team, which includes Health, Justice and Constitutional Development and Correctional Services, should be established in the province, to develop a strategy to assist in the development of an effective and efficient forensic

  19. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  20. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  1. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  2. [Huxianweng (The Old man of Bottle Immortal) is not a famous doctor in the Eastern Han Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B

    2017-01-28

    The name Huxianweng appeared in the Ming yi lei an ( Classified Medical Records of Famous Physicians ) did not live in the Eastern Han. Moreover, all medical cases it collected were not belonged to him alone but the accumulation of many people in several periods. By textual investigation, the prototype of Huxianweng is Yin Fu who lived in Yizheng County, Jiangsu Province in the end of the Ming Dynasty. He had expertise in medical skills and high medical ethics, and was therefore loved by the residents deeply. Besides, people alleged many mysterious cases to be cured by him which actually is not true.

  3. Contribution on the Tabanidae (Diptera Fauna of Antalya Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Altunsoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, carried out 35 species in Antalya province. Totally 35 species, belonging Tabanidae were determined. The species Silvius alpinus, Chrysops viduatus, Atylotus loewianus, Tabanus atropathenicus, T. bifarius, T. cordiger, T. darimonti, T. glaucopis, T. leleani, T. lunatus, T. maculicornis; T. miki, T. portschinski, T. prometheus, T. spodopteroides, T. tinctus, T. sudeticus, Hemotopota italica, H. ocelligera, H. pallens, and H. subcylindrica are the first records for this province. The total number of determined species in Antalya province reaches to 52 with the result of this study and the previous studies.

  4. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  5. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  6. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  7. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  8. Inferring the potential risks of H7N9 infection by spatiotemporally characterizing bird migration and poultry distribution in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benyun; Xia, Shang; Yang, Guo-Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2013-05-03

    In view of the rapid geographic spread and the increasing number of confirmed cases of novel influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in eastern China, we developed a diffusion model to spatiotemporally characterize the impacts of bird migration and poultry distribution on the geographic spread of H7N9 infection. Three types of infection risks were estimated for 12 weeks, from February 4 to April 28, 2013, including (i) the risk caused by bird migration, (ii) the risk caused by poultry distribution, and (iii) the integrated risk caused by both bird migration and poultry distribution. To achieve this, we first developed a method for estimating the likelihood of bird migration based on available environmental and meteorological data. Then, we adopted a computational mobility model to estimate poultry distribution based on annual poultry production and consumption of each province/municipality. Finally, the spatiotemporal risk maps were created based on the integrated impacts of both bird migration and poultry distribution. In the study of risk estimation caused by bird migration, the likelihood matrix was estimated based on the 7-day temperature, from February 4 to April 28, 2013. It was found the estimated migrant birds mainly appear in the southeastern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai and Jiangsu during Weeks 1 to 4, and Week 6, followed by appearing in central eastern provinces of Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin during Weeks 7 to 9, and finally in northeastern provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang during Weeks 10 to 12.In the study of risk caused by poultry distribution, poultry distribution matrix was created to show the probability of poultry distribution. In spite of the fact that the majority of the initial infections were reported in Shanghai and Jiangsu, the relative risk of H7N9 infection estimated based on the poultry distribution model predicted that Jiangsu may have a slightly higher likelihood of H7N9 infection than those in Zhejiang and

  9. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  10. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...

  11. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  12. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  13. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  14. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  15. Social epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions.

  16. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  17. Assessment of lymph node tuberculosis in two provinces in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Dursun; Senol, Gunes; Alptekin, Serpil; Gunes, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lymph node tuberculosis (LNT) cases in two provinces in Turkey with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A total of 109 LNT cases were reviewed retrospectively. The cases were analyzed and compared for symptoms, findings, age, vaccination status, and diagnostic procedures. Socioeconomic conditions were also assessed for the two provinces. A palpable cervical node was considered a significant predictor for all LNT. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was found to be common in cases of pulmonary manifestation of LNT. Female patients were predominantly from the Van Province, while older patients were found to be from Izmir Province. LNT should be suspected in lymphadenitis patients of all age-groups especially in young adolescents with cervical lymph node enlargements. In the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated.

  18. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using probabilistic and ... Earthquake Department, Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Geophysical Engineering, Sakarya University, ...

  19. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  20. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  1. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1982-01-01

    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  2. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  3. Education activities of the Eastern Carolina Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckenrode, M.; Hudson, O.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Eastern Carolinas Section (ECS) Education Committee has successfully tapped into all grade levels of eastern North Carolina's public schools. The keys to access are building a section organization geared toward education and maintaining a wide variety of products from which teachers can choose. The education committee conservatively estimates that in 1990 it relayed information on nuclear-related issues to over a thousand students

  4. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal Variation of Terrestrial Water Storage in Yunnan Province Inferred from GPS Vertical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Siyuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the mass redistribution on the surface of the earth,crustal vertical displacements are deformed in solid elastic earth,which can be recorded by continuous GPS.With GPS vertical observations at 47 stations from crustal movement observation network of China (CMONOC in and around Yunnan province,we explore the feasibility analysis of using the data to infer the variation of water storage.Simulation experiments are conducted by using GLDAS (global land data assimilation system Noah hydrological model,whose annual amplitude is referred as real signals.We used the GLDAS annual amplitude to calculate the vertical displacements,and combined the displacements with random errors to constitute simulated vertical displacements.The simulated vertical displacements are then converted to variation of water storage,which is compared with the original GLDAS water storage.We performed 1000 simulated experiments to evaluate robustness of the method,and it is evident that the variation of water storage could be effectively obtained by means of the vertical observations at the 47 CMONOC stations.Therefore,we investigated the variation of water storage over a period from 2010 to 2014.Results inferred from GPS data show obvious spatial and temporal distribution:the seasonal water in the southwestern mountain is much larger than that in eastern plain;the water storage reaches the maximum in October (after summer and the minimum in April (after winter;a rate of 20 mm/a in total water storage in Yunnan province is presented during 2010-2014.The comparison between GPS-inferred water storage and GRACE,GLDAS and TRMM results showed good consistency in spatial and temporal distribution,indicating that CMONNOC GPS stations could be used as independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage changes during the gap between GRACE and future GRACE Follow-on missions.

  6. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  7. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  8. PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF WELLS DRINKING WATER IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Yousefi ، H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ، A. A. Enayati ، R. A. Mohammadpoor

    2009-01-01

    There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were th...

  9. Research on Evaluation of Rural Highway Construction in Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rao , Guisheng; Qi , Limeng; Zhang , Runqing; Deng , Li

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Rural highway is the foundation of highway network construction and the important bridge for balancing urban and rural harmonious development. Rural highway has the basic, pilot and driving function to new rural construction. This paper took a sampling survey on 173 villages in Hebei Province. According to the 687 questionnaires, this paper set up an evaluation system of the rural highway construction in Hebei Province, using ten factors as effect variables (such as th...

  10. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of the Tynong Province Granitoids, Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Kamal Raj

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the origin, evolution and emplacement of magmas parental to the Tynong Province granitoids, located in the Melbourne Zone, Lachlan Orogen, Australia. The Province comprises at least five plutons: Baw Baw, Tanjil Bren, Toorongo, Tynong and Lysterfield. This thesis uses a number of techniques to build on field observations and petrography to investigate these plutons. This thesis combined regional field observations and petrography, with a more detailed ...

  12. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025. Keywords: Maluku Province, geothermal energy, suitable, dispersed, conducive

  13. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  14. Flora of soil fungi in Khuzestan province\\\\\\'s oil regions

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    vida dawoodi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Many Species of fungi with ability to metabolize of petroleum hydrocarbons are known so far. These fungi are resistant in oil contaminated sites.This investigation aims at studying fungal population diversity in oil contaminated soils of Khuzestan province and identifying fungal flora in these regions .   Materials and methods: Crude oil contaminated soil samples were collected from different regions of Khuzestan province. For isolation and enumeration of total heterotrophic fungi, Potato Dextrose Agar medium supplemented with streptomycine was used. The isolated fungi were identified via morphological studies, staining by lactophenol cotton blue, observation with a light microscope and comparing with descriptive and canonizative refereces .   Results: Total fungal counts ranged from 0.41 × 102 to 3333.33 × 102 CFU/g. Isolated fungi belong to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Aureobasidium, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. Most dominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium .   Discussion and conclusion : Studies on isolation of fungi in oil containing environments showed that, abundance and fungal diversity in different stations significantly were different. The increase in the number of fungi in crude oil soils showes the probability of degradation and consumption of oil contaminated by fungi. Diversity and distribution of soil microbial population are determined by a number of environmental factors such as pH, electrical conductivity and soil organic matter .  

  15. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  16. Examining Forest Disturbance and Recovery in the Subtropical Forest Region of Zhejiang Province Using Landsat Time-Series Data

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    Shanshan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of forest disturbance and recovery has received much attention during the last two decades due to its important influence on forest carbon budget estimation. This research used Landsat time-series data from 1984 to 2015 to examine forest disturbance and recovery in a subtropical region of eastern Zhejiang Province, China, through the LandTrendr algorithm. Field inventory data and high spatial resolution images were used to evaluate the disturbance and recovery results. This research indicates that high producer and user accuracies for both disturbance and recovery classes were obtained and three levels of disturbance and recovery each can be detected. Through incorporation of climate data and disturbance results, drought events also can be successfully detected. More research is needed to incorporate multisource data for detection of forest disturbance types in subtropical regions.

  17. 1989-1998: 10 years of environmental radiological monitoring in provinces of Ciego de Avila, Camaguey and Las Tunas, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, D.; Queipo Garcia, M.; Rosa Suarez, R.; Damera Martinez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the results, obtained by the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Department of the Center for Attention of Nuclear Activity Camaguey in 10 years of radiological environmental monitoring in the central-eastern region of Cuba, is made. The Network included 11 points of monitoring in three provinces. Radiological parameters, such as: measurements of gross-beta activities in Fallout; gamma dose rate absorbed by air using two methods: real time measurements and thermoluminescent dosimeters, gross-beta activities in atmospheric aerosols, and Polonium-210 activity in foods, are calculated. The values of the above mentioned radiological parameters are given for each monitoring point, and a comparison with other regions of our country and of the world, is made. The results show that this region has been exposed only to global radioactive contaminants and background reference levels are indicated

  18. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Duroch Françoise

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the

  19. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  20. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  1. Chemical zoning of muscovite megacrystal from the Brazilian Pegmatite Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia R. Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magmatic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration due to percolation of hydrothermal fluids. Enrichment of Rb towards the border is interpreted as resulting from the chemical evolution of the residual magma during crystal growth. The depletion in (IV Al+VI Al as well as the increase in (Fe+Mg and Si along a fracture could be due to the hydrothermal celadonitic substitution of muscovite. This alteration also caused depletion in the contents of Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn and residual concentration of Ti. Elements such as Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn, rarely considered in the discussion of differentiation or alteration processes in micas, have been shown to be as significant as the alkali-elements.Um grande cristal de muscovita, macroscopicamente homogêneo, procedente do Pegmatito Cruzeiro, localizado na Província Pegmatítica Oriental, em Minas Gerais, exibe padrão de distribuição complexa para alguns elementos traços. Em estudos geocronológicos e petrológicos, como, por exemplo, na separação entre micas magmáticas e pós-magmáticas, a causa de zoneamento deve ser levada em consideração. O complexo zoneamento químico no cristal de mica estudado é melhor explicado pelo crescimento em um magma evoluído, seguido pela alteração, proveniente da percolação de fluidos hidrotermais. O enriquecimento de Rb nas bordas é interpretado como resultado da evolução química do magma residual durante o crescimento do cristal. A diminuição em (IV Al+VI Al, bem como o aumento de (Fe+Mg e Si ao longo da fratura

  2. New and Interesting Cyanophytes from the Kowie river system in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) II.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, CGM

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available sphaericus sive ex longo rotundus, corio externo distincto. Coriurn ex strato uno interno flavescente and stratis externis duohus sive tribus sub tilibus, sine colore, compositum est. Thalli evoluti 250?330 p. in diametro, natantes sive solute suspensi...

  3. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  4. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and A. phagocytophilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  5. Stakeholder engagement in community-based malaria studies in a defined setting in the Eastern Province, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Borne, B. van den; Muvunyi, C.M.; Nieuwold, I.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Alaii, J.

    2016-01-01

    The value of engaging stakeholders for locally relevant responses and sustainable gains in disease control programs has been increasingly acknowledged. As opposed to a traditional top-down implementation of malaria intervention strategies, community bottom up initiatives require that all

  6. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  7. Diagenesis and Reservoir Properties of the Permian Ecca Group Sandstones and Mudrocks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Baiyegunhi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagenesis is one of the most important factors that affects reservoir rock property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known about the diagenesis of the potentially feasible or economically viable sandstones and mudrocks of the Ecca Group. This study aims to provide an account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstones from the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures were identified and grouped into three stages that include early diagenesis, burial diagenesis and uplift-related diagenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the sandstones. Smectite, kaolinite, and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling materials. A part of the clay minerals and detrital grains was strongly replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in the pore spaces and partially or completely replaced clay matrix, feldspar, and quartz grains at or around their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals occurred during the early diagenetic stage. This process was followed by lithification and compaction which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces, and thinning of bedding thickness due to overloading of sediments and selective dissolution of the framework grains. Mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral transformation, dissolution, deformation, and pressure solution occurred during burial diagenetic stage. After rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in decementation and oxidation of iron-rich minerals. The rocks of the Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during their progressive burial. Intergranular pores, secondary dissolution, and fractured pores are well developed in the sediments of the Ecca Group. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pore linkage makes them unfavorable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their reservoir quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in hydrocarbon (oil and gas exploration.

  8. Cultural factors impacting student motivation at a health sciences college in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lutfi Abdul Razzak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection on students’ levels and types of motivation at a college of health sciences in Saudi Arabia and highlights the social and cultural factors possibly contributing to the differences in motivation among those students. The results of this study, which followed a mixed-methods approach, indicate a multiplicity of contributing factors and values, namely: gender stereotyping, appreciation of early graduation, stereotypes regarding career status, family background, and parents’ educational levels, value attributed to education, ultra-conservatism, and social image and prestige. From these factors, a number of key implications and recommendations are deduced, some of which are general while others are more college specific.

  9. Notes on the distribution of lichen biota of Podlasie. III. Nowosady village, Podlaskie province (north-eastern Poland

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    Sylwia Kiercul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biodiversity of lichen species in Nowosady village and surrounding areas. This work was conducted in 2014 (in August and biodiversity of lichen species growing on tree bark and bushes, on dead wood (anthropogenic origin, glacial erratics, concrete, mortared walls and other specific substrates like eternit roof slates has been assessed. The lichen species represented morphologically diverse forms: crustose (38%, foliose (38%, fruticose (13%, dimorphous (5%, placodial (3% and squamulose (3%. They belonged to different ecological types including epiphytes (27 species, epixyles (18 and epilithes (12. Out of 39 species identified in Nowosady village, five are included in the Polish red list of lichens: Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea and Ramalina fraxinea. Four taxons from the study area are under statutory protection of species. One species, Ramalina fraxinea is under full protection and 3 species (Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri and Hypogymnia tubulosa are under partial protection.

  10. Stakeholder Engagement in Community-based Malaria Studies in a Defined Setting in the Eastern Province, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, Chantal; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; van den Borne, Bart; Muvunyi, Claude; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Mutesa, Leon; Van Vugt, Michele; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The value of engaging stakeholders for locally relevant responses and sustainable gains in disease control programs has been increasingly acknowledged. As opposed to a traditional top-down implementation of malaria intervention strategies, community bottom up initiatives require that all

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreldin Elhadi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  12. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  13. Phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Rumex crispus L. in treatment of gastrointestinal helminths in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Oladayo Amed Idris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and phytochemical content of the leaf and root extracts of Rumex crispus using the solvents extraction; methanol extract, ethanol extract, acetone extract (ACE, and water extract. Methods: Total flavonoids content, total phenolic content, and total proanthocyanidin were evaluated using spectrophotometric equivalents of the standards, quercetin, gallic acid and catechin respectively. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were determined using ABTS, DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Results: The flavonoids and phenols contents of the extracts were in the range of (19.39 ± 4.08 to (526.23 ± 17.52 mg QE/g and (16.95 ± 12.03 to (240.68 ± 3.50 mg GAE/g, respectively. ACE of the leaf has the highest value of total flavonoids content (526.23 ± 17.52 mg QE/g while ACE of the root has the highest value of total phenolic content (240.68 ± 3.50 mg GAE/g. The highest content of total proanthocyanidin (645.38 ± 1.33 mg CE/g was in ACE of the root. Significant amounts of saponin and alkaloid were also present in the root and leaf extracts. All solvent fractions showed significant antioxidant activities (P < 0.05 with ACE of the root having the highest scavenging value as shown in DPPH, ABTS, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 0.014 mg/mL, <0.005 mg/mL, 0.048 mg/mL, 0.067 mg/mL, and 0.075 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, the mean phytochemical content of the root of Rumex crispus is higher than that of the leaf and this may have contributed to its high antioxidant activities. This may also justify the frequent use of the root more than the leaves in traditional medicine for the cure of helminthic infections. Keywords: Antioxidant, Phytochemical, Rumex crispus, Helminths, Treatment, Scavenge

  14. DETERMINANTS OF PATIENT SATISFACTION (PS IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS (PHSO IN EASTERN PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

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    Thirunavukkarasu VELNAMPY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is satisfying the needs and desires of the consumer (Besterfield, 1994. In case of public health service organizations, patient satisfaction is vital. Research attempts to determine factors affecting patient satisfaction in PHSOs; know the reliability and validity of items & factors of patient satisfaction and create a mathematical equation model for factors of patient satisfaction. Researcher selected 100 employees from only 3 government hospitals in Addalaichenai Divisional Secretariat of Ampara District. Data have been collected during the period of first quarter of 2013. Collected questionnaires have been analysed by a factor analysis and regression analysis. Core services, human element, non- human element and servicescape factors have been factors have been identified as determinants of patient satisfaction in public health service organizations. Cronbach alpha for core service, human element of the service, nonhuman element of the service and servicescapes are 0.819, 0.626, 0.965 and 0.783 respectively. Most of the items in factors have higher validity. Values of KMO for items of core service, human element of the service, non- human element of the service and servicescapes are 0.500, 0.554, 0.697 and 0.610 respectively. These values indicate that content and convergent validity are higher. Discriminant validity are lower statistically. In this study, Log log model is the best fitted model than linear models since core services, human element of the service and non- human of the service factors in the model explain 94% of total variation for patient satisfaction.

  15. Are nurses verbally abused? A cross-sectional study of nurses at a university hospital, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf A Al-Shamlan

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Workplace verbal abuse is a significant challenge in KFHU. For decision makers, it is rather disturbing that a lot of cases go unreported even though procedures for reporting exist. Implementation of an efficient transparent reporting system that provides follow-up investigations is mandatory. In addition, all victims should be helped with counseling and support.

  16. Are nurses verbally abused? A cross-sectional study of nurses at a university hospital, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamlan, Nouf A; Jayaseeli, Nithya; Al-Shawi, Moneera M; Al-Joudi, Abdullah S

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence against health-care workers is a significant problem worldwide. Nurses are at a higher risk of exposure to violence. Studies available in Saudi Arabia are few. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of verbal abuse of nurses at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and to identify consequences and the demographic and work-related characteristics associated with it. This cross-sectional study of 391 nurses by total sample was conducted between November and December 2015, using a modified self-administered questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Data was entered, and analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. The descriptive statistics were reported using frequency and percentages for all categorical variables. Chi-squared tests or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were performed to test the associations of verbal abuse with the demographic and work-related characteristics of the participants. Variables with p violence in their workplace were more vulnerable to workplace verbal abuse. Workplace verbal abuse is a significant challenge in KFHU. For decision makers, it is rather disturbing that a lot of cases go unreported even though procedures for reporting exist. Implementation of an efficient transparent reporting system that provides follow-up investigations is mandatory. In addition, all victims should be helped with counseling and support.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among young women and men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; Jama Shai, Nwabisa P; Colman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    There is little research on prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper explores factors associated with depressive symptomatology in South Africa. A cross-sectional analysis of interviews with 1 415 women and 1 368 men aged 15-26 was undertaken. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies on Depression Scale (CESD Scale) was used to establish depressive symptomatology. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.5% in women and 13.5% in men. For women, depressive symptoms were associated with increased childhood adversity (aOR 1.34 95% CI 1.116, 1.55); drug use (aOR 1.98 CI 1.17, 3.35); experience of intimate partner violence (aOR 2.21 CI 1.16, 3.00); sexual violence before the age of 18 years (aOR 1.45 CI 1.02, 2.02) and lower perceptions of community cohesion (aOR 1.23 CI 1.07, 1.40). For men, depressive symptoms were associated with a mother's death (aOR 2.24 CI 1.25, 4.00); childhood adversity (aOR 1.61 CI 1.38, 1.88); alcohol abuse (aOR 1.63 CI 1.13, 2.35), sexual coercion by a woman (aOR 2.36 CI 1.47, 3.80) and relationship conflict (aOR 1.07 CI 1.01, 1.12). Depressive symptoms were more highly prevalent in women than in men. Depressed mood was associated with childhood adversity, sexual violence and substance misuse in both women and men. This study further suggests gender differences in that for women, depressive symptoms were associated with intimate partner violence and lower perceptions of community cohesion, while for men the associations were with a mother's death and relationship conflict.

  18. Successes and Challenges in the Implementation and Application of Telemedicine in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mahalli, Azza Ali; El-khafif, Sahar Hafez; Al-Qahtani, Mona Faisal

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine is the practice of healthcare using audio, video, and data communications. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of health professionals at hospitals adopting and not adopting telemedicine on its benefits and challenges, and their willingness to use it. The study was conducted at one hospital not adopting telemedicine and three hospitals adopting telemedicine. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study, and the target population was health professionals. Data col...

  19. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  20. Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Patricia; Kunneke, Ernesta; Faber, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011. This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia. Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Associations between OFSP consumption and household factors were assessed using χ 2 tests. Frequency of OFSP consumption was categorized as ≥4 days during the last 7 days (30.2%), 1 to 3 days during the last 7 days (49.5%), eats OFSP but not during the last 7 days (7.1%), and never (13.2%). In total, 60.3% of households planted OFSP, and 40.0% bought OFSP, mostly from farmers within the community. Orange-fleshed sweet potato consumption was associated with the presence of children aged less than 5 years in the household ( P = .018), production of OFSP ( P .05). A high percentage of households consumed OFSP during the harvesting season in Integrating Orange Project areas. Programs promoting OFSP consumption should thus focus on OFSP production and sensitizing households on nutritional benefits of OFSP and target households with children aged less than 5 years as entry point.

  1. Assessing the Sustainability of Farm-land Management in the Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Case of Malekan County

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    Siamak Nabizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess sustainable farmlands management in the Malekan County. The target population consisted of wheat growers among which 162 farmers were selected according to the multistage cluster selection method. The research tool used was a questionnaire whose face validity was confirmed by comments from faculty members and experts in the Malekan Agri- Jihad and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha (average 0.71. Sustainability was measured by establishing composite index for six components of sustainable land management. The results of assessing sustainable land management revealed that 19.1% of the farmers were in an unsustainable situation, 34% of them were in a fairly unsustainable situation, 26.5% of them were in a fairly sustainable situation and 20.4% of them were in a sustainable situation. The results of correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between age and farming experience with “stability and acceptability”, land size and farm income with “stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”, wheat yield and consumed fertilizer with “security”, land plots with “acceptability” and using farm machinery with “productivity, stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”. There is also a negative and significant relationship between non-farm income and “productivity” and consumed fertilizers and “security”.

  2. A geochronological study of mafic and acidic lavas from Veneto Volcanic province (North-East Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Webb, Laura; Bonadiman, Costanza; Marzoli, Andrea; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    lithospheric and sublithospheric components in the Adriatic domain: Nephelinite to tholeiite magma generation in the Paleogene Veneto Volcanic Province, Southern Alps. Geological Society of America, 418, 131-152. De Vecchi, G., Gregnanin, A., Piccirillo, E.M., 1976. Tertiary volcanism in the Veneto. Magmatology, petrogenesis and geodynamics implications. Geologische Rundschau, 65, 701-710. Milani, L., Beccaluva, L., Coltorti, M., 1999. Petrogenesis and evolution of the Euganean magmatic complex, north eastern Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 379-399. Savelli, C., Lipparini, E., 1979. Età K/Ar di basalti del vicentino e la scala dei tempi del Paleogene. Bollettino Società Geologica Italiana, 98, 375-385.

  3. Development of a reliable wind database for eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Navarro, J.; Jiménez, P. A.; García-Bustamante, E.; Hidalgo, A.; Beltrami, H.

    2010-09-01

    Any inferences resulting from the analysis of meteorological records lean on the robustness of the observational data. Uncertainties in the data can be roughly classified into three groups: uncertainties due to random, systematic errors and rough errors. Random errors are unavoidable and inherent to the very nature of the measurements as instrumental responses to various physical phenomena. Systematic errors are produced by scale shifts of the instruments or by some more or less persistent factor that is not accounted for. Rough errors are associated with a dysfunction of the sensor or mistakes introduced during the data processing, transmission, reception or storage. Therefore, it is essential to develop procedures that allow to identify and correct the observations for these errors, thereby improving the quality of the data sets. This work involves the compilation and quality assurance of a data set of wind variables from a wide area over eastern Canada (including the provinces of Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador), a subset of the adjacent ocean areas and a set of the northeastern USA (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont). The data set spans the period 1940-2009 and has been compiled from three different sources: a set of 414 land sites obtained from Environment Canada (1940-2009), a subset of 36 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes (1988-2008) provided by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and a subset of 259 land sites combining both eastern Canada and Northeast of the USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (1975-2007). After the compilation of the initial data set, quality assurance techniques are applied involving the detection and correction of random measurement errors, outliers as well as systematic changes (inhomogeneities) in sampling procedures. The impact of these corrections in the data set will be evaluated. This is the

  4. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  5. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

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    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  6. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  7. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  8. Interactions between climatic forcing of lake level change, tectonics and volcanism in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, SW Highlands of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, D.; Williamson, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province extends between the Rukwa and Nyasa (Malawi) rift lakes, which both experimented marked water level fluctuations (several hundred meters in altitude) during the last 40 ka. The infilling of water reservoirs whether artificial or natural, is known to be able to trigger earthquakes and volcanism (Ambraseys and Sarma, 1968). In the Southwestern Highlands of Tanzania and most especially in the Rungwe Volcanic Province where the western and eastern branches of the East African Rift System meet, a similar link is likely highlighted. Compilation of available data supplemented by new observations allows investigating the time relations between (1) climatically induced, rapid water level fluctuations in the surrounding rift lakes, (2) tectonic activation of the fault systems that extend from the lacustrine depressions to the volcanic area, and (3) deposition of tephra layers in soils and sediments. The latter are considered to reflect the frequency and/or magnitude of explosive eruptions in the Rungwe massif. According to these data, a connexion is suggested between the great lakes level change, tectonics, and volcanic activity for the last glacial - interglacial transition (14 - 11.5 cal. ka BP), and possibly also during the Holocene.

  9. SERO-PREVALENCE OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR VIRUS IN SHEEP AND GOATS IN PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. KHAN, M. SIDDIQUE, M. J. ARSHAD1, Q. M. KHAN2 AND S. U. REHMAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute febrile viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses due to high rates of mortality and morbidity in infected sheep and goats. In the present study, 660 serum samples of sheep and goat were collected from 24 districts of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in sheep than in goats (51.29 versus 39.02%; P=0.002. The overall sero-prevalence of PPRV in small ruminants was 43.33%. Highest prevalence (35.71-100% was observed in Southern districts, while no antibodies were found in serum from some of Northern and Eastern districts of the Punjab Province.

  10. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  11. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

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    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  13. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  14. Molecular characterization of mulberry germplasm from Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 47 mullberry genotypes; 20, 14, 5, 4 and 4 from Erzincan, Elazý, Diyarbakýr, Malatya and Mardin provinces, respectively, were comparatively investigated in order to determine their relationships by 55 RAPD markers obtained from 6 primers (Operon OPA12, OPA13, OPAF04, OPF07, OPG02 and OPG03) and their ...

  15. Molecular characterization of mulberry germplasm from Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... tained from the different provinces, respectively, were sampled for molecular investigation in order to determine the potential and diversity of these regions. DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaf tissues employing a modified CTAB procedure with PVP (Doyle and Doyle, 1987; Orhan.

  16. Altimetric And Aeromagnetometric Data Fusion As A Tool Of Geological Interpretation, The Example Of The Carajas Mineral Province (pa) [fusão De Imagens Altimétricas E Aeromagnetométricas Como Ferramenta De Interpretação Geológica, Exemplo Da Província Mineral De Carajás (pa)

    OpenAIRE

    De Carneiro C.C.; Crosta A.P.; Silva A.M.; Pinheiro R.V.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Carajás Mineral Province is located in the eastern portion of the Amazonian Craton, in the Pará state, north of Brazil. It comprises two main tectonic domains: Carajás and Cinzento strike-slip systems. A significant proportion of the mineral deposits and occurrences of this Province is geologically related to structures belonging to these two fault systems. This paper presents the results obtained by the interpretation of merged altimetric and magnetometric data, as an auxiliary tool for ...

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  18. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  19. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  20. Isotopic mapping of age provinces in Precambrian high-grade terrains: Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.

    1988-09-01

    Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.

  1. Ecological balance between supply and demand based on cultivated land ecological footprint method in Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinghuan; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to construct the indicators of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity, basing on the relation of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity supply and demand, applying the model of Cultivated Land Ecological Footprints and the method of CIS and considering the factors of cultivated land production, taking the statistical data of 2015 as an example, and then made a systematic evaluation of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou Province. The results show that (1) the spatial distribution of supply and demand of cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou is unbalanced, and the northern and eastern parts are the overloading area, the middle, the south and the west parts are the balance area. (2) From the perspective of cultivated land structure, the crops with ecological carrying capacity surplus were rice, vegetables and peanuts, among which rice was the highest and the ecological balance index was 0.7354. The crops with ecological carrying capacity overload were potato, wheat, maize, rapeseeds, soybeans and cured tobacco, of which the index of potato up to 7.11, other types of indices are less than 1.5. The research can provide the ecological security early warning, the overall plan of land use and sustainable development of the area cultivated land with scientific evidence and decision support.

  2. Salmonellosis in songbirds in the Canadian Atlantic provinces during winter-summer 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, P Y; Busby, D G; Ferns, L; Goltz, J; McBurney, S; Poppe, C; Whitney, H

    2000-01-01

    From winter 1997 to summer 1998, an epizootic of salmonellosis affected several species of songbirds over a large area of the eastern North American continent. This article describes the details of this epizootic in the Canadian Atlantic provinces, based on laboratory examination of dead affected birds and on suspected but unconfirmed cases of salmonellosis reported by members of the public. The common redpoll (Carduelis flammea) was the species most often affected, followed by pine siskins (C. pinus), purple finches (Carpodacus purpureus), evening grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus), and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). A poor body condition and necrotizing and fibrinopurulent esophagitis and ingluvitis were the most common gross lesions in these birds. Thirty-four of 35 isolates of Salmonella recovered from these birds were identified as phage type 40. Despite the magnitude of this and previous epizootics of salmonellosis among North American songbirds, the sources of these epizootics and the precise influence of environmental factors on their occurrence remain poorly understood. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10642873

  3. Investigation of Nematopsis spp. oocysts in 7 species of bivalves from Chonburi province, Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiwaranuruk, C; Chalermwat, K; Upatham, E S; Kruatrachue, M; Azevedo, C

    2004-01-28

    This is the first detailed report of Nematopsis spp. in Thai bivalves. A monthly survey was conducted on 7 species of commercial bivalves from Chonburi province, on the eastern seaboard of Thailand, from November 2000 to November 2001 to investigate the prevalence of the apicomplexan parasite Nematopsis Schneider, 1892. Nematopsis spp. sporozoites were found in the cultivated bivalves Arcuatula arcuatula, Anadara granosa and Perna viridis as well as the locally harvested Paphia undulata. They were not found in Donax faba, Meretrix meretrix or Saccostrea cucullata. Using light microscopy, we were able to identiby 4 oocyst morphotypes of the gregarine Nematopsis spp. Prevalence of Nematopsis spp. during the 13 mo sampling period was highest in A. arcuatula (91.8%; n = 110) and lowest in A. granosa (59.2%; n = 130). The morphology of the oocysts differed between hosts, with an average (x +/- SD) length/width of 16.28 +/- 0.64/12.01 +/- 0.35 microm (n = 50) for A. arcuatula, 16.90 +/- 0.71/12.69 +/- 0.33 microm (n = 50) for A. granosa, 17.61 +/- 0.69/12.72 +/- 0.36 microm (n = 50) for P. viridis, and 11.21 +/- 0.62/8.55 +/- 0.52 microm (n = 50) for P. undulata. Identification of oocysts of these apicomplexan gregarines to species was not attempted. The prevalence of infection in relation to habitat and time of sampling is discussed.

  4. Spatial distribution of cancer in Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fararouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of cancer is one of the powerful tools in epidemiology of cancer. The present study is designed to understand the geographical distribution of most frequent types of cancer in K&B province. Methods: All registered cases of cancer are reviewed and duplicate cases were removed. The data was analyzed using Arcgis software. Results: Of all registered cases, 1273  remained for analysis of which 57% were residences of urban areas. Cities including  Sisakht, Yasuj and Dehdsasht were shown to have highest incidence rates among the Urban areas. Dena, Sepidar and Kohmare Khaleghi had the highest rates among the rural areas in the province. Skin cancer was the most common type of cancer which had the highest rates of incidence in Sisakht and Dehdasht and Dena and Sepidar among urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: The distribution of cancer was not even in the province. Attitude and consumption of wild and regional plants are introduced as the potential risk factors for such a spatial distribution of the common cancers I the province. The results of this study could be used for further analytical studies to understand the regional etiology of cancer in the province.

  5. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  6. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  7. Foggy Diaspora: Romanian Women in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic and anthropological research on the Romanian communities in Eastern Serbia, this article seeks to contribute to the global scholarship on diaspora and migration. It reveals interesting differences between the well defined and intensely studied notion of “diaspora” on the one hand, and the understudied, but useful concept of “near diaspora” on the other. First, the presence of Romanians in Eastern Serbia is looked at from a gender perspective, in the wider context of feminization of international migration. Second, the paper argues that the Romanian women in Eastern Serbia adopt the strategy of living in the “social fog”, thus becoming what can be termed “foggy diaspora”.

  8. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    etc. Stigsnæs power plant could possibly improve the reactive power support in emergency situations, as it is the closest power plant in the southern part of the system. In general, rescheduling power plants and voltage regulation at remote generators (MVAr adjustment) are not considered the most......% of the wind generation capacity in Eastern Denmark. The restricted reactive power transfer from the 132-kV main system is the key indicator of voltage instability. The high load situation with high wind generation is considered a worst-case scenario in relation to serious problems with reactive power. Line...... Units placed at strategic points are evaluated as an efficient tool for power system monitoring of important 400 kV and 132 kV transmission corridors in Eastern Denmark. The first PMU is connected to a 400 kV bus near Asnæs power plant, the largest generating unit in Eastern Denmark. The PMU in Radsted...

  9. A synthesis: Late Cenozoic stress field distribution at northeastern corner of the Eastern Mediterranean, SE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Semir; Ozden, Suha; Unlugenc, Ulvi Can; Yılmaz, Huseyin

    2004-01-01

    Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in the northeastern most corner of the Eastern Mediterranean region since the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. This study was carried out in the interaction area between the Arabian/African plates and the Anatolian block. The evolution of stress regimes consists of a change from older transpression to younger transtension. Both strike-slip stress regimes having a NNW- to northwest-trending σHmax ( σ1) and ENE- to northeast-trending σHmin ( σ3) axes induce a sinistral component of displacement on the major intra-continental Karatas-Osmaniye and Misis-Ceyhan faults elongated with the northeast-trending Misis Range between Adana and Osmaniye provinces (sub-area i) and by a NNE-trending plate boundary Amanos fault running along Amanos Range between Antakya and Kahramanmaras provinces (sub-area ii). The inversion results show that the transtensional stress regime is dominantly strike-slip to extension, with an ENE- to northeast-trending σHmin ( σ3) axis for sub-areas ( i) and ( ii), respectively. The inversions of earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the transtensional stress regime is still active in the whole study area since probably recent Quaternary time. To cite this article: S. Over et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  10. Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556 of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317 and females (20.92%, n = 239. Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.

  11. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  12. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  13. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  14. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    church establishment and activities among Iraqi, Assyrian/Syriac and Coptic Orthodox Christians in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Exploring analytical dimensions of space, diversity, size, and minority position we identify three positions of Middle Eastern Christians: in London as the epitome of super......Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...

  15. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  16. Contribution to the Tabanidae (Insecta: Diptera Fauna of Kayseri Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Altunsoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of study in Kayseri province subfamily Pangonine depending 1 species, subfamily Chrysopsinae depending 3 species and subfamily Tabaninae depending 36 species. Totally 40 species, belonging Tabanidae were determined. The species Chrysops caecutiens, Atylotus fulvus, Atylotus loewianus, Hybomitra acuminata, Tabanus armeniacus, Tabanus atropathenicus, Tabanus autumnalis, Tabanus cordiger, Tabanus eggeri, Tabanus glaucopis, Tabanus holtzianus, Tabanus indrae, Tabanus prometheus, Tabanus quatuornatatus, Tabanus regularis, Tabanus rupium, Tabanus spodopterus, Tabanus tergestinus, Tabanus tinctus, Haematopota crassicornis, Haematopota grandis, Haematopota pallens, Haematopota subcylindrica, Dasyrhamphis carbonarius and Philipomyia aprica are the first records for this province. The total number of determined species in Kayseri province reaches to 42 with the result of this study and the previous studies.

  17. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  18. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  19. Rural development policies in the Province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Silva Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the characteristics of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP in the European Union and its consequences for agriculture in the Mediterranean area, mainly in the Province of Alicante (Valencian Community – Spain. We also characterize the Relations Program between the Rural Economy Development Activities (LEADER in the mountain area in the Province of Alicante, its specificities and possible improvements in the diversification of economic activities in the municipalities that have benefited from the program’s funding. In addition, due to the diversity of agriculture, we approached the performance of agricultural cooperatives by sector of production activity, which reflect the production structures and the presence of different kinds of farmers in the Province of Alicante. Mediterranean agriculture, based on the climatic and farming characteristics, is crucial to the economy of the municipalities and their integration into the European market.

  20. Measuring the Indonesian provinces competitiveness by using PCA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runita, Ditha; Fajriyah, Rohmatul

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a country which has vast teritoty. It has 34 provinces. Building local competitiveness is critical to enhance the long-term national competitiveness especially for a country as diverse as Indonesia. A competitive local government can attract and maintain successful firms and increase living standards for its inhabitants, because investment and skilled workers gravitate from uncompetitive regions to more competitive ones. Altough there are other methods to measuring competitiveness, but here we have demonstrated a simple method using principal component analysis (PCA). It can directly be applied to correlated, multivariate data. The analysis on Indonesian provinces provides 3 clusters based on the competitiveness measurement and the clusters are Bad, Good and Best perform provinces.