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Sample records for eastern europe market

  1. FUNDS INVESTMENT STRATEGIES ON CAPITAL MARKETS FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REGEP HORAŢIU DAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the understanding of how to establish investment strategies of investment funds depending on the area, sector of investment, and time horizon, and the management involvement in investment decisions making. There have been considered funds from Trustnet, investing in Eastern Europe. For each investment fund, the sector and also a set of indicators to measure performance and risks have been analyzed: dynamics, beta, alpha, Sharpe ratio, info ratio and R-Squared.

  2. The Relationship between Stakeholder Marketing and Reciprocity in Eastern Europe: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Berger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper deals with important implications of ‘reciprocity’ in marketing in emerging and developing business environments, such as Eastern Europe. In mature, developed, high income, business systems, both transaction and relationship based marketing have been well researched. We posit that in less mature business systems, especially transition or emerging economies, there is a third way to look at marketing and exchange, which we call ‘reciprocity-stakeholder marketing.’ We believe that our framework shows the importance of reciprocity, a fundamental concept in business, for marketing in emerging environments such as Eastern Europe. This paper provides a meaningful starting point for empirical research for developing strategies in Eastern Europe.

  3. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  4. Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2011-01-01

    centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...

  5. Opportunities and constraints of adopting market governance in protected areas in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona M. Otto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the transition from the traditional hierarchical governance of natural resources in Central and Eastern Europe towards the new forms of market governance of protected areas, including the introduction of fees and compensation. Our conceptual framework suggests that markets can be effective in governing transactions that involve low asset specificity and low frequency of disturbances. However, the introduction of markets should be accompanied by appropriate rules of market organization that particularly regulate their monitoring and impose sanctions in cases of mismanagement. The analysis of market governance in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia reveals that in the face of decreasing funding for biodiversity protection and state budgetary problems, markets are more a necessity than a means to improve resource management. Although markets should complement rather than substitute traditional forms of governance, for certain types of transactions, markets are useful. They can be effectively implemented, provided that property rights are recognized and legal settings that regulate the monitoring and enforcement of market rules are set up.

  6. Volatility Spillovers between Stock and Currency Markets: Evidence from Emerging Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Fedorova; Kashif Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we look at the linkages between Eastern European emerging equity markets and Russia. Second, we investigate the relationships between the currency markets of Poland, Hungary, Russia, and the Czech Republic. Finally, we examine the interdependence between Emerging Eastern European and Russian equity and currency markets. We estimate a bivariate GARCH-BEKK model proposed by Engle and Kroner (1995) using weekly returns. We find evidence of direct li...

  7. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  8. HIGHER EDUCATION MARKET IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    OpenAIRE

    HALANGESCU CONSTANTIN

    2015-01-01

    With a target (failed, by the way) to become the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world, Europe has scaled the market of higher education. Adopting a questioning approach in research methodology, based on interrogations such as „How the economic crisis has affected the Higher Education market in Emerging Europe?”, „How much the European Union regulations in the field of student fees, ante, during and post-crisis time affecting the employment market and equitable access at fair educ...

  9. Issues Raised by Eastern Europe's Attempt at a Market Economy Attract Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The article reports on efforts of scholars (including historians, political scientists, economists, and sociologists) to study the economic and political transformation taking place in Eastern Europe. Noted are analogies with Latin American development, difficulties of privatization, and contradictions between democracy and economic reform. (DB)

  10. Effective use of marketing technology in Eastern Europe: Web analytics, social media, customer analytics, digital campaigns and mobile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureen Jayaram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition economies of Eastern Europe present both the opportunities and challenges for companies operating in these markets. On one hand, these countries have a large number of technology savvy young consumers, and on the other, the markets must also take into consideration the macro-environment of a country and market conditions which make the use of certain market technologies more feasible and attractive compared to others. It is certainly true in terms of the timing for introduction of various technologies in a country. Drawing analogy for the “IDITAROD RACE” we develop three different “Sled Dog Team layouts” for market characteristics and technologies for three Eastern European countries, namely, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania. The ten market characteristics included in our research are: digital connectivity divide, economic power, demand type, privacy laws, demographics, and competitive conditions, attitude towards technology, institutional maturity, corporate social responsibility, and corruption. The ten marketing technologies included in our research are: digital profiling, segmentation, websites, and search engines marketing, campaign management, content management, social media, mobile application, digital collaborations, and analytics. Company case studies are analyzed and reported for each of these three countries which support the three models presented in our research.

  11. Stock Splits and Liquidity for Two Major Capital Markets from Central–Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rudnicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market there occur some events that contradict the efficient market hypothesis therefore they are called anomalies. One of the mysterious corporate events which has attracted the attention of numerous researchers is a stock split. I perform the review of implications of splitting the stock for market liquidity of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the Vienna Stock Exchange. I use event study, in particular Market model method and Market adjusted return method, to inspect the behavior of abnormal changes in daily trading volume for stock splits performed between 2000 through 2011 over a short run and assuming a longer time interval. Moreover, I juxtapose the results for both stock exchanges to examine whether the stock split phenomenon for two major capital markets from this part of Europe can be better explained by means of existing theories on stock splits. The research is aimed at analyzing the implications of the split for market liquidity, i.e. whether there occurs an immediate effect following the split as well as whether this corporate event improves the level of market liquidity over long run. Furthermore, the goal of the paper is to investigate whether the investors can cash in on the stock split, more specifically, whether they can profit from lower transaction costs. I document a significant growth in the market liquidity of stock splitting firms over 36 months following the split for both capital markets what is indicative of lower transaction costs for investors. The 1–percent significant results are consistent with the liquidity hypothesis on stock splits.

  12. Cytisine in the treatment of tobacco dependence: safety, efficacy, market in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Herbec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytisine is a generic partial agonist of nicotine receptors α4β2 that has been available in Eastern Europe since 1960s. Through decades of observations and clinical studies, with much research conducted in Poland, cytisine has been shown to be safe and highly cost-effective medication in treatment for tobacco dependence, with a profile potentially more favourable than that of varenicline. Poland remains among few European countries allowing for sales of cytisine. Currently, cytisine-based treatment is available over-the counter in Poland, where it is the dominant form of cessation pharmacotherapy. This presentation will outline the current state of knowledge on cytisine, as well as discuss the observations on sales and use of cytisine in treatment of smoking cessation in Poland. A case will be made for cytisine emerging as an ‘aspirin’ in smoking cessation, and an important element of future tobacco control worldwide.

  13. Implications of Market Frictions : Serial Correlations in Indexes on the Emerging Stock Markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Olbrys

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implications of market frictions in the context of serial correlations in indexes on the Central and Eastern European (CEE stock markets have been analysed. Market frictions, such as non-trading effects, bid/ask spreads, other transaction costs, etc., may be detected by direct measurement, or by indirect identification. Direct measurement of frictions is difficult as intraday trading data are unavailable in the case of most of the emerging CEE stock markets. Indirect identification may be conducted by detecting some empirical phenomena. One of them is evidence of serial correlations in indexes, the so-called the Fisher effect. We explore the problem of serial correlations in indexes on the eight CEE stock markets using data samples from each CEE market separately, as well as a "common trading window" approach, which is widely applied in the case of databases with multivariate time series. The evidence is that nonsynchronous trading effect II between markets may substantially disrupt the analysis of index returns on a domestic market. Using a synchronized database, one may erroneously conclude that the Fisher effect does not exist, although it is present. (original abstract

  14. Gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, H. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has had many implications for the gas sector, in particular on the market development and prices, on the structure of the sector and on the investment level. The institutional and financial barriers to the development of CEE`s gas markets are summarized. Technical and marketing barriers are discussed, covering system design and integrity, metering, markets and energy efficiency. Finally, World Bank role and objectives are outlined. (R.P.)

  15. An Empirical Analysis Of Stock Returns And Volatility: The Case Of Stock Markets From Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okičić Jasmina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of stock returns in the case of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, focusing on the relationship between returns and conditional volatility. Since there is relatively little empirical research on the volatility of stock returns in underdeveloped stock markets, with even fewer studies on markets in the transitional economies of the CEE region, this paper is designed to shed some light on the econometric modelling of the conditional mean and volatility of stock returns from this region. The results presented in this paper provide confirmatory evidence that ARIMA and GARCH processes provide parsimonious approximations of mean and volatility dynamics in the case of the selected stock markets. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the existence of a leverage effect, meaning that negative shocks increase volatility more than positive shocks do. Since financial decisions are generally based upon the trade-off between risk and return, the results presented in this paper will provide valuable information in decision making for those who are planning to invest in stock markets from the CEE region.

  16. The Emerging Markets of Africa: Business Opportunities for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cook

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the increasing importance of emerging markets, particularly those in Africa, in terms of international business opportunities in the post-financial crisis period; while BRIC economies have received a lot of attention in the preceding decade, other emerging markets – especially in Africa – show indications of taking on more prominence in the upcoming period. In fact, at present, the continent of Africa represents one of the fastest growing markets in the world. This paper focuses on growth indicators and trends in the African markets as well as potential future international business opportunities; specifically, it examines the competitiveness of African nations, the business environments of countries in Africa, the continent’s international trade situation and urbanization in Africa. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on existing business opportunities together with some challenges which remain on the continent.

  17. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  18. Market Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Market Power Europe (MPE) constitutes an important contribution to the literature on the global role and actorness of the EU. In order to develop MPE as a theory, this contribution provides an assessment of how Russia, the USA and China have converged towards three EU trade policies in 2013...

  19. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  20. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  1. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  2. Spot Markets Indices as Benchmarks of Formation of Future Price Trends in the Power Exchanges of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikevych Nataliya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with a theoretical generalization of the use of indices for electric power at the European spot exchanges and elaborating proposals on establishment of a similar spot index for the Ukrainian power exchange. 16 indices that are published daily by the power exchanges BSP Regional Energy Exchange, Power Exchange Central Europe, Polish Power Exchange and Opcom have been analyzed. It has been indicated that these indices are used for electricity price forecasting and monitoring the situation in the power market. The article examines the way spot indices are calculated by power exchanges, based on the value of the arithmetic average of market prices «day ahead». Imperfection of such way of calculation for price index values has been substantiated. The key characteristics of the future price index for Ukrainian spot market as benchmarks within the introduction of futures contracts for electricity have been identified.

  3. Financial Geographies and Emerging Markets in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the contemporary financial geographies in Central and Eastern Europe and argues how these may affect the established European finacial centre network in the future. As the development of the financial sector in Europe’s emerging markets is largely dependent on foreign

  4. 中东欧民主化与市场化关系初探%A Primary Study of Relations between Democratization and Marketization in Central & Eastern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高歌

    2014-01-01

    In Central & Eastern Europe, the democratization and marketization are in a malignant interactive relationship when both of them are caught in difficult positions. Marketization during political unrest and democratization under economic recession bring adverse effects to each other and intensify difficulties for each other. However, the two sides have a benign interaction when both democratization and marketization processes are in smooth development. The higher degree of democratization and marketization makes the two sides promote each other and makes them step forward together. Therefore, generally speaking, countries with fast democratization, solid democratic systems and stable political situation have a faster pace of marketization, a more mature market economy and more rapid economic development. In addition to the compatibility between democratic systems and market economies, the positive relationship between the democratization and marketization of Central & Eastern Europe also benefits from the regulating and driving functions of the European Union.%中东欧国家的民主化与市场化遭遇困境时呈恶性互动关系,政治动荡中的市场化和经济衰退中的民主化给彼此带来不利影响,加剧各自的困难;民主化与市场化发展顺畅时呈良性互动关系,民主化和市场化程度越高,越是相互促进,共同进步。因此,民主化进度较快、民主制度较为巩固、政局较为稳定的国家一般也是市场化步子较大、市场经济较为成熟、经济发展较为迅速的国家。中东欧国家民主化与市场化的这种正相关关系得益于民主制度与市场经济之间的兼容性,更得益于欧盟在其中所起的规范和推动作用。

  5. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe; Liberalisation et elargissement: impacts sur l'organisation industrielle des marches du gaz naturel en Europe de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirovska, M

    2004-12-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, 'while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  6. Pointing at the sun: searching for traces in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Stefan; Pohl, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    In the face of impalpable commitment and meagre political incentives, the first promising solar markets are meanwhile emerging in Eastern Europe. Although solar energy in this region has often been considered too expensive, the market forges ahead. Its profitable investment situation could soon become fertile ground for the production of solar technologies. Stage director behind the curtain: frequently the European Union. (orig.)

  7. Learning and Work in the Risk Society: Lessons for the Labour Markets of Europe from Eastern Germany. Anglo-German Foundation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen; Behrens, Martina; Kaluza, Jens

    The education-to-labor market transitions experienced by young people in England and in eastern and western Germany were compared. The eastern German portion of the study was based on a 1996 study that included a survey of 100 trainers and 1,000 apprentices in 12 companies; in-depth interviews with 18 trainers, career advisers, and others; and…

  8. The labour market intentions and behaviour of stay-at-home mothers in Western and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Emery, T.; Bartova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent increases in female labour force participation across Europe, a non-negligible proportion of women continue to remain out of the labour force for short or longer periods of time. Among the six countries included in this paper, stay-at-home mothers represent on average 33% of all mothe

  9. Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    The region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been undergoing crucial changes in its transition from centrally planned to market oriented economy. As a result, the business climate in the region is changing rapidly, allowing free access to foreign businesses to establish or acquire production......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...

  10. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Central Eastern Europe (CEE) the transition to market democracy significantly influenced the corporate governance practice. The region, demonstrates much more diversity in corporate governance than expected in generally similar transition economies. This research aims to focus on identifying the similarities and differences of corporate governance in these countries based on four research hypotheses formulated around two corporate governance variables: number of codes issued and years of d...

  12. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  13. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    Since the break-down of the Soviet Union and the inclusion of a growing number of Post-Soviet countries into the Eurovision Song Contest, the contest has become an occurring occasion for remembering and discussing the nature and limits of “Europe”. This paper explores how the inclusion of Post-So......, Ukraine and Russia in order to explore how they are re-membered in relation to various perceptions of Europe....

  14. Instituciones de mercado, reforma en Europa del Este y teoría económica Market institutions, reforms in eastern Europe and economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koslowski Rey

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available El derrumbe de los estados totalitarios ha renovado el interés por las instituciones. Este trabajo muestra que la transición del socialismo a economías de mercado exige desarrollar muchas instituciones, incluido el mercado mismo. Se requiere establecer un nuevo sistema de derechos de propiedad para construir un mercado donde estos se transfieran en forma rutinaria. La rutinización requiere una estructura legal del Estado para regular las transferencias y resolver los conflictos entre las partes. La experiencia de Europa de Este muestra la pobreza del enfoque neoclásico que supone dadas a las instituciones: no puede considerar en forma adecuada la estructura legal que provee el Estado para establecer y legitimar los derechos de propiedad, ni la regulación estatal generalizada inherente al capitalismo del siglo veinte. Al suponer el comportamiento económico puede separarse de las especifidades de cada sociedad, cae en errores conceptuales que llevan a un optimismo infundado sobre la reforma económica y a una visión ingenua de la privatización. En las fases iniciales, la construcción del Estado puede ser la mejor estrategia de una reforma económica exitosa. Irónicamente, la mejor ayuda que puedan prestar los gobiernos occidentales es apoyar el desarrollo de las instituciones estatales que fijen las reglas para organizar el intercambio.The crumbling of the totalitarian States has renewed interest in the institutions. This article shows that the transition from socialism to a market economy entails the development of a number of institutions, including the market itself. A new system of ownershíp has to be worked out to form a market where ownership can be easily transferred. The ease of transfer is a matter for the State to provide a legal structure to regulate transfer and resolve disputes. Experience in Eastern Europe has shown the poverty of the neo-classical approach which the institutions are supposed to possess.
    There is no

  15. Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2004-01-01

    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1......Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1...

  16. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  17. Oral healthcare in transition in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Eaton, K A; Borutta, A; Dybizbánska, E; Broukal, Z

    2001-06-09

    Big changes have occurred in the oral healthcare delivery systems of most Eastern European countries since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 and the demise of communism in the former USSR in 1991. In the new situation it was necessary to reform the political and social systems including healthcare. Reforms were started to improve the economy and, in comparison with Western Europe, the generally lower living standards. It is difficult to obtain comprehensive data on oral healthcare in Eastern European countries but this paper reports data from nine countries and provides a 'macro' view of the current situation in these countries. Many countries seem to have adopted a Bismarckian model for the provision of oral healthcare based on a sickness insurance system.

  18. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  19. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  20. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  1. Mapping Eastern Europe: Cartography and Art History

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares maps of Eastern Europe, beginning from the map of Slavic lands by Josef Pavol Šafárik of 1842, and it claims that cartographic imagery has played a significant role in the legitimisation of the region’s collective identity. It argues that the adoption the map as a tool of art history, in order to spatialise and quantify the understanding of art, cannot bypass the postmodern critique of the map. It reflects on the overlap between the approaches and methods of critical carto...

  2. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  3. INTRODUCTION. TRANSITION INTO RETIREMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Krzyżowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of “Contributions to Humanities” presents various aspects of transitions to retirement in Europe, particularly in post-communist countries. The process of retirementis analysed from various points of view; to name afew: the political perspective and the challengesfaced by current public pension systems in ageing societies, the macro perspectivewhich analyses the structural reasons for (early retirement, and the micro perspective ofindividuals and their ways of experiencing and dealing with exit from the labour market.Therefore, for this issue we sought out an array of papers that extensively discuss the problemof retirement, and inevitably the problem of aging, in Eastern and Central Europe. Obviously,this publication examines only afraction of this broad problem and is by no means exhaustive,thus we hope that it will serve to stimulatethe further discussion.

  4. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  5. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...... countries are mainly influenced by the signals from the region....

  6. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  7. The export of pollution control equipment to Mexico and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, T. [Thompson, Gow & Associates, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Several interrelated factors, in particular the increasing number of international and national laws and standards, relating to air pollution, water pollution, and waste management are driving the growth of the global environmental industry and creating a huge international demand for environmental equipment and services. The environmental market and some of the market opportunities in Mexico and Eastern Europe and the requirements for developing an export marketing strategy are discussed. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Fiscal Descentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander ARISTOVNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide an overview of the fiscal decentralization process in emerging market economies in Eastern Europe in the last 20 years. Using the methodology developed by Vo (2009, the article assesses the degree of fiscal decentralization in the region. Conceptually, the measurement of fiscal decentralization focuses on fiscal autonomy and on the fiscal importance of subnational governments. The empirical analysis reveals that the highest level of fiscal decentralization (centralization is found in Russia (Armenia among non-EU members and in Estonia (Slovak Republic among EU members of the Eastern European countries. In addition, the empirical results show that, in general, the degree of fiscal decentralization is higher in developed OECD countries than in most Eastern European countries (EECs. However, in contrast to our expectations, there has been an alarming downward trend of the fiscal decentralization index (FDI in most countries of the region over the last two decades. Moreover, the article also examines the effects of fiscal decentralization on growth and public sector size in EECs. The analysis provides some evidence that increases in public sector decentralization are associated with higher income levels. Finally, our results suggest that fiscal decentralization in EECs generally leads to an increase in the size of government, albeit there are some significant differences between EU and non-EU member states.

  9. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  10. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The economic case for the recent proposal on a European ‘Capital Markets Union’ is obvious. However, the name is more symbolic than real, and the substance falls short of proposing a fully unified capital market across the EU. This short paper identifies several shortcomings of the project. In pa...... to repair the relationship with the UK and to win back support from the City of London for the European Single Market. As such, the project as a whole is certainly laudable, and it might turn out to be the right step at the right time.tion.......The economic case for the recent proposal on a European ‘Capital Markets Union’ is obvious. However, the name is more symbolic than real, and the substance falls short of proposing a fully unified capital market across the EU. This short paper identifies several shortcomings of the project...

  11. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...... countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...

  12. Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, agriculture in Europe has undergone profound technological change, associated with and to an extent supporting the long post-war economic boom. This process has not gone unchallenged, however; some resistance to the process has come from a growing perception of environmental (and to an extent social) degradation, and some farms and businesses, particularly in Less Favoured Areas, have been simply unable to keep up. For both groups, organic farming has m...

  13. Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, agriculture in Europe has undergone profound technological change, associated with and to an extent supporting the long post-war economic boom. This process has not gone unchallenged, however; some resistance to the process has come from a growing perception of environmental (and to an extent social) degradation, and some farms and businesses, particularly in Less Favoured Areas, have been simply unable to keep up. For both groups, organic farming has m...

  14. Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe. By Sherrill Stroschein. Pp. 289. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. £60.00. Hardback. ISBN: 9781107005242. Click here to read the review

  15. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  16. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the U...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market.......The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...

  17. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  18. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  19. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  20. Market Imperfections on the power markets in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    . These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, and can also have political characteristics. It is important to recognise and incorporate the market imperfections in the liberalisation policy and analysis. Otherwise, the purposes of the liberalisation and other energy policy goals may......Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period...... not be achieved. The aim of this paper is to survey market imperfections and their influence on the liberalisation processes in northern Europe...

  1. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  2. THE MAIN TRENDS OF A COMMON ENERGY MARKET OF THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA’S INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Borisovna Gokzhaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of Russia’s strategy for the EU energy market, cooperation with the countries of the OPEC, to avoid further declines in oil prices and relations with the EU in connection with the operation of the «Third energy package».It presents a forecast of energy consumption, the strategy of relations between the EU and Russia in the energy sphere and has the scientific novelty.The paper is exploratory in nature, expressed in the fact that in-depth studied the structure of energy consumption in the EU and possible transition to new ways of «green energy» and the EU strategy for attracting new energy suppliers.

  3. Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2009-04-01

    The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between "East" and "West" and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

  4. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  5. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  6. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  7. Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available While, during several decades, unfavourable trends in mortality were quite similar in Central Europe and in the former USSR, in the most recent years, these two parts of Europe are diverging. In most Central European countries, life expectancy is now increasing mainly thanks to a decline in cardiovascular mortality. Conversely, cardiovascular mortality is still increasing in Russia and Ukraine and its negative impact is reinforced by a worsening of violent deaths and infectious mortality. The situation of Baltic countries is still uncertain but it is not impossible that these countries soon resume with sustainable progress in life expectancy.

  8. The Eastern European electricity market outlook: country profiles of supply, demand, regulation and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Europe's electricity markets are rapidly changing and opening up to liberalisation and new market entrants, this is particularly evident in the vibrant Eastern European markets. This report provides an in-depth analysis of 12 highly dynamic Eastern European electricity markets with comprehensive data on supply/demand balance and coverage of the implementation of the EU Electricity Directive. The country profiles also feature an overview of supply/demand, an examination of key governmental, legal and political influences on the sector and an analysis of international trading and infrastructure with forecasts to 2012. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesis that various ‘Baltic/Black Sea’ cooperation models aimed at isolating Russia act against the interests of all participants of the political process. A number of meth¬ods, including the historical and structural functional analyses and the system ap¬proach are used in the study. The central hypothesis is that, as a political project, Intermarium reflects an important part of the systemic features of Eastern Europe as a political region. However, it is not identical to the region in terms of its geography or political regionalism. The anti-Russian sentiment of the Intermarium project is dominant. Yet, it is not immanent in this group of concepts. Reformatting the Inter¬marium concept in line with the new Moscow-Warsaw-Berlin cooperation model can be considered a feasible political task, which requires an adequate scientific solution. Moreover, Eastern Europe has reached the point of bifurcation. The region may become another new source of instability in Europe. Intermarium projects — a traditional object of research – have to be re-evaluated in the new political and eco¬nomic conditions. This article is a step in this direction.

  10. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  11. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  12. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  13. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  14. Privatisation and Corporate Governance in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.

    2003-01-01

    An unintended outcome of transition is the emergence of new forms of governance.Stakeholders other than shareholders influence corporate management to a higher degree thanin mature market economies. Employees gained influence through ownership stakes or workcouncils, while elsewhere investment...

  15. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  16. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Because the transition to democracy in 1989 was a non-violent "velvet revolution", the old state monopolies were not removed. State monopolies have small-group advantages in contrast to the large group of private firms which are numerous and not yet organized. In the case of Russia, the numerous...... and small private firms were not capable of cooperating, nor were the military and the foreign trade lobbies due to internal competition and large numbers, respectively. In contrast, the energy and agrarian lobbies maintained their subsidies by cooperating and acting as allies and non-competitors. Free...

  17. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    trade with the West and potential competition may mobilize popular support in favor of privatization and put pressure on the old state monopolies. However, lobbies in the European Union (EU) may oppose free trade to maintain their monopoly and to avoid competion for the Structural Funds in the EU....

  18. The "East" Becomes the "South"? The "Autumn of the People" and the Future of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Adam

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Applies Latin America models to eastern Europe. Suggests that revolutions are shaped by the systems against which they are directed. Concludes that the problems of eastern Europe are not caused by the system so much as by geography. Argues that poor capitalism may lie in the future for eastern…

  19. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  20. Locational Strategies of International Hotel Corporations in Eastern Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Colin; Dembinski, Paul; Vanetti, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated expansion strategies of international hotel operators in Eastern Central Europe. Due to the growing importance of services in economic development, there is an impressive body of knowledge on the process of internationalization and service industries. The last comprehensive academic study on internationalization and the hotel industry was undertaken at the beginning of the 1990’s, however, and we believed that with the major changes impacting upon the industry due to t...

  1. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  2. Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

    2010-12-01

    recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

  3. Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini Coefficient Analysis. ... yam differentiation were yam varieties and size or length and market information were ... Key word: Lorenz Curve, Gini Coefficient Analysis, Yam, Nigeria.

  4. Environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund

    2010-08-01

    Environmental analytics is one of the most important applications of ion chromatography. It includes determination of ions in water and wastewater as well as in gaseous and solid ones. Nowadays, ion chromatography has almost completely displaced the classical methods of ion determination in these areas. In spite of the fact that the ion chromatography has been officially present in the scientific world for 36 years, its role and popularity is highly diversified in various countries and regions of the world. In highly industrialized countries, it has been a reference method of water and wastewater analysis for years. In other parts of the world, it is not used and appreciated sufficiently despite its undeniable advantages. The following paper is a short overview of the most highly cited scientific and research institutions that conduct research in terms of environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe. Furthermore, the paper presents a list of a number of scientific papers referring to the discussed area, published in the years 1996-2009 in some of the most highly cited international scientific journals, and concerning publications of scientists from Eastern and Central Europe seen against the background of Europe and the world.

  5. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  6. THE MACRO-RISK OF DOING BUSINESS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BODISLAV DUMITRU-ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What happens when the company that creates country and company rankings is guilty of fraud? The economymust re-evaluate the way it is establishing the hierarchy of business “heroes” and how it classifies the transnationalcorporations and how countries rank after they are screened for their intermediate ranks at political, economic,financial and country level.This paper studies the phenomenon of transnational relations and the pressure of multiculturalism on corporategovernance done in countries that are situated in the Central and Eastern part of Europe and have as commoneconomic characteristic the fact that they are emergent markets.

  7. The Impact of Eastern Europe on Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    and his Institute colleagues for providing a stimulating research environment. The author is also indebted to Alexander Alexiev, Charles Andras...The East European Factor," in Sarah Meiklejohn Terry (ed.), Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1984. 6See J. F. Brown...equally hard position on the Polish crisis for similar reasons. Hungary, 3See Alexander Alexiev, A. Ross Johnson, and S. Enders Wimbush, "Poland

  8. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  9. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...

  10. Poverty correlates and indicator-based targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Braithwaite, Jeanine

    1998-01-01

    The authors compare poverty in three Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland) with poverty in three countries of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Russia). They find striking differences between the post-Soviet and Eastern European experiences with poverty and targeting. Among patterns detected: a)Poverty in Eastern Europe is significantly lower than in former Soviet Union countries. b) Rural poverty is greater than urban poverty. c) In Eastern Europe th...

  11. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Zima Liliana Adela; Toadere Rita Monica

    2011-01-01

    As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmenta...

  12. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  13. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  14. Relocation of Business Services into Central and Eastern Europe (Evidence from Trade and Location Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN GÁL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relocation of business service offshoring-related activities measured by foreign direct investments and exports in services have grown rapidly after the Millennium in the new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Besides Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, trade statistics support the assumption that an expanding export in business and in ICT services has been associated with relocation of shared services centres created by FDI in the six new member states (NMS. The service export data collected between 1996/2002 and 2012 gives a good proxy to identify those segments of service trade, which are considered to be offshorable. The paper examines the additional location factors selecting Central and Eastern European locations and summarises the effect of crisis on this industry. It concludes that the sector has demonstrated market resilience in the NMS and continued to expand rapidly.

  15. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  16. Homeownership and the labour market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing labour market flexibility is at the top of the European agenda. A new and challenging view is a lack of mobility in the labour market may arise from rigidities in the housing market. The research in this book has been inspired by the intriguing hypothesis put forward by Andrew Oswald that

  17. Compulsory Purchase in the Transitional Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Grover

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the ending of Communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the objective of compulsory purchase was the achievement of a socialist society in which the ownership of the means of production, including land, was to be collective rather than private. Compulsory purchase legislation and laws on ownership were used to expropriate private property. After 1990 the newly elected democratic governments changed the constitutions to permit and protect private ownership of land. However, compulsory purchase is essential in a market economy to deal with certain aspects of market failure. These include the need to facilitate the provision of collective goods, such as infrastructure and utility networks, and regeneration where the state may need to disrupt a prisoners’ dilemma situation. In spite of their commitment to the inviolability of private property, the transitional economies have had to develop compulsory purchase procedures and means of assessing compensation.

  18. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional......The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI...

  19. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  20. Advocacy Networks and Romani Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the activity of international solidarity and human rights organizations on the political involvement of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. It will conclude that the increase of an international advocacy network focussing on the plight of the Roma has offered new opportunities to domestic Romani organizations for pressuring governments to change state behaviour or to introduce new policy. In some cases, governments have even appointed Romani personalities from well-known advocacy organizations to advisory positions. However, the influence of a growing advocacy network has not been able yet to create a better democratically elected representation of the Roma in the central arenas of political decision-making on domestic level. Moreover, within domestic Romani movements there is growing discussion about the legitimacy and accountability of Romani advisors.

  1. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  2. Beyond Ethnic Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolff

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In his article 'Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East', Will Kymlicka argues, among others that a key condition for the success of legal and political reforms in the area of minority rights is a fundamental change in public attitudes towards and acceptance of the legitimacy and normality of nationalist mobilization by substate national groups. Following a brief overview of the complexity of ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe and the intricacy of minority-state relations, the author of this article contends that, contrary to Kymlicka, the region might even be better off if political spaces were constructed around other than ethnic identities. In line with Kymlicka, it is nevertheless conceded that there may be a need in several cases for lengthy transition periods in which ethnic identities are given institutional space ans security to play an important role in everyday politics.

  3. Voicing women in Eastern Europe-an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Borgos, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This special issue maps out real and symbolic spaces of women who are attracted to women in Eastern Europe, and highlights some of the challenges they face. One of the main themes emerging from the articles is that constructing spaces for women outside the heterosexual mainstream can be a useful political strategy in societies where non-conventional sexual interests, attractions, and gender expression have discriminative consequences. All of the eight articles in this special issue represent different voices, while demonstrating that there are many similar tendencies concerning the main goals and difficulties of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and lesbian movements of the region, in terms of legal and social developments related to the most heated issues of same-sex marriage and parenting on the one hand, and the violent attacks against pride marches and political backlash on the other.

  4. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  5. Post-Communist Health Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have gone through immense political and socioeconomic restructuring after the collapse of communism around 1990. Such transition has affected the lives of populations in these countries in many significant respects. A key aspect of life and wellbeing in any society is that of population health. This paper traces the transitions in population health—life expectancies and mortality rates for both males and females—in seven of the CEE countries during the two decades after the fall of communism. We estimate a series of panel data models to identify some of the common factors that would explain health transitions in these countries, while allowing for country-specific variability. Our findings indicate that the health transitions are strongly country specific. Moreover, income per capita and trade openness are statistically significant common contributors to health transitions.

  6. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  7. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP......) holds in three of the five cases. For processed shrimp, the LOP holds in three of four integrated cases, and for retail sales in the UK and Denmark, the LOP fails to hold in the presence of market integration. Unprocessed coldwater shrimp leads the market in northern Europe. Downstream, prices adjust...

  8. Bio agricultural product market in Romania and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this paper are to obtain an overview of the present market for organic agricultural products in Europe in general, and in Romania in particular. Organic agricultural production represents a small part of Romanian agricultural production and the development potential of organic agricultural production Romania is infinitely greater than what is done today. European consumers know little about the Romanian bio agriculture and even less about the huge potential of this sector. Organic food market is growing both in Europe and in Romania due to the increased interest of consumers to live healthier and improve the quality of life.

  9. Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Carré Patrick; Pouzet André

    2014-01-01

    Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed cottonseed production in the early 2000’s, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27). During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel) followed to a lesser extent by ...

  10. Capital Market Integration. New Challenges in an Enlarged Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Elena Diaconaşu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the linkages between Emerging European stock markets and the developed ones, in relatively stable times that followed the global economic crisis. One of the main reasons that served as an argument in studying stock market integration relies in the prior contradictory results regarding the regional versus international interdependencies. Using a Vector Error Correction Model we tested if the Central and Eastern European markets are more internationally or regional integrated. Our findings suggest that the stock exchanges from CEE react mainly to the arrival of price innovations from the most mature market in the EU perimeter. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides further evidence on stock market integration and correlations in emerging stock markets, emphasizing new connections between London Stock Exchange and the other CEE stock markets. The results are of particular interest for both portfolio managers and policymakers.

  11. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those...... regression modelsRESULTS:: Three hundred and forty-one patients were included (Eastern Europe 127, Western Europe 165, Latin America 49). Proportions of patients with disseminated TB (50, 58, 59%) and initiating rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide-based treatment (93, 94, 94%) were similar in Eastern.......023). CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable use of recommended anti-TB treatment, mortality of patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB remained higher in Eastern Europe when compared with Western Europe/Latin America. The high mortality in Eastern Europe was only partially explained by IDU, use of ART and CD4...

  12. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The transition of the »Old Communist« countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of »fixers« to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated, but controlled. When the Communist regime ceased the official organizations...

  13. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    The transition of the "Old Communist" countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... organizations collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of "fixers" to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated but nevertheless controlled. When the Communist regime ceased, the official...

  14. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  15. Territorial expansion of hotel chains in countries of South-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the market of Serbia and neighboring nine countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. The aim is to present a comparison with the number of hotel chains, brands and facilities in the surveyed countries in South-eastern Europe. While Serbia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Romania almost exclusively attractive as the continental areas, countries such as Greece, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro are popular mass bathing tourism destinations. This fact directly indicates the types of international hotel facilities (in first case there are city and conference types and in the other case there are resorts. The results show that a total of 21 international hotel chains are operating in the observed region, with the dominance of the markets of Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. Among them, Bulgaria has the largest number of individual hotel chains (11 chains, but Greece prevails when it comes to international hotel brands (19 brands and individual objects (71 facilities. On the other side, the Serbian market has relatively modest offer with a total of seven hotel chains and eight brands, while the number of individual objects are significantly lower of the region maximum (only 13 objects. Based on the above, the observed countries are relatively new and potentially important macro market for future investments in hotel facilities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  16. The Determinants of FDI in the Central and Eastern Europe: The Impact of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Makhavikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of FDI inflows to the Central and Eastern Europe increased dramatically during the last two decades. This article is aimed at identifying the ability of the Central Eastern European countries to attract FDI in the context of European integration, and at estimating the most important factors that influence the decision of foreign investors to invest in the region. Despite the broad research has been devoted to define the FDI determinants, the literature dealing in particular with the role of the European Union in the mobilization of FDI is rather scarce, and these findings are very discrepant. In order to understand factors that influence the location of FDI, we employ an empirical model for the period of 1992-2013 for twenty CEE countries. This study reveals that the most important determinants of FDI in CEECs are the market size, cost of labor and the European integration. The results of the research can be used to estimate the effect on FDI inflows from a prospective additional Eastern expansion of the EU by the countries currently not within the EU.

  17. Modeling and Forecasting the Volatility of Eastern European Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to seek a volatility forecasting model that can reflect sufficiently the long memory characteristic in the volatility of four Eastern European emerging stock markets, naThis study has attempted to seek a volatility forecasting model that can reflect sufficiently the long memory characteristic in the volatility of four Eastern European emerging stock markets, namely, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Slovakia. From the results of our empirical analysis, we found that the FIGARCH model is better equipped to capture the long memory property in the volatility of these markets than the GARCH and IGARCH models. More importantly, the FIGARCH model is found to provide superior performance in one-day-ahead volatility forecasts. Thus, this study recommends researchers, portfolio managers, and traders to use the long memory FIGARCH model in analyzing and forecasting the volatility dynamics of Eastern European emerging markets.

  18. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  19. Restoration of forests: environmental challenges in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowski, R.M.; Winnicki, T. [eds.] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The workshop examined the environmental factors contributing to the rapid depletion of the forests of central and eastern Europe with a goal of determining a research action plan to help abate the impact, while sustaining or expanding the forests, the economy and energy sufficiency of the region. The proceedings contain a total of 34 papers, under the headings: opening presentation, report of Joint Study Tour, situation papers, state-of-the art papers, and position papers from working groups 1. `Environmental factors in forest depletion`, 2. `Forest-growth, expansion and management`; 3. `Forest utilization of raw materials and value added products`; 4.`Socio-economic considerations for the forest resource, technical excursion to the Bavarian forests, and reports of Working Groups 1-4. Also included are 6 Joint Working Group reports, a report of the joint meeting of Working Group leaders, a final conference report, summary observations and conclusions and closing remarks. Two papers have been indexed separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  20. Human Capital and FDI in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dorozynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.

  1. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  2. Reading into lesser bibliography of rare mustelids (Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowski

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many research and conservation efforts on rare mustelids in Eastern Europe, Russia and states of CIS are in progress. On a total of 640 publications examined, the otter (428 and the European mink (195 were the most studied species, the Steppe and Marbled polecats (89 and 83 entries, and Honey-badger (24 were less considered. Titles written in national languages dominate, but a recent increase in the ratio of publications written or summarized in English or German was noted. Based on number and profile of publications, it is suggested that conservation of European mink requires more efforts and research. Riassunto Bibliografia poco nota sui Mustelidi rari (Europa orientale - Nei paesi dell'Europa dell'Est, Russia e stati del CIS inclusi, le ricerche e le iniziative di conservazione riguardanti i mustelidi rari sono in progresso. Dall'esame di 640 pubblicazioni, Lutra lutra (428 e Mustela lutreola (195 sono le specie più studiate, mentre meno considerate sono M. erversmanni (89, Vormela peregusna (83 e Mellivora capensis (24. Buona parte dei lavori è in lingua originale, ma recentemente è in incremento il numero di pubblicazioni scritte o riassunte in inglese o tedesco. Sulla base del numero dei lavori e dei temi trattati, si evidenzia che la conservazione del visone europeo richiederebbe maggiori sforzi e ricerche.

  3. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  4. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  5. The market for bioenergy in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopetz, H.

    1997-12-31

    Conference paper. The demand for energy in Europe at present amounts to 16 PWh. Of this, 50% is needed for heating, 27% for transportation, 23% for light, communication and power. The European Commission in 1996 proposed that the share of renewables should be doubled to 12% by 2010. It is calculated that 3/4 of the supply of renewables must be supplied by biomass. A comprehensive energy crop programme is needed to guarantee the supply. According to calculations, 77% of the bioenergy supply will be used to deliver heat. For small heating installations financial support is necessary to overcome the investment costs. It is recommended that biomass based district heating grids should be subsidized by a joint programme of the Commission and the national governments. For industrial users little or no subsidies are required. It is suggested that the members of the EU should submit to the commission regional heat concepts, ``heat from biomass``, of a certain specified content. The necessary investment should come from private investors, from public money and from the EU. Green electricity is a way to promote renewable energy resources. As a realistic target for electricity from biomass within 12 years, 80 TWh is proposed. The production of raw materials for the energy sector on set-aside land is unsuccessful because of the changing set-aside rate. Some remedial actions are proposed

  6. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  7. Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed cottonseed production in the early 2000’s, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27. During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel followed to a lesser extent by Canada and China. World exports of rapeseeds are dominated by Canada, by far the largest exporter. Japan is a traditional importer, while China and the EU (27 are less regular buyers. Although less spectacular than palm oil growth, rapeseed oil growth is also remarkable. Its consumption occurs mainly in the crushing countries, the EU being the principal consumer. Rapeseed meal is the second major oilseed meal produced worldwide (after soybean meal. It has been following broadly the same trends as seeds and oils, this evolution was marked a short period of stagnation in the early 2000’s. Consumption of rapeseed meal has grown strongly in the EU (which is deficient in protein feed, in China (due to its extraordinary economic development, and in the USA (due to milk producers’ demand for feed. The main exporters of rapeseed meals are Canada and India. Oilseed prices spiked in 2008 and since 2010 are remaining at historically high levels: whilst prices fell sharply following the 2013 harvest, they remain well above the lows of 2009. Rape seed meal, however, will remain a secondary meal with known drawbacks; there is little prospect of its price going higher than 65–70% of that of soybean meal.

  8. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  9. The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.J.; Kuipers, A.; Keane, M.G.; Dimitriadou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet Uni

  10. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  11. Reliability of public institutions in the transition of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of dishonesty and distrust is often unclear phenomena in Eastern Europe. These are common issues discussed not only in print media and television, but also social environments as well. Corruption, so unfair advantage, lies, deceit and abuse of trust are mentioned frequently during the last decades a" er the change of system in the region, especially in Balkan Peninsula. Although dishonesty and distrust (+ corruption have existed in the previous system, however, they have been hidden phenomena or issues for which there is talk in this system. Research in terms of honesty and trust include a more areas in different sectors. International literature on the subject focuses on two fundamental topics. One of which is his faith and relationship with social capital. What do some of these concepts mean in our perception? What are the benefits and harmful effects of faith and are those connected with social equity and democratic consolidation? The search for this topic is interdisciplinary because it includes political sciences, social sciences, political, legal or sociologic-and those of anthropology. As a result this thesis will provide comparative scale impasse that creates two realities of different social complexity, from the countries that have experienced the post-socialist transition, belief in family and society that retains a holding in the operations of public institutions and may create difficulties to succeed the efforts to implement the law impartially. In conclusion: Corruption is an unreliable source, which comprises behavior and violates the trust placed on official- and public officials. It includes the use of public positions for personal benefit and it creates an ill infrastructure for fragile democracies.

  12. Trend detection and analysis in Eastern Europe and European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Henebry, G. M.; Owsley, B.

    2014-12-01

    A confluence of computing power, cost of storage, ease of access to data, and ease of product delivery make it possible to harness the power of multiple remote sensing data streams to monitor land surface dynamics. Change detection has always been a fundamental remote sensing task, and there are myriad ways to perceive differences. From a statistical viewpoint, image time series of the vegetated land surface are complicated data to analyze. The time series are often seasonal and have high temporal autocorrelation. These characteristics result in the failure of the data to meet the assumption of most standard parametric statistical tests. Failure of statistical assumptions is not trivial and the use of inappropriate statistical methods may lead to the detection of spurious trends, while any actual trends and/or step changes might be overlooked. Methods for the analysis of messy satellite data, which are often influenced by discontinuity, missing observations, non-linearity, and seasonality, are still being developed within the remote sensing community. We have found several examples of research that compares trends from different datasets. However, there is a dearth of information on the comparison of trend detection methods themselves for standardized datasets. Here we describe three different trend detection methods, and compare their results for a set of synthetic time series exhibiting monotonic trends as well as step changes. We will vary the length of the time series, the number of observations per year and the number of missing values. We will also vary the seasonality and the strength of the autocorrelation. We will then discuss a case study for Eastern Europe and European Russia where we investigate time series of MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted (NBAR) data at 8-day and 500m resolution between 2001 and 2013. We investigate basic vegetation indices such as NDVI and EVI but also extend the analysis towards a disturbance index which identifies how pixels differ from

  13. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown......This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  14. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  15. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  16. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  17. Benchmarking International High-Technology Research Laboratories' Marketing in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Suvi-Anna

    2014-01-01

    The thesis studies current marketing conventions of international high-technology research laboratories in Europe and is done for the UNELMA-project. UNELMA is a joint project between Finnish and Swedish universities and institutions funded by the European Union, the Provincial Government of Norbotten, Lapin Liitto and Interreg IV A. The project wishes to create a network of professional services which will benefit companies in the Bothnian Arc between Finland and Sweden. The study itself...

  18. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  19. Measuring the Effects of Customs and Administrative Procedures on Trade: Gravity Model for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Toševska-Trpčevska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the effects of certain customs and administrative procedures on trade between the countries of South-Eastern Europe in the period 2008-2012. Following OECD methodology, we employ the augmented gravity model. The empirical results suggest that the number of days spent at the border and costs paid in both importer and exporter countries had significant negative influence on the volume of trade in the period 2008-2012. In addition, the model underlines that sharing the same border and being part of the former Yugoslav market are important determinants of trade in the region.

  20. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe. Price formation and internationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-07-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by means of time series analysis to increase understanding about the factors that govern market development. In Paper I, it is found that whereas the Austrian and German residential-quality wood pellet markets are integrated, Sweden is a separate market. The conclusion from Paper II is that despite a long history of trade in wood fuels between Estonia and Sweden, the two markets cannot be considered integrated. The results from Paper III indicate that refined and unrefined wood fuels should be seen as two separate markets, and that forest chips prices follow different trajectories depending on whether they are used in district heating or in forest industries. In Paper IV, it is acknowledged that although high and volatile oil prices are an important driver for the growth in demand for wood fuels, no significant spillover from oil price developments into Swedish wood fuel prices could be discerned in the time period 1993-2010. In Paper V, the conclusion is that prices of industrial roundwood and unrefined wood fuels followed a common trend in Sweden in the first decade of the 21st century. Paper VI shows that there is a significantly higher level of market maturity and internationalization in the Danish wood pellet market compared to the wood chip market in the country. In conclusion, this thesis uncovers some of the mechanisms that affect wood fuel markets, including the differences between unrefined wood fuels - such as wood chips - and the dynamic market for wood pellets. Whereas

  1. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tolušić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.

  2. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  3. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Liliana Adela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to

  4. Mortality from HIV and TB coinfections is higher in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, Amanda; Post, Frank A;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients worldwide. We aimed to study clinical characteristics and outcome of 1075 consecutive patients diagnosed with HIV/TB from 2004 to 2006 in Europe and Argentina. METHODS: One-year mortality was assessed...... in patients stratified according to region of residence, and factors associated with death were evaluated in multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: At TB diagnosis, patients in Eastern Europe had less advanced immunodeficiency, whereas a greater proportion had a history of intravenous drug use, coinfection...

  5. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  6. Perceptions of socioeconomic integration of middle eastern immigrants in Europe : comparing national discourses and subjective experiences

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This panel compares the subjective understanding of success and socioeconomic mobility of immigrants from the Middle East in Europe with national discourses of integration. Despite the abundance of research on Middle Eastern migrants in Europe, not much is known about their subjective understanding of their socioeconomic positions and experience with social mobility. Much of the research looks at objective measures such as educational attainment, occupational status, and reported discriminati...

  7. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  8. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.;

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain......-environmental programs. Support has been granted to organic farming since the beginning of the 1990s. Direct payments from European regulation combined with premium prices paid by consumers had compensated the lowest crop production. In the European Union, the current cycle of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is due...

  9. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  10. Public health research needs and challenges in transitional countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Burazeri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The former communist countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE are undergoing a rapid process of transformation from state-enforced rigid economies to market-oriented societies. Compared with European Union, SEE countries are characterized by higher death rates including not only infant mortality and maternal death, but also cardiovascular mortality and injuries. Yet, there is no sufficient research in SEE countries directed towards gaining a clear understanding of the health effects of transition and the fluctuations in health outcomes. A general characteristic in almost all SEE countries relates to the comparable problems they face for engaging in research work which include: (i lack of funds; (ii lack of expertise, and; (iii lack of “good data”. Nevertheless, there is an emergent need to improve research capacities in order to address and analyze on a scientific basis the health problems and challenges in SEE countries. From this point of view, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fph-see seems a suitable network to promote, provide guidance and support different research activities and research projects in SEE countries. To increase the visibility of FPH-SEE network and to enhance its collaboration and active communication with European academic institutions and donors, it was decided to establish an office near the Department of International Health, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, which will be responsible for the coordination of the research network for SEE countries. This will help to promote research funding and to develop and strengthen research capacities in the SEE region.

  11. An analysis of the South East Europe electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majstrovic, G.; Tot, M. [Energy Inst. Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia); Medic, I. [Univ. of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture

    2006-07-01

    Until October 2004, the South East European (SEE) power system had never been connected in unified parallel operation. For the first time in history, all of continental Europe became a single synchronous electricity area with 450 million people in 22 countries. At the Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), regional countries in the SEE agreed to create a stable common regulatory and market framework capable of attracting investment in gas networks, power generation and transmission networks, so that all countries would have access to the stable and continuous gas and electricity supply that is essential for economic development and social stability. This paper provided an overview of the electricity market in the SEE and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional market. A brief description of each relevant country in the context of power issues was presented. It also provided some results of a long term generation and transmission development planning Geographic Information system study for the SEE region and analysed the influence on regional security of supply. In this regard, investment opportunities were identified. It was concluded that the main disadvantages in regional energy market establishing include differences in levels of economy; production and consumption structure; energy prices; purchasing power parity; energy sector organization; transmission bottlenecks; power plant aging, low efficiency and problems in environmental protection. The main advantages should cover lower total development expense and system operation as well as higher supply security. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs.

  12. Characteristics and Conditions of Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2017-01-01

    provides entrepreneurs with many opportunities for niche company creation. However, many problems exist related to the lack of resources (mostly financial), inadequate knowledge and skills in management and marketing needed in market economies, insufficient availability of business support organisations...... combined with inappropriate understanding and attitude among managers in the newly created businesses towards the existing business support organisations....

  13. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  14. COUNTRIES’ SUSTAINABILITY TO ECONOMIC SHOCKS: THE STUDY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturas Jurgelevicius

    2014-08-01

    markets. Originality/Value – Value of the research might be high for interested parties. Applying sustainability theory to economies in transition during financial economic downturn 2008-2012 is original and novel. Keywords: economic development, sustainability, economic “shock”, Central and Eastern Europe. Research type: research paper.

  15. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  16. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  17. Democratic Change in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the European Parliament’s archival documents (reports, resolutions and debates) undoubtedly demonstrates that the EP has been in the front-row when it comes to debating the events leading to democratic change in Central and Eastern European countries. Clearly voicing its concerns abo

  18. Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders woul...

  19. "Aiming at a Moving Target": Social Science and the Recent Rebellions in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrow, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the recent wave of mass sociopolitical mobilization in Eastern Europe. Argues that the models and methods developed after the 1960s have made it difficult for Western students to understand recent movements in the East. Compares waves of mobilization such as the Civil Rights Movement in the United States with incomplete waves of…

  20. A Candle Lit from Both Sides : The Epidemic of HIV Infection In Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P.C. Grund (Jean-Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractUntil 1995 central and eastern Europe as well as the Asian republics of the former Soviet Union have been more-or-less devoid of epidemic outbreaks of HIV infection. In this region with more than 450 million inhabitants (United Nations 1997), the total number of HIV infections was estima

  1. The KGB in Eastern Europe during the Cold War: on agents and confidential contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ben de Jong from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, discusses the ways in which the KGB collected information about political developments in Eastern Europe during the Cold War and tries to shed some light on the question whether Soviet intelligence services recruited full-fledged agents to a

  2. Determinants of Parental Stress in Families Adopting Children from Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sources of variation in parents' assessment of parental stress and the effects of early institutionalization. Participants included 109 mother-father pairs who adopted children from Eastern Europe. Significant differences between mothers and fathers were obtained on child- and parent-related stress. Results indicated that children's…

  3. HIV epidemics and prevention responses in Asia and Eastern Europe: lessons to be learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Lazarus, Jeff; Atun, Rifat

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes characteristics of the HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) and Asia and Central Asia, and draws comparisons between these regions. It focuses on the role that key populations continue to play in HIV transmission in both regions, the challenges that this po...

  4. Select barriers to harm-reduction services for IDUs in eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Hansson, Liv Nanna; Storm, Frederikke;

    2009-01-01

    In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing these infecti...

  5. HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: more than a sexual health crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bollerup, Annemarie; Matic, Srdan

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is often described as a sexually transmitted disease. In the former USSR, however, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being driven by injecting drug use among men. This article addresses several widely circulated assumptions about HIV in eastern Europe: that sexual contact is the primary mode...

  6. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  7. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Frank A; Grint, Daniel; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud

    2014-01-01

    Observational data from Eastern Europe on the management and outcome of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in HIV positive populations remain sparse in the English-language literature.We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of 55 patients who were diagnosed with HIV and MDR TB i...

  8. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  9. Universities, the Information Technology Challenge, and Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajos, Tamas; Szucs, Andras

    1998-01-01

    The educational needs of Eastern and Central Europe can be met by distance education. Since the 1990 founding of the European Distance Education Network, proponents of open and distance education have expanded the scope of their activities. Governments and institutions must find the best ways to use technology to integrate traditional and distance…

  10. Farmers, Vertical Coordination, and the Restructuring of Dairy Supply Chains in Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Germenji, E.; Noev, N.; Swinnen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of transition and globalization since the early 1990s has caused dramatic changes in the dairy chains in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper uses survey evidence from several Central and East European countries to document the growth of vertical coordination in the dairy chain, it

  11. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, P

  12. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented...

  13. Media Within and Without the State: Press Freedom in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Karol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Communist state and the media, and remodeling the media system. Describes stages of media transformation in Central and Eastern Europe, and evaluates their media differentiation. Discusses the Polish model of public service broadcasting, and discusses the many obstacles to media differentiation. (SR)

  14. The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Vesna

    Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

  15. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  16. Communication Development and Differences in Children Adopted from China and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuo, Hisako

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The communication development of children adopted from China and Eastern Europe was compared by region of origin at 6 and 12 months after adoption. Method: Twenty children, recruited before or immediately following their adoption, participated in the study. Measures were collected between 2 and 6 months after adoption (Time 1) and between…

  17. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role ...

  18. "Aiming at a Moving Target": Social Science and the Recent Rebellions in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrow, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the recent wave of mass sociopolitical mobilization in Eastern Europe. Argues that the models and methods developed after the 1960s have made it difficult for Western students to understand recent movements in the East. Compares waves of mobilization such as the Civil Rights Movement in the United States with incomplete waves of…

  19. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  20. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ..., press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  1. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  2. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  3. Development of wood pellets market in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood pellets market in nine countries in South East Europe and Slovakia. Objective of the research was to observe the actual situation regarding the number of producers, size of installed capacities, production volume, foreign trade flows and existing problems and obstacles which significantly limit the sustainable development of wood pellets market in the selected countries. Selection of such an objective results from the fact that according to the stated elements there are no sufficiently reliable data, wherefore this region is a huge gap in numerous reports of international and national organizations and institutions. Results of the conducted research show that in the middle of 2014, 245 producers were engaged in wood pellets production in South East Europe and Slovakia, 116 of which were located in Bulgaria and Serbia. Most of the producers of wood pellets has installed capacities of 1,000-5,000 tons annually, while only 18 factories in the entire region have the installed capacity over 30,000 tons/year. Observed collectively in all stated countries, the total installed capacities for wood pellets production were 2.2 million tons in 2013 and the realized production was 1.36 million tons. The largest part of the produced amounts of wood pellets in this region is exported. 1.06 million tons were exported from the region in 2013, which is 77.9% of the realized production. Such high export is the result of the underdevelopment of the local market (Slovenia is the only exception and the problems which exist and limit its faster development in most countries.

  4. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... between early movers and followers entering new geographical markets based on a sample of foreign entrants in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania. We contrast market share with two other measures of firm performance that are based on the managers' perception of their own performance relative to their own prior...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...

  5. Fertility intentions and risk management: exploring the fertility decline in Eastern Europe during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Between 1985 and 1995, fertility in Eastern Europe declined from 2.2 children per woman to merely 1.5 on region-average. Previous research has emphasized mainly the economic turmoil during transition or the influx of new ideas regarding fertility and family relations. This article suggests that applying a risk management perspective on fertility patterns may put additional light on the reasons behind the fertility decline in post-communist Europe. The complexity of modern social systems has made people increasingly dependent on the state for risk evaluation and risk management. The article formulates the hypothesis that transition itself disrupted the mental models that helped people to navigate among the risks associated to having and raising children. Left to their own devices, women in Eastern Europe became more inclined to postpone childbirth or discard this option altogether.

  6. ILLEGAL DRUG MARKETS IN EUROPE: THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalizing processes have profoundly shaped the European drugs situation. The illegal drug markets have reached to evolve and to transform all the advantages of this phenomenon, in their favor. Based on globalization aspects, the paper purpose is to present the main characteristics of illicit drugs market within European countries, from the last years. Furthermore the article is focused on the analysis of theoretical and empirical drugs literature, especially on the current reports and studies of EMCDDA and UNODC, which indicated certain drug sectors. Due to its richness, position and high demand of illegal drugs, Europe is viewed by criminal organizations as a transit area for heroin, cocaine, cannabis and synthetic drugs, and a big customer which continued to sustain this profitable enterprise, over the last decades. Regarding the drug problem, the governance needs to be reframed and to take account of economical, social and moral character. The simple connection of illegal drug markets with globalization, gives the originality note of the paper, which leads to some important new insights for future research and policy.

  7. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  8. Overview of the market and consumption of pulses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anne V C

    2002-12-01

    The human consumption of grain legumes and pulses in Europe and the EU is lower than in other regions of the world. However, there is a lot of variation between countries and an overall slight increase has been observed in recent years. The major trends in the EU pulse market are illustrated here with a specific focus on Spain, France and the UK, which account for about 60 % of the EU pulse consumption. The ways in which pulses are consumed are very different in the various EU countries, due to different regional food habits and traditions, and to differences in the supplies of grain legumes and the markets. Canned products dominate pulse sales compared with dry pulses sold in packets. Dry beans are the most consumed of the pulses in the EU, but the preference between species varies according to country. The factors limiting the consumption of pulses in the EU are mainly: an inadequate level of innovation for developing products adapted to modern life, a small home supply of pulses and competition from cheaper low-quality imports. Recently, however, consumers are favouring healthy and balanced vegetable diets. Pulses have significant nutritional and health advantages for consumers and their cultivation has a positive impact on agriculture and the environment. Therefore the trend in the consumption of pulses could change, especially if publicity about the benefits of pulses is improved and if the food industry and professional organizations take up the challenge to incorporate grain legumes in novel, convenient and healthy food products.

  9. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  10. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  11. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  12. Comparison Of Patterns Of Convergence Among “Emerging Markets” Of Central Europe, Eastern Europe And Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POZNAŃSKA JOANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of economic growth indicators for 1989-2014, this article distinguishes the “emerging markets” of Central and Eastern Europe (with Russia included, from the other economies that fall in the broad ‘emerging markets’ category. Following the post–1989 reforms, the countries of the region share many of the same typical institutional features as other “emerging economies”, but not necessarily the associated economic outcomes. What characterizes “emerging economies” is that they grow fast enough to systematically close the distance dividing them from the advanced economies, creating convergence. Departing from this pattern, Central and Eastern Europe (and Russia have so far fallen short in terms of the growth rates, and the region as a whole has not made much progress in catching up. By more than doubling its national product Poland is the only notable exception in the region, although Slovenia may fit in the same category. At the other extreme, some of the economies actually lost two decades in terms of reducing the gaps, and some even fell further behind (e.g., Serbia, Ukraine. These findings have potentially serious implications for economic theory in general and for the presumption that globalization processes act as a unifying developmental force.

  13. New Bangalores? The role of Central and Eastern Europe in business and IT services offshoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Gal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how the second global shift in business services provision and corporate restructuring open up new offshoring opportunities into Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. It explores three issues: First, it builds upon the theoretical framework of the ‘new paradigm of globalization, which considers offshoring as one of the most important globalizing forces of recent time. This results in a shift in global trade, namely from ‘trade in goods’ to ‘trade in tasks’ determined by the changing trends in the division of labour. Second, the paper gives an overview of services relocation into CEE in comparison with its Asian counterparts. As the EU expanded eastwards, the opportunities for European corporations to offshore their business services to these ‘nearshore’ locations increased. Building on the region’s nearshoring advantages such as geographical-cultural proximity and on their multilingual graduate sup ply, CEE is likely to utilise more value added quality-driven BPO and KPO services. Third, the paper examines the implications of offshoring for the home markets in CEE assessing its impact on their locations. It reveals the role of offshoring activities in the metropolitan transformation and discusses the factors that make the capital cities an increasingly attractive option for companies to relocate their services. Despite CEE has taken advantage on the trend supported by the global service delivery models reducing dependency on any single location, its further growth may be influenced by the worsening macro-conditions, and future prospect of the region depends largely on government incentives and on the success of exploiting talent pools offered by its provincial cities.

  14. Real convergence, financial markets, and the current account – Emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of financial market characteristics for explaining the catching-up process in Europe and Asia. Global financial integration has been associated with divergent patterns of real convergence and the current account in emerging markets. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market chara...

  15. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  16. Assessing the health benefits of improved air quality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Harrison, K.W.; Nickell, E.J.; Toman, M.A.

    Assessments of the benefits of improvements in environmental quality in Central and Eastern Europe are needed to determine priorities for pollution abatement activities in the region. A recent study conducted by researchers at Resources for the Future suggests that the human health benefits attributable to reductions in emissions of three air pollutants in five of the region's countries are potentially large. However, the study also highlights the uncertainties surrounding measurements of decreases in adverse health effects and economic valuations of improved air quality. Attempts to account for these uncertainties yield findings that strengthen the researchers' assertion that air pollution control should be a target of environmental and economic policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  17. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central...

  18. Migration Processes from Eastern and Central Europe in Spain: Legal Status, Social Identity and Job Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ibáñez Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Central Europe, the collapse of the socialist model and the incorporation of the neoliberal model plunged the region into a deep economic and social crisis. In this context, emigration came to be viewed as a way out, at least on a temporary basis. Transnational migration from this region has also been interpreted as a response to the crisis of values generated following the collapse of the Socialist States. This text analyses migration flows from Eastern and Central Europe from three perspectives: politics (which defines their legal status; sociocultural (from whence their social identities and imaginaries are derived and the economic (which establishes specific forms of job placement. The aim of the study isto show that choosing migration destinations is not only determined by a rational economic logic, but also by political and socio-cultural factors; the study also stresses the point that social integration is a reciprocal, multidimensional process.

  19. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  20. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU) member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic grow...

  1. The KGB in Eastern Europe during the Cold War: on agents and confidential contacts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ben de Jong from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, discusses the ways in which the KGB collected information about political developments in Eastern Europe during the Cold War and tries to shed some light on the question whether Soviet intelligence services recruited full-fledged agents to acquire the necessary information in the same way as they did in the West. De Jong concentrates on Poland but also tries to grasp the bigger picture and focusses on the distinction between fully-fle...

  2. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  3. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  4. Lights Out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is very likely that an energy crunch could hit several countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) in the next five or six years. Before the financial crisis of 2008, several electricity importing countries in the region had begun to experience difficulties with supply; however, the crisis has reduced demand and created some breathing room. It has also created a window of opportu...

  5. Hydroclimatology and Comparative Soil Erosion in Eastern North America and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Extreme soil erosion and hydrologic disruption during the historical period of European agricultural occupance has been well documented for several regions of the US. Why was it so much more severe in the US than in Western Europe, the place of origin of most settlers? While choice of crops, agricultural practices, literacy, tenancy and economic factors were all contributing factors, differences of hydroclimatology, specifically rainfall intensities and amounts, also played a strong role. The climate of Western Europe is Marine West Coast (Koeppen:Cfb)while that of Eastern North America is Humid Subtropical or Humid Continental(Cfa, Dfa). While both regions are humid, Western Europe tends to have well-distributed rainfall occurring in moderate storms whereas Eastern North America has more erratic rainfall occurring in often intense storms. A comparison of long-term frequency-magnitude relationships of storms shows much lower values for Europe than for America. For example, a 100-year-24 hour event in the southeastern US is about 2-4 times as great as that in lowland England. European settlers simply did not have the agronomic and engineering techniques to deal with this excessive rainfall and such techniques were not developed in he US until the 1930s. . Agricultural fields in Britain generally require no engineering such as terracing, contour strip cropping, or even contour plowing to handle excess water but they are absolutely required in the eastern US. There is evidence that climate change will affect these features. For example, intense rainstorms in southern England in recent years have flooded roads (because the drains were inadequate), eroded fields (no conservation measures), and flooded villages (storm channels were too small).For future projects, Europeans may well have to look to the engineering practices developed and used in the eastern US.

  6. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  7. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  8. ‘Rethinking the geography of art history’, Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the conference proceedings History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the importance of the publication, and the fact that it highlights the almost complete ignorance of the historiography of art of central and eastern Europe, and also identifies a recurrent methodological deficit in many of the contributions, namely, their tendency to rely on a positivistic documentation of writers and texts with little analysis of their conceptual, aesthetic and ideological implications. The conference is thus an invaluable platform for further study, and also makes clear the need for more sophisticated critical interpretations.

  9. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  10. The 8200 calBP ‘climate event’ and the process of neolithisation in south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate anomalies between 8247–8086 calBP are discussed in relation to the process of transition farming and to demographic dynamics and population trajectories in south-eastern Europe.

  11. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  13. STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF GERMANY CONSULTING MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPE-WIDE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovalska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the actual state of consulting market in Germany. The structural configuration of the Germany consulting market on functional grounds, with the customer's branch, as well as geographically were analyzed. The main prospects of German consulting market development in the context of Europe-wide trends have been defined.

  14. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  15. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  16. Youth labour market integration across Europe: The impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional

  17. Financial markets and the current account: emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2009-01-01

    Financial globalisation has been associated with divergent current account patterns in emerging market economies. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market characteristics in explaining divergent current account patterns in emerging Europe and emerging Asia based on the assumption that both regions constitute two...

  18. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes; Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed significantly (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  19. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed substantially (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  20. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    The countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a remarkable transition in 1989. Land reforms were high on the political agenda in most of the countries. In many countries in the region, land reforms have resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which are not competi......The countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a remarkable transition in 1989. Land reforms were high on the political agenda in most of the countries. In many countries in the region, land reforms have resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...

  1. Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Bykov, Roman

    2007-03-01

    Harm reduction (HR) interventions began in Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the mid-1980s with the establishment of substitution treatment (ST) in Yugoslavia. In the mid-1990s, the first needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) opened in selected countries following the outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs). The number of NSPs continues to increase via a combination of international and state funding with large expansions made possible via the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. While ST is still unaccepted in several countries, others have made some progress which is especially visible in South Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltic States. Development of regional networking including Central and Eastern European HR Network and a number of national networks helped to coordinate joint advocacy effort and in some cases sustain HR services. Activism of drug users and people living with HIV (PLWH) increased in the region in the last several years and helped to better link HR with the affected communities. Still a number of challenges remain important for the movement today such as repressive drug policies; stigma and discrimination of IDUs, PLWH, sex workers and inmates, including poor access to prevention and treatment; lack of important components of HR work such as naloxone distribution and hepatitis B vaccination, prevention in prisons; issues of quality control; sustaining services after finishing of major international projects; reaching of adequate coverage and others.

  2. Determinants of Banks’ Performance: the Case of ROE Of G-SIBs in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Iwanicz-Drozdowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of ROE (return on equity for two groups of banks, interrelated by capital links, and their banking sectors.Methodology: For the case study, we chose companies that, in 2011–2013, were designated by the Financial Stability Board as global systemically important banks (G-SIBs and their subsidiaries operating in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE as well as their banking sectors. We sought to identify differences in the performance drivers, taking into account bank-specific and country- (or sector- specific factors.Findings: We found no significant differences in the level of ROE among the analysed groups; however, we identified a different set of determinants and their impact on ROE.

  3. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  4. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  5. Characteristics and Host Country Drivers of Chinese FDI in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Fasshauer, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    , predominantly related, respectively, to private companies' market-seeking activities, state-owned companies' production- and technology-seeking activities, and efficiency-seeking activities in Eastern Europe. Through multivariate regression the study confirms that potentials for market exploitation...

  6. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  7. NICHE TOURISM MARKETS – MEANS OF ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S EASTERN PERIPHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara URSACHE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within Europe, processes of economic convergence and divergence operate at various geographical scales, resulting in a very uneven geographical landscape. As mentioned in the international literature, the European economic space is characterized by a core-periphery structure. From this point of view, tourism has important significance since it is a noteworthy activity in the European Union and contributes to employment, income generation, overall development and economic rejuvenation of rural, peripheral or underdeveloped areas. There has been a shift in the nature of tourism demand driven by changes in consumption patterns, namely an increasing emphasis on more personalized or on specialized forms of tourist packages. This aspect required smaller and more flexible provision that created niche markets capable of providing peripheral areas the opportunity to capitalize on their comparative advantages associated with their natural environments, cultural heritage, and the role of local food in reinforcing personal identity and authenticity. The purpose of this study is to analyze EU’s Eastern periphery (Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia niche tourism markets potential and identify a few guiding principles that may lead to sustainable economic development.

  8. International Gold Market, Stock Market and Business Cycles: the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chirila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During theeconomic recession periods, gold investments seem to become very importantbecause gold is considered a means to preserve the investment value. Gold has also maintained thisfeature during the financial and economic crisis that occurred at the end of theyear 2007. Althoughthe inflation rate has recorded significant increases, the investment in gold has kept its value becausethe price of gold has increased. After the beginning of the financial and economic crisis the price ofgold has also recorded a significant increase in volatility. The aims of this study focus on thecomparative analysis of the gold price cycles and the stock market cycles in the Central and EastEurope as well as the determination of the return of gold investment on the return and risk of stockmarkets in these countries. The results obtained confirm that both the return and the risk in some ofthe stock markets under analysis are influenced by the return of gold investment.

  9. PRE-MARKET CLINICAL EVALUATIONS OF INNOVATIVE HIGH-RISK MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstaert, F.; Neyt, M.; Vinck, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: High-quality clinical evidence is most often lacking when novel high-risk devices enter the European market. At the same time, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is often initiated as a requirement for obtaining market access in the US. Should coverage in Europe be postponed until RCT...... Bodies, Ethics Committees, and HTA agencies were consulted. We also discuss patient safety and the transparency of information. Results: In contrast to the US, there is no requirement in Europe to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of high-risk devices in the premarket phase. Patients in Europe can thus...

  10. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S;

    2017-01-01

    ) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national...... implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. METHODS: During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were...... country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...

  11. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2016-02-01

    In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific 'motivated social cognition' approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  12. An analysis of blogs from medical students on "English Parallel" courses in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, John F

    2013-12-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. Informal discussions with past and present students revealed a marked reluctance to take part in interviews about the nature of "English Parallel" courses. Alternative sources of information include blogs and commentaries written on the internet by present and former students at these schools. Such blogs are relatively limited in number and of variable length. They have been written for a variety of reasons and range in content from commentaries on training to wider discussion of life in Central and Eastern Europe. Six blogs were identified from an internet search, and a qualitative approach was adopted for the analysis of text content. Their experience is assessed, and potential approaches to greater integration of training across Europe are considered.

  13. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  14. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Oleksyn, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Kornik (Poland). Institute of Dendrology

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  15. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Eastern European elections are regarded as outlying cases in international research. According to scholars, the reason for it lies in a low institutionalisation of political parties. In this article, I focus on the developments which occur in the institutionalisation of party systems in the course...... of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  16. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Raluca Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern Europe has become a player on the international market of foreign direct investment (FDI with the fall of communism in 1990. Liberalization of markets has brought both advantages and disadvantages to new states in transition. Despite modest values of FDI received, the share of the region in total global FDI is increasing. Any type of investment, foreign or domestic one, is considered crucial as it generates employment and contributes to the economic growth .This paper tries to provide an analysis of the effects of FDI on the labor force of this region, and specifically in Romania and Poland. We analyzed the quantitative effect on the labor force, more precisely the effect on the employment. Foreign subsidiaries hold an important part of the occupied population, although the number of foreign firms is lower than the domestic ones. Despite the destruction of jobs in the early transition in the process of restructuring, foreign subsidiaries, both directly and indirectly create jobs and usually at a higher rate than the domestic companies manage to do. During the recent financial crisis, foreign subsidiaries proved to be more resilient and the cut off jobs was lower than in domestic firms.

  17. Making business with giants- impact of retail internationalization in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon Henrich; Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Pall, Zsombor

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasingly globalized markets and internationalization, the food retail business has undergone a number of structural changes. Former nationally oriented retailers have suddenly become global. This process in the retail sector affects also new structures in the agribusiness, most notably as general retailers export their business models. A comparison of the development and the impact of globalization in the retail sectors of different Central and Eastern European countries reveal var...

  18. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav;

    2015-01-01

    variation in the level of media freedom within and across the former communist countries? What are the direct and indirect effects of the global financial crisis on the trends of democratization vs. authoritarianism in CEE? How could eminent newly democratized countries in CEE backslide dramatically to semi...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...

  19. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia.

  20. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.

  1. Comparative politics in central and eastern europe: Mapping publications over the past 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...... is that CP is rather marginal in CEE Political Science. Furthermore, CP articles predominantly focus on the authors' country of origin, use off-the-shelf data, apply mostly qualitative data analysis techniques, and rarely take a historical perspective. © 2013 European Consortium for Political Research....

  2. Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilena MIHAYLOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on income inequality in ten countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the period 1990 – 2012. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on the distributional effect of FDI is outlined. Second, we discuss briefly general trends in FDI inflow and income inequality in the countries from CEE after 1990. Third, we estimate several fixed effects regression models and find that FDI has the potential to exert influence on income inequality but this effect varies depending on the level of education and economic development of the host countries.

  3. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  4. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic growth for the group of the eight selected countries. This effect indicates to be stronger after EU accession than before.

  5. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  6. Measuring Central and Eastern Europe's Socio-Economic Development Using Time Lags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik

    This paper applies the 'time lag' method to a set of social and economic indicators, examining the development of Central and Eastern Europe since the first world war. Originally used to assess technology diffusion, this method allows comparison of levels of development between states and through a long period of time. It presents how many years have elapsed between achieving a certain level of development between countries. The results show that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have only narrowly converged with a set of 23 highly-developed 'benchmark' states. Development in monetary terms (gross domestic product per capita) is the indicator where this region lags most. Employment structure, life expectancy or infant mortality show much smaller lags. Communist states were closest to the West in the 1960s-early 1970s and struggled thereafter. They are still mostly lagging more today than at their peak before transformation despite the progress achieved in absolute terms after the fall of centrally-planned economy.

  7. When do people want to retire? The preferred retirement age gap between Eastern and Western Europe explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Tavernier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.

  8. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, ... of the respondents as well as the channel and problem of Sahelian goat market. ... study, it was recommended that government should put in place modern goat market ...

  9. Aid programmes in eastern Europe. Can we learn from Third World experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G

    1995-06-01

    This article opens for debate and discussion the topic of how health-care professionals in the UK can contribute to the improvement of health in developing countries and learn from the process. In 1994, the 50th anniversary of the Bretton Woods agreement which established the World Bank, British and European government aid agencies had substantial funds to support projects aimed at developing countries. Today, the challenges of working in developing countries to create a modern health infrastructure are being mimicked in the newly-independent countries of eastern Europe. Thus, lessons learned in developing countries can be applied to Europe, although huge challenges remain as do questions about the direction of aid programs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The Western perception is that the provision of aid also provides ways for individuals to supplement their income through schemes that would be considered corrupt in the West. In order to draw useful conclusions from the African experience, it must first be recognized that the situation has improved recently and also that practices viewed as corrupt in the West may simply be the way of doing business in Third World countries. Justification for replacing commission-based systems of local aid with modern management techniques rests in the efficiency of the modern systems. It may be a form of neocolonialism simply to impose Western values on other cultures. The upcoming efforts in eastern Europe will also challenge heretofore unquestioned assumptions about the way we do things. The most pressing challenges will arise from the sheer magnitude of the need to provide health care in an atmosphere which engenders apathy towards inadequate services. We must learn from our successes and recognize that without our aid efforts, millions of people, particularly women and children, would have suffered and died.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA signals of late glacial recolonization of Europe from near eastern refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Maria; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Accetturo, Matteo; Metspalu, Ene; Reidla, Maere; Tamm, Erika; Karmin, Monika; Reisberg, Tuuli; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Carossa, Valeria; Gandini, Francesca; Pereira, Joana B; Soares, Pedro; Angerhofer, Norman; Rychkov, Sergei; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Carelli, Valerio; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Houshmand, Massoud; Hatina, Jiři; Macaulay, Vincent; Pereira, Luísa; Woodward, Scott R; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Baird, Douglas; Semino, Ornella; Villems, Richard; Torroni, Antonio; Richards, Martin B

    2012-05-01

    Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age. European populations are believed to be, to a large extent, the descendants of the inhabitants of these refugia, and some extant mtDNA lineages can be traced to refugia in Franco-Cantabria (haplogroups H1, H3, V, and U5b1), the Italian Peninsula (U5b3), and the East European Plain (U4 and U5a). Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. Here we report, on the basis of an enlarged whole-genome mitochondrial database, that a substantial, perhaps predominant, signal from mitochondrial haplogroups J and T, previously thought to have spread primarily from the Near East into Europe with the Neolithic population, may in fact reflect dispersals during the Late Glacial period, ∼19-12 thousand years (ka) ago.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Maria; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Accetturo, Matteo; Metspalu, Ene; Reidla, Maere; Tamm, Erika; Karmin, Monika; Reisberg, Tuuli; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Carossa, Valeria; Gandini, Francesca; Pereira, Joana B.; Soares, Pedro; Angerhofer, Norman; Rychkov, Sergei; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Carelli, Valerio; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Houshmand, Massoud; Hatina, Jiři; Macaulay, Vincent; Pereira, Luísa; Woodward, Scott R.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Baird, Douglas; Semino, Ornella; Villems, Richard; Torroni, Antonio; Richards, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age. European populations are believed to be, to a large extent, the descendants of the inhabitants of these refugia, and some extant mtDNA lineages can be traced to refugia in Franco-Cantabria (haplogroups H1, H3, V, and U5b1), the Italian Peninsula (U5b3), and the East European Plain (U4 and U5a). Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. Here we report, on the basis of an enlarged whole-genome mitochondrial database, that a substantial, perhaps predominant, signal from mitochondrial haplogroups J and T, previously thought to have spread primarily from the Near East into Europe with the Neolithic population, may in fact reflect dispersals during the Late Glacial period, ∼19–12 thousand years (ka) ago. PMID:22560092

  12. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  13. Individual and Country Level Determinants of (PostMaterialist Values in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern European countries as well as the main individual and country level predictors of the postmaterialist value preference. The data from the World Values Survey (WVS and the European Values Survey (EVS, conducted on the nationally representative samples in the period from 1990 to 2008, were used. The main analysis was performed on the data from the fourth wave of EVS (2008/2010, on the total of twenty countries and 30,393 respondents. A number of individual (age, education, income level, size of town, economic hardship in formative years as well as country level variables (inflation and unemployment rate, Human Development Index and GINI index values were used. The results have shown that the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern Europe, measured by the standard four-item index, is relatively low and relatively stable in the period 1990–2008. Younger, urban and more educated respondents as well as the citizens from more developed and economically stable Eastern European nations are more inclined towards postmaterialism. The significance of the current socio-economic conditions for the variation in postmaterialism as well as the insignificance of economic security during the formative period of political maturation calls into question the assumptions of Inglehart’s original model. The possible alternative mechanisms of value change as well as of the (postmaterialist conception are discussed.

  14. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  15. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  16. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix E: Other Hydrocarbons and Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    In 1970 it accounted for 5 60 percent in the fuels balance of Estonia , The major production of oil shale occurs...reported cost of hard coal delivered in Estonia is 1H to 20 rubles per ton. The reported cost of mining oil shale is...Europe. This appendix discusses oil shale , peat, Reothcrmal and uranium resources of energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. I d

  17. Capitalizing on emergence: The 'new' civil security market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has supported the development of a new civil security market, capable of providing security technology for new and global security challenges. This article analyses the emerging growth market for civil security in relation to contemporary notions of potential cris

  18. Labour Market Strategies and Adult Education in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Maurizio

    1991-01-01

    Challenges of a changing Europe for education and training are new technology and organizational patterns, youth unemployment, professional mobility, and migration. Developments in Italy that exemplify change include literacy for immigrants, work-related education for women, "Green Universities," and transferable skills. (SK)

  19. Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    After its re-introduction in the 1960s, cannabis has become the most widely used illicit drug in Europe. Along with the spread of cannabis use, its social meaning has changed over time. Today old paradigms are having renewed appeal, in particular on the subject of cannabis and schizophrenia.

  20. Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    After its re-introduction in the 1960s, cannabis has become the most widely used illicit drug in Europe. Along with the spread of cannabis use, its social meaning has changed over time. Today old paradigms are having renewed appeal, in particular on the subject of cannabis and schizophrenia. Cannabi

  1. Using the Landsat data archive to assess long-term regional forest dynamics assessment in Eastern Europe, 1985-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turubanova, S.; Potapov, P.; Krylov, A.; Tyukavina, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Radeloff, V. C.; Hansen, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic political and economic changes in Eastern European countries following the dissolution of the "Eastern Bloc" and the collapse of the Soviet Union greatly affected land-cover and land-use trends. In particular, changes in forest cover dynamics may be attributed to the collapse of the planned economy, agricultural land abandonment, economy liberalization, and market conditions. However, changes in forest cover are hard to quantify given inconsistent forest statistics collected by different countries over the last 30 years. The objective of our research was to consistently quantify forest cover change across Eastern Europe from 1985 until 2012 using the complete Landsat data archive. We developed an algorithm for processing imagery from different Landsat platforms and sensors (TM and ETM+), aggregating these images into a common set of multi-temporal metrics, and mapping annual gross forest cover loss and decadal gross forest cover gain. Our results show that forest cover area increased from 1985 to 2012 by 4.7% across the region. Average annual gross forest cover loss was 0.41% of total forest cover area, with a statistically significant increase from 1985 to 2012. Most forest disturbance recovered fast, with only 12% of the areas of forest loss prior to 1995 not being recovered by 2012. Timber harvesting was the main cause of forest loss. Logging area declined after the collapse of socialism in the late 1980s, increased in the early 2000s, and decreased in most countries after 2007 due to the global economic crisis. By 2012, Central and Baltic Eastern European countries showed higher logging rates compared to their Western neighbours. Comparing our results with official forest cover and change estimates showed agreement in total forest area for year 2010, but with substantial disagreement between Landsat-based and official net forest cover area change. Landsat-based logging areas exhibit strong relationship with reported roundwood production at national

  2. Electrifying Integration: Electricity Production And The South-East Europe Regional Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, E; Medvedev, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe is explored. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hy...

  3. The Development and Impact of Marketing Capabilities in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    John Fahy; Graham Hooley; Tony Cox; Jozsef Beracs; Krzysztof Fonfara; Boris Snoj

    2000-01-01

    The industrial organisation and evolutionary economics traditions in international business and the resource-based view of the firm in strategic management provide a rich and related set of perspectives on the question of performance in an international environment. This paper draws on these perspectives to examine the nature of marketing capabilities across a range of firm types in Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. A number of key strategic capabilities are examined including market orientation,...

  4. Global Shared Service Trends in the Central and Eastern European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert MARCINIAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to disclose what kind of trends are present in the global business service markets and which appear in the Central and Eastern European (CEE business market. The research determines the most important business service trends that emerged in shared service organizations in the CEE region.

  5. Global Shared Service Trends in the Central and Eastern European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert MARCINIAK

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to disclose what kind of trends are present in the global business service markets and which appear in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) business market. The research determines the most important business service trends that emerged in shared service organizations in the CEE region.

  6. Considerations on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Economies from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Belașcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the causes and consequences of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on five Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia, with the purpose of identifying the common points and the differences between these economies in terms of crisis impact, with an accent on their capital markets. Our findings indicate that although the countries under scrutiny have displayed somehow different paths of economic development before the crisis, they were affected, to a higher or smaller extent, by the financial crisis. Also, the crisis was felt in these countries, at least in terms of impact on capital markets, with different lags: in some of these countries the crisis hit at beginning of 2008, while in others signs of the crisis were visible only towards the end of 2008.

  7. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA...... identified in logistic regression models. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, pculture and/or PCR positive...

  8. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  9. A PVAR MODEL BUILT ON THE RICARDIAN APPROACH TO DEFICITS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BELINGHER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current times, the issue of the deficits became very problematic for the economists, as well as for the practitioners and theoreticians. The purpose of this paper consists in the construction of a Panel VAR model, which has the role to test the Ricardian approach to deficits in several countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analyzed countries are Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine and the time interval starts in 1998 and it ends in 2013.  The used variables are the gross national saving rate and the budget balance for each of the six countries. Our results show that in this geographical-economical area, the Ricardian approach to deficits does not hold as a valid macroeconomic theory.

  10. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  12. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Age at First Birth and Later Life Health in Western and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... domains including socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and social support (Barban 2013; Grundy and Read 2015). The transition to parenthood is a pivotal life-course event whose timing and context may have implications for subsequent family and socioeconomic trajectories and for health (Knoester...... reduced disadvantages resulting from early parenthood. In this article we extend the literature on long-term health implications of early parenthood by comparing associations in Western and Eastern Europe using retrospective life-course data for 11 countries included in the Generations and Gender Surveys...

  14. Determinants of Catch-Up Growth in International Adoptees from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iverson SandraL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Children raised in orphanages frequently experience growth suppression due to multiple risk factors. Placing such children in more nurturing environments through adoption leads to significant catch-up growth (CUG, the determinants of which are not entirely understood. The goal of this study was to perform an auxological evaluation and examine the degree and correlates of CUG in international adoptees. Children adopted from Eastern Europe, (, 71 males, 7 to 59 months of age, were recruited within 3 weeks of their arrival to the US. At baseline, mean height SDS was and 22% were +0.5 in height SDS, was seen in 62% of adoptees at 6 months after adoption; 7% of children remained

  15. Reproductive health in eastern Europe: a collaborative training project in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdicke, F; Horga, M; Campana, A

    2001-11-01

    Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, fundamental political changes in eastern Europe have affected the Soviet-style health care systems that formerly provided basic care for everyone. Many of these systems have collapsed, and the new systems of social insurance that have replaced them often are inadequate. Advanced Training in Reproductive Health in Romania aimed to create an authority in family planning and reproductive health in selected Romanian university centers and to improve training and research capabilities. Initially, the project had 2 main goals: to provide advanced training in reproductive health and family planning to Romanian obstetrics-gynecology specialists from the main university centers-which would allow them to train other physicians (obstetricians, gynecologists, and general practitioners) and medical students-and to develop, test, and finalize specific training materials in Romanian to be used by the new trainers.

  16. Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices

  17. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

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    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  18. Mammal diversity during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzachenko, Andrei Yurievich; Markova, Anastasia Konstantinovna

    2014-08-01

    Fossil record data on the mammal diversity and species richness are of importance for the reconstruction of the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. In Eastern Europe, the transformations during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition consisted mainly in changes in zonal structure and local fauna composition (Markova & Kolfschoten 2008). We investigated the species richness and the analogues of the α, β diversity indexes (in the sense of Whittaker 1972) of large and medium size mammals for 13 climate-stratigraphic units dating to the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, from the Hasselo Stadial (44-39 kBP) to the Subatlantic period and the present day. The biological diversity of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene thermal optimum was investigated in more detail using information about all mammalian taxa (PALEOFAUNA database; Markova 1995). One of our results show that the α, β diversity values show only a negative correlation with the temperature conditions during the Late Pleistocene, the period that is characterized by the so-called 'Mammoth Fauna' complex. For the Holocene faunas the diversity indexes are nearly independent from physical conditions; the α diversity index decreased and the β diversity index increased. The relatively low α diversity and high β diversity indexes for the present-day faunas are referred to the decrease of the population number of some forest species in historical time and the increase of the dominance of unspecialized species or the species connected with intra-zonal ecosystems. The study shows furthermore the occurrence of several East European 'centers' with a high mammal diversity, which are relatively stable during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The orientation of the boundaries between the large geographical mammal assemblages depended, particularly in the northwestern part of Eastern Europe, on the expansion of the Scandinavian ice sheet. © 2013 International

  19. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  20. Welfare regimes in Central and Eastern Europe: Incorporating post-communist countries in a welfare regime typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article uses hierarchical cluster analysis to empirically assess if the postcommunist welfare states of Central and Eastern Europe can be classified according to any of Esping-Andersen’s well-known welfare types, or if they form a distinct group of their own. It shows that

  1. Major methodological challenges for the economic theory of the firm in the economies of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Boehlke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the major methodological challenges in microeconomic theory of the firm in theeconomies of Central and Eastern Europe. The methodological weaknesses of the theory are not only thecause of cognitive limitation but also an important condition for an effective economic policy during thetransition period.

  2. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  3. Harmonising Private Enforcement of Competition Law in Central and Eastern Europe: The Effectiveness of Legal Transplants Through Consumer Collective Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically analyze the manner of harmonizing private enforcement in the EU. The paper examines the legal rules and, more importantly, the actual enforcement practice of collective consumer actions in EU Member States situated in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).

  4. Re-emerging diversity : Rapid fertility changes in central and eastern Europe after the collapse of the Communist regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a detailed analysis of recent fertility changes in 15 countries of central and eastern Europe and in the former East Germany. It focuses on the period after 1989, which witnessed a profound transformation in childbearing patterns, including a rapid decline in fertility rates, t

  5. Teaching the Social Construction of Regions in Regional Geography Courses; Or, Why Do Vampires Come from Eastern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the difficulty of teaching about the construction of regions in regional geography courses, which are themselves built on a metageography that often goes unquestioned. The author advocates the use of popular culture to make this very complex issue palpable for undergraduates. Thus, the construction of Eastern Europe within a…

  6. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  7. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  8. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to inform

  9. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  10. Non-Territorial Autonomy and Political Community in Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Smith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen the adoption of laws on non-territorial autonomy (NTA by several states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, as well as debates on the applicability of this concept to other countries of the region. This development has in turn elicited a growing interest from international organisations in the potential of NTA as a modality of minority rights provision in the New Europe. In spite of this interest, relatively little is known about the practical implementation of NTA within this setting and its reception by ethnonational minorities and majorities alike. This article offers a preliminary comparative analysis of debates and practices around NTA in four countries-Hungary, Romania, Estonia and Russia-and seeks to link these cases to broader Central and East European-focused debates on state and nation-building, democratisation and participation in public life. By way of conclusion, it makes a case for further research on NTA 'from the ground up', focusing more squarely on the everyday practice of autonomy from a minority perspective and how this might inform and deepen understandings of minority agency within current processes of political community building in CEE and-ultimately-beyond.

  11. Vestiges of an Ancient Border in the Contemporary Genetic Diversity of North-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu M Neuvonen

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.

  12. Limitation of Biofuel Production in Europe from the Forest Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Dotzauer, Erik; Kindermann, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The European Union has set a 10% target for the share of biofuel in the transportation sector to be met by 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuel is expected to replace 3 to 5% of the transport fossil fuel consumption. But the competition on the feedstock is an issue and makes the planning for the second generation biofuel plant a challenge. Moreover, no commercial second generation biofuel production plant is under operation, but if reaching commercial status, this type of production plants are expected to become very large. In order to minimize the tranportation costs and to takle the competetion for the feedstock against the existing woody based industries, the geographical location of biofuel production plants becomes an issue. This study investigates the potential of second generation biofuel economically feasible in Europe by 2020 in regards with the competition for the feedsstock with the existing woody biomass based industries (CHP, pulp and paper mills, sawmills...). To assess the biofuel potential in Europe, a techno-economic, geographically explicit model, BeWhere, is used. It determines the optimal locations of bio-energy production plants by minimizing the costs and CO2 emissions of the entire supply chain. The existing woody based industries have to first meet their wood demand, and if the amount of wood that remains is suficiant, new bio-energy production plants if any can be set up. Preliminary results show that CHP plants are preferably chosen over biofuel production plants. Strong biofuel policy support is needed in order to consequently increase the biofuel production in Europe. The carbon tax influences the emission reduction to a higher degree than the biofuel support. And the potential of second generation biofuel would at most reach 3% of the European transport fuel if the wood demand does not increase from 2010.

  13. TAX COMPOSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. A PANEL-MODEL APPROACH FOR EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURA PETRU-OVIDIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  14. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  15. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF THE TOBACCO BLACK MARKET IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smuggling is a global phenomenon and so well-organized that it poses a serious threat to public health and national economies. The aim of the article is to highlight the main definitions and classifications between illegal tobacco trade and cigarette smuggling and also to describe the general situation of Europe. Based on data retrieved from International Tobacco Trade and UNODC, the paper is focused on the price differences, source countries, supply and demand and on the analysis of reports and articles. Furthermore the main findings emphasize the role of high taxation and corruption which have affected the European economies.

  17. 76 FR 47180 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... marketing plan, with amendments to the contract term and resource pools marketing plan principles. The... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE) published the proposed 2021 Power Marketing...

  18. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  19. Climate change: impacts on electricity markets in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Haddeland, Ingjerd

    This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2%, while the net effect is an increase of only 1%. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4%. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8%, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries.

  20. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  1. The Changing Legal Climate for Marketing and Advertising in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S. Watson

    Although advertisers and marketers can expect stronger controls in all West European countries, especially by governments, they must be alert to country-by-country differences. Political moves to the left in any country will hasten controls. Consumerism is militant in some countries, practically dormat in others. Although self regulation is strong…

  2. Geochemistry And U-Pb Dating Of The Magmatism In Eastern Srednogorie Zone, SE Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.

    2006-05-01

    In the Carpathian-Balkan segment of southeastern Europe a prominent magmatic belt of Upper Cretaceous calc-alkaline rocks extends from southern Romania through eastern Serbia and all across Bulgaria. This more than 1000 km belt is known as the ABTS (Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie) magmatic and metallogenic belt and it hosts most of the major Cu-(Au) porphyry deposits in Europe. The formation of this belt is broadly related to the northwards subduction of former Tethyan Ocean beneath the European continental margin, but the complex regional geodynamic evolution remains not well understood. We present new geochemical and geochronological data for the Eastern Srednogorie zone - the easternmost parts of the ABTS belt that displays specific features in terms of tectonics, magmatism and metallogeny. Magmatism in this zone is the most voluminous, basic and K-rich, compared to the other parts of the ABTS belt. Mafic igneous rocks prevail in this zone with mostly intrusive varieties to the south and mostly volcanic rocks in the northern part. Across the belt from south to north a compositional change can be traced from tholeiitic, Ca-alkaline, high-K Ca-alkaline, shoshonitic to high-K transitional rocks. This is interpreted to represent different parts of the former island-arc system: from south to north the fore-arc, axial part and back- arc part. The absolute abundances and ratios of trace and REE elements are consistent with this petrochemical zonality. Trace element chondrite normalized patterns display a marked Nb-Ta trough. The REE elements patterns show light-REE enrichment and a relatively weak Eu anomaly. We conducted LA-ICPMS and high precision TIMS U-Pb dating of single zircon grains from different plutons in the southern intrusive part. The results show that the intrusive bodies crystallized during the Campanian in a relatively narrow time span: from 81 to 78 Ma, with the exception of one diorite (Monastery Heights) pluton dated at 86 Ma. Inherited concordant

  3. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  4. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor.

  5. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  6. Youth labour market integration across Europe: The impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional fa

  7. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive); Proyecto de integracion de mercados regionales en Europa (Directva europea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  8. Equality of opportunities for next generation researchers: bridging the gap between theory and practice in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gyürky, György; Heiri, Oliver; Robinson, Nathaniel D.; Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the historical opening of the European Union to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there is still a striking difference in the success of European countries in attracting research funds and talented researchers. A number of indicators document the differences in research success and research opportunities between Eastern and Western European countries, and even between Northern and Southern Europe. Differences, as described for example by a number of secured ERC grants, apply to all research fields and to researchers at all stages of their careers. While statistical analysis document large gradients in research performance across the continent, the underlying issues that young researchers struggle with are common across Europe, although they impact research environment to a different extent. These issues are presently being discussed within Sci-Generation, a COST Targeted Network that aims to enhance the European research environment for the next generation of young researchers. The major goal of the network is to contribute ideas towards overcoming these differences in opportunities across Europe. Targeting researchers in the early stage of their independent carrier or in the transition to independence, Sci-Generation is devoted to inclusiveness in order to represent a diversity of issues in science policy in Europe. In particular, the network's Working Group 1 focuses on the countries of Eastern and Southern Europe with less success in attracting European research funding. Among other issues, we considered the involvement of young researchers in decision-making processes at all levels important in order to increase the systems' transparency. As shown by an ongoing study of how language affects the evaluation of research applications, the use of the local language serves, in some cases, as one of the last stands of "science-managing elites" that grew up in systems before 1990. We discuss how a lack

  9. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  10. Passion and Exploitation Among Young Adults with Different Labor Market Status in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Bergqvist

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the relationship between attitudes to work, wellbeing, and labor market status among young adults in Europe and to discuss the extent to which the relationship can be understood in terms of passion or exploitation. This aim is made concrete in the following research questions: To what extent do young adults in Europe have a passionate attitude to work? Are there differences between groups with various labor market status and nationalities? Are there differences in levels of well-being between the groups of young adults with different labor market status, and differences between the countries? The results are based on an individual survey conducted with three categories of young people (18–34 years old: long-term unemployed, those in precarious employments, and those regularly employed. The study had a cross-national comparative design and the countries included were France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.

  11. Job Market Polarization and Employment Protection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara

    Although much attention has been paid to the polarization of national labor markets, with employment and wage growth occurring in both low- and high- but not middle-skill occupations, there is little consistent evidence on cross-country dierences in this process. I analyze job polarization in 12...... European countries using an occupational skill-intensity measure, which is independent of country-specific labor supply conditions. Extensive cross-country differences in the extent of polarization correspond to variation in economic conditions and to dissimilarities in the employment protection...

  12. Labrador Sea surface temperature control on the summer weather in the Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatiuk, Natalia; Vihma, Timo; Bobylev, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have addressed the linkages between the Arctic Amplification and mid-latitude weather patterns. Most of them have focused on the effects of changes in sea ice, terrestrial snow or open ocean SST on the air temperature in selected mid-latitude areas. However, when analysing such potential linkages, one should be aware that from the point of view of the atmosphere it is almost the same whether the thermal forcing originates from the sea ice melt, snowmelt, or changes in SST. Most important is to quantify how the atmosphere responds to anomalies in the surface temperature and then affects weather patterns in remote areas. For this purpose, we studied the hemispheric-scale relationships between anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere Earth surface temperature (Ts) and 2-m air temperature (T2m) in mid-latitudes (Central and Eastern Europe). Using regression analyses based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we assessed the said temperature relationships with focus on the lagged monthly and inter-seasonal linkages. Technically we divided the Northern Hemisphere in equal areas with a size of 15x10 degrees and calculated correlation coefficients for the monthly mean temperatures between all defined regions from one side and the Central/East European study regions from another side over the period 1979-2014. Using this approach, we found that the strongest links in the considered kind of relationships take place between spring sea surface temperature in the Labrador Sea and summer air (T2m) temperature in the Eastern Europe. In order to confirm the correlation results obtained, to identify thermal forcing factors and to assess their relative importance, we analysed the multiyear averages and anomalies of various meteorological parameters for 10 coldest and 10 warmest springs and summers in the period 1979-2014: surface pressure, total precipitation, sea-ice and total cloud cover, wind components, surface solar radiation downwards, surface heat fluxes and air

  13. Market Manipulation in Russia and in Europe: The Criminal Law Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Klepitskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Russian law on criminal market manipulation and compares it with equivalent rules in Western Europe. The Russian rules do not work; no one has been charged or sentenced for market manipulation since the relevant laws came into force. The Russian rules on criminal liability for market manipulation do not complement the general rules on fraud, they duplicate them. Our prohibition on market manipulation is unclear and is not comprehensive, i.e., there are gaps in the law. This prohibition and the criminal law rules based on it require serious revision; it is necessary to eliminate the gaps and make the law clear. It is inappropriate to subordinate the liability for this crime to the fact of causing consequences expressed formally in a sum of money. The rule of law requires a logical generalization. Establishing criminal liability for negligent market manipulation in Russia seems premature.

  14. Market Concentration and Profitability of the Grocery Retailers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to internationally compare the market concentration of grocery retailers in the six countries of Central Europe – Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The market concentration was measured by CR4 ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the GRS index. Data covered the period 2010 – 2015. The secondary data came from the Euromonitor International and Bureau van Dijk databases. The results showed that the market structure of the Central European grocery retailers has mostly a character of asymmetric oligopoly. The pairwise correlation did not reveal any strong relationship between the market power and profitability of the grocery retailers. The Central European grocery market is controlled by strong national retail chains and multinational companies which operate modern grocery retail formats. However, traditional grocery retailers are still popular in Hungary while traditional individual grocers in other countries are disappearing or gradually joining the networking system based on franchising.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF BANKS WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The privatization has as purpose to reestablish the functionality of a type of property under the public agreement. The privatization of banks brings both positive and beneficial aspects, but also some notions with a negative impact that influence the capital markets and banking system. Among the benefits we can include: the increase of the effectiveness and performance of the banking operations, the implementation of some effective structures that lead to the gradual integration of the banking system into the greatly developed economies, the improvement and perfecting of the bank services. In Romania, the privatization of banks started rather late and in some cases it turned up to be very difficult. Romanian banking system is dominated by the Austrian and Greek investors. The Romanian banking system is very concentrated, but the intermediation level is still lower than in other European or Eastern European countries.

  16. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  17. The impact of social change on child mental health in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O; Sargent, J; Friedrich, W; Chaffin, M; Cunningham, N; Cantor, P S

    2001-10-01

    The transition of the Eastern European countries in the past 12 years from totalitarian, communist societies to democratic societies has had a broad impact on children's mental health, both positively and negatively. This transition has not been without economic difficulties. All countries in the region experienced a significant deterioration of output that has affected the availability of commodities and services. Although recovery has been achieved in some Eastern European countries and is in progress in other countries, reversal of the cutbacks in allocations to necessary services that protect children and families may take longer to achieve. Movement toward a free market economy and greater individualism also has focused attention away from the role of society to protect and provide care for its citizens, especially the most vulnerable. On the positive side, mental health, as a concept for children and adults, comes to be appreciated only in a society that values and safeguards individual rights. Democratic process within the family, the depoliticization of mental illness, the passage of laws assuring basic children's rights, services for and public awareness about children abuse, reforms in education, the proliferation of mental health clinics and support centers, and the resumption of training of mental health professionals all set a tone to first consider, then assure, the positive development of children's mental health.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  19. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  20. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Martin

    2014-01-27

    The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a

  1. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  2. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Niemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the sources, compositions and size distributions of aerosol particles during long-range transport (LRT PM2.5 episodes which occurred on 12–15 August, 26–28 August and 5–6 September 2002 in Finland. Backward air mass trajectories, satellite detections of fire areas and dispersion modelling results indicate that emissions from wildfires in Russia and other Eastern European countries arrived in Finland during these episodes. Elemental analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses (EDX showed that the proportions of S-rich particles and agglomerates (agglomeration was caused partly by the sampling method used increased during the episodes, and they contained elevated fractions of K, indicating emissions from biomass burning. These aerosols were mixed with S-rich emissions from fossil fuel burning during transport since air masses came through polluted areas of Europe. Minor amounts of coarse Ca-rich particles were also brought by LRT during the episodes, and they probably originated from wildfires and/or from Estonian and Russian oil-shale-burning industrial areas. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentrations of sulphate (SO42-, total nitrate (NO3-+HNO3(g and total ammonium (NH4++NH3(g increased during the episodes, but the ratio of the total amount of these ions to PM10 concentration decreased, indicating unusually high fractions of other chemical components. Particle number size distribution measurements with differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS revealed that concentrations of particles 90–500 nm increased during the episodes, while concentrations of particles smaller than 90 nm decreased. The reduction of the smallest particles was caused by suppressed new particle formation due to vapour and molecular cluster uptake of LRT particles. Our results show that emissions from wildfires in Russian and other Eastern European countries deteriorated air quality of

  3. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  4. SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: SCOPE AND METHODS OF FINANCIAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wiśniewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European (CEE capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity and depth (liquidity, however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs – especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”. Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility. Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.

  5. Marketing everything and theming sameness: Urban destination marketing in contemporary Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the academic and practitioner literature on urban destination marketing, suggesting that it contains within it a dominant paradigm which the author characterises as 'the theory of marketing competitive advantage'. As such, this theory requires towns and cities to differentiate themselves through the provision of unique products, based on which they subsequently undertake branding, market positioning, distribution and other activities through bespoke destination marketing organisations (DMOs. Practice is then contrasted with theory by reference to a discordant strad of the literature as well as the actual destination marketing currently being undertaken in 60 European towns and cities. The theory of marketing competitive advantage is shown to be an ideal which rarely translates into practice. Irrespective of whether or not a town or city possesses competitive advantage, DMO destination marketing gravitates almost inexorably towards a 'marketing of everything'. Such an approach, in turn, reduces to a bland and monolithic 'theming of urban sameness', all of which is diametrically opposite to what one would expect to be the case as per the theory of marketing competitive advantage. The author contends that this gap between theory and practice matters, necessitating a rethinking of how academics and practitioners should in future seek to explain or otherwise account for urban destination marketing.

  6. Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben

    2016-01-01

    During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these co......During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both...... and contain the S-gene and 3a sequences from PEDV within a backbone of TGEV, but the viruses are clearly distinct from each other. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that pigs from within the SeCoV-infected herd seroconverted against PEDV but tested negative in a TGEV-specific ELISA that detects...

  7. Immigrants from Eastern Europe: Ukrainian in Spain / Inmigrantes de Europa del Este: ucranianos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sánchez Urios

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article means an approach to one of the most relevant and unknown migratory flow in Spain. This article begins expounding the main causes that triggered the Eastern bloc countries population movements to Europe. After the incorporation of these countries to European Union, Ukrainian people have become one of the most greatest representatives in our country that are called Eastern Europe immigrants. In general, Ukraine is an unknown country to the public opinion, but being a border area between West and Orient, and between European Union and Russia, it has a special meaning. In the other hand, the development and evolution of this migratory movement are reviewed in this article through the main statistical sources of access to the information about immigrants in Spain. Likewise the main sociodemographic characteristics of Ukrainians resident in our country are also presented in this text.

  8. The Real Economy after Episodes of Financial Crises in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Apostoaie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the most critical international economical and financial crisis of the 21st century brought into the spotlight the damages that crises can bring to our economy. After its burst in the autumn of 2007, the crisis has spread all over the world through the Contagion Effect, and has led to an accelerated and sharp deterioration of economic activity. The effects of the episodes of financial crises have on the real economy seem to be more important and persistent in some specific countries. For this reason we focused our attention upon eight European transition countries and a sample of thirteen financial crises. The aim of this study is to perform an econometric analysis of the effects of episodes of financial crises on real output (GDP for eight economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE using an ARDL equation and an impulse response function. The main findings of the paper suggest that, in the case of the CEE economies analyzed, financial crises have an important and long-lasting effect, lowering the real output by about 12-14%.

  9. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  10. Evolution of the Water Vapor Plume over Eastern Europe during Summer 2010 Atmospheric Blocking

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    Sergei A. Sitnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of water vapor (WV plume evolution over Eastern Europe (EE during atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010, carried out on the basis of satellite (MODIS and MLS instruments, aerological, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The obtained results show that the development of blocking was accompanied by the development of a positive anomaly of total column water vapor (TCWV content over the northern part of EE. Local TCWV content from 28 July to 6 August 2010 reached 3.35 cm, a value that exceeded by 3.3 times its content before the block. The surplus of WV was mainly conditioned by the advection of WV due to transfer of moist air from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea into northern EE and also due to increased evaporation from the surface enriched with water due to increased temperature and wind. We hypothesize that the influx of latent heat in the block area can contribute to the energy supply of the blocking anticyclone and prolong the existence of block. Strong humidification of the troposphere and some dehumidification of the lower stratosphere during the block were accompanied by warming of the troposphere and cooling of the lower stratosphere.

  11. Impact of wild forest fires in Eastern Europe on aerosol composition and particle optical properties

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    Tymon Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss the changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD in the region of eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea due to wild fire episodes which occurred in the area of Belarus and Ukraine in 2002. The authors discuss how the biomass burning aerosols were advected over the Baltic area and changed the composition of aerosol ensemble for a period of several summer weeks. The air pressure situation and slow wind speeds also facilitated the development of such conditions. As a consequence very high AOD levels were recorded, by an order of 3–4 higher versus normal conditions and they significantly increased the annual averages. On particular days of August 2002 the AOD values reached a level of over 0.7. On these days fine particles fully dominated the entire ensemble of aerosol particles. They were either sulfates or smoke particles. Such situation was unique over a period of many years and it had its serious consequences for the region and especially for the Baltic Sea.

  12. THE SCOPE OF DUE DILIGENCE IN CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

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    Alen Sacek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border acquisitions play an important role in the corporate strategic development and international expansion. The paper summarizes the results of the dissertation, which intends to establish vital link between research and practice, deeply exploring the risk assessment methods and the scope of due diligence audit in the pre-acquisition phase. The central hypothesis of the comprehensive model stated that thorough due diligence in the pre-acquisition phase is necessary to make successful cross-border acquisition. The empirical evidence has been drawn on data sample of acquisitions made by automotive firms in cross-border acquisitions in the Central and Eastern Europe. The main results support the proposition that the thorough due diligence audit is necessary pre-requisite for successful acquisition. The findings further support the clear trend: In the past few years, several big automotive leaders strategically gain more control over their supply chains by acquiring technology specialists. From a practical standpoint, the research results provide acquisition management with a simple method of performing the pre-acquisition evaluation of potential acquisition candidates.

  13. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

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    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  14. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

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    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  15. Palliative Care Information Needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Saskia; Klose, Jasper; Brearley, Sarah; Hegedus, Katalin; Payne, Sheila; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-national survey, we examined the information needs and barriers to accessing palliative care information in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In total, 584 healthcare professionals from 22 countries completed the questionnaire. Information on legislation and official papers (67 percent) and information on education courses in palliative care (65 percent) were the most frequently reported information needs. Major barriers to accessing palliative care information were language and a lack of easily accessible and affordable, clinically relevant information. An informative Web site, an electronic newsletter, and regular meetings or conferences were rated as the most important information channels. We concluded that access to reliable and well-structured information should be facilitated for healthcare professionals in CEE and CIS countries to assist them in their clinical decision making. Most importantly, more in-depth qualitative research and dialogue with stakeholders in the different countries are needed to develop context-specific, tailor-made strategies.

  16. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

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    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  17. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  18. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-11-01

    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States.

  19. Causes of fertility decline in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, J

    1970-07-01

    Abstract The first part of this study (which appeared in the preceding issue of Population Studies) assessed the extent of the decline in fertility in the countries of the area during the last 10-15 years, and analyzed the purely demographic aspects ofthis phenomenon. Part II examines the socio-economic differentials in fertility, with regard to such variables as urban-rural residence, socio-occupational and employment status of women, educational attainment, income and housing conditions, and the consequent impact of structural changes in these characteristics of the population on observed fertility trends. The broad conclusion is that the fertility differentials usually found in western societies are also relevant to the socialist countries of eastern Europe, and that the dramatic falls in fertility in the 1950's and the 1960's have largely been the outcome ofthe deep and rapid structural changes, particularly those associated with urbanization, educational attainment and the incidence of female employment. The last part of the study is concerned with the impact on post-war fertility trends of social legislation and of general economic policies, particularly in the fields of employment and income. An appraisal of the extent of family planning is followed by a discussion of the recent pro-natalist measures introduced in most countries of the area and of their effectiveness.

  20. Genome size and phenotypic variation of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae species from Eastern Europe and temperate Asia

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    Magdalena Anna Dąbrowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term research, the aquatic genus Nymphaea still possesses major taxonomic challenges. High phenotypic plasticity and possible interspecific hybridization often make it impossible to identify individual specimens. The main aim of this study was to assess phenotypic variation in Nymphaea taxa sampled over a wide area of Eastern Europe and temperate Asia. Samples were identified based on species-specific genome sizes and diagnostic morphological characters for each taxon were then selected. A total of 353 specimens from 32 populations in Poland, Russia and Ukraine were studied, with nine biometric traits being examined. Although some specimens morphologically matched N. ×borealis (a hybrid between N. alba and N. candida according to published determination keys, only one hybrid individual was revealed based on genome size data. Other specimens with intermediate morphology possessed genome size corresponding to N. alba, N. candida or N. tetragona. This indicates that natural hybridization between N. alba and N. candida is not as frequent as previously suggested. Our results also revealed a considerably higher variation in the studied morphological traits (especially the quantitative ones in N. alba and N. candida than reported in the literature. A determination key for the investigated Nymphaea species is provided, based on taxonomically-informative morphological characters identified in our study.

  1. Geothermal resources in eastern European countries. Higashi Europe shokoku no chinetsu shigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanehara, K. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    In this article, a survey is made on the geothermal resources in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria on the basis of documents and its outline is introduced. First, the outline of geology needed at least for understanding the geothermal resources of these countries is stated, the division of Europe into Eo-Europa, Palaeo-Europa, Meso-Europa and Neo-Europa is shown and the geothermal resources in the above eastern European countries are mentioned in detail in the order of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania and Bulgaria. Each country above is rich in the geothermal resources of low enthalpy of about 100 {degree} C with mainly carbonate layers from the Paleozoic era to the mesozoic era and cenozoic sandstone layers, etc. as reservoir layers, centering around the sedimentation belts which have been formed since the orogonic movements of the Alps. In these countries, naturally gushing out hot springs have positively been used for the recuperation purposes since the Roman era, but the development and utilization of the hot water resources in t e deep subterranean location has started only recently. 32 refs., 16 figs.

  2. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

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    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  3. Portuges, Catherine and Peter Hames, eds. 2013. Cinemas in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 279 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Tőke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portuges, Catherine and Peter Hames, eds. 2013. Cinemas in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 279 pp. Reviewed by Lilla Tőke, Assistant Professor, CUNY, LaGuardia Community College

  4. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection requireme

  5. Commercial Aquaponics Approaching the European Market: To Consumers’ Perceptions of Aquaponics Products in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Miličić; Ragnheidur Thorarinsdottir; Maria Dos Santos; Maja Turnšek Hančič

    2017-01-01

    The first commercial aquaponics companies are starting up in Europe. The main focus has been on solving technology issues and optimizing production. However, increasing attention is now being paid to certification and regulations linked to aquaponics, as well as the marketing of products and services. The paper presents the results of a study whose main aim was to estimate consumers’ knowledge about aquaponics and their acceptance of aquaponics products in different European regions. An on-li...

  6. Boom and Bust in Central and Eastern Europe: Lessons on the Sustainability of an Externally Financed Growth Model’

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    Béla Galgóczi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary shows the patterns of a production model in Central Eastern Europe (CEE that was based on a specific division of labour within the enlarged Europe. Its foundation was a newly emerged manufacturing base in Central Eastern Europe (CEE and it was seen as a prerequisite for economic renewal in post-communist countries. This production model seems to be in danger now. The first section highlights the main elements of the process where CEE production locations became integrated into the value chains of western European manufacturing enterprises. The example of the automobile industry demonstrates the principles of this production model of with its particular pattern of division of labour between the East and west of Europe. The foundations of the past success have however proved to be fragile, as the dramatic effects of the economic crisis show us these days. The second part of the paper shows, how the particular pattern of the division of labour between East and West have become a risk factor and its sustainability is being questioned.

  7. The Persistence of Pricing Inefficiencies in the Stock Markets of the Eastern European EU Nations

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    James Foye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a range of metrics to test for the presence of weak form market efficiency in the Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004, we test both the years prior to and following accession. The results from our tests indicate that, despite the expectations of many previous studies, even after entering the EU the stock markets of these countries still do not conform to even the loosest form of market efficiency. We improve and extend previous studies by incorporating liquidity controls, applying a wider range of methodologies and by using individual stocks rather than indices.

  8. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  9. The evaluation of public health in South Eastern Europe: from transition to progress

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    Dragan Gjorgjev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The public health services project of the South-eastern Europe health network has undertaken an evaluation of public health services in its nine member countries. The purpose of the evaluation of public health services provision in the South-eastern European (SEE countries is to understand where these countries now stand in public health, the institutional, organisational, legislative and service delivery developments that are taking place and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their public health systems and services in order to inform decision making about investment and future reform.

    Methods: The evaluation was orientated around “essential public health operations” that are deemed to form the core of public health activities and services and to be indispensable to the delivery of modern public health services in any country. The evaluation analysed these activities and services within the structure of the health system functions of stewardship, resource generation, financing and service delivery, as developed by WHO.

    Results: The results demonstrate a mixed picture of strengths and weaknesses within the context of significant social, economic and political challenges in the region. Among the many visible and significant strengths in public health services in the region are well developed networks of public health institutes with well defined surveillance systems, highly experienced and well educated public health professionals as well as many positive examples of service delivery. But there are also many concerns and challenges, not the least of which is political focus, direction and support for modern public health services, as well as funding. Collaboration and partnership among sectors is weak and information and communication systems are inadequate and not sufficiently integrated.

    Conclusions: Having emphasized the main weak and

  10. Comparing Generic Drug Markets in Europe and the United States: Prices, Volumes, and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G; McKEE, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets. Policymakers are assessing how they can save money through generic drugs. We compared generic drug prices and market shares in 13 European countries, using data from 2013, to assess the amount of variation that exists between countries. To place these results in context, we reviewed evidence from recent studies on the prices and use of generics in Europe and the United States. We also surveyed peer-reviewed studies, gray literature, and books published since 2000 to (1) outline existing generic drug policies in European countries and the United States; (2) identify ways to increase generic drug use and to promote price competition among generic drug companies; and (3) explore barriers to implementing reform of generic drug policies, using a historical example from the United States as a case study. The prices and market shares of generics vary widely across Europe. For example, prices charged by manufacturers in Switzerland are, on average, more than 2.5 times those in Germany and more than 6 times those in the United Kingdom, based on the results of a commonly used price index. The proportion of prescriptions filled with generics ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom. By comparison, the United States has historically had low generic drug prices and high rates of generic drug use (84% in 2013), but has in recent years experienced sharp price increases for some off-patent products. There are policy

  11. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE Projec

  12. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  13. Seismic assessment and upgrading of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, T.; Kostov, M.

    1997-03-01

    The basic findings of the seismic re-qualification programmes going on recently at all VVER plants in Eastern Europe can be summarised. The problems of the seismic safety have to be solved taking into account the general concept of the nuclear safety enhancement of the units. There are cases where the system improvements lead to better and more effective solution of the problem than the structural upgrading. The equipment and piping of the primary system have sufficient capacity. The viscous dampers are considered usually for the upgrading. The equipment anchorage especially the electrical and I and C equipment anchorage have to be upgraded. There are general consideration for replacement of the hydraulic snubbers by viscous dampers in the primary circuit of the VVER 440/V230. The considerations are not only because of the better seismic behaviour but mainly because of the better operational performance. There is relatively good seismic instrumentation at the plants considered. The definition of the scram level of the units not designed for an OBE is an essential problem. More effort needed for the definition of this level on the basis of re-evaluation experience of the plant equipment and after the proper definition of post-earthquake activities. The seismic re-evaluation and re-qualification of the VVER units is a general safety issue in Easter European countries. This rather complex problem can be solved adopting the experience, methods and requirements of western countries and taking into account the design features of the VVER units as well as the as built and as it is conditions. (J.P.N.)

  14. Is Europe 'giving in to baby markets?' Reproductive tourism in Europe and the gradual erosion of existing legal limits to reproductive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Britta C

    2015-01-01

    The main question in this article is how national legal orders in Europe, given their often restrictive laws on reproductive markets and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), are currently responding and should respond to reproductive tourism, in light of the fact that access to foreign reproductive markets seems to be making these national laws 'merely symbolic'. Although many national governments have finally managed after many years of political and legal struggles to establish a carefully balanced legal framework for the regulation of these often ethically and religiously sensitive matters, ironically reproductive travel seems to be turning national reproductive laws into a dead letter. Currently, as a reaction to these developments, new legal strategies are being proposed and explored. Within the European context, the view is gaining ground that laws that curb international reproductive markets and their accompanying streams of fertility tourism have become ineffective, meaningless, and even harmful. As a result, a certain tendency towards tolerance of reproductive markets and reproductive travel can be detected in both politics and academia. According to this line of reasoning, restrictive and prohibitive legislation should be replaced by more pragmatic policies that take the realities of reproductive markets as a starting point. From this perspective, the legal restrictions within the country of origin, rather than the lack of regulation in the country of destination, should be regarded as the core of the problem. As a result, an increasing number of scholars and policy makers are arguing for more lenient national policies towards ARTs, hoping to thereby remove the main incentive for aspiring parents to resort to foreign reproductive services. This emerging pragmatic strategy of tolerance towards reproductive tourism and international reproductive markets rests on three arguments, which are each critically examined in this article. Although these

  15. Three Concepts of Competitiveness Measures for Livestock Production in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the overview of competitiveness measures applied in measuring competitiveness of livestock production in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. Three concepts of competitiveness are presented that are based on (i Porter’s diamond of competitive advantage, (ii competitiveness measures based on accountancy data and Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM approach, and (iii competitiveness measures based on international trade data. On the basis of the presented results the paper evaluates competitiveness of livestock production in CEE countries focusing on policy implications of transition and integration of CEE’s countries livestock sectors into the Single European Market. Low international competitiveness In CEE countries is for beef and milk, but with some indices of most recent improvements. Pork production (e.g. in Bulgaria and sheep production (e.g. in Slovakia may become internationally competitive. Less clear pattern is for the poultry sector. Some improvements may arise as result of a deep restructuring, quality, technology and efficiency improvements and rationalisation of costs, including in food processing.

  16. Spatial variation of in-migration to Moscow: Testing the effect of housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashnitsky, I.; Gunko, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of state socialism and the introduction of market relationships in Central and Eastern Europe resulted in profound changes of urban development. Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe indicates that the development of a strong housing market and growing material inequalities

  17. Spatial variation of in-migration to Moscow: Testing the effect of housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashnitsky, I.; Gunko, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of state socialism and the introduction of market relationships in Central and Eastern Europe resulted in profound changes of urban development. Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe indicates that the development of a strong housing market and growing material inequalities contribut

  18. The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy The respect for and protection of cultural and linguistic diversity have long been guaranteed in various international and European legislative acts. More recently, the European Union has also developed laws aimed at the preservation and promotion of multilingualism. Linguistic diversity has long been seen as an obstacle to the effective functioning of EU institutions. Recently, however, it has been considered as a valuable “heritage” of the EU. In our article, we will present a brief overview of policies promoting multilingualism in Europe, and more specifically, in the EU. Subsequently, we will compare this framework to the changes occurring presently in modern Slavic languages of Central and Eastern Europe. The tendency of these languages towards increased analitism transforms these predominantly synthetic languages into more analytical ones. These conclusions have led us to the following question: What is the current state of modern Slavic languages and how far may their evolution be addressed by policies promoting multilingualism? Our analysis consists of two parts: first, we scrutinised various European legislative acts promoting multilingualism; second, we analysed modern Slavic languages by means of the parallel corpora of chosen languages from the Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure project (including UNESCO and EU legislation, etc..

  19. Farmer cooperatives in the food economy of Western Europe: an analysis from the Marketing point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of farmer cooperatives in Western Europe from the marketing point of view. The analysis is restricted to marketing and processing cooperatives. First some basic characteristics of farmer cooperatives are discussed from a systems point of view. Afterwards chan

  20. Farmer cooperatives in the food economy of Western Europe: an analysis from the Marketing point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of farmer cooperatives in Western Europe from the marketing point of view. The analysis is restricted to marketing and processing cooperatives. First some basic characteristics of farmer cooperatives are discussed from a systems point of view. Afterwards chan

  1. Implementing transparency in an Eastern European office market: preparing Warsaw for global investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Bitterer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of an increasing integration of property and financial markets, the real estate industry is subject to soaring internationalization processes. Since international institutional investors appeared, transnational real estate investments have increased tremendously. In recent years, Central and Eastern European countries have been becoming more attractive to institutional investors and are therefore being integrated into international market structures. Within these countries, Warsaw emerged as the most dynamic and important real estate market. But what are the mechanisms and practices through which the real estate market of Warsaw becomes international? Which networks, intermediaries and frames are necessary to constitute a mature real estate market? The article argues that international real estate consultants are playing a crucial role in the underlying internationalization process. They are acting at the interface between investors, developers, construction companies and tenants and are therefore becoming a crucial hinge between real estate actors. With the example of the Warsaw real estate market we argue that international real estate consultancies are key drivers of the transformation process from a local to a global market. They transfer global knowledge, competence and practices and implement transparent and professional structures in the emerging Warsaw real estate market.

  2. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  3. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  4. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V – Energy and Biomass Engineering (1999. Energy input and net energy gain, expressed in MJ/ha, were used to calculate energy characteristics of crops’ production: energy productivity - kg/MJ, energy efficiency index, energy ratio, energy intensity - MJ/kg, fuel intensity - L/kg. The intensity of all used farm inputs (fuel, seeds, fertilizer and pesticide in crop production systems influences the energy efficiency. The fuel consumption for winter wheat production of the analysed farms ranges between 54 and 91 l/ha. The mean energy ratio (energy-output/energy-input for winter wheat is 5.6 with ranges between 4.8 and 7.1. Besides the fuel consumption the energy-input via the nitrogen-fertilizer is

  5. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  6. AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba-Barańska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the progress of implementation of selected assumptions on sustainability of agriculture in countries of CentralEastern Europe in relation to environmental protection. Data from the input-output balance sheets and the European Environmental Accounts were used to realize the aim of the study. The analysis considered material fl ows to and from agriculture, pollution, and the production and consumption of biomass. The share of the participation of agribusiness sphere I, including mainly services, as well as the fuel, energy and chemical industries, has been increasing in the material infl ows to agriculture in the countries of CentralEastern Europe. This indicates production modernization, associated with a higher load on the environment. The highest emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the environment per 1,000 euro GDP were recorded in Lithuania, Romania and Latvia. The Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia have the lowest values of emissions. In Latvia, there was no overall reduction in pollution emitted by agriculture in 2008–2012. Emission of these pollutants per 1,000 euro GDP and 1 ha UAA (utilized agricultural area of agricultural land decreased in most countries in the analysis. In EU countries of Central-Eastern Europe, a reduction in direct material input and domestic consumption of biomass from agriculture per one euro of GDP is reported. These changes indicate a decrease in the intensity of use of natural resources (dematerialising economy, which is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development. In countries where agriculture is better developed, the implementation of pro-environmental goals of sustainable development takes place to a greater extent than in countries with lower levels of socio-economic development.

  7. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  8. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu Antonie Renata,; Feder Emoke Szidonia

    2008-01-01

    The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania) is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions) and internal type (Greenfield investments) in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy fo...

  9. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  10. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [Tekno Telje (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs.

  11. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients......), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, pMDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p...% CI 1.00-4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66...

  12. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries.

  13. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  14. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie W Efsen

    Full Text Available Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE. We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE and Latin America (LA.Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE, and LA were enrolled.Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844, WE (N = 152, SE (N = 164, and LA (N = 253 in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001, MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001, and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001. Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00-4.09, prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22, and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78 were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (p<0.0001.In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART.

  15. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    , and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from......In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  16. Vaccinology capacity building in Europe for innovative platforms serving emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Jan; Holleman, Marit; Hamidi, Ahd; Beurret, Michel; Boog, Claire

    2013-04-01

    The 2012 Terrapinn World Vaccine Congress held from 16 to 18 October in Lyon addressed in a dedicated session the transfer of innovative vaccine technologies from Europe to emerging markets. Past and recent transfers and experiences from Europe's public domain were summarized by the Netherlands' National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven. The role of capacity building through training courses for developing country partners was highlighted in several recent technology transfer programs developed in collaboration with the World Health Organisation (WHO). In another stream of the Congress, a case of human vaccine technology transfer from Europe's private sector to an emerging economy recipient in India was presented. The continuing globalization of vaccinology is further illustrated by the recent acquisition in 2012 of the Netherlands' public vaccine manufacturing capacity in Bilthoven by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, an emerging vaccine manufacturer. In a parallel development, the Netherlands' government decided to transform RIVM's vaccinology research and development capacity into a new not-for-profit entity: "the Institute for Translational Vaccinology" (see citation 1 in Note section for web address). Under a public private partnership structure, InTraVacc's mission will include the fostering of global health through international partnerships in innovative vaccinology. Projected activities will include training courses and curricula, capitalizing on various currently established platform technologies and the legacy of previous "producer -producer" collaborations between the RIVM and emerging manufacturers over the past 40 y. It is suggested to consider this as a basis for a common initiative from Europe to develop and implement a practical vaccinology course for emerging countries with particular focus to the African region.

  17. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  18. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  19. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  20. Black carbon variability since preindustrial times in the eastern part of Europe reconstructed from Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus, ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Saehee; Faïn, Xavier; Ginot, Patrick; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Kozachek, Anna; Laj, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), emitted by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, is the second largest man-made contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide (Bond et al., 2013). However, limited information exists on its past emissions and atmospheric variability. In this study, we present the first high-resolution record of refractory BC (rBC, including mass concentration and size) reconstructed from ice cores drilled at a high-altitude eastern European site in Mt. Elbrus (ELB), Caucasus (5115 m a.s.l.). The ELB ice core record, covering the period 1825-2013, reflects the atmospheric load of rBC particles at the ELB site transported from the European continent with a larger rBC input from sources located in the eastern part of Europe. In the first half of the 20th century, European anthropogenic emissions resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the ice core rBC mass concentrations with respect to its level in the preindustrial era (before 1850). The summer (winter) rBC mass concentrations increased 5-fold (3.3-fold) in 1960-1980, followed by a decrease until ˜ 2000. Over the last decade, the rBC signal for summertime slightly increased. We have compared the signal with the atmospheric BC load simulated using past BC emissions (ACCMIP and MACCity inventories) and taken into account the contribution of different geographical regions to rBC distribution and deposition at the ELB site. Interestingly, the observed rBC variability in the ELB ice core record since the 1960s is not in perfect agreement with the simulated atmospheric BC load. Similar features between the ice core rBC record and the best scenarios for the atmospheric BC load support anthropogenic BC increase in the 20th century being reflected in the ELB ice core record. However, the peak in BC mass concentration observed in ˜ 1970 in the ice core is estimated to occur a decade later from past inventories. BC emission inventories for the period 1960s-1970s may be underestimating European anthropogenic emissions

  1. Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cynarski, Wojciech J; Sieber, Lothar; Obodyński, Kazimierz; Ďuriček, Milan; Król, Paweł; Rzepko, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe...

  2. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false DE-AT X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V

  3. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  4. Competition in the power markets of Northern Europe; Konkurranse i kraftmarkedene i Nord-Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses the question whether a working wholesale market for electricity will develop in Northern Europe despite the differences in external conditions and in industrial structure. A recent EC directive and the approach towards a liberalization of the European energy markets direct attention to increased integration and trade with electricity. It is unclear whether the directive will have the intended impact. Norway, Sweden and Finland have deregulated their power markets, while Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands still have a monopolistic market structure. The most important difference between the deregulated and the monopolistic systems is that in the deregulated system the technical network activities are separated out and regulated while the suppliers compete in a market. The technical properties of network operation and the systems properties of the network imply advantages under large-scale operation that indicate that network operation is a natural monopoly which must be regulated. However, there are few essential large-scale advantages in the production of electric power. Thus, business based on competition implies that transmission and distribution should be regulated and that competition is allowed in those parts of the trade that do not profit from large-scale operation. International power trade is not necessarily a goal in itself. If transporting the energy carriers used in power production is cheaper than electric power, then the power plants should be placed where the demand is. In the development of the national systems, requirements have been imposed on the power sector in addition to cost-efficiency. Hence there is great variation in production structure and costs among countries, which provides a basis for profitable trade. In fact, there is a great potential for increased efficiency by increasing the trade among the EC countries. 23 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. From Central Planning to Markets: 20 Years of Post-Socialist Transformation in an Eastern German County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelmann, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The Berlin Wall was one of the most visible symbols of two worlds that could not view each other. Thus, the fall of the Berlin Wall--and the fall of Communist regimes all over Eastern Europe, ultimately including the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself--removed the barrier to visibility. These events were revolutions that resulted in the end of…

  6. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  7. Inequality of opportunities in the labor market: Evidence from life in transition surveys in Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abras, Ana; Hoyos, Alejandro; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the degree of inequality of opportunity in labor market outcomes for a selection of countries in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. We adapt the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) methodology that has been widely used to study opportunities of children to measures of inequality in the labor market for working age adults, using data from the Life in Transition Surveys (LiTS) conducted in 2006. We decompose the observed inequalities into components that are att...

  8. Typical pitfalls in applications for marketing authorization of biotechnological products in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian K; Schäffner-Dallmann, Gabriele

    2008-11-01

    Although regulatory standards and procedures in Europe have improved following the establishment of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), the number of major issues with marketing authorization applications for biotechnological products remains high. For example, the pivotal clinical trials of some late-stage failures have been found not to meet the regulatory guidelines of the European Union, and regulators are increasingly concerned that attempts to accelerate the process of biotechnological product development leads to the neglect of important issues. Based on the scientific decisions of the EMEA's major scientific committees, in this article we identify and discuss frequent concerns, and suggest approaches that might enable developers of biotechnological products to avoid these common pitfalls.

  9. Decadal resolved leaf wax δD records of the Younger Dryas in central and eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichner, Bernhard; Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim; Sachse, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Annually laminated (varved) sediments with defined event-based age anchor points such as tephra layers enable the establishment of precise chronologies in lacustrine climate archives. This is especially useful to study subtle temporal differences in the consequences of mechanisms and feedbacks during abrupt climatic changes such as the Younger Dryas over larger spatial areas. To decipher the drivers of ecological changes across the Allerød/Younger Dryas transition in central Europe, we analyzed leaf wax biomarkers from Trzechowskie paleolake in northern Poland. Samples were taken in 10 years intervals across the onset of the Younger Dryas, with the Laacher See Tephra (12,880 yrs BP) as anchor point for age-calibration. Further, we applied compound specific hydrogen isotope analysis to infer past hydrological changes, in comparison to results from the well-dated Meerfelder Maar record located up 900 km to the southwest [1]. Between 12,750 and 12,600 yrs BP, ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes show a transition from a tree-dominated lake catchment (Pinus, Betula) to an environment mainly covered by Juniperus and grasses, which is in agreement with palynological data. δD values of n-alkanes indicate a rapid cooling and/or a change of moisture source together with a slight aridification between 12,680 and 12,600 yrs BP. This is synchronous to a rapid and strong aridification inferred for the beginning of the Younger Dryas at Meerfelder Maar (western Germany) [1] but ca. 170 yrs after the inferred onset of cooling at both Meerfelder Maar and the NGRIP ice core at 12,850 yrs BP. This highlights a different temporal succession and impact of hydrological and climatic changes in eastern compared to western Europe which could potentially be related to the stronger influence of the Fennoscandian icesheets and/or the Siberian High on atmospheric circulation patterns in the more continental climate influenced parts of eastern Europe. [1] Rach O, Brauer A, Wilkes H, Sachse D

  10. Modernisation of power plants in central and eastern Europe: High demand for creativity; Modernisierung von Kraftwerken in Mittel- und Osteuropa: Viel Kreativitaet gefragt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegmann, P.

    1998-07-01

    The retrofitting of old power plants in central and eastern Europe is a task of enormous dimensions and great importance. As all governments there are low in funds, measures to extend service life of the plants are an essential economic alternative to erecting new plants. The demand for retrofitting work opens up good marketing chances for power plant manufacturers of the West on the basis of cooperation agreements with domestic plant manufacturers in those countries, as is shown by the activities of Siemens/KWU. Now as before, creativity is much in demand for solving a substantial problem, the financing of retrofitting projects. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Rekonstruktion alter Kraftwerke in Mittel- und Osteuropa ist eine Aufgabe von enormem Ausmass und grosser Bedeutung. Lebensdauerverlaengernde Massnahmen sind angesichts knapper Finanzen eine wirtschaftliche Alternative zum Anlagenneubau. Gute Marktchancen eroeffnen sich westlichen Firmen durch Kooperationen mit oestlichen Anlagenbauern, wie das Beispiel Siemens/KWU zeigt. Bei der Finanzierung von Projekten ist nach wie vor Phantasie gefragt. (orig.)

  11. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  12. TESTING THE LONG RANGE-DEPENDENCE FOR THE CENTRAL EASTERN EUROPEAN AND THE BALKANS STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the existence of long memory in the the return series for major Central Eastern European and Balkans stock markets, using the following statistical methods: Hurst Exponent, GPH method, Andrews and Guggenberger method, Reisen method, Willinger, Taqqu and Teverovsky method and ARFIMA model. The results obtained are mixed. The Hurst Exponent showed the existence of long memory in all indices, except PX. After applying the GPH method, the results showed that BET, ATHEX, SOFIX and CROBEX have a predictable behavior. The ARFIMA model results support the existence of long memory for BUX, SAX and BELEX. The predictable behavior of index returns may suggest that the CEE and Balkans stock markets are not weak form efficient.

  13. Why Digital Memory Studies Should Not Overlook Eastern Europe's Memory Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Blacker, U.; Etkind, A.; Fedor, J.

    2013-01-01

    n the last decades of the twentieth century, the humanities and social sciences in Western Europe and North America experienced a 'memory boom' that gave rise to new research agendas and provoked interdisciplinary exchange. Less known are the ways in which academic practices of Memory Studies have

  14. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  15. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  16. Kaizen-Driven Approach While Managing Industrial Projects. A Scandinavian Company Succeeds in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European companies have experienced various and radical transformations, as resultof the economic crises and turbulences, which exposed structural weaknesses. In the meantime, long-term challenges - such as globalization, shift of power centers from the nationallevel to international structures or scarcity of resources - intensify. Given this context, it ismandatory for companies to develop strategies aiming at being competitive.

  17. Foreign bank entry and performance with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Fall of the Wall in 1989, large international banks have been opening branches in former Eastern Bloc countries with high expectations. Ilko Naaborg investigated how these banks function in eleven different countries. In 1995, on average, foreign banks made up about 25 percent of the total

  18. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  19. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  20. Institutions, social capital and agricultural change in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Kooten, van G.C.; Suchanek, P.

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental

  1. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  2. The Transformation of University Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: its Antecendents and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Bergan, Sjur; Egron-Polak, Eva; Kohler, Jürgen; Purser, Lewis; Spyropoulou, Athanassia

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the change in governance and management of universities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from a multi-level perspective, discussing the impact of changing institutional logics on university management capacities and university structures. The author draws on

  3. THE IMPACT OF THE CREDIT EXPANSION PROCESS ON SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AREA OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PERCIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at performing an econometric analysis of the credit expansion process and social welfare from a comparative perspective, with a focus on eight developing and advanced economies from Central and South-Eastern Europe (including the case of Romania. The author aims to better understand the real impact of the credit expansion process on social welfare through the financial dimension. In order to achieve this aim, the research seeks to analyze the short-term dynamics (from one quarter to the other of the relationships between the total volume of credits given to the non-banking private sector by the credit institutions (highlighting thus the credit expansion process and the GDP per capita and GDP per person employed (proxies for social welfare. The usefulness of the present study becomes higher given the fact that nowadays the socio-economic development is often assisted by a stronger and more acute crisis.

  4. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  5. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY'S COMPETITION IN TERMS OF ATTRACTING AND RETAINING VALUABLE HR IN EASTERN EUROPE – THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra CIULU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The particularity of hospitality industries in Eastern Europe is that, although most the officials consider tourism & hospitality a strategic priority, a vast majority of researchers and industrialists agree that not enough steps have been taken. Our research focused on the case of Romania, a country facing the challenge of limited qualified personnel in the field, and was built upon qualitative and quantitative tools, examining three groups of potential, part-time & full-time employees, as well as employers, as a fourth group. Results largely support literature in terms of employees being underpaid, undertrained and insufficiently motivated. Still, they can be considered rather suprising in terms of decreasing interest of graduates for the hospitality sector over time and migration to other sectors.

  6. Ideological Bases of Institutional Trust in Eastern and Western Europe and the Effect of Motivated Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the assumption that citizens expect the democratic institutional system to operate in accordance with values and norms that are deeply embedded in public thinking of their country. As individual-level trust towards the institutional system is built mainly on these norms and values, our results show that differences between Eastern and Western European public thinking lead to asymmetries regarding the bases of institutional trust. Specifically, degree of income inequalities and perceived quality of welfare services seem to be more important factors in the postsocialist region in comparison with Western Europe. Furthermore, in accordance with the approach of motivated social cognition, we could also confirm that those with a higher level of conventionality motivation lean on normative ideological elements to a greater extent when they are indicating their personal level of institutional trust.

  7. WELL-BEING INEQUALITY AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: EVIDENCE FROM LIFE IN TRANSITION SURVEYS IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Botezat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between well-being inequality and the economic crisis for countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Using data from Life in Transition Surveys waves 2006 and 2010, we assess the level of happiness gap by computing the instrument-effect-corrected standard deviation. Our results indicate that the dispersion in self-reported well-being levels increased after the economic crisis in all considered countries. We also show that the life satisfaction variation is not necessarily higher for those who report being poor compared to those from the upper part of the income hierarchy. Results also suggest that in general the gaps are higher in the case of those who report being not affected at all by the economic crisis compared to those who report being affected to a large extent by the crisis.

  8. Monetary Policy and Inflation: Is there a Neo- Fisher Effect? Evidence from Inflation Targeting Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleșcău Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we empirically investigate the influence of the low interest rate environmentadopted by inflation targeting countries from Central and Eastern Europe as a rescue measureafter the outbreak of the financial crisis. Moreover, we focus on examining the existence of a NeoFishereffect that may explain the positive relation between interest rates and inflation, withcausality from interest towards inflation rate. We employ a Vector Autoregressive model, togetherwith an impulse response analysis and a variance decomposition technique, to capture theresponse of economic growth and inflation to shocks to the monetary policy. Our main results pointto a negative relation between policy rates and economic growth, as predicted by the economicliterature. However, results show a significant positive relation between interest rates andinflation, meaning that negative shocks to interest rates lead to lower inflation. Also, we find thatthe response of inflation and economic growth is the same, regardless of the crisis or non-crisisperiod.

  9. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  10. The Political Psychology in the Transatlantic Perspective – A Strategy Framework for Eastern Europe: the Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Each nation tends to rationalize the situation, the past – the present and the future – in order to ensure normal living conditions and possible welfare. However, some internally and externally created policies aim to focus or defocus the public’s attention in order to distort the real picture. In political psychology, lies and intrigues are often associated with political effects. All these additional attributes guide the policy into the desired direction. The situation in Ukraine is a real example of a kind of "psychological warfare" of citizens caused as a result of claims made by the neighbouring Russian Federation, political steps and tactics of the European Union and the NATO Alliance. In order to prevent future negative development in this field, there is a need to create a common security strategy for Eastern Europe, as a result of the creation of successful Trans-Atlantic relations and good-neighbourly relations with the Russian Federation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the need for encouraging the creation of a rational attitude of the nations in order to strive for the improvement of the region in which they are located. The theory of public choice is applied as a basis of encouraging a better future in public policies and strategies in a country/region. Political psychology is the main thread utilised to disclose the real picture of relations in Ukraine, and the final results need to be used in the area of ​​creating a new security strategy for Eastern Europe. This work includes empirical research conducted within the Republic of Macedonia. The same applies to the theoretical frame of the paper.

  11. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics - the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winschall, A.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Wernli, H.

    2014-07-01

    Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10-20° N) and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However, in the Eulerian model

  12. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics – the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Winschall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10–20° N and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However

  13. ADJUSTMENT DURING THE CRISIS: INSTITUTIONAL BUFFERS ON THE EASTERN EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Babos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis had profound effects on labour markets of the EU member states in terms of a decline in employment and a rise in unemployment. This paper investigates how the states limited the impact of the change in economic output on the employment and the unemployment. The analysis suggests that there are different labour market institutions influencing the impact of the fall in GDP on the employment decline and unemployment increase. The first part of the paper explores and compares the extent to which the labour market institutions cushioned the impact of the economic crisis on the EU countries. The second part of this paper provides an in-depth comparative analysis of the labour market institutions and the adjustment mechanisms in Central Eastern European countries: Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the end this paper suggests that the specific institutional setting of a country, according to the Varieties of Capitalism, might shape the form of the government response to the crisis and the effect of particular institutions on the adjustment channels. The study shows that adjustment in Slovenia took place mostly within the firms, while in Latvia the most efficient adjustment channels actuated outside the firms, mostly within the government sponsored training programmes and international migration. In Slovakia, government sponsored adjustment, which focused on maintaining the existing positions, prevailed together with the promotion of self-employment.

  14. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": The Value and Impact of the Lisbon Strategy for Strengthening the Role of Local Learning Centres and Partnerships in South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifis, George K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative examination of four local learning centres that provide learning opportunities throughout life in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey. The paper aims to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of local learning centres and partnerships in South-Eastern Europe--in line with the value and…

  15. Increasing Access to Higher Education and the Reproduction of Social Inequalities: The Case of Roma University Students in Eastern and Southeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaz, Stela; Torotcoi, Simona

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how elitist elements are preserved within an expanding higher education. It analyzes whether the choice of field of study may be one of these elements and focuses on the case of Roma students in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The analysis reveals that Roma in the region are not only underrepresented in higher education in…

  16. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present; La percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Europa del Este: pasado y presente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-07-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  17. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Efsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE. Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA at TB diagnosis, identify factors associated with MDR-TB and assess the activity of initial TB treatment regimens given the results of drug-susceptibility tests (DST. Material and Methods: We enrolled 1413 TB/HIV patients from 62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, Western Europe (WE, Southern Europe (SE and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were identified in logistic regression models. Results: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844, WE (n=152, SE (n=164 and LA (n=253 for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001, a definite TB diagnosis (culture and/or PCR positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001 and MDR-TB prevalence (34%, 3%, 3% and 11%, p <0.0001 among those with DST results. The history of injecting drug use [adjusted OR (aOR = 2.03, (95% CI 1.00–4.09], prior TB treatment (aOR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.88–6.22 and living in EE (aOR = 7.19, 95% CI 3.28–15.78 were associated with MDR-TB. For 569 patients with available DST, the initial TB treatment contained ≥3 active drugs in 64% of patients in EE compared with 90–94% of patients in other regions (Figure 1a. Had the patients received initial therapy with standard therapy [Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (RHZE], the corresponding proportions would have been 64% vs. 86–97%, respectively (Figure 1b. Conclusions: In EE, TB

  18. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy

  19. A Firm Level Study of Information Technology Productivity in Europe Using Financial and Market Based Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peslak

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, business has invested significant resources in information technology, hardware, software, and manpower. The Productivity Paradox is the seeming lack of productivity gains despite the increased investment in IT. For many years the existence of a Productivity Paradox has been the subject of research interest. Conflicting results have been obtained from a variety of data sets. Until this time however there has been no study that has investigated European companies’ use of information technology and its impact on productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate information technology productivity with a new data set from a European published source, and measuring productivity using both market and financial based measures. Results of the study indicated that information technology did have a consistent positive impact on firm level productivity in Europe for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. Both market and financial based productivity measures provided consistent positive significant returns with regard to IT productivity. The major contribution of the study is that it provides an analysis of the impact of European information technology on firm and economic productivity.

  20. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  1. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oszlanyi, Julius; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. - Current status of nature protection in countries of the Carpathian Region is described.

  2. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF THE EU ENLARGEMENT TOWARDS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ON THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Viorel MIHAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the European Union keeps taking pride in putting forward the existence of a European Social Model, no study or project was carried out in order to foresee the enlargement effects on this model and mainly how the latter could be successfully implemented by the new Member States, having regard to their own characteristics. It is no coincidence that the references to the European Social Model multiplied during the period when the EU was facing its own enlargement. More and more questions were raised concerning the new Member States convergence capacity, as regards Central and Eastern Europe countries in particular, with all the European Union social rules. The trends in the new Member States, as well as their convictions or their lack of conviction, concerning the European Social Model, have major implications on the tomorrow’s social Europe. In which direction is it heading in an enlarged 25 or 27 nations European Union? This study is aimed at answering at this question having regard, in particular, to the economical and social characteristics of the new Member States and to the possible sources that might give rise to blockings in the social field.

  4. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.

  5. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  6. Systematic study and stratigraphic correlation of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of northwest and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs; Avkhimovitch; Loboziak; Maziane-Serraj; Stempien-Salek; Streel

    2000-11-01

    In northwest and eastern Europe different miospore zonation schemes have been erected for the Famennian rocks, and correlation of these has proved problematical. However, in both regions of Europe Grandispora taxa are common elements in the respective Famennian spore successions, and it appears these taxa may have important intra-continental correlation potential. In order to assess this potential, a C.I.M.P. working group has undertaken a taxonomic study of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of both regions. Representative material from Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium, France and Ireland has been exchanged, and then jointly studied, at four workshop meetings. A consensus of agreement has been reached on the morphological delineation and nomenclature of 13 species of Grandispora, and a description of each taxon is presented. One new species Grandispora tamarae is erected, and six new generic combinations are proposed. The stratigraphic range of each species in both regions is documented and calibrated with the respective conodont zonation schemes. It can be shown that many of the Grandispora species seem to have their first occurrence at similar stratigraphic levels. These new data allow detailed correlations of the Famennian miospore zonation schemes to be proposed.

  7. Macromycetes of beech forests within the eastern part of the Fagus area in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisiewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the author's view on the habitat if individual forest communities based on the fungi she has collected and gives a comparison of the mycoflora of beech forest in Poland and in south and central Europe. The beech forest were studied by the phytosociological method. Fruit bodies occurring on the soil, in the litter and on rotten wood were studied.

  8. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; pmanagement. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice. PMID:27669515

  9. RECENT CONTROVERSIES REGARDING THE DELAYS IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRIES FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Richiter Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The European integration is the best way for the poor Eastern European societies to follow in order to progress. Gathering contacts with the Occident cannot push the former communist societies to the status of chronically backward peripheries. The theory of "modernization" claims that the mere contact with the western modernity is sufficient to remove the elements of the traditional societies which hinder the development and generate progress automatically. Countries, which suffered from th...

  10. The Second Economy in the USSR and Eastern Europe: A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Joseph S. Factory and Manager in the USSR. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1957. Berman, Harold J. Justice in Russia. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press...Hustling on Gorky Street. New York: Dial Press, 1975. Brus, Wlodzimierz, and Kazimierz Laski . "Repressed Inflation and Second Economy under Central Planning...the volume is devoted to Western countries and situations. The three papers devoted to Eastern countries are by Galasi, Brezinski, and Brus/ Laski ; they

  11. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    the final chapter of the Eastern European missile defense saga has yet to be written, this study can contribute to the field of knowledge even at...Canada at the USSR Academy of Sciences. This publication is invaluable in examining how strategic stability was viewed at the twilight of the Cold...the Czech Republic are carrying out deliberations and how Russia is reacting to each particular new wrinkle in the missile defense saga ; and

  12. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  13. Expansion patterns of Dutch firms in Central and Eastern Europe : Learning to internationalize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the internationalization decisions of firms are looked at from a dynamic perspective. Internationalizing firms gradually build the experience that help them to reduce uncertainty and expand further into new international markets. Earlier experiences are seen as stepping stones that he

  14. EXCHANGE RATES AND VOLATILITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: A TEST FOR UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRESCU Dan-Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available At times of heightened global capital market volatility, high-yielding currencies tend to depreciate, while low-yielding currencies tend to serve as a€śsafe heavena€ť. We present the results of a test for Uncovered Interest Parity for selected European cu

  15. The global financial crisis and fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the 2009 Croatian budget odysey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Mihaljek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two main questions: first, what is the scope for domestic and external market-based financing of Croatia’s government budget deficit; and second, what is the scope for expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia. Both questions are addressed from a broader Central and Eastern European perspective, in the context of the economic and financial crisis unfolding in the region since October 2008. The paper analyses how the crisis had spread through financial markets in the region and how it affected the cost and availability of budget financing. It shows that the reliance on market-based financing increased significantly in successive revisions of the 2009 budget despite rising bond yields and interest rates; that government borrowing from domestic banks led to a severe crowding-out of the private sector; and that the sovereign eurobond placement in 2009 was costlier than earlier placements in similar circumstances and other sovereign debt issues in CEE in the first half of 2009. On this basis, the paper argues that expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia would not be effective and would undermine fiscal sustainability and financial stability.

  16. Is intensification a viable way for pond culture in Central and Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Gyalog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s Central and Eastern European aquaculture is based on low production intensity pondculture dominated by traditional extensive and semi-intensive carp-based polyculture technologies, useof complete feeds in pond culture is not prevalent. Meanwhile pond culture in other parts of the Worldhas gone through an intensification process, nowadays high-intensity monoculture technologies dominatein pond farming. Use of complete feeds and application of higher stocking rates have doubled-tripledyields compared to traditional extensive, semi-intensive farming methods. Economic analysis of Asianfarms shows that intensification leads to increased profits per unit area and decreased profitability. Thecalculation of financial results of fish farming technologies of different intensity level show the sameeffect of intensification on viability in Hungary as in Asia: high feeding and stocking rate result inoutstanding profit per unit area and decreased profit margin at the same time. Rising land prices (andrents, fees for usage of water, decrease in area-based subsidies can push the Central and EasternEuropean pond aquaculture toward intensification as high intensity fish rearing in ponds may offer goodalternative for those farmers who have limited access to land (pond area and water. However one musttake the increased risks of high intensity and must have good managing abilities and farming expertisewith special regard to water quality and biomass management.

  17. Homonationalism before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-17

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 126 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  18. Commercial Aquaponics Approaching the European Market: To Consumers’ Perceptions of Aquaponics Products in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Miličić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first commercial aquaponics companies are starting up in Europe. The main focus has been on solving technology issues and optimizing production. However, increasing attention is now being paid to certification and regulations linked to aquaponics, as well as the marketing of products and services. The paper presents the results of a study whose main aim was to estimate consumers’ knowledge about aquaponics and their acceptance of aquaponics products in different European regions. An on-line questionnaire was administered to the general public through the aquaponics network of Food and Agriculture COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action FA1305 “The EU Aquaponics Hub—Realising Sustainable Integrated Fish and Vegetable Production for the EU” in 16 European countries. The methodology includes univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The results show that, on average, attitudes towards aquaponics were positive, showing no significant differences between those who already knew about aquaponics and those who only heard about it through the survey. More than 50% of respondents had never heard of aquaponics, whilst more than 70% had already heard of hydroponics. No more than 17% of respondents were willing to pay more for aquaponically produced products and no more than 40% more when compared to the price of products from conventional farming. The results confirm three different clusters of potential consumers of aquaponics products. They also suggest an urgent need for implementing integrated and holistic approaches involving all stakeholders in aquaponics, in order to define a marketing plan and efficient communication strategies. This COST action, other projects and public decision makers must invest in educating consumers about aquaponics through the organization of guided tours, thematic workshops and tastings of aquaponics products in order to raise their awareness about this new technology. It is

  19. Health reform in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd; McKee, Martin

    2009-10-03

    In the two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist countries in Europe have pursued wide-ranging changes to their health systems. We describe three key aspects of these changes-an almost universal switch to health insurance systems, a growing reliance on out-of-pocket payments (both formal and informal), and efforts to strengthen primary health care, often with a model of family medicine delivered by general practitioners. Many decisions about health policy, such as the introduction of health insurance systems or general practice, took into account political issues more than they did evidence. Evidence for whether health reforms have achieved their intended results is sparse. Of crucial importance is that lessons are learnt from experiences of countries to enable development of health systems that meet present and future health needs of populations.

  20. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    After the fall of the ex-communist system about twenty years ago, the East European countries faced a significant, multilateral challenge in all aspects of their economical, financial, military, scientific and especially educational and professional life. They had a pretty robust tradition in classic education and research, but had to prepare their young generation and specialists for a hard competition for grad-, post grad- and professional level competing with colleagues from other parts of the world. They had to restructure their systems and re-discovered the professional societies. AGU represented a certain model of efficiency on handling various aspects of geoscientific activities: integration of geophysics with other related disciplines like atmospheric sciences, hydrology and hydrogeology, volcanism, geochemistry etc., from deep Earth to the intergalactic space. Close cooperation with other boundary sciences, regular and very well organized meetings dedicated more to Solid earth (AGU Fall Meeting) or Near-Surface Geophysics (AGU Spring Meetings), its very close cooperation with the sister societies from Europe, other North, Central and South American countries as well as the Far East and Australia, permanent opening towards a strong international cooperation with all countries and societies world- wide, very active interest in education and career orientation, strong publication policy represented a certain attraction and a very tempting model for the East European countries. Their very quick development has to be joined by transformation of their higher education and research system in such a way that they become more and more competitive with other countries worldwide. They have to develop their own system so that it attracts more and more youngsters to remain/return home and contribute to the advance of their home countries and, in close partnerships with other developed and developing countries, with the guidance of the professional societies like AGU

  1. Electricity generation development of Eastern Europe. A carbon technology management case study for Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. [School of Environmental Sciences and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Energy and electricity in particular, are of unquestionable value for the welfare of all modern societies. The electricity sectors of Eastern European countries have undergone several phases of development between the post-WWII days within the CEMA and USSR frameworks and today's EU and global energy and environmental regimes. The present paper examines the progress of the Polish electricity sector throughout the last decades, providing useful information regarding not only the technical generation and distribution infrastructure but also the policies that have been and are currently implemented. The results are discussed in the context of indicators such as the electricity intensity and per capita consumption, and show that although the Polish electricity sector has gone a long way, there still are several necessary technology management steps to be taken if Poland is to adequately address the challenges of international competition, electricity supply security and environmental sustainability. (author)

  2. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    instruments are well on the way in the region, land banking instruments have largely failed in the region, at least as tools for supporting land consolidation programs. Based on the limited theory available, the analysis has revealed how limited land mobility is often hampering the outcome of land...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...

  3. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  4. The investment development path in a globalised world: implications for Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guimón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises recent revisions to the investment development path(IDP as postulated by Narula and Dunning (2010. The IDP provides a framework to understand the dynamic interaction between foreign direct investment (FDI and economic development. The revisions take into account some recent changes in the global economic environment. This paper argues that studies based on the IDP should adopt a broader perspective, encompassing the idiosyncratic economic structure of countries as well as the heterogeneous nature of FDI. It is critical to understand the complex forces and interactions that determine the turning points in a country’s IDP, and to more explicitly acknowledge the role of historical, social and political circumstances in hindering or promoting FDI. We discuss some of the implications for EasternEuropean countries and provide some guidelines for future research.

  5. Determinants of banks’ net interest margins in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rizdak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the main determinants of the net interest margin of banks operating in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries in the period from 1999 to 2010. The results reveal several main drivers of net interest margins in the CEE. Prior to 2008 the net interest margins declined primarily due to strong capital inflows and stable macroeconomic environment. In the crisis period, significant rise in government debt accompanied by the increase in macroeconomic risks and abating capital inflows were pushing margins up while other factors such as low credit demand, higher capitalization and significantly increased share of non-performing loans pressured banks’ margins down. The results also confirm the important contribution of higher efficiency to lowering banks’ margins.

  6. POPE study: rationale and methodology of a study to phenotype patients with COPD in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbozinkova Z

    2016-03-01

    of COPD exacerbation ≥4 weeks. Medical history, risk factors for COPD, comorbidities, lung function parameters, symptoms, and pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment are recorded. The POPE project is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02119494.Outcomes: The primary aim of the POPE study was to phenotype patients with COPD in a real-life setting within CEE countries using predefined classifications. Secondary aims of the study included analysis of differences in symptoms, and diagnostic and therapeutic behavior in participating CEE countries.Conclusion: There is increasing acceptance toward a phenotype-driven therapeutic approach in COPD. The POPE study may contribute to reveal important information regarding phenotypes and therapy in real-life CEE.Keywords: COPD, phenotypes, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, study, GOLD, comorbidity

  7. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-12-15

    Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non-communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe.

  8. A Systematic Content Analysis of Policy Barriers Impeding Access to Opioid Medication in Central and Eastern Europe: Results of ATOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjow, Eugenia; Papavasiliou, Evangelia; Payne, Sheila; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Reliable access to opioid medication is critical to delivering effective pain management, adequate treatment of opioid dependence, and quality palliative care. However, more than 80% of the world population is estimated to be inadequately treated for pain because of difficulties in accessing opioids. Although barriers to opioid access are primarily associated with restrictive laws, regulations, and licensing requirements, a key problem that significantly limits opioid access relates to policy constraints. To identify and explore policy barriers to opioid access in 12 Eastern and Central European countries involved in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project, funded by the European Community's Seventh Framework (FP7/2007-2013, no. 222994) Programme. A systematic content analysis of texts retrieved from documents (e.g., protocols of national problem analyses, strategic planning worksheets, and executive summaries) compiled, reviewed, approved, and submitted by either the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe consortium or the national country teams (comprising experts in pain management, harm reduction, and palliative care) between September 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Twenty-five policy barriers were identified (e.g., economic crisis, bureaucratic issues, lack of training initiatives, stigma, and discrimination), classified under four predetermined categories (financial/economic aspects and governmental support, formularies, education and training, and societal attitudes). Key barriers related to issues of funding allocation, affordability, knowledge, and fears associated with opioids. Reducing barriers and improving access to opioids require policy reform at the governmental level with a set of action plans being formulated and concurrently implemented and aimed at different levels of social, education, and economic policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Replacing animal use in physiology and pharmacology teaching in selected universities in Eastern Europe--charting a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David G; Kojic, Zvezdana Z

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the use of animals in teaching and the implementation of innovative technology-based teaching practices across a small sample of universities in Eastern Europe. The research methods used were a questionnaire circulated four weeks before a workshop took place (in October 2009, in Belgrade, Serbia), as well as focused, face-to-face group discussions, led by one of the authors during the workshop. Twenty-two faculty (physiologists and pharmacologists), from 13 Eastern European countries, attended the meeting. Fourteen of the eighteen schools represented at the workshop were making use of animals, in some instances in quite large numbers, for their teaching. For example, a single department at a Romanian university used over 250 animals per annum, and at least 1130 animals were used, per annum, across all of the institutions. The species used in largest numbers were the rat (34%), frog/toad (29%), mouse (22%), rabbit (10%), guinea-pig (4%) and dog (1%). None of the universities sampled had implemented institution-wide virtual learning environments (VLEs), although there were isolated instances of local use of VLEs. There was relatively little current use of technology-based teaching and learning resources, but there was considerable enthusiasm to modernise teaching and to introduce innovative learning and teaching methods. The major perceived barrier to the introduction of replacement alternatives was the lack of versions in local languages. There was a consensus view that developing local language exemplars and evaluating their usefulness was likely to have the greatest impact on animal use, at least in the short-term.

  10. Genetic and demographic features of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in Eastern and Central Europe: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Beáta; Volokha, Alla; Mihas, Alexander; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Kondratenko, Irina; Polyakov, Alexander; Erdos, Melinda; Pasic, Srdjan; Bataneant, Michaela; Szaflarska, Anna; Mironska, Kristina; Richter, Darko; Stavrik, Katarina; Avcin, Tadej; Márton, Gabriella; Nagy, Kálmán; Dérfalvi, Beáta; Szolnoky, Miklós; Kalmár, Agnes; Belevtsev, Michael; Guseva, Marina; Rugina, Aurica; Kriván, Gergely; Timár, László; Nyul, Zoltán; Mosdósi, Bernadett; Kareva, Lidija; Peova, Sonja; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Gherghina, Ioan; Serban, Margit; Conley, Mary Ellen; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Smith, C I Edvard; van Dongen, Jacques; van der Burg, Mirjam; Maródi, László

    2009-06-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are a recognized public health problem worldwide. The prototype of these conditions is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's disease. XLA is caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK), preventing B cell development and resulting in the almost total absence of serum immunoglobulins. The genetic profile and prevalence of XLA have not previously been studied in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries. We studied the genetic and demographic features of XLA in Belarus, Croatia Hungary, Poland, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. We collected clinical, immunological, and genetic information for 122 patients from 109 families. The BTK gene was sequenced from the genomic DNA of patients with a high susceptibility to infection, almost no CD19(+) peripheral blood B cells, and low or undetectable levels of serum immunoglobulins M, G, and A, compatible with a clinical and immunological diagnosis of XLA. BTK sequence analysis revealed 98 different mutations, 46 of which are reported for the first time here. The mutations included single nucleotide changes in the coding exons (35 missense and 17 nonsense), 23 splicing defects, 13 small deletions, 7 large deletions, and 3 insertions. The mutations were scattered throughout the BTK gene and most frequently concerned the SH1 domain; no missense mutation was detected in the SH3 domain. The prevalence of XLA in ECE countries (total population 145,530,870) was found to be 1 per 1,399,000 individuals. This report provides the first comprehensive overview of the molecular genetic and demographic features of XLA in Eastern and Central Europe.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Signs of economic recovery are glimmering in China. The renminbi appreciated to a seven-month high against the U.S. dollar. Property sales in Beijing picked up in April. Meanwhile, on the mainland stock markets,China Eastern Airlines reported the biggest loss in 2008 of all listed companies and was warned about a possible delisting. Last year’s stock market slump took its toll on social security fund performance with its first loss in eight years. Internationally, China insisted on a 40-percent cut in iron ore prices, despite Australian miners’ strong opposition. The Chinese Government will send two investment and purchase teams to Europe in June.

  12. The power market in Northern Europe - comparative studies of the countries; Kraftmarkedet i Nord-Europa - landstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the main characteristics of the power markets of the Nordic countries and of selected countries of Northern Europe. There are discussions on market issues, institutional structure and current developments in regulation and policy. It is found that there are large differences from country to country in demand, production and production capacity, choice of technology and fuel, and institutional structure. These differences are largely due to differences in resources, industrial structure, management tradition and political preferences. There is also a comparison of the consumption patterns and the market balance for power for the Nordic countries. National forecasts for the consumption development up to 2020 are compared and the corresponding needs for new power capacity is calculated. Finally, there is a discussion of some challenges for the market and policy that are connected with the development of new production capacity. 3 refs., 80 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe 2016--Health Network Communications' Tenth Annual Conference (February 23-25, 2016--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P

    2016-03-01

    Tighter national budgets and escalating drug prices continue to present challenges for pharmaceutical market access strategies and societal cost of care. As pharmaceutical companies and medical governmental advisory organizations enter tougher negotiations, hospital trusts and other dispensary firms face barriers to receiving the best medical treatment, and as a result patient access is limited. The 2016 HealthNetwork Communications' Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe meeting brought together pharmaceutical, medical governmental advisory and stakeholders and market access/pricing consultants, to encourage discussions and negotiations into how to improve the drug pricing system and consequential market access strategies while achieving the respective reimbursement and affordability objectives. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathways from and Crises after Communism: the Case of Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZELENYI, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from socialist redistributive economy to capitalist markets has proved to be a rockier road that anticipated. The degree and character of difficulties that the countries faced during the transition depended on the nature of the pathways taken. In this paper I distinguish three major trajectories various countries followed: Central European neo-liberalism; post USSR neo-patrimonial regime and the East Asian (Chinese and Vietnamese transformation from below. Rather than distinguishing the “right way” from the “wrong way” I explore what the different costs and benefits of the various pathways were at various stages of the transformation.

  15. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  16. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe: Interest groups and political institutions in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Esben Bergmann; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    by establishing dispersed political institutions, that can raise the price on rent-seeking. In Russia the centralized political institutions of the past were not replaced. Hence, Russia inherited both interest groups and political institutions of the late communist era - an unfortunate starting point for carrying...

  17. Diversification of the VVER fuel market in Eastern Europe and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Michael [Westinghouse EMEA, Brussels (Belgium); Benjaminsson, Ulf; Oenneby, Carina [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2015-03-15

    There are a total of 33 VVER active reactors in the EU and Ukraine, accounting for the largest percentage of the total electricity supply in the countries operating these. The responsible governments and utilities operating these units want too see an increased diversification of the nuclear fuel supply. Westinghouse is the only nuclear fuel producer outside Russia, which has taken the major steps to develop, qualify and manufacture VVER fuel designs - both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The company has delivered reloads of VVER-440 fuel to Loviisa 2 in Finland, VVER-1000 fuel for both the initial core and follow-on regions to Temelin 1-2 in the Czech Republic and more recently reloads of VVER-1000 fuel to South Ukraine 2-3. Technical challenges in form of mechanical interference with the resident fuel have been encountered in Ukraine, but innovative solutions have been developed and successfully implemented and today Ukraine has, for the first time in its history, a viable VVER-1000 fuel design alternative, representing a tremendous lever in energy security for the country.

  18. Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in emerging markets of Central Eastern Europe : a study in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often seem to be on a ‘roller coaster’ when managing their operations in transition economies, especially because of the volatile business and political environment. The study analyses the subtle equilibrium between formal control and day-to-day coordination in the Headquar

  19. FINANCIAL SECTOR AND GROWTH PROCESS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE'S FORMER SOCIALIST COUNTRIES: COULD A KALDORIAN CUMULATIVE CAUSATION APPROACH HELP TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE LINKS BETWEEN THEM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula DIMKOU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of the financial sector was one of the most significant challenges that the former socialist countries faced during their transition to a market economy. At the start of this transition, their financial system was underdeveloped and centralised (monobank, where the central bank of each economy also functioned as a commercial bank. The restructuring, integration and development of the financial sector to enhance viability and enable it to respond to new demands was imperative, particularly for economic growth and the convergence of these economies with the developed economies of the region. This process of financial integration suffered a powerful shock with the economic crisis transmitted to the region in 2009. The initial aim of this paper is to highlight the problems created after the global economic crisis affecting the financial institutions of the former socialist countries of South-eastern Europe, as well as the problems that already existed, though not apparent, and were nevertheless exacerbated by the outbreak of the crisis. An attempt to investigate the role of the financial sector, dominated by the banking sector, follows, with regard to achieving macroeconomic equilibrium among the economies of the countries in the region and the potential for sustaining it in future as part of a path to growth. To fully satisfy this goal, we propose that it is preferable to avoid a linear approach to the issue, abandoning equilibrium theory to adopt an analysis inspired by the method of cumulative causation, based on the work of Nicholas Kaldor. Our analysis allows us to postulate that, in a post-crisis period, conditions prevail for the potential appearance of future structural impasses of a cumulative nature, which could lead to a systemic crisis and leave the development process of the region's economies exposed.

  20. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  1. Stock Market Liquidity: Comparative Analysis of Croatian and Regional Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Benić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Croatian stock market liquidity has never been in the focus of academic research thus we find it necessary to observe liquidity at the aggregate level. This paper observes multi-dimensional liquidity through the impact of turnover on price change together with several one-dimensional measures. In our empirical research we applythe illiquidity measureto seven different stock markets. We focus on the Croatian stock market as compared to other markets in the Central and Eastern Europe and German market. The results of the research indicate a substantial level of illiquidity in the Croatian and other developing markets.

  2. IDENTIFYING THE INDUSTRY BUSINESS CYCLE USING THE MARKOV SWITCHING APPROACH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi SPULBĂR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use a Markov Switching model with two lags to identify and to compare the business cycle in Romania, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland using data on industrial production for the 1991-2011 period. We use a model with two regimes that reflect the economic expansions and contractions. The Markov Switching models have been widely used in order to detect and to date the business cycle turning points. However, it should be pointed out that the industrial production may have a little bit different dynamics than the quarterly gross domestic product which is the main measure of economic activity. Based on the smoothed regime probabilities the model track three recessionary periods of the Romanian economy in 1991, 1997 and 2009 and two recessionary periods for the other countries in 1991 and 2009. Mean yoy growth of IPI is 5.01% during expansion periods, while it switches to -18.6% during contraction periods for the Romanian economy. In comparison, mean yoy growth of IPI is 7.25% during expansion periods, while it switches to -13.4% during contraction periods for the Poland economy. Furthermore, in Romania, the duration of the three recessions in months was 25, 25 and 9 months. In Poland, the duration of the two recessions was 16 and 10 months. The results of the study may be used in order to compare the business cycle in Central and Eastern European countries with the Euro Area business cycle.

  3. The environmental catastrophe of Eastern Europe. La catastrofe ambientale nei paesi dell'est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, P.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental data presented stress the evidence that Czechoslovakia is one of the world's most polluted countries. CFC production in 1988 amounted to about 7,000 tons, while carbon dioxide emissions, due mainly to the use of low-quality solid fossil fuels, amount to about 60.4 million tons/year. One of the main causes of environmental devastation in Czechoslovakia is the country's weak economy, which consumes excessive quantities of raw materials and energy, has ecologically inadequate technologies and produces articles with inadequate ecological parameters. According to opinion polls recently conducted in Eastern European countries, 25% of the population believes environmental damage is the major problem facing their nations, but only 11% considers environmental improvement a high priority issue. This can be explained by the great economic and social uncertainty in this period and the lack of information on the causes and consequences of a degraded environment. The interventions of the Czechoslovakian government's ecological program, may be grouped in the following categories: programs relating to the system of environmental control; programs relating to specific parts of the environment; environmental education programs; sectorial ecological programs; environmental research and development programs.

  4. Ancient Paleo-DNA of Pre-Copper Age North-Eastern Europe: Establishing the Migration Traces of R1a1 Y-DNA Haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Semenov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the problems of paleogenetics and anthropology connected with problem of pre-Copper Age after-Glacial repopulation process of the North-Eastern Europe. The unified data, obtained in various laboratories in 2010-2016, collects a certain amount of the ancient mt-DNA and Y-DNA haplogroup samples of the considered period, what allows establishing the connection between some of them, comparing them with the data of neighboring regions, and attributing them to certain migration flows traceable in archeology. The paper makes an attempt to build a picture of the population of North-Eastern Europe in pre-Copper Age time and to systemize the paleo DNA genotyping results into clusters corresponding to different migration waves. The paper can be of use for biomedical purposes also, as some correlations between diseases and haplogroups were noticed in various medical works.

  5. Welfare State Retrenchment in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of Pension Reforms in Poland and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Guardiancich

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavours to shed some light on the mechanisms that led to the divergence of welfare state arrangements across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. In particular, pension system reforms displayed a great deal of variance, which surprised both institutionalists and convergence theorists. The Polish and Slovenian cases are thus presented and compared in a political economy perspective. Theories of retrenchment, recent studies on the dynamics of CEE pension reforms and consultations with some of the relevant actors, were employed in order to account for the divergence of reform outcomes in the two countries. The study focused on three main explanations: partisan competition, the interaction between relevant external (World Bank and internal actors (Minister of Labour and Minister of Finance and the trade-off. between power concentration and accountability concentration. The latter yielded the best explanation. While Polish reformers managed to internalise most veto actors’ reservations, Slovenian politicians excluded from consultation the country’s main trade union. Its opposition determined the rejection of radical reforms recommended by the World Bank.

  6. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  7. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  8. Balassa-Samuelson Meets South Eastern Europe, the CIS and Turkey: A Close Encounter of the Third Kind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Égert

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the importance of the Balassa-Samuelson effect for two acceding countries (Bulgaria and Romania, two accession countries (Croatia and Turkey and two CIS countries (Russia and Ukraine. The paper first studies the basic assumptions of the Balassa-Samuelson effect using yearly data, and then undertakes an econometric analysis of the assumptions on the basis of monthly data. The results suggest that for most of the countries, there is either amplification or attenuation, implying that any increase in the open sector's productivity feeds onto changes in the relative price of non-tradables either imperfectly or in an over-proportionate manner. With these results as a background, the size of the Balassa-Samuelson effect is derived. For this purpose, a number of different sectoral classification schemes are used to group sectors into open and closed sectors, which makes a difference for some of the countries. The Balassa-Samuelson effect is found to play only a limited role for inflation and real exchange rate determination, and it seems to be roughly in line with earlier findings for the eight new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe

  9. The Impact of Sovereign Credit Ratings on the Issuance of Government Bonds in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STANCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper aims to assess the impact of sovereign credit ratings on the issuance of government bonds in Central and Eastern Europe. The personal analysis is performed on a sample of government bonds issued by Turkey, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia between 2000-2010. The sample includes issues in several currencies (EUR, USD, GBP, JPY, CHF, CZK, PLN, TRY, RUB, RON, HUF. The research paper consists of two different analyses. The first one assesses the degree in which the variation in the initial yield of government bonds issued in one particular currency can be explained by using explanatory variables such as: inflation, sovereign rating corresponding to the issuing country, and the state of crisis (this analysis is performed for each currency separately. The second analysis assesses the degree in which the variation in the maturity of the government bonds issued by a certain country can be explained by using explanatory variables such as: inflation, sovereign rating on the date of issuance, and the state of crisis.

  10. Pear to Pear in Social Economy through Social Technologies, some Perspectives on this New Challenge in the Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan ȘERBU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment is now in a difficult situation and it is looking for way to overrun this low. There are more and more examples that this time people find a solution through sharing economy. We will present here the potential and some barriers for the eastern part of Europe, for Romania. We will present here also some cultural lag that influence and will influence a more and more the economic system and will show some aspects that happens in socio-economic world due to the changes in technology and especially because those changes are happening more quickly than other changes creating some gaps. So, this period of time between the appearance of the new social technologies and the whole process of implementation of its forces will have a great impact within the economy. There will be highlighted some dissimilarities about the limitation and advantage that the share economy through social technologies will have into the rural compare to urban area.

  11. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  12. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Agnes, E-mail: molnar.agnes@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Adam, Balazs, E-mail: adam.balazs@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Antova, Temenujka, E-mail: t.antova@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bosak, Lubos, E-mail: bosak@centrum.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Dimitrov, Plamen, E-mail: p.dimitrov@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mileva, Hristina, E-mail: hmileva@yahoo.com [Ministry of Health, 5 Sveta Nedelya Square, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pekarcikova, Jarmila, E-mail: jkorcova@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Zurlyte, Ingrida, E-mail: ingrida@post.omnitel.net [State Environmental Health Center, Kalvariju str. 153, 08221 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gulis, Gabriel, E-mail: GGulis@health.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Adany, Roza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Kosa, Karolina, E-mail: karolina.kosa@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  13. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  14. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  15. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  16. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from north of Portugal and a sample of immigrants from the Eastern Europe living in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurdes Pontes, M; Pinheiro, M F

    2014-03-01

    The use of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic research has been widely discussed in recent years, mainly because SNPs have important advantages compared to short tandem repeats (STRs). In this study a total of 131 non related individuals from the North of Portugal and 85 immigrant individuals from the Eastern Europe, mainly Ukrainians, equally non related and residing in Portugal, were typed for 52 loci included in the in the SNP for ID 52plex with the SNaPshot™ assay.

  17. Contestation in multi-level party systems with institutional constraints: A look at ethnically divided countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of party systems restricts party plurality at the local or regional level, non-partisan candidates and groups will emerge. Hypotheses are tested, looking at the political representation and plurality of representation in minority regions in Central and Eastern Europe, investigating ethnic minorities...... in Romania, Slovakia, Moldova, and Macedonia. The effect of national electoral laws in these countries allows for substantial variation in its degree of restrictiveness...

  18. The fertility response to abortion reform in Eastern Europe: demographic and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, R J

    1972-01-01

    This preliminary appraisal examines the extent to which abortion reform by itself explains the abruptness of the decline and the ensuing uniformly low level of all important fertility indicators for the Eastern European countries over the last 15 years. The fertility pattern of these countries has changed from the upper to the very lower end of the fertility spectrum of developed countries. Detailed consideration of events in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary indicate that this decline cannot be explained by war-induced changes in the age structure of the population, by rapid urbanization, or by changes in nuptuality patterns. On an a priori basis, legalization of abortion would be expected to have at least 2 distinct effects on the fe rtility decision-making process. First, abortion reform completely tran sforms the cost side of the conception control problem. Any attempt to measure "desired family size" must assume a given cost structure, modification of which should naturally be expected to alter measured "desired family size." In addition to this direct cost mechanism, abortion availability may also have a demonstration effect which results in a further modification of parental "tastes". The appearance of many 1 and 2 child families may change ideas of what is the "normal" and desired number of children. Availability of legal abortion can be expected to influence observed fertility through the specific cost and "taste" factors operating on the desired number of births and also through at least partial elimination of the inability to adjust the "realized" to the "desired" number of children. To some extent the avai lability of abortion may only change the timing and spacing of births, rather than the ultimate family size. However, such an effect would have a distinct retarding influence on any aggregate indicator of fertility as well as on the rate of population growth. Inspection of age-specific fertility rates and statistics on the distribution of births

  19. SOSPES: SPIRIVA® observational study measuring SGRQ score in routine medical practice in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fležar M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Matjaž Fležar,1 Karina Jahnz-Rózyk,2 Gloria Enache,3 Tatiana Martynenko,4 Peter Kristufek,5 Sanda Škrinjaric-Cincar,6 Pavla Kadlecová,7 Goran Martinovic81University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia; 2Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Saint John Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; 4Municipal Medical Institution City Hospital, Barnaul, Russian Federation; 5SACCME, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia; 6Clinical Hospital Center, Osijek, Croatia; 7ADDS Sro, Jana Uhra, Brno, Czech Republic; 8Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Vienna, AustriaPurpose: The long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agent, tiotropium, is recommended as first-line maintenance therapy for moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD to improve symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, and to reduce exacerbations. Few studies have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium in patients in routine clinical conditions. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium delivered via the HandiHaler® device on the health status of patients with COPD with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD disease classification 2–4 in six central and eastern European countries in a real-life clinical setting.Methods: The study was an open-label, prospective, uncontrolled, and single-arm surveillance study with three clinic visits during a 6-month observation period (baseline, and months 3 and 6. Health status was measured using the disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in SGRQ total score at the end of the 6-month observational period.Results: Patients treated with tiotropium 18 µg once daily showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction (improvement of 21

  20. New Policies to Facilitate Affordable Housing in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Amann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing construction is a lagging sector in most of the CEE countries. Recent increases in housing production have mainly served the top end of the market. In some countries, policy schemes for public housing have been established. However, actual construction of housing for moderate-income households has yet to take place. Wolfgang Amann describes the approach of the Austria-based IIBW – Institute for Real Estate, Construction and Housing aimed at rectifying this unsatisfactory situation. The framework for a Public-Private Partnership (PPP model in housing will be established, with two parallel strategies. First, a legal framework will be established to allow for a new business model of PPP housing. Second, financing tools will be implemented, similar to structured financing, implementing the different layers of sources. This approach refers to lessons learned in many Western European countries, e.g., the Netherlands and Austria, where a Third Sector in housing contributes substantially to good housing provision for large parts of the population. IIBW is currently implementing this new approach in several CEE countries, including Romania, Montenegro and Albania. 

  1. The uneven results of institutional changes in Central and Eastern Europe: The role of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Svetozar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely observed that the same formal rules, enacted in the parliaments in the form of written laws, give vastly different results in different social and cultural environments. This phenomenon came to be particularly pronounced in the process of transition of the formerly communist countries to market economies and politically pluralized societies. Highly similar and occasionally identical institutional changes turned out to be unequally accepted by the societies under consideration and produced widely different results in the material restructuring of the economies. It became clear that the notion of institutions had to be widened so as to encompass the informal rules: the customs, the traditions, cultural values and national myths. Informal rules define the constraints for implementing the formal ones and, on the other hand, determine the actual effects of the latter once they are implemented. Forcing the formal rules upon the transition societies cannot be successful unless preceding and/or contemporaneous changes of informal rules are provided for. The paper ends with a design of the strategy for the decisively important changes in values and other components of informal rules.

  2. A Comparative Survey on Importance of Marketing Communications between European Companies and Eastern Asian Companies for Home Appliances in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communications or promotion is one of the elements which can have an effect on consumers’ behavior through five important and effective marketing elements. Among all commercial products, household appliances are significantly noteworthy based on their strategic nature. Exploiting marketing communications mix in selling domestic appliances produced in other countries, in an attempt to sell them in Iran could effectively entice customers into buying such products through the manipulation of their tastes and wants. The present study with focus on related literature on marketing communications, aims at investigating the degree of importance of marketing communications on selling the foreign household appliances in Iran based on a descriptive-applied research through pair wise comparison. Using a pair wise comparison questionnaire, including 60 questions in three parts, the researcher collected data from the senior managers of big household appliances companies in Europe and East Asia who are active in Iran as well, under the basis of present and desirable circumstances. It was concluded that there is a difference between companies producing household appliances in Europe and East Asia considering the importance of elements of marketing communications.

  3. Status of floriculture in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future.

  4. Food retailing in Central Europe and the Baltic Republics: Structure and buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2002-01-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled in 1989 and communist regimes all over Eastern Europe subsequently came tumbling down, retailing in Eastern Europe was in a dire state following decades of neglect. In the centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe retailing had not been allowed to fulfil...... the central role it plays in modern market economies - i.e., to bridge the gap between the processes of production and consumption - as retailing had only been considered a necessary evil in an otherwise production-oriented plan. Since then much has changed. This article points to some of the changes...

  5. Wholesale electricity markets in Europe; Mercados Mayoristas de Electricidad en Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity Wholesale Markets provide efficient operation of power stations, facilitate hedging instruments for generators and retailers and deliver price signals for new investments. Despite having a common regulatory framework at European level whose last aim is a single electricity market, Wholesale markets have been unevenly developed in each Member State. The evolution form a spot-based market towards a forward-based market needs a certain level of liquidity, transparency and regulatory stability. Interconnections are the key element to promote the integration of electricity markets. To facilitate this, European Regional Initiatives have pushed regulatory harmonization between countries and market coupling projects. (Author)

  6. Cooperation in the nuclear field among the states of Eastern Europe; Die kerntechnische Zusammenarbeit der Staaten Osteuropas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kraemer, J. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Since the re-orientation of the societies of Central and Eastern Europe on the basis of a free and democratic order, the West has launched a number of support programs for safe operation of the nuclear power plants run in these countries. It should not be overlooked, however, that a traditionally close cooperation in all areas of the military and peaceful uses of nuclear power had existed among the Socialist countries, mostly dominated by the Soviet Union, i.e. Russia. After the initiation of the process of democratization, the turnaround to the West was overemphasized initially, but in the meantime the old ties of cooperation have been strengthened again, though with more sovereignty of the participating nations. Russia is striving to maintain her hegemony and exploit the findings of recent nuclear research in order to boost her balance of trade by exports. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit sich die Gesellschaften der Staaten Mittel- und Osteuropas neu orientieren, und das auf der Basis einer freiheitlich-demokratischen Grundordnung, wurden im Westen unterschiedlichste Unterstuetzungsprogramme fuer einen sicheren Betrieb der in diesen Laendern betriebenen Kernkraftwerke aufgelegt. Dabei darf nicht ausser acht gelassen werden, dass traditionell eine enge Zusammenarbeit auf allen Gebieten der militaerischen und friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie in den sozialistischen Staaten existierte, zumeist unter Dominanz der Sowjetunion, und hier Russlands. Nach Einleitung des Demokratisierungsprozesses wurde die Hinwendung zum Westen zunaechst ueberbetont; inzwischen aber wurden die gewachsenen Kooperationen wieder gefestigt, allerdings unter groesserer Souveraenitaet der beteiligten Nationen. Russland ist bestrebt, seine Hegemonie zu behaupten und die Ergebnisse neuerer kerntechnischer Forschung zu nutzen, um durch Exporte seine Handelsbilanz zu verbessern. (orig.)

  7. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  8. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  9. A detrended cross correlation analysis for stock markets of the United States, Japan, and the Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the long range cross covariances among the stock price returns for the United States, Japan, and the Europe. Empirical results suggest that the stock price returns of these regions have cross covariances of slow moving fluctuations.

  10. 76 FR 71015 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... extends the current Marketing Plan, with amendments to key marketing plan principles. Western's proposed..., October 30, 1980) and provided the marketing plan principles used to market P-SMBP--ED firm hydropower... current Marketing Plan principles and provide informal input to Western for consideration in the 2021...

  11. Social care and changes in occupational accidents and diseases - the situation in Eastern Europe in general and for skin diseases in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a consequence of the disintegration of the state systems and the expansion of the European Union, there have been marked changes in the political and social affiliations of the countries of Eastern Europe. Of the 22 countries in Northeastern, Centraleastern, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, 12 are now members and 10 are "new" neighbours of the European Union. The accident insurance systems and changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases in eastern European countries are described. Changes since EU and visible differences from non-EU countries are analysed. Special emphasis is given to occupational skin diseases. Methods The available data from the European Union (MISSOC and MISSCEEC Studies on the Social Protection Systems, the database "Social Security Worldwide" (SSW of the International Social Security Association (ISSA, the International Labour Office Database (LABORSTA, the World Health Organization (WHO and the annual statistical reports of the different countries were analysed with respect to changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases. To find missing data, 128 ministries and authorities in the 22 countries in eastern Europe were researched and 165 persons contacted. Results The social insurance systems were very different in the different countries and some were better established than others. Moreover, not all data were available. For these reasons, detailed comparison was not always possible. The occupational accident rates are decreasing in more than half the countries. In contrast, the fatal accident rates have increased in half the countries. The number of newly registered occupational diseases is decreasing in more than half the countries. The rates for occupational skin diseases in 2006 were particularly high in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. In half the countries (four out of eight, the number of occupational skin diseases is decreasing. A reliable analysis of any

  12. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  13. The role of pharmacoepidemiological studies in the market withdrawal of carisoprodol (Somadril® in Europe, 167-172

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen G. Bramness

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carisoprodol is a centrally acting muscle relaxant that has been marketed in Europe for more than 45 years. In November 2007 the European Medicines Association recommended suspension of all carisoprodol containing products in all EU countries. During recent years, several observational studies on carisoprodol have been published by our group, which works in the field of traffic medicine and pharmacoepidemiological research in general. In this paper, we review the role pharmacoepidemiological studies on carisoprodol played in providing evidence for the risk of psychomotor impairment and traffic accidents, intoxications and abuse. These issues have been important for decisions about the regulation of carisoprodol. Key words: pharmacoepidemiology, carisoprodol, drug abuse, impairment, intoxication

  14. Market Access Advancements and Challenges in “Drug-Companion Diagnostic Test” Co-Development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Akhmetov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharma ecosphere is witnessing a measured transformation from the one-size-fits-all or blockbuster model of drugs to more informed and tailored personalized treatments that facilitate higher safety and efficacy for a relevant sub-population. However, with several breakthroughs still in a nascent stage, market access becomes a crucial factor for commercial success, especially when it comes to co-creating value for pertinent stakeholders. This article highlights diverse issues from stakeholder perspectives in Europe, specifically the ones which require immediate resolution. Furthermore, the article also discusses case studies articulating potential solutions for the issues discussed.

  15. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1: Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  16. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  17. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C; Ebbers, H C; de Jong, J P; De Bruin, M L

    2015-11-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in marketing authorization of oncology medicines in the period 2006 to 2013. We show that compared to full marketing authorization, CMA is granted based on less comprehensive data. However, this is accompanied by significantly longer assessment times and less consensus among regulators about marketing authorization. Moreover, development time from first-in-human testing to marketing authorization did not differ between full marketing authorization and CMA, but was significantly longer for CMA compared to accelerated approved products in the United States (US). Results indicate that CMA is not used by companies as a prospectively planned pathway to obtain early access, but as a "rescue option" when submitted data are not strong enough to justify full marketing authorization.

  18. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  19. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  20. The Eastern Migration and the Labor Markets in the EU: The Case of Romanian Workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BIRSAN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on one of the most debated issues in the context of Eastern enlargement, id est the ‘danger’ of expected massive East-West migration, and its impact on the labor market in the EU. During the 90’s, a large number of immigrants arrived in Western European states from the Eastern part of the continent. Some factors induced a negative perception on East-West migration shared by the public opinion. We refer to the relatively high rate of unemployment in the EU countries, while the presence of immigrants is seen as a source of pressure on labor market supply. To address the public opinion’s fears, transitional arrangements concerning free movement of workers from the new 8 Central and Eastern members have been implemented. Similar arrangements are being concluded between each EU country and the future new members -Romania and Bulgaria – on a bilateral base. The free movement of labor is one of the four pillars of EU Internal Market. It was assumed that the right of free movement would be followed by appropriate geographical and occupational mobility. The real picture is very different from what was expected and, in spite of a high unemployment rate, the intra-EU mobility continues to be very low. Given the above mentioned, the East-West migration and its impact on the labor market have to be examined in the context of the paradoxical situation in the EU countries: unemployment and shortages in labor supply. Most recent studies clearly showed that the enlargement had a positive impact on the EU labor market, and the flow of workers from the East did not crowd out the workers in the host countries. Put it differently, the migrants fit more the labor market demand, probably on a complementary base. Our micro-study intended to reveal the role of Romanian migrant workers in one of the most dynamic EU economies. To this end we carried out a research based on questionnaires. Given the limited number of responses, our findings